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An Assessment of Classroom Management Practices in Gulele SubCity Government Secondary Schools

By
Zufan Ayalew Asseres

Addis Ababa University


School of Graduate Studies
College of Education and Behavioral Studies
Department of Educational Planning and Management

An Assessment of Classroom Management Practices in Gulele SubCity Government Secondary Schools

By
Zufan Ayalew Asseres

An Assessment of Classroom Management Practices in Gulele SubCity Government Secondary Schools

By
Zufan Ayalew Asseres

A Thesis Submitted to the Department of Educational Planning and


Management

Presented In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of


Master of Arts in Educational Leadership

Addis Ababa University

Addis Ababa Ethiopia


June 2014

Addis Ababa University


School of Graduate Studies
This is to certify that the thesis prepared by Zufan Ayalew Asseres titled: An Assessment of
Classroom Management Practices in Gulele Sub-City Government Secondary Schools and
submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Degree of Master of Arts in
Educational Leadership complies with the regulation of the University and meets the accepted
standards with respect to originality and quality.

Signed by the Examining Committee:


Examiner (External) _________________Signature__________Date___________

Examiner (Internal) _________________Signature__________Date___________

Advisor

____________________

Signature__________Date__________

_________________________________________________
Chair of Department or Graduate Program Coordinator

Abstract
The purpose of this study was to assess teachers' classroom management practices and investigating the
pressing issues of classroom management and the factors that contributed to or affect the teaching
learning at government high schools. To conduct the study a descriptive survey design was employed. For
this purpose, the study was conducted in four sample high-schools in Gulele Sub-city in Addis Ababa City
Administration. From these high schools, samples were taken from students and teachers. Randomly
selected samples of 162 teachers and 220 students were selected. Questionnaires were distributed to the
selected teachers and students, interviews were carried out with school principals and classroom
observations were conducted by the help of two supervisors and by the researcher. Data analysis was
made by using statistical tools such as frequency counts, percentage, and mean, and rank order
correlation coefficient to identify whether there were differences and agreements among respondents on
several items included in the questionnaire, and guiding questions prepared for this purpose. The findings
of the study revealed that, teachers did not have the awareness that the pattern of student's sitting
arrangement determines the kind of teaching method employed, teachers did not realize that motivation
couldnt be attainable unless it is intertwined with the sex, ability and background of students, Most
teachers were seen less committed to use many of the various motivational device and teaching methods,
also not committed to prepare a well organized lesson plans and clearly set objectives of the lesson,
ignoring was the most commonly used technique of managing the student's off-task behavior, instead of
starting the daily lesson, teachers were seen demanding the student's attention, teacher student and parent
relationship was not strong, more or less the physical layout (feature) of the classroom was conducive to
enhance students classroom learning, etc., Based on the findings, it was concluded that there is a need
for empowerment of teachers for management of their classrooms. Teachers should be given the
opportunity to identify their own needs. They should explore new ideas and information. It is important for
teachers to possess and develop a set of skills to perform their task effectively. They should think about
their classroom management practices. Finally, recommendations were put for ward based on the major
findings so as to facilitate effective classroom management practices. .

Acknowledgments
I would like to express my special thanks to my thesis Advisor, Ato Ayalew Shebeshi (Asso.
Professor) who gave me valuable comments and suggestion. His special gift in terms of
understanding, encouraging, supporting, and giving feedback enabled me to complete my thesis,
May God bless and keep him for ever.
My family deserves special thanks for all of their support, patience, and understanding. Thank
you my children, Maereg, Bethelhem and special thanks for Meserthiwot who were always
supportive throughout this work. Their patience certainly deserves my recognition and praise.
I would like to thank my brothers, Ato Tessema Ayalew and Ato Fikrie Ayalew to their
encouragement, supporting and have a big part of this process and sharing in my success.
To my friends W/o Abenet Girma gave me her suggestion helping me with commitment I thanks
her heartfuly.
I thank also the supervisors Ato Gebyhu Aserat and Ato Getachew Tareke who help me by
observing classrooms for the success of my thesis. I thank a lot.
Also, my thanks to the Principals, Teachers and students in the study, thank you for your time,
your wisdom and your dedication. It was amazing to learn from you as a researcher.
.

Zufan Ayalew

II

Table of Contents
Contents

Page

Abstract............................................................................................................................................ I
Acknowledgments ..........................................................................................................................II
Table of Contents.......................................................................................................................... III
List of Tables ..................................................................................................................................V
Acronyms...................................................................................................................................... VI
CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION .......................................................................................................................... 1
1.1. Background of the Study ..................................................................................................... 1
1.2. Statement of the Problem..................................................................................................... 4
1.3. Objective of the Study ......................................................................................................... 6
1.3.1. General Objective ......................................................................................................... 6
1.3.2. Specific Objective......................................................................................................... 6
1.4. Significance of the Study..................................................................................................... 7
1.5. Delimitation of the Study..................................................................................................... 7
1.6. Limitations of the Study ...................................................................................................... 8
1.7. Definition of key terms ........................................................................................................ 8
1.8. Organization of the study..................................................................................................... 9
CHAPTER TWO
2.

REVIEW OF THE RELATED LITERATURE.................................................................... 10


2.1. General overview of Classroom Management................................................................... 10
2.2. The What of Classroom Management ............................................................................... 10
2.3. Classroom Management and Instruction ........................................................................... 12
2.4. The Relationship between Students and Teachers Classroom Management..................... 12
2.4.1. Teacher-Student Relationship..................................................................................... 13
2.4.2. Parent-Teacher Communication ................................................................................. 14
2.5. The Influence of Technology on Students Behavior ......................................................... 16
2.6. Classroom Instruction and Students Academic Achievement ........................................... 16
2.7. Creating a Positive Learning Environment for Successive Learning ................................ 18
2.8. Factors that affect Classroom Management....................................................................... 19

III

2.8.1. Teacher Related Causes .............................................................................................. 19


2.8.2. Student Related Causes............................................................................................... 21
2.8.3. Home and Social Group Variables ............................................................................. 22
2.8.4. Factors in the School and Class Context .................................................................... 22
2.9. Classroom Organization .................................................................................................... 23
2.10.For good Classroom Management a good classroom seating arrangement matters.......... 24
2.11.The Importance of Establishing Rules of Conduct for Good Classroom Management .... 25
2.12.Preventive Techniques for Misbehavior in Classroom...................................................... 27
2.13.Curative Techniques .......................................................................................................... 29
3.

CHAPTER THREE
3.1. Research Design and Methodology ................................................................................... 31
3.1.1. Research Design ......................................................................................................... 31
3.1.2. Data Sources................................................................................................................. 31
3.1.3. Sample and Sampling Technique ............................................................................... 31
3.1.4. Data Collection Instruments ....................................................................................... 32
3.1.5. Methods of Data Analysis ............................................................................................ 34

CHAPTER FOUR
4.

PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA ............................ 35


4.1 Characteristics of the Respondents .................................................................................... 35

CHAPTER FIVE
SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS ................................................ 66
5.1 Summary .............................................................................................................................. 66
5.2 Conclusion ........................................................................................................................... 69
5.3 Recommendations ................................................................................................................ 69
Refrence
Appendices

IV

List of tables
Tables

Page

Table.1Characteristics of different leadership styles................................................................. 20


Table.2Types of Rules and Procedures are needed for effectively managing a Classroom...... 26
Table.3 Sample-Population of Respondent ............. ..................................................................32
Table 4: Number of respondents by category and Instrument ............. ....................................33
Table 5 The Characteristics of the Respondents .......... ............................................................35
Table 6 Availability of Facilities in the Schools or in the Classrooms ......... .. .........................37
Table 7 Teachers' Instructional Practice in the Classroom............ ..........................................41
Table 8 Teachers - Students Relation........... .............................................................................45
Table 9: The approach of Principals on the support of teachers' classroom management...... .48
Table 10: Teachers perception of Establishing Ground Rules and Procedures as a strategy.. 50
Table 11: Teachers Perception on the Ranking Of Classroom Management Practices . ...........51
Table 12 Students Response on the Utilization of Classroom Management Practices ............ 53
Table 13: The utilization of motivational Practices ........... .......................................................55
Table 14: Teachers Reaction to Appropriate and Inappropriate Classroom Behavior of
Students. ................................................................................................................... 57
Table 15: Time utilization .......... ............................................................................................. 59
Table16: Ground Rules and Procedures............ ....................................................................... 61
Table 17: The Application of Ground Rules and Procedures ............ ...................................... 61
Table 18: Teachers position, and students seating arrangement ........ ...................................62
Table 19: Teachers application of communication skills..... .....................................................64

ACRONYMS
BA

Bachelor of Arts

Bed

Bachelor of Education

Bsc

Bachelor of Science

COMP

Classroom Organization and Management

Crm

Classroom Management

IEPS

Individualized Education Plans

MA

Masters of Arts

MOE

Ministry of Education

UNESCO

United Nations Education Scientific and Cultural Organization

VI

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
This chapter deals with background of the study, statements of the problems, objectives of the
study, significances of the Study, delimitation of the study, limitation of the study, operational
definitions of terms and organization of the study.
1.1.

