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CHAPTER 1

SUBSTATION LAYOUT

CONTENT
1. SUBSTATION LAYOUT
2. CABLES
3. LIGHTNING
4. TRANSMISSION LINES
5. TRANSFORMER
6. SWITCHGEAR & PROTECTION
7. POWER FACTOR IN ENERGY MANAGEMENT
8. SINGLE LINE DIAGRAM
9. SAFETY
10. TESTING & COMMISSIONING
11. MAINTENANCE SCHEDULING
12. REFERNCES AS PER INDIAN STANDARDS

Substation Layouts

3.1 INTRODUCTION
Substations are the points in the power network where transmission lines and
distribution feeders are connected together through circuit breakers or switches
via busbars and transformers. This allows for the control of power flows in the
network and general switching operations for maintenance purposes. This chapter
describes the principal substation layouts, the effects of advancements in substation equipment, modular design, compact substations and the moves towards
design and construction turnkey contract work. The descriptions concentrate
on air insulated switchgear (AIS) outdoor open terminal designs at rated voltages of 72 kV and higher. The design of distribution voltage switchgear and gas
insulated switchgear (GIS) is described in Chapter 13, in which terminology is
also defined.

3.2 SUBSTATION DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS


3.2.1 Security of supply

In an ideal situation all circuits and substation equipment would be duplicated


such that following a fault or during maintenance a connection remains available.
This would involve very high cost. Methods have therefore been adopted to
achieve a compromise between complete security of supply and capital investment. A measure of circuit duplication is adopted whilst recognizing that duplication may itself reduce the security of supply by, for example, providing
additional leakage paths to earth.
Security of supply may therefore be considered in terms of the effect of this
loss of plant arising from fault conditions or from outages due to maintenance.
The British Code of Practice for the Design of High Voltage Open Terminal
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Substation Layouts

93

Substations BS 7354 categorizes substation service continuity; recognizing that


line or transformer faults destroy service continuity on the affected circuits:
Category 1 No outage necessary within the substation for either maintenance or fault; e.g. the 112 breaker scheme under maintenance conditions in
the circuit breaker area.
Category 2 Short outage necessary to transfer the load to an alternative circuit for maintenance or fault conditions; e.g. the double busbar scheme with
bypass disconnector and bus-coupler switch under fault or maintenance conditions in the circuit breaker or busbar area.
Category 3 Loss of a circuit or section; for example the single busbar with
bus section circuit breaker scheme for a fault in the circuit breaker or busbar
area. The transformer feeder scheme also comes under category 3 service continuity and for this arrangement the addition of incoming circuit breakers, busbar and transformer circuit breakers does not improve the classification.
Category 4 Loss of substation; for example the single busbar scheme without bus sectionalization for a fault in the busbar area.
3.2.2 Extendibility

The design should allow for future extendibility. Adding bays of switchgear to
a substation is normally possible and care must be taken to minimize the outages and outage durations for construction and commissioning. Where future
extension is likely to involve major changes (such as from a single to double
busbar arrangement) then it is best to install the final arrangement at the outset
because of the disruption involved. When minor changes such as the addition
of overhead line or cable feeder bays are required then busbar disconnectors
may be installed at the outset (known as skeleton bays) thereby minimizing
outage disruption. The use of gas insulated switchgear (GIS) tends to lock the
user into the use of a particular manufacturers switchgear for any future extension work. In comparison an open terminal switchyard arrangement allows the
user a choice of switchgear for future extension work.
3.2.3 Maintainability

The design must take into account the electricity supply company system planning and operations procedures together with a knowledge of reliability and
maintenance requirements for the proposed substation equipment. The need for
circuit breaker disconnector bypass facilities may therefore be obviated by an
understanding of the relative short maintenance periods for modern switchgear.
Portable earthing points and earthing switch/interlock requirements will also
need careful consideration. In a similar way the layout must allow easy access
for winching gear, mobile cranes or other lifting devices if maintenance downtimes are to be kept to a minimum. Similarly standard minimum clearances (see

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Substation Layouts

Section 3.4.2) must be maintained for safe working access to equipment adjacent
to operational live switchgear circuits or switchgear bays, bearing in mind that
some safety authorities now resist the use of ladder working and require access
from mobile elevated working platforms or scaffolding.
3.2.4 Operational flexibility

The physical layout of individual circuits and groups of circuits must permit the
required power flow control. In a two transformer substation operation of either
or both transformers on one infeed together with the facility to take out of service and restore to service either transformer without loss of supply would be a
normal design consideration. In general a multiple busbar arrangement will
provide greater flexibility than a ring busbar.
3.2.5 Protection arrangements

The design must allow for the protection of each system element by provision
of suitable CT locations to ensure overlapping of protection zones. The number
of circuit breakers that require to be tripped following a fault, the auto-reclose
arrangements, the type of protection and extent and type of mechanical or electrical interlocking must be considered.
For example a 112 breaker substation layout produces a good utilization of
switchgear per circuit but also involves complex protection and interlocking
design which all needs to be engineered and thus increases the capital cost.
See Section 3.2.8 regarding the use of circuit breakers with CTs in the
bushings.
3.2.6 Short circuit limitations

In order to keep fault levels down parallel connections (transformers or power


sources feeding the substation) should be avoided. Multi-busbar arrangements
with sectioning facilities allow the system to be split or connected through a
fault limiting reactor. It is also possible to split a system using circuit breakers
in a mesh or ring type substation layout although this requires careful planning
and operational procedures.
3.2.7 Land area

The cost of purchasing a plot of land in a densely populated area is considerable. Therefore there is a trend towards compact substation design. This is made
possible by the use of indoor gas insulated switchgear (GIS) substation designs
or by using such configurations as the transformer-feeder substation layout. In
addition compact design reduces civil work activities (site preparation, building

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costs, requirements for concrete cable trenches, surfacing and access roads).
Long multicore control cable runs and switchyard earth grid requirements are
also reduced. The reduction in site work by using compact layouts and in particular by using modular elements results in an overall shorter substation project
design and construction duration to the advantage of the client. Figure 3.1 dramatically shows the reduction in land area required for an indoor GIS substation
as a direct replacement for the previous conventional outdoor open terminal
switchyard arrangement.
3.2.8 Cost

A satisfactory cost comparison between different substation layout designs is


extremely difficult because of the differences in performance and maintainability. It is preferable to base a decision for a particular layout on technical
grounds and then to determine the most economical means of achieving these
technical requirements.
Busbar span lengths of about 50 m tend to give an economical design. However, the gantry structures involved have a high environmental impact and the
current trend is for low profile substations. Tubular busbars tend to offer cost
advantages over tensioned conductor for busbar currents in excess of 3000 A.
Taking into account some of the factors mentioned and the savings in cost of
land (see Section 3.2.7) resulting from a reduced footprint manufacturers
now consider that a 400 kV GIS substation may produce overall savings when
compared to a conventional open terminal arrangement, although this varies
greatly dependent on site and territory and the reduced bay centres can result
in clearance difficulties where there are incoming overhead lines.
The use of circuit breakers with CTs in the appropriate bushings, available
up to 275 kV, saves the use of separate post-CTs, with their associated plant,
structural, civil and space costs, and may result in overall economy compared
to the use of initially cheaper breakers without this facility.

3.3 ALTERNATIVE LAYOUTS


3.3.1 Single busbar

The single busbar arrangement is simple to operate, places minimum reliance


on signalling for satisfactory operation of protection and facilitates the economical addition of future feeder bays.
Figure 3.2 illustrates a five circuit breaker single busbar arrangement with
four feeder circuits, one bus section and ten disconnectors. Earth switches
(not shown) will also be required.
1. Each circuit is protected by its own circuit breaker and hence plant outage
does not necessarily result in loss of supply.

