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e-Learning & Interactive Lecture:

SoTL Case Studies in Malaysian HEIs

Cetakan Pertama/ First Printing, 2015

Hak Cipta Pusat Pengajaran & Teknologi Pembelajaran, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia/
Copyright Centre for Teaching & Learning Technologies, National University of Malaysia 2015
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Cataloguing-in-Publication Data

e-Learning & Interactive Lecture: SoTL Case Studies in Malaysian HEIs edited by:
Mohamed Amin Embi
ISBN 978-983-3168-48-4

e-Learning & Interactive Lecture:

SoTL Case Studies in Malaysian HEIs

Mohamed Amin Embi

Overview of Scholarship
of Teaching and Learning

SoTL Initiatives on
e-Learning and
Interactive Lecture in

Learners Readiness to
Adopt e-Portfolio:
A Preliminary Study



Measuring the
Acquisition of
Engineering Laboratory
Experience through
the Application of
e-Learning: A Pilot study
in UniMAP

iTeaching for uLearning:

Interactive Teaching Tools
for Ubiquitous Learning
in Higher Education




Evaluation of Blended
Learning with
Blendspace for Robotics

Assessing HOTS in
e-Learning among
University Students in


Analysis of Technology
Acceptance Model in
Understanding University
Students Behavioural
Intention to Use Webbased Interactive
Learning Tools


Use of Google ScholarInformed Pattern

Hunting (GSIPH) for
Enhancing Writing


Adoption of a Projectbased Learning as a
Learning Strategy in
e-Portfolio Assessment
for Art and Design

Edmodo for Interactive
Lecture: A Focus on
Transparent and
Ubiquitous Learning

The Use of Padlet.com
to Enhance Student
Teachers Communication
Skills in Universiti
Malaysia Sabah







Practices of Interactive
Lectures among
Lecturers in UPM

One Size Fits All?: SoTL

and Flipped Learning





Awareness and
Acceptance of Interactive
Learning Based on Web
2.0 Tools


Used of Google ScholarInformed Pattern

Defining (GSIPD) for
Writing Improvement


Edmodo Application and

Teaching Performance:
Embed and Engage



Edmodo for Interactive Lecture:
A Focus on Transparent and Ubiquitous
M. Mokhtar, Supyan Hussin & Mohamed Amin Embi
Universiti Putra Malaysia & Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia

Interactive lecture is expected to be successful when it involves active participation
among students in their course. They will enjoy the spirit of sharing knowledge and
opinions, and appreciate more of what they learn rather than the grades they obtain.
Although this expectation is like an ideal model, it is really a meaningful achievement
for both students and lecturer, once it can take place in a real class.
There are many techniques that have been applied in implementing interactive
lecture either by face-to-face interaction or online modes, or combination of both. In
order to verify the effectiveness of interactive lectures, many studies and researches have
been carried out studies to analyse the outcomes of the applied techniques. Among
them was Omer and Zahides (2007) study which focussed on students perception
of effective dimensions of interactive learning in blended learning environment. The
authors offer an operational definition for blended learning as a combination of face-toface classroom instruction and online instruction. There are two interesting dimensions
that they observed: the source of motivation and collaborative learning strategies. In
term of motivation, this study concluded that via the blended learning, interview data
showed that students had both intrinsic and extrinsic motivations. Nevertheless, the
data analysis pointed out that towards intrinsic motivation is the key element for the
success of this hybrid interactive learning technique. It showed a positive sign when

e-Learning & Interactive Lecture: SoTL Case Studies in Malaysian HEIs

the students demonstrated the understanding of what they learned and why and how
they learned. Meanwhile, looking at the collaborative learning dimension, this study
showed that students benefited more by engaging in collaborative learning in faceto-face classroom activities compared to that in the online mode. Students indicated
that the online mode (using Message Board) was useful but not as effective in student
collaboration as expected.
In order to improve collaborative learning approaches, social connectivity among
students was identified as a potential factor that can support self-governed, problembased, and collaborative learning processes, as mentioned by many researchers such
as Dalsgaard, (2007) and Mazman & Usluel, (2010). Social networking facilities like
Facebook and Twitter have been widely used and analysed by many researchers to
investigate the effectiveness of the sites to support students academic engagement.
Christoper, Lauren & Ben, (2012) argued that while some studies showed positive
engagement using social networking sites, other studies showed opposite outcomes
due to some issues such as integrity, privacy, and distraction factors. Thus, they
did a study to evaluate students perception of using designated Facebook pages
associated with university learning management systems for enhancing better
students interaction with the course instructor and learning resources. Although the
Facebook was well-received, the authors still believed that it was unclear if and how
Facebook can enhance students learning outcomes.
Another Website that has similar outlook like Facebook, called Edmodo, was
founded in 2008 in Chicago, Illinois, USA. The unique feature of this site is that it
has private class for online networking between lecturer and students. In fact, it
can be considered as an easy-to-use learning management system that allows each
class member to download and upload materials, share knowledge and opinions,
supported by additional applications like quizzes and polls. The investigation of how
non-digital native teachers using Edmodo in Thailand was reported by Chada (2012). In
this study, it was revealed that even non-digital-native teachers were capable of using
Edmodo. The results showed that Edmodo was not only useful for a student circle, but
also benefitted the teacher community.
Regardless of which techniques are used, lecturers have their own approach
towards the success of interactive lecture. The differences may exist due to expected
learning outcomes or issues they would like to tackle in the particular course. In this
study, due to the fact that face-to-face techniques are limited by the constraint of
lecture hour time, online activities were implemented to complement the process
by allowing lecturer and students to be kept in touch at anytime and anywhere.
This 24/7 accessibility that supports ubiquitous learning was carried out by using
Edmodo as the online tool. Another concern that is going to be highlighted in this
study is about the transparency especially during the grading stage. Similarly, TV
reality shows approach that exposes all participants to individual performance and
feedback, students would also like to know how the others have performed and how
does lecturer respond to their findings (e.g. progress report, assignment report, etc.).
Therefore, with the assignment given in this study, students were exposed to online
tools and be aware of other students progress (in group) and each feedback given by