Background of the Study

Classroom is the main area that formal education is implemented. So, it is an important issue to
give it much concern for classroom management and organization. Classroom management is the
most frequently addressed topics for teachers in service because a teachers ability to effectively
manage the classroom and to organize instruction is basic components of teaching. Moreover, as
classroom management strategies have a strong potential to positively influence students'
academic achievement and learning, they are paramount concern for many teachers, especially
novice teachers who are contemplating new instructional approaches for the first time (Delong &
Winter, 1998).
Classroom management defined and also explained by different writers, researchers or
professionals in different or similar ways. For instance, Weber (1977) defined classroom
management in this fashion that are activities by which the teacher promotes appropriate student
behavior and eliminate inappropriate student behavior to develop good inter personal relationship
and a positive socio-emotional climate in the classroom, establishes and maintains an effective
and productive classroom organization.
Kasambria (1993) on this part define classroom management as the art of carefully preparing,
presenting, disciplining and controlling class activities. This entails that teachers play various
roles in a typical classroom, but surely one of the most important is that of classroom
management. According to Marzano and Marzano (2003:16) effective teaching and learning
cannot take place in a poorly managed classroom. If students are disordered and disrespectful,
and no apparent rules and procedures guide behavior, chaos becomes the norm. In these
situations, both teachers and students suffer.

There are many studies that indicate classroom management is one of the crucial factors that
influence students learning. For example, in their study, Wang, Heartel and Walberg (1993)
identified classroom management as being the first in a list of important factors that influence
school learning. Also, Marzano and Marzano (2003) reached the same results with Wang and his
colleagues by identifying classroom management as the most important factor influencing school
learning. Ben (2006), states that effective classroom management strategies are significant to a
successful teachers delivery of instruction. The main concept of these definitions is that effective
classroom management prepares the classroom for an effective instruction which is crucial for
the progress of learning.
Classroom management is a challenge for teachers and school principals. For most teachers,
confronting some sort of discipline problem is a daily occurrence. These problems may include
simple violations of school or classroom rules, or they can involve far more serious events,
including disrespect, cheating, offensive words and unnecessary gestures, and open display of
argumentativeness.
The public in general and the school management in particular identifies lack of discipline as a
major problem with our schools. These disciplinary problems are manifested in different ways
even outside classrooms. For example, while students use public transport like city bus and taxi,
they dont respect their elders, the way they laugh and their other acts not as expected from
disciplined students.
In most general terms, classroom management refers to the actions and strategies that teachers
and school principals use to maintain order. Martin, Yin and Baldwin (1998), defined classroom
management as a broader and comprehensive construct that describes all teachers' efforts to
oversee a multitude of activities in the classroom including learning, social interaction and
students' behaviors. Classroom management constitutes three broad dimensions: person,
instruction and discipline (Martin & Baldwin, 1992)
To keep our health, there is a saying that reads as prevention is better than cure, similarly the
best way to deal with classroom discipline problems is to prevent them. Once teachers lose
control of their classroom, it becomes increasingly more difficult for them to regain that control
and to manage their classrooms.
2

According to Erwin (2004), classroom management is closely linked to issues of motivation,


discipline and respect. The first step in preventing classroom discipline problems is to keep
students motivated and, thereby, engaged in the learning process. Because motivation energizes
and directs the learners attention emotions and activity so teachers who are good managers
create environments of motivation to arouse students' interests, guide them to behave well, and
encourage them to learn effectively. Otherwise, it often can account for why one student uses free
time to complete homework, while another plays football; or why one student spends class time
by drawing love picture like spear passing through heart, while another eagerly attends to the
daily lesson. Nowadays some high school students are observed bringing cell phones to
classrooms and hearing music assisted by ear phone and even watching films which is against
school rules. Knowledge of a learners interests, needs, and aspirations can be used to motivate
and actively engage a learner in the learning process.
A large part of traditional classroom management involves behavior modification, although many
teachers see using behavioral approaches alone as overly simplistic. Many teachers establish
rules and procedures at the beginning of the school year. According to Gootman (2008), rules
give students concrete direction to ensure that our expectation becomes a reality. Consequences,
rewards and punishment were used to guide students to conform to the rules chosen by the
classroom teacher.
Classroom management using an authoritarian or punitive approach did repress disorderly
behavior, but it did not foster student growth or allow the acquisition of more sophisticated
modes of learning, such as critical thinking and reflection Jones (1995). Sheets and Gay (1996),
described the wide spread discipline problems and disruptive behaviors common in high school
classrooms. Overcrowded classrooms, made up of diverse groups of students of varying ethnicity
and socioeconomic characteristics, showed extreme levels of disruptions. Canter (1997),
estimated that high school teachers spent 30% to 50% of their in-class time handling behavior
problems. Most of these problems were relatively minor disruptions which originated in the
classroom, and were often interpersonal in nature. To consolidate this fact, Sheets and Gay
(1996), argue that the disruptive student might challenge teacher authority, interrupt, talk out of
turn, respond loudly, argue, react emotionally, or socialize in class.

To break this cycle of teacher control and student compliance patterns, a proactive classroom
management process was adopted by some teachers (McGinnis, 1995). The proactive process
focused on fostering student involvement and cooperation in decision-making, setting ground
rules, and problem-solving to establish a productive learning environment. Involved students
appreciated the classroom environment when they felt accepted as individuals with unique
differences and worthwhile opinions.
Classroom management which was culturally responsive, and based on developing
connectedness and community fostered more class participation, self-discipline, and higher
expectations by both the students and the teacher. Teachers who managed democratic and
cooperative classrooms enjoyed students more involved, responsible, and academically
successful (Freiberg, 1995).
1.2.

Statement of the Problem

For many years, traditional approaches were dominant in teaching and learning practices in
Ethiopian schools. Traditional approaches were mostly based on the behavioral principles and
laws of learning (Goffin, 1994). Students were often viewed as the recipient of knowledge and
teacher had the control over the students subject matter. The behavioral model requires strong
interruption and management techniques on the part of the teacher (Garrett, 2005).This idea
shows that a teacher is the leading person and therefore, has the responsibility of all ongoing
issues in the classroom; from students motivation to misbehaviors.
Over the past years, cognitive theories reflections have been observed on education and the
curriculum; and instruction has been affected by the principles of constructivist approach all over
the world (Brophy, 1999). As stated by Elen, Clarebout, Leonard and Lowyck (2007), with the
advent of constructivism, the educational settings have been enriched by the concept of studentcentered learning environment. This new concept is used to describe curriculum and
instructional settings in which students learning activities take place. The student-centered
orientation emphasize the individual value of the student and attempts to help him to develop
more positive social- emotional aspects of his behavior.
As a result of this change in the curriculum and instructional approaches, teachers should adapt
their approaches to classroom management. Rogers and Freiberg (1994) suggest that such a shift
4

requires teachers to adopt a student-centered rather than teacher-centered orientation toward