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Substation Layouts
Figure 3.1 GIS substation replacement for conventional open terminal outdoor arrangement. A striking comparison between land area requirements
for a conventional open terminal 132 kV double switchyard arrangement and replacement indoor GIS housing to the top right-hand corner of the picture
(Yorkshire Electricity Group ptc)

Substation Layouts

Figure 3.2

97

Five circuit breaker single busbar arrangement

2. A fault on a feeder or transformer circuit breaker causes loss of the transformer and feeder circuit one of which may be restored after isolating the
faulty circuit breaker.
3. A fault on a bus section circuit breaker causes complete shutdown of the substation. All circuits may be restored after isolating the faulty circuit breaker
and the substation will be split under these conditions.
4. A busbar fault causes loss of one transformer and one feeder. Maintenance
of one busbar section or disconnector will cause the temporary outage of
two circuits.
5. Maintenance of a feeder or transformer circuit breaker involves loss of that
circuit.
6. The introduction of bypass isolators between the busbar and circuit isolator (Fig. 3.3a) allows circuit breaker maintenance facilities without loss
of the circuit. Under these conditions full circuit protection is not available.
Bypass facilities may also be obtained by using a disconnector on the outgoing ways between two adjacent switchgear bays (Fig. 3.3b). The circuits
are paralleled onto one circuit breaker during maintenance of the other. It
is possible to maintain protection (although some adjustment to settings
may be necessary) during maintenance but if a fault occurs then both
circuits are lost. With the high reliability and short maintenance times
involved with modern circuit breakers such bypasses are not nowadays so
common.

3.3.2 Transformer feeder

The transformer-feeder substation arrangement offers savings in land area


together with less switchgear, small DC battery requirements, less control and
relay equipment, less initial civil works together with reduced maintenance
and spares holding in comparison with the single busbar arrangement.

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Substation Layouts

Figure 3.3 (a) Bypass isolator for circuit breaker maintenance. (b) Bypass isolator facilities
between two adjacent line bays

Figure 3.4 shows the single line diagram for a typical transformer feeder,
two transformer substation arrangement. A comparison of land area requirements between a conventional single busbar fully switched outdoor 33/11 kV
distribution substation (2150 m2), a fully switched one-storey indoor substation (627 m2) and for the transformer-feeder arrangement (420 m2) is shown
in Fig. 3.5.
The major practical service continuity risk for the transformer-feeder substation is when the substation supply cables are both laid in the same trench and
suffer from simultaneous damage. Much of the substation cost savings would be
lost if the supply cables were laid in separate trenches since the civil trench work,
laying and reinstatement costs are typically between 33% and 40% of the total
supply and erection contract costs for 132 kV oil filled and 33 kV XLPE, respectively. In congested inner city areas planning permission for separate trenches in
road ways or along verges is, in any case, seldom granted. The civil works trenching and backfill costs for two separate trenches (one cable installation contract
without special remobilization) are typically 1.6 times the cost of a single trench
for double circuit laying. The choice depends upon the degree of risk involved
and the level of mechanical protection, route markers and warnings utilized. The

Figure 3.4

Transformer-feeder arrangement

Figure 3.5 Comparison of land area requirements for 33/11 kV substations. (a) Conventional
outdoor fully switched single busbar. (b) Fully switched indoor. (c) Transformer feeder

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Substation Layouts

Figure 3.6 Comparison of equipment requirements: (a) ring system; (b) hybrid system;
(c) transformer feeder

cable routes for ring systems do not normally present such problems since the
feeder cables usually run in different directions and only come in close proximity
adjacent to the substation.
A comparison of equipment requirements between a ring, hybrid and
transformer-feeder arrangement is given in Fig. 3.6.

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The usual practice for the cable supplied transformer-feeder substation is to


terminate the supply cables on outdoor sealing ends with bare busbar connections to the transformer HV bushings. On first examination it might appear
more sensible to terminate the HV cables directly into a transformer cable box.
This would reduce the length of exposed live conductor and hence reduce the
likelihood of insulation failure due to pollution, debris, animals or birds, etc.
However, difficulties arise with this solution when, say, after cable damage, isolation and earthing, repair and DC pressure testing is required. On lower voltage
systems (11 kV) disconnection chambers may be specified on transformers but
this is not practical at the higher voltage (36 kV and above) levels. With outdoor
bushings and busbar it is easy to apply portable earths and isolate the transformer
or cable for maintenance, repair or test.
An isolator and earth switch may be added at the transformer HV connections depending upon the electrical supply companys operational procedures.
With the development of metal-clad SF6 insulated equipment the possibility
exists for provision of an HV isolator and earth switch all within an SF6 insulated environment connected directly to the transformer windings without the
need for additional land space. With an overhead line fed transformer-feeder
substation a line disconnector/earth switch is desirable since the probability of
a fault (insulator failure, development of hot spots on connections, etc.) is
greater than with a cable circuit.

3.3.3 Mesh

An arrangement known as a three switch mesh substation is shown in Fig. 3.7a.


It utilizes only three circuit breakers to control four circuits. The scheme offers
better features and facilities than the single busbar without a bus section switch:
1. Any circuit breaker may be maintained at any time without disconnecting that
circuit. Full protection discrimination will be lost during such maintenance
operations. In order to allow for all operating and maintenance conditions all
busbars, circuit breakers and disconnectors must be capable of carrying the
combined loads of both transformers and line circuit power transfers.
2. Normal operation is with the bypass disconnectors or optional circuit
breaker open so that both transformers are not disconnected for a single
transformer fault.
3. A fault on one transformer circuit disconnects that transformer circuit without affecting the healthy transformer circuit.
4. A fault on the bus section circuit breaker causes complete substation shutdown until isolated and power restored.
A development of the three switch arrangement for multiple circuit substations is the full mesh layout as shown in Fig. 3.7b. Each section of the mesh
is included in a line or transformer protection zone so no specific separate
busbar protection is required. Operation of two circuit breakers is required to

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Substation Layouts

Figure 3.7

(a) Three switch mesh. (b) Full mesh

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connect or disconnect a circuit and disconnection involves opening the mesh.


Line or transformer circuit disconnectors may then be used to isolate the particular circuit and the mesh reclosed:
1. Circuit breakers may be maintained without loss of supply or protection
and no additional bypass facilities are required. The particular circuit may
be fed from an alternative route around the mesh.
2. Busbar faults will only cause the loss of one circuit. Circuit breaker faults
will involve the loss of a maximum of two circuits.
3. Generally not more than twice as many outgoing circuits as infeeds are used
in order to rationalize circuit equipment load capabilities and ratings. Maximum security is obtained with equal numbers of alternatively arranged
infeeds and load circuits. Sometimes banked pairs of feeders are arranged at
mesh corners.
3.3.4 Ring

The ring busbar offers increased security compared to the single busbar arrangement since alternative power flow routes around the ring busbar are available. A
typical scheme which would occupy more space than the single busbar arrangement is shown in Fig. 3.8. The ring is not so secure as the mesh arrangement since

Figure 3.8

Ring

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Substation Layouts

Figure 3.9

Transfer busbar

a busbar fault causes all circuits to be lost until the fault has been isolated using
the ring busbar isolators. Unless busbar disconnectors are duplicated maintenance
on a disconnector requires an outage of both adjacent circuits. The inability of
disconnectors to break load current is also an operational disadvantage.
3.3.5 Double busbar
3.3.5.1 Transfer bus

The double busbar arrangement is probably the most popular open terminal
outdoor substation arrangement throughout the world. It has the flexibility to
allow the grouping of circuits onto separate busbars with facilities for transfer
from one busbar to another for maintenance or operational reasons. A typical
transfer busbar arrangement is shown in Fig. 3.9:
1. This is essentially a single busbar arrangement with bypass disconnector facilities. When circuit breakers are under maintenance the protection is arranged
to trip the bus-coupler breaker.
2. The system is considered to offer less flexibility than the full duplicate
double busbar arrangement shown in Fig. 3.10.

3.3.5.2 Duplicate bus

1. Each circuit may be connected to either busbar using the busbar selector disconnectors. On-load busbar selection may be made using the bus-coupler
circuit breaker.