Edmodo for Interactive Lecture: A Focus on Transparent and Ubiquitous Learning

lecturer was able to be seen by all students. Focusing on the transparent and ubiquitous
learning features provided in the Edmodo have led to the motivation of this study in
investigating students perception of utilising Edmodo as a source of motivation and
collaborative learning. This study was supported by face-to-face activities to trigger
students teamwork and collaboration prior to the usage of Edmodo.
Based on the research gaps and objectives mentioned earlier, the research questions
that guided this study were:

What are students perceptions of the usage of Edmodo towards their learning
and in particular interactive learning?

How do the students utilize Edmodo in expressing their study motivation?

How do the students utilize Edmodo in demonstrating their collaborative


How effective is the delivery lecture as a whole?

Framework of the Study

Challenges in Interactive Lecture
It is believed that interactive lecture can be best delivered in hybrid form which
combines face-to-face techniques and online teaching and learning (T&L) activities.
In other words, the synchronization between hi-touch (human approach) and hitech (technology support) could realize to the highest efficiency and effectiveness of
interactive lecture activities. Nevertheless, in order to achieve it, which can also quite
subjective, depending on the performance measurements used, many challenges are
to be considered. Among them are lack of soft skills in teaching, resistance to the
change of the new way of teaching, lack of confidence to adopt technology, or less
readiness in using proper ways of teaching method due to time or other resources
constraints. Since the intention of this study involved online tools, the most challenge
faced was the slow internet connection in the lecture room. Downloading files were
acceptable, but not for videos streaming. Therefore, some videos from Youtube have
to be downloaded and saved before the class. The full usage of Edmodo was limited
during class hour. Thus, uploading the big data or files was done at suitable places
where the Internet connection was good.
Finding the Right Tool
After considering a few options for online tools for this study, Edmodo was chosen
due to some advantages that it has. Special features that make Edmodo interesting
to be used are simple ways to share files and communicate online, encourage a peerlearning and peer-support environment both in the classroom and online, and
various Website layout templates (just like Facebook) with secured environment.


e-Learning & Interactive Lecture: SoTL Case Studies in Malaysian HEIs

Course and Students Background
The study involved a total of 52 students enrolled in the Optical Communications
course at the Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia. The course was
designed for 42 hours lecture and 42 hours practical (laboratory works) within 14
weeks. The students consisted of 20 female students and 32 male students with the
race distribution of 54% Malays, 42% Chinese, and 4% Indians.
Engagement Trigger and Tasks for Interactive Lecture
In this study, during the lecture hours, a few face-to-face interactive lecture techniques
were implemented based on the course content, such as:

Role play and demonstration: Students were asked to perform acting in

demonstrating the process of laser radiation.

Picture and problem trigger: Students were given picture and fact with no
explanation and were asked in group (of four members) to explain the trigger
by filling in the FILA (Fact, Idea, Learning questions & Action plan) form. The
trigger given in this course is shown in Figure 11.1.

Figure 11.1: Picture and Problem Trigger

Following two hours class of discussing the contents, students were asked to upload
their completed FILA form through Edmodo after class. Overall, there were three
stages of tasks given in this course. The first task was a preparation of completed
FILA form. The second task was a preparation of technical description of suggested
laser, and the last task was a preparation of video presentation and advertisement of
the marketed laser. Each finding or output of the task was commented by the lecturer
in the Edmodo. The discussion or feedback regarding their works was expected to
happen in this online tool.