classroom management, which features shared relationship and community building.
Such a transition, however, will only be successful when the main actors, i.e., teachers and
students, understand and agree with the keystones of so-called student- centered learning
environments (Elen et al., 2007). The transition period of curriculum surely necessitates
adaptations of learners and teachers roles in the learning environment as well as in the actual
interactions. In order for the achievement of the objectives of student-centered classrooms namely to enhance the students sense of responsibility and empower them; it is essential that
teachers role change from an authoritarian figure to a guide, to a facilitator.
Although the main concern is about whether this approach of instruction and classroom
management is present in Ethiopian high schools or not seems to be an important issue to be
addressed in current situation. The Ethiopian education system is set by low access, inequity,
declining quality and inefficiency (MOE, 1998:1-3). Over the last fifteen years, Ethiopia has
experienced a rapidly increasing demand for education, a decline in resources to support
education and a drop in teacher quality and preparation that resulted from the education system
being expanded faster than qualified teachers could be trained. Many schools are suffering from
shortage of qualified and experienced teachers in both subject knowledge, methodology and
classroom management. More specifically in secondary schools those who graduated from
applied science fields especially not trained to be teachers were recruited to teach at Addis Ababa
high schools. These teachers may have got a problem to manage their classrooms effectively,
because they do not take detailed training on teaching
On classroom management problems in the Ethiopian government schools a few studies have
been conducted. Fetene Regassa (1998), studied Classroom management skills of male and
female teachers in two senior secondary schools, Getachew Kebede (2007), studied classroom
management practices in selected first cycle primary schools, and Mitiku Hankeso (2008),
studied classroom management problems and teachers coping strategies of second cycle primary
schools.
However, these studies show that large class size, inadequate instructional materials, problem of
utilization of classroom rules, lack of interest of students to learn and the most prevailing

problem is students disciplinary problems are the major problems of classroom management.
But most of these findings focused on students problem and some on school problems but not
touched teachers problems. It was, therefore, necessary to assess teachers classroom
management practices that is their lesson plan preparation and teaching methodology, how they
use the instructional time, how they facilitate the school environment and classroom facilities for
the teaching learning process, how to prevent the factors that affect their classroom management
will be the focus points and to seek possible strategies to ameliorate such problems that have
been found to be insolvable to date. Accordingly, with respect to the issues the study attempts to
seek answers to the following basic research questions:
1. How do teachers facilitate the school physical environment and classroom facilities to
implement effective classroom management?
2. Is there a well-designed classroom rules and procedures that would lead students to secure
consistent classroom learning?
3. 3.How do teachers organized the objectives of their daily lessons that actively engage the
students in the teaching learning activities?
4. To what extent are teachers committed to properly use the time- allocated for the classroom
instruction?
5. How do teachers actually organize their classroom to promote interaction of students with
the curriculum, with each other, with the teachers themselves and with the physical
environment?
1.3.

Objective of the Study


1.3.1. General Objective

The general objective of this study is to assess the existing classroom management practice and
to identify factors that affect teachers classroom management and to seek possible ideas and
solutions.
1.3.2. Specific Objective
In light of the general objective the specific objectives are: To assess whether a well designed classroom rule and procedure that would lead students to
secure consistent classroom learning.

To assess how teachers organized the objectives of their daily lessons to actively engage the
students in the teaching learning activities.
To assess how teachers use the instructional time properly.
To assess how teachers actually organize their classroom to promote interaction of students
with the curriculum, with each other, with the teachers themselves and with the physical
environment.
1.4.

Significance of the Study

The findings of the study will be helpful to explore whether the appropriate classroom
management approaches, which is requisite for an efficient instruction and for the curriculum to
be implemented properly, are present in the current classrooms or not.
The study was also significant to high light the role of teachers to get better out comes in teaching
learning process.
It helps the teacher in establishing a learning climate, effective teaching and give directions about
the teaching learning process.
The study will useful for working teachers, principals, supervisors, educational administrators
and education experts as a reference on how to manage the teaching learning situation.
The study also gives a highlight to teachers principals to make a strong relationship with the
community especially with students parents to work cooperatively to achieve the school goals
Finally, the study could contribute to further studies related to problems associated with students
disruptive behavior and classroom management practice.
1.5.

Delimitation of the Study

In order to make the study manageable, it is bounded only to government general secondary
schools of Addis Ababa in Gulele sub city. Hence, the scope of study was delimited to the
assessment of teachers classroom management practices in the four selected schools. In order to
make the research manageable the content of the study also delimited on the teachers
organization of the objectives of their daily lessons and teaching methodology, setting classroom
rules and procedures, using the instructional time, the facilitation of the physical environment and
the classrooms for their instruction and the relationship of teacher-students and parents in the

sample schools. Therefore, the results of the study cannot be generalized directly to all high
schools all over in Addis Ababa. The results can only provide us with insights and a general
opinion from this specific sample.
1.6.

Limitations of the Study

This study like other studies was not free from limitations. Thus, there are different things that
limited its progress and effectiveness. It is strongly believed to cover a large area including a
large population size in the research would be invaluable to get more credible information.
However, the capacity of the researcher was limited to focus on one sub-city government general
schools due to time and financial problem. So the study was not included others sub-city schools,
private schools and other grade levels. Nevertheless, every possible effort has been made to make
sure that whatever has been done within the constraints becomes to be valid.
1.7.

Definition of key terms

Classroom rules and procedures: Rules are general expectations, standards about students
behavior where as procedures are statements that communicate the expectations for specific
student behaviors (Marzano, Robert J., et.al 2005:5).
Commitment: refers to an inner or self-initiated felling of teachers to employ classroom
management practices (Good, 1973).
Effectiveness- refers to the results of teaching, usually student achievement of some kind as
intended (Rinne 1997-2).
General Secondary schools - an educational level that constitutes grades 9-10 according to the
Ethiopian Education context.
Practices- are those skills, techniques, or ways that can be employed to manage classrooms
effectively.
Well-managed Classroom: - Proactive, democratic, humanistic classroom environment in which
the teacher and students mutually set rules that are conducive to cooperative and relevant
learning. Learning experiences are planned, incorporating cultural context, diversity, and
allowing for a variety of individual and group processes. Intrinsic motivation and self-discipline
are cultivated using encouragement, caring, and collaboration.(Weber,1990:32).
8

1.8.

Organization of the study

This study consists of five chapters. The study is structured sequentially in such away that the
first chapter deals with the back ground, statement of the problem and the objective of the study.
The second chapter includes the related literature on classroom management. The third chapter
focuses on the methodology of the study. The fourth chapter contains the data analysis and
interpretation and Chapter five presents the findings, conclusion and recommendations.

CHAPTER TWO
2. REVIEW OF THE RELATED LITERATURE
This chapter of the study examines related literature on classroom management practices and it
focuses on the concepts of classroom management strategies, techniques and components and
how teachers implement effectively in the classroom. It also attempts to overview past studies
related to the topic of the study.
2.1.

General overview of Classroom Management

Today, teachers work within a complex school context and find themselves doing more than
exclusively teaching their students a specified curriculum (DiBara, 2007). Teachers are
continuously planning and developing curriculum to meet changing state standards and have
ultimately become responsible for student academic achievement.
According to (Rosas & West, 2009) both new and veteran teachers identify classroom
management as a major concern impacting their ability to effectively deliver course content to
students. This implies that while delivering content to students, teachers need to incorporate
differentiated learning instruction, modifications for students with Individualized Education Plans
(IEPs) and manage behavior issues within the classroom.
Managing student behavior problems, as well as the personal, social, or mental health needs of
students, may be beyond teachers preparation or current abilities (DiBara, 2007). In addition,
narrow view of classroom management sees it primarily as discipline and management of student
misbehavior. However, successful teaching requires more than controlling student behavior.
2.2.