Substation Layouts

Figure 3.10

105

Duplicate busbar (and wrap around arrangement)

2. Motorized busbar selector disconnectors may be used to reduce the time to


reconfigure the circuit arrangements.
3. Busbar and busbar disconnector maintenance may be carried out without
loss of supply to more than one circuit.
4. The use of circuit breaker bypass isolator facilities is not considered to offer
substantial benefits since modern circuit breaker maintenance times are short
and in highly interconnected systems alternative feeder arrangements are normally possible.
5. A variant on the scheme uses a wrap around busbar layout arrangement
as shown in Fig. 3.10 in order to reduce the length of the substation.

3.3.6 112 Circuit breaker

The arrangement is shown in Fig. 3.11. It offers the circuit breaker bypass facilities and security of the mesh arrangement coupled with some of the flexibility

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Substation Layouts

Figure 3.11

112 circuit breaker

of the double busbar scheme. The layout is used at important high voltage substations and large generating substations in the USA, Asia and parts of Europe
where the cost can be offset against high reliability requirements. Essentially the
scheme requires 112 circuit breakers per connected transmission line or transformer circuit and hence the name of this configuration:
1. Additional costs of circuit breakers are involved together with complex protection arrangements.
2. It is possible to operate with any one pair of circuits, or group of pairs of
circuits separated from the remaining circuits. The circuit breakers and

DESIGN GUIDE
FOR SUBSTATION LAYOUT OND INSTALATION (OUTDOOR TYPE)

TABLE OF CONTENT

1.0

PUTPOSE AND OBJECTIVE ....................................................................................................................... 3

2.0

SCOPE ............................................................................................................................................................. 3

3.0 GENERAL AWARENESS OF TERMINOLOGY ASSOCIATED WITH THE SYSTEM/


EQUIPMENT........................................................................................................................................................... 4
4.0

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE SYSTEM / EQUIPMENT AND FUNCTIONALITY........................... 6

5.0

SALIENT DESIGN CONSIDERATION..................................................................................................... 12

6.0

RELEVANT CODES AND STANDARDS.................................................................................................. 13

7.0

STATUTORY REQUIREMENTS............................................................................................................... 14

8.0

SYSTEM INTERFACING REQUIREMENTS .......................................................................................... 14

9.0

BASIC INPUT ............................................................................................................................................... 15

10.0 TYPICAL CALCULATION/DRAWING ................................................................................................... 16


11.0 DESIGN CHECKLIST................................................................................................................................. 17
12.0 SALIENT DESIGN CONSIDERATION..................................................................................................... 19
13.0 DESIGN & PERFORMANCE PARAMETERS......................................................................................... 27
14.0 PREVAILING STANDARD & STATUTORY NORMS ........................................................................... 29
15.0 PROJECT RELATED INPUT..................................................................................................................... 30
16.0 SALIENT POINTS TO BE REFLECTED IN THE TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION........................... 30
17.0 FIRE WALLS FOR TRANSFORMERS..................................................................................................... 32
18.0 CALCULATION GUIDELINE FOR SIZING OF UNIT & STATION TRANSFORMER .................... 33
19.0 DRAIN PIT AND SUMP PIT OF TRANSFORMER................................................................................. 34

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LIST OF DRAWINGS / DOCUMENTS

Sl. No.

Annexure No.

Description

1.

SKETCH : 1

Typical Main And Auxiliary Bus Bar Arrangement (SLD)

2.

SKETCH : 2

Typical Double Bus Bar Arrangement (SLD)

3.

SKETCH : 3

Typical Double Main And Auxiliary Bus Bar Arrangement


(SLD)

4.

SKETCH : 4

Typical One And Half Breaker Arrangement (SLD)

5.

SKETCH : 5

6.

SKETCH : 6

7.

SKETCH : 7

8.

SKETCH : 8

9.

SKETCH : 9

10.

SKETCH : 10

Typical Electrical Layout of 132kV GSS With Single Main


& Auxiliary Bus Arrangement
Typical Sectional View of 132kV GSS
1)132 KV Side:
Single Main And Auxiliary Bus
2)33 KV Side:
Single Main And Auxiliary Bus
Typical Electrical Layout of 220kV GSS With Double Main
& Auxiliary Bus Arrangement
Typical Sectional View of 220kV GSS
1)220 KV Side:
Double Main And Auxiliary Bus
2)132 KV Side:
Single Main And Auxiliary Bus
Typical Electrical Layout of 400kV GSS With One And A
Half Breaker Arrangement
Typical Sectional View of 400kV Bay

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1.0

PUTPOSE AND OBJECTIVE


Although substation layout engineering is more individualistic for each and every
station, this document has been created with the purpose of establishing a
guideline for consistent and related steps in the design of the station layout system
with an emphasis to economizing and standardizing the design as far as possible.
The purpose of this guideline is to provide a direction in the layout design of the
substation with regard to an available plot. The higher is the voltage level, the
greater will be the clearance distances required and bigger should be the plot. It
must be noted that no two plots are exactly similar and certain degree of
adaptability and flexibility has to be kept as margin as because the layout is more
dependant on the plot shape and size. This guideline should help in:
 _ Making a conceptual plot plan of the station and finalizing the bus bar
orientation for an provisional approval from the customer or owner
 _ Location of the (ideal) position of the control room
 _ Allocating line bays, transformer bays and reactor bays
 _ Ease of expansion (accommodating future bays)

2.0

SCOPE
The scope of this document covers the following points
 _ The terminologies associated with the substation layout
 _ Concepts of layouts depending on bus switching schemes
 _ Salient design considerations
 _ Statutory requirements or requirements as per established standards
 _ Salient interface requirements
 _ Illustrative examples / drawings
The scope does not cover detailed calculations for earthing, DSLP, critical span,
short-circuit force, sag-tension, sizings etc which are part of execution
engineering, layouts for indoor/outdoor GIS stations or any special case such as
graded switchyards, multi-level switchyards, layout requirements of special
equipments as SVC or Series Compensators, HVDC terminals, etc.

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3.0

GENERAL AWARENESS OF TERMINOLOGY ASSOCIATED WITH THE SYSTEM/


EQUIPMENT
 Bus Bar Orientation : It is the direction along which the bus bar is placed
keeping in view the factors such as space available, ease of line take-offs,
future provisions for expansions , interconnection with another yard , if any,
ease of approach and handling of heavy machineries etc
 Land Geometry: The geometry of the acquired plot of land meant for
construction of a substation is an important factor. The acquired land may
or may not be completely occupied by the EHV station. For example, an
acquired land may have provision for substation as well as housing colony
for staff.
 Substation Perimeter: The fencing done along the substations EHV yard is
called the substation perimeter. Normally a road with lighting (width 3.4m
to 3.75m) is laid inside the perimeter to facilitate movement of equipment
and personnel.
 Bay: it is the space (width or length) required for accommodating all the
necessary equipment for line switching, transformer switching, bus coupler
switching, bus-transfer system or for future provisions. The bay width for a
220 kV yard is generally 18m while that of a 400 kV yard is 28m after
taking care of all clearances in a conventional set up. Bay width dictates
much of the space requirement criteria in a substation and efforts to reduce
bay width either by using different type of isolators or modifying the layout
are always a design priority.
 Gantry: A steel structure comprising two columns and a beam (portal). The
beam is used for stringing the three phases (horizontally) while the columns
gives the required height to the beam after ensuring proper clearances, sag
etc. A gantry may have multiple beams at different heights and the beam
can be used (apart from stringing the bus) for wave-trap suspension,
isolator or post insulator mounting in special layout configurations.
 Strung Bus (or Strain Bus): The bus system which is formed by stringing
conductors by gantries at either ends is called a strung bus system. Main
buses generally have multiple conductors per phase. Depending on the
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span, (which decides the sag) as well as clearance requirements, the height
of the strung bus is fixed.
 Rigid Bus: These are aluminum pipe conductors supported on post insulators
at prefixed heights decided by clearance requirements used mainly for
equipment interconnections, or main bus to give a neat appearance to the
yard. They are free from sag, swings etc but create cantilever forces on
their support insulators.
 Jumpers: These are short conductor lengths used for connecting bus to bus,
bus to equipment, line to equipment or equipment to equipment.
 Support Structures: Galvanized steel structures used for supporting the
equipments to give them proper height such that their live terminals
maintain the minimum clearance requirements from the ground. Support
structures are fixed to the ground by bolted base plates or embedded stubs.
Support structures may be lattice type or galvanized pipe type.
 Bay Marshalling Kiosk: Ground mounted junction box placed in the yard for
feeding AC/DC power to the bay equipments like breaker and isolators.
Interlock cables are also routed through these kiosks but signal cables such
as CT and PT outputs are fed directly into the control panels located in the
control room.
 A-row column: It is the wall of the turbine hall building facing the
switchyard and transformer yard. The HT terminals of the generator
transformer and station transformer are connected to conductor strung from
the A-row column to switchyard bay gantry. The span normally does not
exceed 90-100m Control Room Building located in the substation premises
for housing the control panels of various outdoor equipments, meters, AC
and DC supply sources, PLCC and telemetry equipments, maintenance
personnel, communication equipment etc.
 Cable Trenches: RCC or brickwork longitudinal troughs meant for laying
power control and communication cables running from the equipment to the
control room. The cables are laid in a tiered manner with power cables at
the top and communication cables at the bottom-most layer. Galvanized
steel cable trays or racks are grouted to the walls of the cable trench.
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_
 Clearances: It is the minimum distance required to be maintained between
phases, phase to earth or live part to earth considering the safety of a
working person in the vicinity (section clearance).Table below (adopted from
CBIP manual) gives clearance values in mm. for different voltages.