Edmodo for Interactive Lecture: A Focus on Transparent and Ubiquitous Learning

Two types of were used in this study: questionnaires (prepared by lecturer and
also through the teaching evaluation provided by the University) and lecturers
observation on the Edmodo application. Each questionnaire was distributed to all
students attending the course and they were asked to complete the questionnaires
anonymously at the end of semester. The questionnaires are attached in Appendix A.
Table 11.1: Questionnaires on Students Perception of the Usage of Edmodo


Agree Nor








a) Edmodo.com is an important
element of my course for
downloading notes and
uploading assignments.
b) Using Edmodo.com, I
can view other students
works and it makes my
course more enjoyable.
c) With Edmodo.com, I can
interact more with other
students and my lecturer.
d) I find using technological
devices to browse Edmodo.
com difficult (eg. Mobile
e) Getting access to an
Internet to access Edmodo.
com is a problem for me.
f ) Using Edmodo.com
makes my study easier.
g) It would be good if
there was much more
e-learning in my courses.


e-Learning & Interactive Lecture: SoTL Case Studies in Malaysian HEIs

Table 11.2: Part of Teaching Evaluation Assessing the Teaching Delivery



Agree Nor








a) The lecturer conducts his/

her teaching effectively.
b) The lecturer makes an effort
to attract or enhance the
students interest in this course.
c) The lecturer uses
appropriate teaching tools
in his/her teaching.
d) The lecturer gives feedback
on tests/assignments/practical/
activities conducted in class.
e) The lecturer is always
ready to assist students.
g) It would be good if there
was much more e-learning
in my courses studying
would be easier for me.

Observational Results
In order to examine students interaction via Edmodo, some of indications were
observed from this Website such as the message posted by students and the frequency
of students work viewed by others. A snapshot of one example of message posting
in Edmodo is shown in Figure 11.2.


Edmodo for Interactive Lecture: A Focus on Transparent and Ubiquitous Learning

Figure 11.2: A Snapshot of Message Posting in Edmodo

This figure shows the involvement of students sharing their works as well as supports
given by other students either through their textual message posting or iconic message
icons. It also shows the intrinsic motivation by students in appreciating others works.
Besides, the number of views indicated students effort in learning by themselves
through other students work. All these responses have never been emphasized out
by the lecturer in class as part of evaluation or of any reward as it was expected that
this kind of interaction occurred in natural and transparent ways.


e-Learning & Interactive Lecture: SoTL Case Studies in Malaysian HEIs

Students Perception
Based on the given questionnaires, Figure 11.3 and 11.4 depict the results of students
perception of Edmodo usage and teaching delivery respectively.

Figure 11.3: Results of Students Perception of the Usage of Edmodo

On average, all the questions (a)-(c) and (f ) scored more than 4.00 which shows
students positive satisfaction on the usage of Edmodo. In contrast to questions (d)
and (e), the results shows a bit disagreement of the problems on accessing Edmodo
either through online or technology devices. These findings indicated good signs of
accessibility among the students which can be normally accessed from the hostels.
The results for question (e) also shows the element that supports ubiquitous learning.


Edmodo for Interactive Lecture: A Focus on Transparent and Ubiquitous Learning

Figure 11.4: Satisfaction among Students on the Lecture Delivery

Meanwhile, looking at the results shown in Figure 11.4, all statements in the
questionnaires were strongly agreed by students (with mean score is more than 4.5),
which indicates good satisfaction among students on the lecture delivery. Item in
number 2 is pertained by the students in the highest satisfaction. However, this indirect
measurement of the effectiveness of interactive lecture can be further improved by
relating the usage of hybrid techniques to the teaching delivery.


e-Learning & Interactive Lecture: SoTL Case Studies in Malaysian HEIs

This study can be considered as a preliminary investigation on the Edmodo features that
can support for transparent and ubiquitous learning. Based on the results gathered,
it showed that by providing transparent feedback and ubiquitous learning platform,
this online tool can help driving students intrinsic motivation as well as collaborative
learning with the support of face-to-face interactive lecture. The results were quite
encouraging, and future studies should consider the way this study was carried out
can be improved further by imposing triangulation method such as conducting
interview with the students.

Chada, K. (2012). How a non-digital-native teacher makes use of Edmodo. Int. Conf. ICT for
Language Learning, 5th Ed.
Christoper, I., Lauren, B., & Ben, D. (2012). Students perceptions of using Facebook as an
interactive learning resource at university. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology,
28 (7), 1221-1232.
Dalsgaard, C. (2007). Social software: E-learning beyond learning management systems.
European Journal of Open and Distance Learning, 2006 (II) http://www.eurodl.org/materials/
Mazman, S.G. & Usluel, Y. K. (2010). Modeling educational usage of Facebook. Computers and
Education, 55(2), 444-453.
Omer, D. & Zahide, Y. (2007). Students perceptions on dimensions of interactive learning in a
blended learning environment. Educational Technology & Society, 10 (2), 133-146.