The What of Classroom Management

The term classroom management is defined in multi various ways. Some of the definitions given
here under are seen from the scholars philosophical position. Others, on the other hand, are
stated in line with the operational approach to classroom management.
The authoritarian approach, for example, views classroom management as the process of
controlling students behavior, (Weber, 1990:231). In this approach, as Weber said the teachers

10

role is to establish and to maintain order in the classroom. Preserving order and maintaining
control through the use of discipline is the primary concern of authoritative approach. As a result,
discipline and classroom management are considered as synonymous terms. Similarly the
intimidation approach viewed classroom management in the same way as that of the authoritarian
approach. However, unlike the authoritarian approach the intimidation approach is anticipated on
the assumption that students conduct is best controlled through the use of sarcasm, ridicule,
coercion, threat, force and disapproval. In this case, the role of the teacher is to compel the
students to behave as the teacher wishes. Others, however, have contrary definitional views to the
above mentioned approaches. To evident, Clark and Star (1986:94-95) citing Johnson and Bany
described classroom management as
The process of establishing and maintaining the internal environment of
the group and the classroom conditions for the attainment of educational
goals. It consists of all the provisions and procedures necessary to
maintain an environment in which instruction and learning occurs.
It is the process of organizing and conducting a class so that it is both effective and efficient, and
results maximum students learning (Callahan and Clark, 1988:153, and Clark and star.
1986:107). Ndagi et al (in Degarege 1993:11) went further defining classroom management as
... the process by which the teacher gets his pupils to cooperate in
directing actions towards achieving the proper atmosphere in classroom
for learning. In establishing the proper atmosphere for learning teachers
need to make efficient use of resources that are put in classroom in order to
produce pupils with academic achievement."
According to Evertson and Harris (1999:60), the meaning of the term classroom management
has changed from describing discipline practices and behavioral interventions to serving as a
more holistic descriptor of teachers actions in orchestrating supportive learning environments
and building community. Brophy (1999:44) stated that the most successful teachers approach
management as a process of establishing and maintaining effective learning environments.
Finally, Larrivee (2005:iv) noted that classroom management is a critical ingredient in the threeway mix of effective teaching strategies, which includes meaningful content, powerful teaching
strategies and an organizational structure to support productive learning. Also Borko & Putnam,
(1995:41) defined that successful teachers employ strategies for establishing rules and

11

procedures, organizing groups, monitoring and pacing classroom events, and reacting to
misbehavior.
2.3.

Classroom Management and Instruction

In simple terms, teaching consists of two separate but intertwined set of activities; management
and instruction. According to Weber (1986:275) managerial activities are those activities which
are carried out to create and maintain conditions in which the classroom instruction would take
place effectively and efficiently, while instructional activities are those that are deemed vital to
enhance the students academic achievement
In addition, as Rinne (1997:11) reported, today most educators and scholars view classroom
management as the process of establishing the environment of instruction and learning.
According to Rinne the assumption behind this feeling is that classroom teaching has two
components, order and learning. Order is served by classroom management, while learning is
served by instruction.
To manifest the difference between classroom management and instruction, Doyle (1986:395)
states that;
Broadly speaking, classroom teaching has two major task structures
organized around the problems of (a) learning and (b) order. Learning is
served by the instructional function---order is served y the managerial
function---obviously the tasks of promoting learning and order are
closely intertwined; some minimal level of orderliness is necessary for
instructionally well constructed to capture and sustain student attention.
Indeed, the tasks exist simultaneously.
However, it does not necessarily mean that effective classroom instruction cannot be realized
without the presence of effectively managed classroom.
2.4.

The Relationship between Students and Teachers Classroom Management

The main area of school teaching takes place in the classroom where the teacher and students are
meeting to interact for the attainment of educational goals. To realize the educational goal the
duty of the teacher is to create a conducive atmosphere that invites the students in the classroom
activities and their relationship as well as to facilitate the teaching learning process.

12

2.4.1. Teacher-Student Relationship


Classroom management is all actions performed by teachers in the classroom to create a learning
environment that encourages positive social interaction, active engagement in learning and self
motivation (Burden, 2003:3).From this idea we understand that classroom management can be
used as an instrument to create a positive relationship between the teacher and the students and
among the students themselves.
If there to be a better relationship with our learners, it is important to treat students equitably
according to their needs and better to plan the teaching / learning experience. Helping students
meet their own needs is of the utmost importance to enhance students learning opportunities and
to maintain teacher longevity in the classroom. (Sprint hall, 1981). Santrock (2009), also states
that an effective teacher is trustworthy and maintains a classroom environment that is safe,
predictable, and successful. In addition, Charles (2008) says our job as a teacher is to teach all
students equitably by treating them.
On the other hand, according to Emmer (1994), effective teachers keep high expectation and
good relation in their class. They expect their students to properly behave. Everyday the teacher
should begin with stating their expectations to the students. High expectations lead to higher
performance and tell the students that their teacher believes in them which in turn give the
students belief confidence in themselves. He also states when students know what the teacher
expects they will try hard to meet these expectations. High expectations encourage the students
and help to motivate them to learn and behave.
Moreover, according to Emmer,(1994) effective teachers:

have positive expectations for student success;

know how to provide good instruction; and

Are good classroom managers.

This indicates that demonstrating your positive expectations of students' success motivates
students, helps to ensure their cooperation, and builds productive student-teacher relationships.
On the other hand, Glasser (2000) shows, by dignifying students efforts, teachers in the
classroom create good relation and an atmosphere where students feel welcomed, valued, and
13

respected. He also suggests that teachers adopt seven connecting habitscaring, listening,
supporting, contributing, encouraging, trusting, and be friending.
Effective classroom management strategies have been shown to greatly influence student
achievement (Wang, Haertel, & Walberg, 1993), student attitudes towards school work (Lewis,
Romi, Katz, & Qui, 2008), student social competence (Webster-Stratton, Reid, & Stool miller,
2008) and student emotional and behavioral functioning (Piko, Fitzpatrick& Wright, 2005). All
these indicate that teachers should practice appropriate relationship with their students to manage
their classes successfully to achieve the main goal, which is to improve students academic
achievement.
Generally, strong and smooth relationship is important to manage students and this facilitates the
teaching learning process in the classroom. It shows that how teachers manage their students
behavior by creating good relation to construct a classroom atmosphere that fosters the
development of effective teaching and student learning.
2.4.2. Parent-Teacher Communication
Making parents aware of both positive and negative behaviors of their children can be powerful
management tool. Home contingency techniques take advantage of two synergistic factors. First,
parents have a strong and continuous interest, in the physical, emotional, and academic wellbeing of their children. Simply stated, parents want their children to do well in the school. No
parent sends a child out to school, or anywhere else, hoping that the child will have a bad
experience there. Second, parents are the most significant adult in a child's life and maintain that
status whether the family is intact or not. In a child's mind, the desire for parental approval far
exceeds the desire for teacher approval. Therefore, teachers, as effective classroom managers,
must take advantage of every opportunity to build a solid partnership with parents, the most
behaviorally influential people in students' lives.
Communication is important with parents for these two reasons:
Making parents aware of their childrens behavior;
Establishing a system of consequences to be administered at home.

14

Contacting parents early in the year or perhaps before the school year begins, lays a good
foundation for positive relationships with the school and parents. Building a positive teacherstudent relationship, that promotes good behavior and prevents misbehavior, also requires
involving parents in their childrens education. Parental involvement has a positive effect on
childrens achievement and is the most accurate predictor of a students success in school. As
stated by UNESCO (2006), some of the benefits of family involvement are:
Students achieve more, regardless of their socioeconomic status, ethnic/racial
background, or parents educational status.
Students have better attendance.
Students complete homework more consistently; and
Students exhibit more positive attitudes and behavior.
However, for you to be able to get parents involved in their childrens education, you must show
an interest in the child. Research suggests that parents use a teachers knowledge of a particular
childs personality or interests as a screening device. They are more willing to hear a range of
feedback about a child if they feel the teacher knows what is special about the child (UNESCO,
2006.50).
This is one of the important reasons why getting to know the child and his or her family is so
critical in developing parent-teacher partnerships. Moreover, and especially among children who
chronically misbehave in class, a parent-teacher-student conference often puts an end to students
who play the school against the home, and parents against the teacher.
Moreover, according to UNESCO (2006), usually, a parent-teacher or parent-teacher-student
conference is held for at least one of four reasons:
(a) to discuss a specific academic issue requested by the school, such as the childs learning
performance (good or poor) or a request for parental assistance in the classroom or school;
(b) To discuss the childs attendance or disciplinary issues;
(c) To discuss an issue brought up by parents, themselves; and
(d) To hold a regular conference as set in the school calendar.