Min clearance
Between phase
(mm)
320

Sectional
Clearance (mm)

Ground
Clearance (mm)

36

Min Clearance
Between Ph &
earth (mm)
320

2800

3700

72.5

630

630

3000

4000

123

1100

1100

4000

4600

145

1300

1300

4000

4600

245

2100

2100

5000

5500

420

3400

4200

6500

8000

Highest System
Voltage (kV)

 These clearances are valid for up to heights of 1000m above MSL. Beyond
1000m a correction factor of 1.25% per 100m for increasing the clearances
up to 3000m. Also, these guidelines may be replaced by the utilities own
specifications where clearances may be separately mentioned.
 The above section /ground clearances are based on insulator base height of
2440mm which is the lowest point of insulator where it meets earthed
metal from ground.

4.0

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE SYSTEM / EQUIPMENT AND FUNCTIONALITY


The substation is a nodal point in the electrical transmission network where
essential switching and protective activities are carried out to ensure the network
remains healthy under normal working conditions. It is also a point where bulk
power from the transmission network is fed into the distribution network to cater
to various regional loads. A plant switchyard is a high voltage substation attached
to the generating units for feeding power into the transmission network. In the

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case of a plant switchyard, the generator unit feeds power to the generator
transformer at the generator terminal voltage (typically 15kV to 20 kV). The HT
terminal of the generator transformers is connected to the EHV switchyard (plant
switchyard). In a similar manner, power is also drawn from the plant switchyard for
feeding various plant facilities through the station transformers.
Generally, a high voltage substation may cater to one (or many) of the following
requirements:
 Serve as an injection point for feeding power into the transmission network
as in the case of generating plant switchyards.
 Serve as a switching station for power routing purpose or interconnecting
regions with synchronous link
 Serve as an asynchronous link (HVDC back-to-back) between two
transmission systems
 Serve as transformer link between transmission systems at different
voltages
 Serve as a point for exchange of reactive power
 Serve as a feed point for distribution network (sometimes for captive load
also)
 Consequently, the layout will depend on the purpose for which it is meant.
 We will examine each purpose and how the layout is adapted to suit the
various needs
Generator step up station is also called a plant switchyard. The switchyard is
located alongside the TG Hall with the transformer yard (containing the Generator
transformers (GT), Unit transformers (UT), and Station transformers (ST) and other
plant facilities located between yard and TG building. The Turbine Generator (TG)
building is generally separated from the switchyard for, say a 400 kV yard, by
about 90m to 100m. The GT bays located in the switchyard is dependant on the
location of the generator transformers which in turn is decided by the unit pitching
distance of the plant. Consequently, generator transformer bays and station
transformer bays are decided after the plant layout and TG hall layout is finalized.
The bus bars of the EHV switchyard are normally parallel to the A-row column of
the TG building. The high voltage conductors feeding power from the GT are
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generally strung from the Arow column wall to the switchyard gantries leading to
the bus. The HV terminals of the Gen Step up transformer are connected by
jumpers to the conductors to carry power into the EHV switchyard bus. The
transmission line bays are allocated on the other side of the bus after considering
line corridors, spare bays and future expansion. A control room for housing control
and relay panels is located in side the switchyard premise and closer to the TG
building, typically adjoining the transformer yard. Sometimes many of the auxiliary
systems such as AC or DC supply, emergency supply etc may be derived from the
main plant system in which case the control room size is reduced.
 A switching substation normally has transmission lines terminating at the
bus bar of the substation. The bus bar is oriented depending on the
suitability of the plot and corridors for the lines. A control room is located
after ensuring no EHV overhead lines are in the vicinity. The layout depends
on the switching scheme and the size of the station depends on the number
of bays. Since the switching of lines is carried out without any different
voltage busbar, there are no transformer bays in the yard. However line
reactors may be located beneath corresponding lines.
 A substation with facility of having an asynchronous link between two
regions normally has an HVDC back-to-back terminal for exchange of power
between the regions. Two sets of bus bars with incoming lines from two
regions are terminated on corresponding bus bars which are connected to
the HVDC back-to-back terminals located between the bus bars. The
termination of lines at the bus and connection to the HVDC terminals are
through conventional switching schemes. The HVDC terminal is normally
housed in a building located generally between the two sets of bus bars.
The station control room is also integrated in this building and houses the
control relay panels and metering.
 Most commonly, substations have buses at different voltage levels with one
or more interconnecting transformers (auto-transformer) between the two
substations. As per the geometry and size of the plot as well as the
transmission line corridors and number of line bays and the switching
scheme, the layout is decided after fixing the orientation of the bus bars of
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the two substations. The transformers are normally placed in a bank and
separated by firewalls, with their HV terminal oriented to the HV bus. Quite
frequently, a gantry is placed near the transformer for terminating HV side
conductors and jumpering them to the HV terminals. The use of Aluminium
pipe interconnectors on the HV and LV terminals of various equipments in
the yard are also used quite often.

4.1 Switching Schemes

The substation (or a plant switchyard) layout, apart from physical factors described
above, shall also depend on the switching scheme which largely decides the
disposition of buses and equipments in the switchyard / substation. The various
types of switching schemes in use in our country are given hereunder:
 One-and half-breaker scheme: This scheme is commonly used in the 400
kV switchyards in our country. In this scheme, two buses (commonly
designated Main I and Main II) and at the same voltage are always
connected to any feeder feeding load, transformer, reactor etc. Also a third
link (tie feeder) connects two adjacent feeders through a breaker which
means for every two feeders, three breakers are used thus giving it the
name. The SLD showing the switching scheme is shown (Ref Clause 10)
 The layout may have buses placed close together (often called D-type
layout) or buses placed at the extreme ends (often called I-type layout).
While D-type layout requires more space and has tubular main buses, the Itype layout has heavier structures and higher bus stringing heights with
strung type main buses. Typical I-type layout is is shown , but with tubular
Main buses (Ref Clause 10).
 Double Main and Transfer Scheme: This scheme is commonly used in the
220 kV switchyards in our country. Here, two buses, (Main I and Main II)
along with a third bus (Transfer bus) feed the feeder system with either
Main I or II connecting the feeder. A Bus-coupler connects the two main
buses. The transfer bus is energized only when any of the feeder breakers is
in maintenance and the affected feeder is fed through the bus-transfer bay
circuit breaker and the energized transfer bus.
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 Schematic diagram of this system is shown in this guideline (Ref Cl 10) In


the Layout; the Main buses (strung type) are placed adjacent to one another
while the transfer bus (also a strung bus) is placed towards the other
extreme where the feeder take-off is provided. In case the feeder should
take-off from the Main bus end, a jack-bus placed at a higher level is strung
across the entire bay to connect to the transmission line Typical Layout is
given in this guideline (Ref Cl 10).
 Two Main-bus scheme: This scheme is mainly used in the 132kV (and GIS)
substations and earlier generating stations in our country where a large
number of feeders are connected.. Schematically, it differs from the double
main and transfer bus scheme by the absence of transfer bus and bustransfer bay. Likewise in the earlier scheme, any feeder is connected to
either of the Main buses. Disadvantage here is that when a feeder breaker is
out for maintenance, it cannot be charged until the maintenance is over. A
typical scheme is shown in this guideline (ref Cl 10)
 The Layout is similar to the Double-Main and transfer scheme, but here the
Transfer bus is not provided.
 Main and Transfer Scheme: This scheme is used in 66kV switchyards in our
country where few but critical feeders are connected. Scheme is similar to
Double Main & Transfer, but only one main bus is provided. Bus coupler bay
is not there, but bus-transfer bay is provided. Disadvantage is that when
there is a fault in the bus, the entire substation is lost. Typical Schematic is
shown in this guideline (Ref Cl 10)
 Layout is similar to Double main and transfer scheme. Typical layout/section
has been given in this guideline (Ref Cl 10)
4.2 Equipments in a Substation / Switchyard:

The following switchgear items are generally found in an open air outdoor EHV
substation:
 Circuit Breaker: Designed to interrupt fault current, these are generally
electrically controlled from the control room.
 Disconnector or Isolators: These are no load operating devices (but carries
rated load when closed) with or without earth-switches, are electrically or
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manually operated and may be controlled from the control room. Earthswitches, either electrical or manual are always locally controlled. Purpose
is to electrically isolate buses, breakers and other switchgear equipments.
 Current Transformers: Measures the line /feeder/tie bus current . The
secondary leads are directly terminated at the control panels (or meters)
housed in the control room.
 Voltage Transformers / Capacitive Voltage Transformers: Measures the line
or bus voltage where they are installed. The secondary leads are directly
terminated at the control panels (or meters) housed in the control room.
 Wave-traps: Inductors designed to filter communication signals from the
power lines, they are either suspended (from gantries) or pedestal mounted
on post insulators
 Bus-post Insulators: Insulated support system designed to give mechanical
support to live tubular buses, wave-traps, jumpers etc. under all conditions
of operations.
 Line Shunt Reactors placed at line take-off points along with its accessories
as cooler banks, lightning arrestors and Neutral grounding Reactors for the
purpose of VAR compensation in long lines.
 Bus Reactors connected to the bus through regular bay equipments
configured in the relevant switching scheme along with its accessories such
as lightning arrestors, cooler banks. (Bus reactors are directly grounded).
 Control and Relay panels: They are designed to operate on 220V DC, 110V
DC, 110V AC from UPS or as specified by the owner. They are generally
housed in AC control room and designed to protect the various yard
equipment including transmission lines, bus-bars, transformers, reactors,
capacitor banks etc from abnormal operations occurring either naturally or
inadvertently.
 Lightning Arrestors: They are designed to absorb temporary over voltage
(TOV) surges, limit Max Continuous over-voltages (MCOV) and clip voltage
surges occurring due to switching, lightning strikes or power-swings and are
placed at the feeder entry points, bus-bars, transformer terminals, reactor
terminals etc.
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5.0

SALIENT DESIGN CONSIDERATION

5.1

Requirement of Land
_

 Should be as near the load center and be as square / rectangular in shape as


is possible for ease of bus-bar orientation.
 Should have fairly good transmission corridor for line take-offs.
 Should be as far away from obstructions to permit ease of HV line
approach, and free from master plans and future development zones.
 Fairly accessible to roads and railways for transportation of equipment.
 Be fairly level ground and above highest flood level (HFL) and free from
dusty, smoky or obnoxious environment
 Should be far away from an airport or any military installations
 Have adequate supply of potable water provision
 Area requirement of a typical Grid Substation considering staff colony is
approximately given as under:
 400 kV : 20 Hectare
 220 kV - 6 Hectare
 132 kV : 3.5 Hectare
There are however grid substations without residential provisions as well as
generating plant switchyards where the residential accommodation requirement is
not there and the area requirement is dependant on the EHV equipment layout and
auxiliary facilities.
5.2

Electrical requirements of the substation:

 The rating of the bus bars to be decided by the rated loading of respective
feeders and transformation capacity.
 The short circuit current (fault level) to decide the equipment fault
withstand capacity and strength of the mechanical support system
 Insulation level of the switchyard to determine the insulation withstands
capacity of the various equipments and bus-bar system under various
conditions of operations.

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 The grounding system designed to provide adequate safety level to


operating personnel.
 Environmental considerations such as wind, snow, rain, fog, dust etc to
protect various switchgears and bus-bar systems from mechanical or
electrical breakdown during adverse weather conditions.

5.3

Requirements of Auxiliary Systems:

 _ Design of AC and DC supply systems


 _ Design of Emergency AC supply system and provision of standby DG set
 _ Design of Fire-detection and Alarm (Control room) and Fire-fighting system
(Yard).
 _ Design of outdoor and indoor lighting system
 _ Design of Heating, Ventilation and AC system for control room
 _ Substation Automation System
 _ Design of PLCC and substation communication system
5.4

Civil Design Requirements:

 _ Design of Bus-bar support, equipment support and lightning mast


structures
 _ Soil investigation and resistivity measurements
 _ Design of foundations
 _ Design of control room buildings
 _Design of substation road and drainage systems, fencing and boundary
Wall Design of Cable-trenches.

6.0

RELEVANT CODES AND STANDARDS


Some of the most widely used standards used for designing the substation /
switchyards in our country are as follows:
 _ IEEE 80 standard for earthing in substations
 _ CBIP Manual for substation design
 _ Indian Electricity Rules 1956
 _ IEC-62271-100 for Circuit breakers
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 _ IEC 60129/IS: 9921 for Isolators


 _ IEC 60044-1 / IS: 2705 for Current transformers
 _ IEC 60186/ IS : 3156 for Voltage transformers
 _ IEC 60099-4 for Lightning Arrestors
 _ IEC 60353 for Wave traps
 _ BS 160 for Erection of power stations
 _ TAC for Fire-fighting installations
This is not an exhaustive list and can vary from owner to owner; additional
standards as and when applicable are enlisted.

7.0

STATUTORY REQUIREMENTS
The IE Rules 1956 is applicable for installations in India.
 It is also mandatory to provide fire detection and alarm and fire fighting
system as per approved TAC norms.
 Before charging the substation, the Electricity Department Inspectorate
(either CEA or its affiliate) should approve the installation.
 The availability of the substation is standardized as per CTU/ CERC norms
at 98 % or better.

8.0

SYSTEM INTERFACING REQUIREMENTS


The following are some of the interface requirements are envisaged when a
substation or plant switchyard is being built by an independent agency. These
become the terminal points when defining the scope of work by the substation
or switchyard builder.
 Interface with transmission lines: Normally the line take off gantry is the
interface. Jumper connections to Wave-traps, LAs, and CVTs etc are in the
scope of the substation builder.
 Interface

with

Generator

transformer,

Station

transformers

Autotransformers, Reactors, Capacitor banks etc: Generally these items are


independently procured by the owner and therefore, the equipment terminal
becomes the interface point, i.e. the terminal connector is in scope of the
substation builder.
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 Station supply interface: Normally, a substation will have a local (utility)


supply termination at the substations distribution transformer. The terminal
of this transformer becomes the distribution point. In case of plant
switchyards, the switchyard AC power is taken from the main-plant MV
distribution system (3.3kV, 6.6kV or 11kV) and terminated at the terminals
of the switchyards distribution transformer(s). The supply and laying of the
MV cables are not in the scope of the switchyard constructor.
 Grounding interface: When the substation is adjacent to another substation
owned by another agency, there is a requirement to interconnect the earth
mats at predetermined points. Similarly in a plant switchyard, the earthing
of the transformer yard has to be interconnected with that of the
switchyard at suitably predetermined points.
 Cabling interface: Many times, especially in plant switchyards, power and
control cables have to be interfaced. Normally an interface cabinet is
provided in the substation/switchyard control room where all external cables
are terminated.
 SCADA/ SAS interface: The SAS system which is dedicated to the
substation operation and control may have some critical control or
annunciation transferred to the main plant DDCMIS. This interface is
achieved through gateways and protocol converters.