15

In general, establishing partnership with parents can be highly effective way to reinforce positive
student behavior and correct negative or unacceptable behavior, and this parent-teacher
communication approach is important for the students to follow their lessons and for teachers
helps their classroom management easy.
2.5.

The Influence of Technology on Students Behavior

Despite this a belief that the use of technology in a classroom is generally good, such may not
always be the case. Burbules and Callister (2000) suggest technology can be used well or poorly,
and thus its effectiveness is dependent on how it is used, by whom and for what purpose.
Nowadays, here in Addis Ababa, most of the high school students including the schools under
study are observed using the technology not for academic purpose but rather for non-academic
purpose such as using their cell phone for listening to music, for chatting purpose and browsing
the so called social websites like face book. Such activities have its own negative impact, against
students note taking and managing the classroom by the teacher.
2.6.

Classroom Instruction and Students Academic Achievement

All teachers, of course, have different personalities, but they also have a lot in common,
including the fact that teachers have a responsibility to help students learn. In line with this
Wong& Wong (1998), says Teachers are in the helping and caring profession, a service
profession to help people enhance the quality of their lives. With a responsibility as great as
this, teachers often feel an insatiable need to help others and finish the day with positive
expectations for student behavior and achievement. .
It is vital that teachers demonstrate positive expectations toward all students, because research
shows that what ever the teacher expects is generally what the learner tends to produce (Wong &
Wong, 1998). Teachers go into the teaching profession with the best of intentions but ineffective
without productive classroom management strategies. In order to establish dynamic strategies in
the area of classroom management, you have to be in charge of your students, the space around
them, the time allotted for your content area or areas and how you use it and the materials needed
so that everyone in your class is effectively learning.
As suggested by different researchers, there is definitely a link between how well-managed your
classroom is and how much your students achieve (Marzano, Marzano, & Pickering, 2003).
16

Through all your efforts, you are essentially trying to do two things: enhance student involvement
and cooperation and establish a positive working environment.
Carolyn Evertson and Neal creator of Classroom Organization and Management Program
(COMP), a professional development program for teachers, has addressed the issue of how
classroom management looks in a learner-centered environment (Evertson & Neal, 2006:3-5).
They also state that a redefinition of management must address the interrelationship of
management and instruction and how these relate to educational goals. Further they see the
purpose of learning as three folds:
(1) To foster academic growth and development,
(2) To promote moral development through self-regulation and a sense of responsibility,
(3) To promote social interconnectedness.
More importantly, the same writers, noted that learner-centered classrooms are characterized by
flexible room arrangements; varied social forums that allow for small and large-group work, and
independent work; multiple sources of information (as opposed to the teacher acting as the sole
source of knowledge); and a more fluid and effective use of time.
Generally speaking, effective teachers understand students level of knowledge and design
lessons to fit students abilities. Clearly they state the learning objective for the lesson. When
students are told the objective, they know what they are responsible for learning. They break
concepts and skills into small digestible learning chunksno more than two or three new ideas
per lesson. They change the type of activity during the lesson to help students concentrate more
effectively on each task, pace instructions to allow students the time they need to achieve
learning objectives.
Generally, teacher's teaching methodology includes all activities that teachers perform in their
day to day instructional and classroom managerial tasks.

17

2.7.

Creating a Positive Learning Environment for Successive Learning

The first step in the planning process is to decide what we really mean by classroom
management. When we use the term classroom management, we mean the procedures,
strategies, and instructional methods that teachers use to create a classroom environment that
promotes learning, as well as to develop and manage the behaviors and learning activities of
individual students and groups of students within a positive learning environment. There are
various problems in the schools studied by researchers because of the absence of appropriate
classroom management.
A classroom is a place where students gather to learn. Creating a safe and orderly environment in
the classroom is, thus, a survival skill for teachers that optimizes the learning environment for all
students. Both instruction and learning are easier in a well-managed classroom where students are
expected to succeed. But when instruction fails to actively involve students in their learning, they
become restless and classroom management becomes increasingly difficult.
According to Ajayi (2004), effective teaching learning process cannot be accomplished without
good classroom management. From these definitions arises the fact that all activities put in place
by the teacher and the school heads to ensure effective teaching-learning process in the classroom
constitute what classroom management is all about. Such activities include mastery of the subject
matter, making the classroom environment conducive to learning, using appropriate teaching
methods, provision of physical facilities, information services, motivation, facilitating
appropriate teacher-student relationship etc.
Other researchers also explained in this way, if educators fail to realize the importance of creating
an environment where students feel that they belong, where they are safe, where their voice is
respected and where they are encouraged to learn, then little else is of value the educator will
struggle to actively and meaningfully engage students in the process of learning. When students
are not involved and believe the educator doesnt care, they are more likely to misbehave
(Bennett & Smilanich, 2008).
Furthermore, teachers need to create an environment that generates curiosity, something that
interests the students, provide a structured and conducive environment that meets students
personal and academic needs. They share high behavioral expectations, design/implement

18

developmentally appropriate lessons, and establish and enforce behavioral guidelines. Because
effective teachers respect students as individuals with rights, values, and feelings, they carefully
choose their words and actions to protect students dignity. They actively engage students in
meaningful, challenging educational experiences and provide plentiful positive feedback. In
short, they set their students (and themselves) up for success.
Therefore, teachers, principals, supervisors and all stakeholders must ensure and have
responsibility whether there is a positive learning environment or not. Because, positive learning
environment can enables teachers as well as students to do successfully.
2.8.

Factors that affect Classroom Management

Though there are a number of factors that can affect classroom management, in this section,
teacher related causes, student related causes and school related causes are discussed.
2.8.1. Teacher Related Causes
The teachers themselves can be the potential sources of teacher-related problems if they lack
well-prepared lessons, appropriate instructional materials, techniques in teaching and handling
students, and in general lack sufficient pedagogical skills. Supporting this, Kasambira (1993:9697) says teachers behavior with their students and their failure to provide well-planned relevant
learning experience can often lead to disruptive incidents in the classroom. Being prepared is
essential to being an effective teacher. It is better to over plan and run out of time than to run out
of lessons.
Based on the above points one can understand that teachers should avoid free time which may
lead to behavior problems. Free time allows the children to get bored and they will look for
something to entertain them. Free time indicates an unprepared or disorganized teacher and
invites noise and disruptions.
Similarly, Arends (1997:37) explains that teachers who plan appropriate classroom activities and
tasks, which make wise decision about time and space allocation, who have a sufficient repertoire
of instructional strategies will be building conducive learning environments that gain students
cooperation and minimize management and discipline problems.

19

On the other hand ineffective teachers are poor planners. They do not start class on time; become
sidetracked easily; use limited, low-interest teaching strategies; create a disorganized environment; and hold unclear academic and behavioral expectations. Furthermore, they abdicate
responsibility for helping students to make good behavioral choices by trying to be the friend of
students instead of their teacher.
Moreover, according to Elliot, et al (2000), ineffective classroom management often creates
chaos; students dont know what expected of them, they dont understand how to behave or
respond, they dont know the limits, and they dont know the consequences that will arise for
misbehaving.
As a result, those teachers themselves may become the causes of students misbehavior when
they lack the practice of the necessary lesson preparation, presentation, and students handling
techniques in the classroom.
In addition to the above factors, leadership type of some teachers matters on classroom
management. This means that the type of leadership style that the teacher uses has direct impact
on the degree of students control and management in the classroom. This is to mean that good
leadership leads to good class management and the vice versa. They are listed side by side in the
following table.
Table 1 Characteristics of different leadership styels.
Authoritarian

Democratic

Laissez- Faire

Punishing

Friendly

Permissive

Fault finding

Firm

Allows total freedom

Demanding

Encouraging

Leads to anarchy and disorder

Commanding

Stimulating

Critical

Helping

Pressuring

Guiding

Sharp Voiced

Winning

Imposing

Warm

Dominating
Harsh, fearful

Caring
Fair, influencing

Source: Adapted from Marilyn L. etal (1999). Learning to teaching in the secondary school
20

The social atmosphere teachers create, whether authoritarian, laissez-faire, or somewhere


between these extremes, will determine the extent to which teachers see themselves as
commander in chief who carefully controls or a translator/summarizer or an equal partner with
students matters for classroom management.
Weber (1977) styles of classroom management in this fashion that are activities by which the
teacher promotes appropriate student behavior and eliminate in appropriate student behavior
develop good inter personal relationship and a positive socio-emotional climate in the classroom
and establishes and maintain an effective and productive classroom organization. From this
everyone could understand classroom management as the art of carefully preparing, presenting,
discipline and controlling class activities.
Classroom management based on pressure to control behavior is linked to disruptions leading to
conflict, punishment, and substandard academic achievement. Classroom management based on
democratic, humanistic processes is linked with greater student participation, cooperation, and
motivation to achieve academically.
High schools are routinely managed by teacher control and student compliance models. Further
research that supports the use of a democratic classroom management paradigm could help
educators to understand the potential link with academic achievement.
2.8.2. Student Related Causes
The disruptive behavior initiated by the students can be caused by peer pressure, lack of
academic success, lack of comfort in the classroom, and boredom form the teachers lack of
technique in the classroom (Kasambira, 1993). The teachers to give clear and sufficient
instruction to the students in how to study, use their learning materials, carry out the assignments,
and behave in the classroom. Burden (2003:9) adds that the main reasons why students cause
discipline problems include their disinterest in learning, lack of interest in a particular subject,
dislike to a teacher, attention seeking and ignorance of the classroom rules. Furthermore,
Marzano et.al (2005) state that in fact, children usually misbehave for a reason. Some of the most
common reasons that are believed to contribute to misbehavior are:-

21

The work may be too easy or too hard for the student.
The work is not interesting and the student is bored.
The teaching methods may not fit the students learning style.
The student may not be prepared.
The expectations are unclear or unreasonable.
The student has poor social skills, cannot communicate well with you or others, or has low
self-esteem.
All of these reasons may cause students to become discouraged, and they do not give attention
for their learning, they disrupt in the classroom.
In addition to these external factors, learners may experience barriers to learning due to
impairments, particular life experiences or various psycho-social factors. Therefore, we need to
ask: What kind of pedagogy can ensure that all learners have the same opportunities to learn, and
still address individuality and individual needs in the best interest of the learners.
2.8.3. Home and Social Group Variables
To understand the different types of students who enter every classroom, it is useful for teachers
to consider the life circumstance of those students to who are coping with problems in varying
degrees (Marzano, et, al 2005:71). The writers also say that studies shed light on the intensity of
the issues that many youth deal with at home and at school. In some cases, students may show
misbehavior in the classroom because they are disrespected and rejected by their own family
members and/or the society. Here, it becomes vital that teachers preserve by showing them love,
respect and interest.
Besides, teachers should identify the root causes of misbehavior, advice their students to behave,
encourage them to be hard-working students, and ensure them that they will succeed.
2.8.4. Factors in the School and Class Context
All teachers want to have positive interactions with students in a classroom where students are
motivated, engaged, and positive about learning, but not all teachers are able to create such an
environment. In fact, there is a line of research that developed a profile of the classroom context
that makes it virtually impossible to create the type of positive learning environment just

22

described. Mayer (2002:85) enumerated the variables that appear to contribute to punitive
school environments that promote anti social behavior are:1. An over-reliance on punitive methods of control;
2. Unclear rules for student deportment;
3. Lack of administrative support for staff, little staff support of one another, and a

lack of staff

agreement with policies;


4. Academic failure experiences;
5. students lacking critical social skills that form the basis of doing well academically

and

relating positively to others, such as persistence on task, complying with requests, Paying
attention, negotiating differences, handling criticism and teasing;
6. A misuse of behavior management procedures;
7. Lack of student involvement;
8. Lack of understanding or appropriate responding to student differences.
Therefore, teachers, school principals, supervisors and the administrative staffs must give
attention to the school factors that affect the teaching learning activities and create a positive
teaching learning environment.
2.9.

Classroom Organization

Classroom management as a concept according to Olowoye (1990) refers to the method or


technique which a teacher adopts to ensure that every learner utilizes available resources and with
the sole aim of achieving the goals of the school system towards learning.
In the same vein, Arogundade (2009) defined classroom management as the process where by
human and material resources are organized, students motivated and inspired and a cooperative
working environment created to accomplish educational objectives. If a classroom is wellorganized, it can help teachers to achieve the desired end results, to manage behavior, and to use
time effectively.

23

Such organization is also essential for the students since it gives them the opportunity to interact
smoothly and to focus on the lesson that can result in a lot of learning time. In closing, creating
and maintaining an orderly, productive classroom environment has long been viewed as one of
the essential elements in teaching competence. Not only is there little argument as to the
importance of these elements from the common sense point of view, but research has also shown
that a number of management variables are also correlated with pupil achievement
(Evertson,1994).
Thus, teachers should organize their classroom in order to maintain appropriate behavior and to
facilitate the teaching learning process and then, this helps to maximizes learning and students
will perform well in their academic achievement.
2.10. For good Classroom Management a good classroom seating arrangement matters
As Fred Jones, explains: A good classroom seating arrangement is the cheapest form of
classroom management. Its discipline for free. Because once students seating arrangement
becomes conducive to group work and for the control of teachers, no chance for students to
misbehave. Many experienced teachers recommend assigned seating for students to facilitate
discipline and instruction. They argue that students left to their own devices will always choose a
seat that places the teacher at the greatest disadvantage. Best practices suggest a few commonsense rules to guide classroom arrangements.
Teacher mobility should be the aim of any classroom seating arrangement.
Students should be seated where their attention is directed toward the teacher.
High traffic areas should be free from overcrowding.
Students should be able to clearly see chalk board, screens, and teacher.
Students should be seated facing the front of the room and away from the windows.
Classroom arrangements should be flexible to accommodate a variety of teaching activities.
In classrooms where the physical space is not managed well, the students may also have these
same feelings. They may misbehave as a reaction to their being frustrated or fearful. A well

24

Planned classroom space, therefore, can help to prevent misbehaviors that might arise. It also
greatly affects what can be accomplished during a lesson.
As with all aspects of classroom management, how a classroom is organized depends upon
teachers' preferences as well as the students. What makes the teacher feel comfortable may not be
the same as what makes the students feel comfortable. To this end at the beginning of the year, to
organize the classrooms, the teacher ask the students if they are comfortable with or not, to make
both of them comfort.
2.11. The Importance of Establishing Rules of Conduct for Good Classroom Management
Establishing rules and procedures to reduce the occurrence of classroom discipline problems is
one of the most important classroom management activities. As Barbetta et al., 2005, p.14) rules
should be simple, specific, clear, and measurable, limited in number as well as created with
students input.
Classroom rules and procedures should be consistent with school rules. Different types of rules
and procedures are needed for effectively managing a classroom; the rules may be divided into
four different categories. These are

Rules related to academic work

Rules related to classroom conduct

Rules applied the first teaching day

Rules that can be communicated later

25

Table, 2 Types of Rules and Procedures needed for effective classroom management.
Rules related to

Rules related to

Classroom Conduct

Academic work

Rules that need to be Where to sit

Materials required for class

Communicated

Homework completion

first How seats are assigned

day

Rules

that

can

Communicated later

What to do before the bell rings

Make-up work

Responding, speaking out

Incomplete work

Leaving at the bell

Missed quizzes and exams

Drinks, food, and gum

Determining grades

Washroom and drinking privileges

Violation of rules

be Tardiness/Absences

Notebook completion

Coming up to desk

Obtaining help

When a visitor comes to the door

Note taking

Leaving the classroom

Sharing work with others

Consequences of rule violation

Use of learning center


Communication during
group work Neatness

Source: Wang. H.K.& Wong. R.T (2004). The first days of school.
Effective teachers are selective and specific c in their rules. Classroom rules should be written in
a concise, logical and positive way. Rules should be short, clearly stated and visible in the
classroom. Rules should be established at the beginning of the year and reviewed as needed.
Consequences should also be posted in the classroom. Teachers should make sure all students
understand the rules as well as the consequences. Knowing and understanding the consequences
ahead of time is paramount to improved cooperation and achievement (McGinnis, Frederick, &
Edwards, 1995). Parents should also be made aware of the rules and consequences so that they
understand and support the teacher.