9.0

BASIC INPUT
Some of the basic inputs are enlisted by taking into account the various design
considerations as explained earlier in Clause 5 .
 Land geometry, elevation level , HFL and area of the land
 Line corridor direction and road access point
 Electrical single line diagram showing the voltage level(s), transformation
capacities and the switching scheme(s).
 Main bus bar requirements (strain bus or tubular bus)
 In case of generating plant switchyards, the arrangement for connecting the
GT high voltage terminal to the switchyard bus. Normally conductor is

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strung from generator bay gantry of switchyard to the A-Row column wall
of TG hall and a typical span for 400kV system is around 90 to 100 m.
 Station supply arrangement
 Soil Investigation Report including soil resistivity
 Any specific requirement regarding size, shape, orientation of the control
room.
 Short circuit studies showing highest fault level, respective feeder loadings
and types of conductors used.
 Insulation coordination study
 Type of switchgear specified (example CBs, Isolators, CT/PT, Wave-traps
etc)
 Type of protection relays specified
 Protection philosophy (including protection diagram) and SAS functions if
applicable
 Any specific requirements for DSLP (example lightning mast, air-finials or
shield-wire)
The following (minimum) drawings or documents should be available with the
tender specification (apart from commercial/contractual matters):
 Single Line Diagram and Protection and Metering Diagram
 Plan and Section of the Electrical Layout
 Equipment foundation/ column foundation and cable-trench layout
 Road and Drainage system layout
 Control Building Plan and Panel Disposition
 Soil-report or its relevant extracts
 Equipment Specifications including all auxiliary system requirements
 Interfaces / Terminal points

10.0 TYPICAL CALCULATION/DRAWING


As stated in Cl 2, calculations have not been included in this guideline. Drawings
showing various layouts and switching schemes have been included in the Sketch.
 _ Sketch 1: SLD of Main and auxiliary bus scheme
 _ Sketch 2: SLD of Double Main bus-bar scheme
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 _ Sketch 3: SLD of Double Main and auxiliary bus-bar scheme


 _ Sketch 4: SLD of One-and-half breaker scheme
 _ Sketch 5: Layout of Main and auxiliary bus arrangement
 _ Sketch 6: Section of Main and auxiliary bus scheme
 _ Sketch 7: Layout of Double main and auxiliary bus scheme
 _ Sketch 8: Section of Double main-and auxiliary bus scheme
 _ Sketch 9: Layout of One and half breaker scheme
 _ Sketch 10: Section of One and half breaker scheme

11.0 DESIGN CHECKLIST


In the design of an EHV outdoor substation layout, the following design factors will
have to be carefully considered before finalizing and detailing of the layout.
 The Single Line Diagram showing all electrical equipments and defined
switching scheme.
 Total fenced area available along-with coordinates
 Transformers and their locations with respect to Control Room building
 In case of generating yards, position of GTs , STs and the span and skew
angles covered by conductors while entering the bays.
 Skew angle and span of conductors connecting to line-side dead-end tower.
 Positioning of the Control room building
 General slope direction for proper design of cable trench and drainage.
 Bay width and the type of isolators used.
 Auxiliary power and other standby arrangements
 Lighting System and Fire-fighting or fire-detection and alarm system.
 Operational aspects including Automation requirements
 Future expansions, spare bays and similar capacity margins.
 Soil report and any abnormality observed.
 Environmental parameters such as HFL, wind pressure, seismicity etc.
 Stringing span, skew angle, height etc of conductor to be strung from
switchyard generator bay gantry to A-row column wall in case of generating
plant switchyards.

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Single Line Diagram

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12.0 SALIENT DESIGN CONSIDERATION


Electrical equipment shall be designed for a 50 C ambient temperature and
relative humidity of 85%, unless otherwise specified for a higher ambient
temperature. Equipment shall be designed for altitude less than 1000 meter from
sea level. Unit Transformers and Station Transformers are usually located in the
transformer bay in front of the Powerhouse Building beside the Generator
Transformer (GSU).
4.1

Unit Transformer
Each Unit Transformer is to be sized based on the following:
S.N

No. of UT per Generating Unit

1.0

One no. UT

2.0

Two nos. UT of similar Capacity

To cater Percentage of Unit Load


100% of Unit Load
50% of Unit Load

The following unit load shall be catered power by Unit Transformer(s):


Boiler Feed Pump
ID Fans
FD Fans
PA Fans
Coal Mills
Condensate Extraction Pumps
CW Pumps
IA/ SA Compressor
In addition to the above, following LV Auxiliaries will also be fed:
a) Unit LV Auxiliary Loads
b) ESP Loads
c) Unit Cooling System Loads

 10% design margin on the aforesaid loads shall be considered. No contingency


factor will be considered for unit loads in case actual unit loads are available
from manufacturer itself. Otherwise 85% contingency factor will be considered.

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 Final transformer capacity should be adequate for starting Boiler Feed Pump
Motor with other loads in running condition. The MVA rating and impedance of
the transformer shall be chosen such that the largest motor can be started with
80% base load with transient voltage at motor terminals not falling below 80%
of the rated voltage.
 The transformers shall be outdoor, oil immersed, ONAN/ONAF cooling type and
will be provided with Tap Changer as per end users requirement:

S.N

Type of Tap Changer

Detail

01

Off Circuit Tap Changer

+ 5% to 5% in step of 2.5%

02

On Load Tap Changer

+ 10% to 10% in step of 1.25%

 If the transformer shall have provision for OLTC, then the same shall be suitable
for both local and remote manual control and for automatic control.
 The transformers will operate without injurious heating at the rated MVA at any
voltage within 10% of the rated voltage of that particular tap. The frequency
variation shall be within -5% to 3% while the combined voltage & frequency
variation (absolute sum) shall be limited to 10%.
 The transformer will be designed to deliver rated MVA continuously even at the
lowest tap without exceeding specified temperature rise.
 Flux density in any part of core or yoke at rated MVA, voltage & frequency shall
not exceed 1.7 Tesla. Continuous operation should be possible at 110%
voltage, rated MVA & frequency with flux density not exceeding 1.9 Tesla.
 The transformer shall be capable of withstanding over excitation condition due
to opening of the generator transformer EHV circuit breaker when generator is
running at full load at rated power factor and full load throw-off occurs. At any
tap position the transformer shall be able to withstand 140% over excitation
condition from the instant of total load throw-off for a period of 5 seconds and
125% over excitation condition for a period from 5 seconds to 1 minute after
the load throw-off. The transformer shall also be suitable to operate
continuously at 110% over excitation condition.

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 The UTs shall be provided with 2 nos. x 50% cooling units complete with its
radiator banks, fans and other accessories with each of the banks provided with
a spare radiator (along with fan).The design shall be such that rated transformer
output can be maintained keeping the temperature rise within specified limit.
 The transformer shall be able to operate at full load for at least ten (10) minutes
without exceeding the calculated winding hot spot temperature of 140 deg. C
incase of total failure of power supply to cooling fans. Also stopping of one of
the cooling fan should not have any effect on the cooling system of
transformers.
 Bushings shall be of solid porcelain or oil communicating type. Bushings shall
have adequate creepage distance corresponding to the heavily polluted
atmosphere.
 The duration of the symmetrical short circuit stresses due to terminal fault on
one winding with full voltage maintained on the other winding which is to be
used for the calculation of the thermal ability to withstand short circuit shall be
2 sec unless a different duration is specified.
Further to note that for auto-transformers and for transformers with short
circuit current exceeding 25 times the rated current, a short circuit duration
below 2 sec may be adopted by agreement between the manufacturer and the
purchaser.