26

The teachers goal should be to interface with students as an extension of his/her own authority
rather than simply attempting to control. Students will normally accept fair and reasonable rules
and consequences when they know that the teacher genuinely concerned about their well-being.
Much research on classroom management has focused on student participation in establishing
codes of conduct. It suggests that students should actively participate in the creation of guidelines
governing classroom behavior. This belief suggests that students will support rules they establish.
Best practices recommend minimizing the number of rules. Students have a tendency to
recommend a laundry list of rules.
Teachers, however, should provide limited structural input so that rules are direct, clear, and
consistent, and encourage positive behavior. In addition, teachers must make sure that rules are
designed to support a concept of consequences for inappropriate behavior rather than
punishment.
2.12.

Preventive Techniques for Misbehavior in Classroom

Prevention is better than cure. Thus it would be very good if misbehavior never occur. According
to Kounin (1970) effective classroom managers are more skilled at preventing disruptions from
occurring in the first place. Prevention techniques are those actions taken by the teacher to reduce
the reasons for misbehavior to a minimum. As to the same writer, the main factor that
distinguished effective from ineffective teachers was the use of preventive rather than reactive
strategies for classroom management.
In line with the above important concept, Clements (1983) stated that proactive approaches to
behavior management emphasize student involvement and cooperation in classroom activities, as
well as creating a positive working environment. Gettinger (1988) also described three features
that distinguish proactive strategies from other approaches. First, proactive strategies are by
definition preventive in that the goal is to discourage the occurrence of problem behaviors before
they occur. Second, the teacher facilitates learning and manages the class by focusing primarily
on the students achievement and development of academic skills. Third, group components of
classroom management are promoted instead of emphasizing individual student behavior.
Prevention techniques are those actions taken by the teacher to reduce the reasons for
misbehavior to a minimum.
27

1. Maintaining Good inter personal Relationship

Show interest in all aspect of students lives

Treat them with respect, punctuality, cooperation and kindness

Avoid insulting and discouraging them

Be friendly human

Know them as individuals, but avoid over familiarity

Contact their parents and concerned bodies on their progress in school

Moreover, an organization Information collection and exchange /Peace Corps,/ (1992: 6-7) adds
the following methods of Preventing Student Misbehavior are:Establish a working system with rules and consequences for the classroom.
Establish a relationship with students based on respect.
Allow students to participate in the creation of consequences.
Give praise to students for appropriate behavior.
Encourage students to work together in positive and supportive ways.
Involve parents, the parent-teacher association and administration in classroom
issues.
Create a committee for students welfare or students rights
2. Sharing Responsibility
The best means to develop selfdiscipline in students is giving them responsibility. Self
discipline is better than imposed (Borich, 1998). A teacher thus, can assign students as; Leaders of whole class study, class monitor
Sport coordinator
Club coordinator

28

Class organizer for flag ceremony


Head for chalkboard cleaning, etc
3. Co operative Rule making

Involve students in devising classroom rules

Develop a limited number of agreed, explicit and memorable rules

Reinforce rules frequently (Wong. H. K & Wong 2004).

Generally, a teachers goal should be to interface with students as an extension of his/her own
authority rather than simply attempting to control. Students will normally accept fair and
reasonable rules and consequences when they know that you are genuinely concerned about their
well-being.
2.13. Curative Techniques
Curative techniques are corrective techniques they focus on handling misbehavior as quickly as
possible.
1. Ignoring: - Occasionally, simply ignoring misbehavior is appropriate especially in classes
that are normally well behaved. Ignoring sends a signal to other students that they should do
the same the misbehaving students therefore receives no reinforcing attention.
2. Sending Signals: - Teachers use signals that show students they know what is going on and
that they do not approve. Examples are making eye contact, frowning, and shaking the head.
3. Physical proximity: - If student do not respond to signals, teachers can move in to closer
physical proximity of the offenders. It is usually enough simply to move closer to the
offender, but sometimes a friendly touch on shoulder or head might be needed.
4. Humor:- Using humor is a pleasant way of making students aware of lack in a self control
important this human be gentle and accompanied by a smile.
5.

Separating: - It is better to separate misbehaving children and give a new seat near a well
behaving child.

29

6. Out of Sight:- The teacher may direct the child to stay out for a while
7. Restructure or Reschedule: - Give a brief time for rest, change the nature of the activities,
or reschedule the work for a more appropriate time when the whole class seems tired or
exhausted.
8. Appeal: - When misbehavior gets more serious the teacher should directly intervene &
command an end to it.
9. Open discussion: - This technique is worth using when one or two students present lasting
behavior problem for the teacher. (Webster-Staratton, Reid, & Stoolmiler, 2008)/

30

3. CHAPTER THREE
3.1.

Research Design and Methodology


3.1.1. Research Design

The study focused to identify teachers classroom management approaches in government


General Secondary School teachers of Addis Ababa in Gulele sub city. For this purpose,
descriptive survey design was employed to carry out the research. This method enabled the
researcher to obtain the required information about the various problems that teachers face in
their classroom management. It also enables to draw conclusion based on the facts obtained from
respondents (Best, 1989). Besides, the research was aimed at identifying other factors that should
be considered in affecting classroom management.
3.1.2. Data Sources
Both primary and secondary sources of data were used in the study. Respondent teachers,
students and principals of the sample schools were the primary sources of data. Lesson plans
prepared by teachers, students rosters, relevant books, journals, policy manuals, and different
pieces of information from internet were used as secondary data sources.
3.1.3. Sample and Sampling Technique
Addis Ababa consists of ten sub-cites and it will be difficult for the researcher to cover all over
the school in the ten sub cities and the different types of schools because of time and economical
problem. Nesbary (2000:13) argues that the use of the entire target population may be infeasible
in some situations; for instance, collection of data from a large population covering a wide area
may be somewhat difficult. So, the researcher selected Gulele sub city because it is conducive for
transportation and the researcher know well all the schools in this selected sub city, so it makes
easy for the researcher because it solves the above problems. The researcher also preferred
government general secondary schools to make the research manageable and hoping that genuine
information would be obtained.
In this case, there are four schools in the sub-city, and all of the schools were taken as a sample
purposely. Teachers and Students were selected by random sampling. This sampling technique
was also used in the selection of both teachers and students in the assumption that it would avoid
31

bias. Also (Sarandokos, 2005) states that the main reason to use random sampling was to give
equal chance to the sample size. For the interview, all of the 12 principals were included in the
study by purposive sampling technique in order to obtain sufficient information about teachers
classroom management practices in all government general high schools of Gulele sub city.
Table.3 Sample-Population of Respondent
N

Name of

school

Total population
Sch.princi

Teachers

Sample population

Students

Sch.

pal

Teachers

Students

principal

F T

- 3

88

32

124

570

865

1435

100%

62

50%

72

5%

Kechene 3

- 3

47

14

67

413

621

1034

100%

33

50%

51

5%

Entoto
Amba

D/selam
3

Dilber

1 3

63

16

79

485

671

1156

100%

39

50%

57

5%

Mirafe

- 3

44

13

57

303

502

805

100%

28

50%

40

5%

Total

11

1 12

242

75

327

1771

2659

4430

12 100%

220

5%

162 50%

Source: - Gulele sub city education office


Out of the 327 entire populations of teachers who teach in grade 9 and in grade 10 of the sample
schools 50% (162 teachers) were included in the study by random sampling technique so as to get
the required information.
From the two grade levels the entire population of the sample schools students was 4430, 5%
students (220 students) were randomly selected from both grades and included in the study. In
this case, the total number of sample respondent teachers, students and principals selected using
different sampling techniques was raised to 394 individuals.
3.1.4. Data Collection Instruments
The three types of instruments used to collect the required data were close-ended and open-ended
questionnaire, classroom observation and interview. Since the sample size of teachers and
students was large, questionnaire was used for gathering the data from such large population. It is
also preferable for its relative ease for respondents to fill it out within short time.