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Figure-I: Unit Transformer of rating 16/20 MVA, 20/6.9KV, 3Ph, 50Hz,


Dyn11, Z=10%, ONAN/ ONAF, OCTC with -5% to +5% in steps of 2.5%
4.2

Station Transformer
Each Station Transformer will feed power to respective Station Switchgear through
segregated phase Bus Duct or HV cables.
Refer to simplified Single Line Diagram attached below:

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Probability Approach
Each Station Transformer shall have to be sized in accordance with following
conditions:

Condition1:
a) Full station load with both Station transformers in service
b) Load of one UT with the unit operating at full load
c) Start - up load of one unit.
Condition2:
a) Full station load with one Station transformers in service
b) Start - up load of one unit.
c) Shut - down load of one unit.
Condition3:
a) Full station load with one Station transformers in service
b) Start - up load of one unit.

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FOR SUBSTATION LAYOUT OND INSTALATION (OUTDOOR TYPE)

c) Full auxiliary load of one unit due to bus transfer for 10 mins after which the
load shall be reduced to shut down load.
Basically full auxiliary loads of one unit correspond to following connected loads
shown within the list below:
a)

Condensate Pump

b)

Boiler Feed Water Pump

c)

Boiler Feed Water Booster Pump

d)

Closed Cycle Cooling Water Pump

e)

Open Cycle Cooling Water Pump

f)

Mechanical Vaccum Pump

g)

Induced Draft Fan

h)

Forced Draft Fan

i)

Primary Air Fan

j)

Coal Mill

k)

Sealing Air Fan

l)

Mechanical Air Compressor

m) Ash Air compressor


n)

HFO Oil Supply Pump

o)

LDO Oil Supply Pump

p)

Motor driven Fire Fighting Pump for Hydrant System

q)

Motor driven Fire Fighting Pump for Spray System

r)

HV Motor in CHP

s)

HV Motor in Water Supply System

t)

Turbine LT Load

u)

Boiler LT Load

v)

ESP LT Load

w) Fuel Oil System LT Load

x)

Common System LT Load

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(OUTDOOR TYPE)

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 In order to avoid uneconomic and oversized design of transformer rating, the


following considerations shall be made:
The probability of simultaneous outage of two transformers, i.e. one (1) no.
station transformer and one (1) no. unit transformer is remote and shall not be
considered. When one station transformer is out of service, its bus shall be fed
from the other healthy station transformer.
 Over and above, 10% design margin is to be considered.
 The transformers will be outdoors; oil immersed ONAN/ONAF/OFAF cooling
type and will be provided with On Load Tap Changer with a range of 10% in
steps of 1.25%. Often as per end users requirement, OLTC of range -15% to
+5% in steps of 1.25% can be adopted.
 The transformers will operate without injurious heating at the rated MVA at any
voltage within 10% of the rated voltage of that particular tap. The frequency
variation shall be within -5% to 3% while the combined voltage & frequency
variation (absolute sum) shall be limited to 10%.
 The transformer will be designed to deliver rated MVA continuously even at the
lowest tap without exceeding specified temperature rise.
 Flux density in any part of core or yoke at rated MVA, voltage & frequency shall
not exceed 1.7 Tesla. Continuous operation should be possible at 110% voltage,
rated MVA & frequency with flux density not exceeding 1.9 Tesla.
 The STs shall be provided with 2 nos. x 50% cooling units each complete with its
radiator banks, fans, pumps and other accessories with each of the banks
provided with a spare radiator (along with fan). OFAF cooling shall be considered
based on transformer capacity with techno economic considerations. The design
shall be such that rated transformer output with specified temperature rise can be
maintained:
a) Continuously with one fan in each of the cooling bank out of service.
b) For at least ten (10) minutes in case of failure of the complete cooling system
when the transformer was delivering its rated output.
 The duration of the symmetrical short circuit stresses due to terminal fault on
one winding with full voltage maintained on the other winding which is to be

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used for the calculation of the thermal ability to withstand short circuit shall be
2 sec unless a different duration is specified.
 Further to note that for auto-transformers and for transformers with short circuit
current exceeding 25 times the rated current, a short circuit duration below 2
sec may be adopted by agreement between the manufacturer and the purchaser.
 Bushings shall be oil filled, self contained, hermetically sealed condenser type
with anti fog shed. Bushings rated 38 KV class and below shall be solid
porcelain or oil communicating type. Bushings shall have adequate creepage
distance corresponding to heavily polluted atmosphere. CTs must be provided on
HV line side turrets & LV turrets.
 Choice of two winding or three winding transformer is mainly made depending
upon the capacity of transformer and switchgear fault withstand current and
further on the availability of standard switchgear in the market

Figure-II: 2 Nos. Station Transformer of rating 50/25/25MVA, 220/6.9/6.9KV,


3Ph, 50Hz, YNyn0yn0, Z=17%, ONAN/ ONAF/OFAF, OLTC with -15% to
+5% in steps of 1.25%.

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(OUTDOOR TYPE)

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Figure-III: Station Transformer of rating 50/25/25MVA, 220/6.9/6.9KV,


3Ph, 50Hz, YNyn0yn0, Z=17%, ONAN/ ONAF/OFAF, OLTC with -15% to
+5% in steps of 1.25%.

13.0 DESIGN & PERFORMANCE PARAMETERS


For Station Transformers, Maximum Continuous Rating (MCR) shall be with
OFAF cooling. Whereas rating with ONAF and ONAN cooling shall be 80% and
60% of MCR respectively.
Top Oil temperature rise measured by thermometer over and above 500C
ambient shall be limited to 50 deg C.
Winding temp. rise measured by RTD over and above 500C ambient shall be
limited to 55 deg C.
The forced cooling equipment shall come into operation by preset contact of
winding temperature indicator & the transformer shall operate as a forced cooled
unit as ONAF.
Transformers shall withstand, without injurious heating, combined voltage &
frequency fluctuations, which produce the following over fluxing condition:
a)

110%-continuous

b)

125%-for one minute

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c)

140%-for five seconds

The air core reactance of HV winding of transformers shall not be less than 20%.
Regarding radio interference effect, the transformers shall be designed with
particular attention to the suppression of max harmonic voltage, especially the
third and fifth so as to minimize interference with communication circuit.
The transformer & all its accessories including CTs etc. shall be designed to
withstand without injury the thermal & mechanical effects of any external short
circuit to earth & short circuit at the terminal of any winding for a period of 8 secs.
The transformers will be capable of being loaded in accordance with IS: 6600
1972 / IEC: 354 up to a load of 150 %.
The maximum hot spot temperature (calculated above annual weighted ambient
temperature), while delivering rated output under ONAN condition / rated output
under ONAF condition with cooler bank fans running shall not exceed 98 C.
The maximum hot spot temperature (calculated above annual weighted ambient
temperature), while delivering rated output under ONAF condition with cooler bank
fans not-running shall not exceed 140 C.
Total cooling system of transformer with oil natural & air forced (ONAF) cooling
shall be so designed that during total failure of power supply to cooling fans, the
transformer shall be able to operate at full load for at least ten (10) minutes
without the calculated winding hot spot temperature exceeding 140 deg. C. Also
stopping of one of the cooling fan should not have any effect on the cooling
system of transformers.

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Description
DESIGN GUIDE FOR
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(OUTDOOR TYPE)

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14.0 PREVAILING STANDARD & STATUTORY NORMS


S.N

Description of Item

01

General of Power Transformer

IEC 60076-1

02

Temperature rise of Power Transformer

IEC 60076-2

03

Insulation level and dielectric test

IEC 60076-3

04

Tapping and Connection

IEC 60076-4

05

Ability to
current

06

Determination of Transformer
Reactor sound level

07

Application
Transformer

08

Guide for lightning impulse


switching impulse testing

09

Partial discharge measurement

IEC 60270

10

High Voltage Test Techniques

IEC 60060

11

On Load Tap Changers

IEC 60214

12
13

withstand

guide

Specification
for
insulating oils for
Switchgear
Artificial pollution
insulators

Standard

short

for

circuit
and
Power
and

unused
mineral
Transformer and
tests

on

HV

IEC 60076-5
IEC 60551
IEC 60606
IEC 60722

IEC 60296;
IS 335
IEC 60507

14

Classification of degree of protection by


enclosures

IEC 60529

15

Application guide for OLTC

IEC 60542

16

Guide for the sampling of gases and of


oil from oil filled electrical equipment
and for the analysis of free and
dissolved gases

IEC 60567

17

Sound level meters

IEC 60651

18

General requirement of Liquid immersed


Distribution Transformer

IS 2026
IEEE Std. C 57.12

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S.N

Description of Item

Standard
NEMA TR 1

19

Transformer Loading

IS-6600 1972
IEC-60354
IEEE Std. C 57.91

20

Insulated Bushing

IS: 3347, IS: 2099 & IS:


12676
IEC-60137
IEEE Std. C 57.19.01

21
22

Bushing Current Transformer


Terminal Marking

IS - 2705
IS -2026
IEC-60616
IEEE Std. C 57.12.70

23
24
25
26

Paints (Interior & Exterior)


Cooling Fan Motor
Tap Changer
Radio Interference Test
Insulators

IS-104 & IS: 2932


IS -325
IEC 60214
on

HV

IEC 60437

15.0 PROJECT RELATED INPUT


Before commencement of design of Unit and Station Transformer, following input
data has to be collected from end user:
 Electrical System Configuration duly approved by the Client.
 Meteorological data of project site.
 Both end voltage level across which the equipment shall be installed.
 Basic Insulation level required
 Fault level on both upstream and downstream side of transformer.
 List of Connected loads to be fed by the transformer.

16.0 SALIENT POINTS TO BE REFLECTED IN THE TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION


The following points are required to be reflected in the technical specification:

The transformer shall be capable of delivering the rated output at any particular
tap without exceeding the specified temperature limit under the following
operating condition:
a) Voltage variation of 10% of rated voltage of that particular tap

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b) Frequency variation of - 5% to +3% of rated frequency.


c) Combined voltage & frequency variation shall be 10%.

The transformer shall be free from annoying hum and vibration when it is in
operation even upto 110% of rated voltage.

The transformer shall be capable of operating at 125% of rated voltage for 1


minute and 140% of rated voltage for a period of 5 second due to sudden load
throw off.

Transformer tank shall be designed and tested for a vacuum and pressure shall
be as per the guideline reflected in the CBIP manual.

Transformer core shall be made of low loss, grain oriented, cold rolled and
silicon steel sheet. The winding shall be manufactured from electrolytic copper.

The insulation structure for the core to bolts and core to clamps shall be
capable to withstand a voltage of 2KV AC for 1 minute.

150mm dial type OTI & WTI with adjustable potential free alarm & trip contact
shall be provided in the marshalling box. Accuracy class shall be 2 or better.

Transformer shall be equipped with aircell type oil preservation system in


conservator with breather and MOG.

Transformer shall be protected with PRV & Buchholz relay.

Prior to filling in at site transformer oil shall be tested for


1)
2)
3)
4)
5)

BDV
Moisture content
Tan delta at 90 deg. C
Resistivity at 90 deg. C
Interfacial tension

60 kV (min)
50 ppm (max)
0.002 (max)
35x1012 ohm-cm
0.04 N/m (min)

Whereas, prior to energization at site following properties & acceptance norms shall be
matched:
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)

BDV
Moisture content
Tan delta at 90 deg. C
Resistivity at 90 deg. C
Interfacial tension

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60 kV (MIN)
15 ppm (max)
0.05 (max)
1x1012 ohm-cm
0.03 N/m (min)

Description
DESIGN GUIDE FOR
SUBSTATION LAYOUT & INSTALATION
(OUTDOOR TYPE)

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17.0 FIRE WALLS FOR TRANSFORMERS


As per guidelines laid down in NFPA 850, Clause 5.2.4, Outdoor oil-insulated
transformers should be separated from adjacent structures and from each other by
firewalls, spatial separation, or other approved means for the purpose of limiting the
damage and potential spread of fire from a transformer failure.

Determination of the type of physical separation to be used should be based on


consideration of the following:

Type and Quantity of oil in the Transformer

Size of a postulated oil spill (surface area and depth)

Type of construction of adjacent structures

Power rating of the Transformer

Fire suppression systems provided

Type of electrical protective relaying provided.

Unless consideration of the factors stated above indicates otherwise, it is


recommended that any oil-insulated transformer containing 1890 Litres or more of oil
be separated from adjacent noncombustible or limited combustible structures by a 2hourrated firewall or by spatial separation in accordance with Table below. Where a
firewall is provided between transformers, it should extend at least 1 ft (0.31 m)
above the top of the transformer casing and oil conservator tank and at least 2 ft
(0.61 m) beyond the width of the transformer and cooling radiators. See Figure
reflected in Annexure - 2 as an illustration of the recommended dimensions for a
firewall.
Table- 1 : Outdoor Oil-Insulated Transformer Separation Criteria
S.N

Transformer Oil Capacity

Minimum(Line-of-Sight)
Separation without Firewall

Litres
1

<1,890

1,89018,925

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feet

meters

<25

<7.6

25

7.6

Description
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(OUTDOOR TYPE)

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>18,925

50

15

Where a firewall is provided, it should be designed to withstand the effects of


projectiles from exploding transformer bushings or lightning arresters.
For transformers with less than 1890 L of oil and where a firewall is not provided, the
edge of the postulated oil spill (i.e., containment basin, if provided) should be
separated by a minimum of 5 ft (1.5 m) from the exposed structure to prevent
direct flame impingement on the structure.

18.0 CALCULATION GUIDELINE FOR SIZING OF UNIT & STATION TRANSFORMER


Salient steps to follow for sizing calculation of Station Auxiliary Transformer are as
follows:
Refine the Overall Single Line Diagram in respect of above requirement
Preparation of Load list connected to the Switchgear to be fed by the auxiliary
transformer.
Understanding of operation philosophy of station and unit loads.
Preparation of Load Schedule showing


Connected Load

Running Load

Start up Load

Selection of Transformer KVA rating based up on continuous KVA load


Selection of Transformer rating based upon normal running voltage drop and
voltage drop due to largest motor starting.
For Unit Transformer, following aspects are needed to be taken care of:

a)

Simultaneous operation of standby loads with running loads when


connected to same bus shall not be considered.

b)

The loads on largest LT transformer to be considered as 2 x 100% basis.

Short circuit and load flow studies shall be carried out so as to substantiate
adequacy of Unit Transformer capacity determined by the calculation.
Starting of highest motor with other motors in running shall be considered as
one criterion for selection of Unit Transformer capacity.
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FOR SUBSTATION LAYOUT OND INSTALATION (OUTDOOR TYPE)

As per the sizing criteria stated in CEA guidelines, maximum capacity will come
under Condition 3 of Probability Approach stated under clause no.4.2 / Para 2.
This may be considered as a likely condition in case of Power Plant with two
units. However, for multiple units this situation is unlikely when more than two
transformers will be available to cater station loads.

19.0 DRAIN PIT AND SUMP PIT OF TRANSFORMER


The provisions shall be made for drainage of Oil and shall be sized to accommodate
all of the following:
The spill of the largest single container of any flammable or combustible liquids
in the area.
The maximum expected number of fire hose operating for a minimum of 10
minutes.
The maximum design discharge of fixed fire suppression systems operating for a
minimum of 10 minutes.
A sample calculation is enclosed herewith as Annexure - 3 as reference.

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DESIGN GUIDE FOR
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