32

Table 4: Number of respondents by category and Instrument


No Category

Instrument
Questioner

Teachers

162

Students

220

Principals

Classrooms Total

382

Total
Observation Interview
-

162

220

12

(18X2)=36

12

394

12

The questionnaire prepared to the two categories of respondents was tried to be made similar in
order to obtain information that would help to triangulate what teachers classroom management
practices looked like in the actual teaching-learning. In addition to this, checklist was used by the
researcher and with the assistance of two supervisors in conducting classroom observation which
would help to investigate the real classroom management practices of teachers. In this relation,
the observation checklist was designed in such a way that it would help to identify how the
lessons were broken down into a variety of activities such as whole class work, group work, pair
work and individual work. Besides, the items of the observation checklist were developed based
on the review of related literature to show the availability of the required facilities in the
classroom, the conduciveness of the classroom physical environment and how the classroom
management components were implemented in the actual teaching-learning interaction in the
classroom. Besides, in-depth interview with a few focused questions was conducted to school
principals.
For pilot test, twenty-five copies of pre-test questionnaire were distributed to ten teachers and
fifteen students in one of the sample schools in Dil-Ber. The classroom observation checklist was
also prepared and tried out in the same schools where the pilot study was conducted. The purpose
of the pre-test was to avoid the ambiguity of the terms used, to check the appropriateness of the
items in the questionnaire and to make the necessary corrections based on the feedback obtained
from the pilot test participants. Thus, some improvements were made in some of the items of the
questionnaire.

33

When conducting the actual research, a questionnaire with 46 items and two open-ended
questions were prepared in English and 162 copies of questionnaire distributed to162 teachers
and for the selected 220 students a questionnaire with 31 items and two open-ended questions
were prepared in English and then translated in to Amharic Language to the purpose of the
students to clearly understand and to get relevant information. Then all of the total number of the
questionnaire distributed were filled and returned.
3.1.5. Methods of Data Analysis
After the filled copies of questionnaire and the observation check list were collected, the
processes of tallying and tabulation were carried out. Both quantitative and qualitative data
analysis were used in this study. Accordingly frequency counts , percentage, and mean were used
to analyze the rating scale. The pieces of information gathered from open ended questions,
classroom observation and interview were qualitatively analyzed and interpreted whose findings
were included in the study.

34

CHAPTER FOUR
4. PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA
This chapter deals with the presentation, analysis, and interpretation of data gathered through
questionnaire, interview and classroom observation. The first part of this chapter deals with the
characteristics of the respondents. The remaining part deals with presenting, analyzing and
interpreting data of the problems under the study.
4.1 Characteristics of the Respondents
Based on the information obtained from the respondents self report in the questionnaire, the biodata of the study group was examined in terms of sex, qualification and years of experience of
teachers and sex of students. Table 3 below summarizes the data about the research subjects.
Table 5 Characteristics of the Respondents
Types of Respondents
No

Items

Sex.

Teachers No =162

Students No =220

121

74.7

97

44.1

41

25.3

123

55.9

Total 162

100

220

100

Male
Female

Qualification

BA/BSc/BEd

162

100

teachers.

MA/MSc/MEd

Years of experience of

1-5 Years

81

50

teachers.

6-10Years

50

30.9

11-15Years
16and above

18
13

11.1
8.0

20-30Years

98

60.5

31-40Years

41

25.3

41-50Years

15

9.3

4.9

100

Age

of

51and above
Total

35

162

The table 5 of item 1,

indicates that the personal information of respondents in terms of sex,

121( 74.6%) of the teachers and 97( 44.%) of the students are male , on the other hand 41(
25.3%) of teachers and 123 (55.9%)of the students are female were filled the questionnaire. From
this we understand that female teachers are less in high schools (9-10) grade levels where as
female students are more in number from their counter parts that of males. So this shows female
students get the accesses of education now than the early years.
In terms the teachers qualification, all respondent teachers 162 (100%) are BA /BSc/ BEd
holders. This shows that according to the Education and Training policy document of (MOE,
2002) which states that the qualification of teachers for the first cycle of the secondary schools
(9-10) grade levels should be first Degree holders. So it was fulfilled the standared.
According to the table that indicates teachers' work experience 81(50%) are experienced from 1-5
years, 50(30.9%) are from6-10 years, 18 (11.1%) are from 11-15 years and 13(8%) are served
from 16 years and above. Also the age level of teachers 98(60.5 %) are from 20-30 years old, 41
(25.3%) are from 31-40years, 15(9.3%) are from 41-50 years and 8(4.5%) are51 years old and
above. From these in formations one can understand that most teachers are new and young. So
they maybe have a problem to exercise the learning environment.
On the same table, 140 ( 86.4%) teachers and 192 ( 86.8%) of the students agreed that, the
average number of students in the classroom are from 40-49, 22 ( 13.5%) teachers and 29 (
13.1%) students agreed from50-60 students are in the classroom. But in the classroom
observation the number of students in the classroom is from 38-46. From this item we understand
that the average number of students in the classroom almost near to the standard according to the
Addis Ababa educational Bureau the standard class size for grades 9-12 is 40 students in one
class (MOE,2009).

36

Table 6 Availability of Facilities in the Schools or in the Classrooms


No

Item

AU

The classroom is clean and well T

109 (67.3%)

8 (4.9%)

45 (27.8%)

painted.

186(84.5%)

14(6.4%)

20(9.1%)

The furnitures are adjusted and T

109 (67.3%)

5(3.1%)

48(29.6%)

sufficient to the proper size of S

181(82.3%)

17(7.7%)

24(10.9%)

are T

56 (34.6%)

9 (5.6%)

97 (59.9%)

organized in a manner that S

74(33.6%)

19(8.6%)

127(57.7%)

Students do have secured and T

4 (2.4%)

16 (9.9 %) 142 (87.6%)

adequate space for personal S

3(1.4%)

11(5%)

206(93.6%)

There is teachers furniture in T

6 (3.7%)

5 (3.1%)

151(93.2%)

the classroom

13(5.9%)

9(4.1%)

198(90%)

There is a functional plasma T

82 (50.6%)

2 (1.2 %)

78 (48.2%)

television in the classroom.

112(50.9%)

12(5.5%)

96(43.6%)

There is a well-equipped

113(69.7%)

7 (4.3%)

42(25.9%)

library.

45(20.4%)

17(7.7%)

176(80%)

There are well-equipped

42(25.9%)

28(17.3%) 92 (56.8%)

laboratories.

29(13.1%)

3(1.36%)

188(85.4%)

Instructional areas are clear T

119(73.5%)

6 (2.7%)

37 (22.8%)

with

148(67.3%)

13(5.9%)

59(26.8%)

are T

18(11.1%)

12(7.4%)

9(60.5%)

28(12.7%)

7(3.2%)

185(84.%)

DA

Mean

3.73

3.91

the students.
3

Classroom

facilities

2.74

promotes learning.
4

2.49

storage in the classroom.


5

appropriate

visual S

1.6

3.21

2.45

2.31

3.28

boundaries for students.


10

The

students

seats

comfortable for group work.

1.9
2.76

Note:- The Mean valve ,strongly agree(SA)=4.5-5.00, Agree(A)=3,5-4.4, Undecided(UN)=2.53.4, Disagree(AD)=1.5-2.4 and Strongly disagree(SD)=1-1.4

37

Table 6 deals with the availability of facilities. In order to confirm or negate the information
gathered through questionnaire about the availability of facilities in the school and /or in the
classroom, ten items were raised to teachers and students.
In item1 of Table 6, 109 (84.1%) of the teachers and 186(84.5) students agreed that the
classrooms are clean and repaired. The cleanness of the classroom was seen during classroom
observation. In the interview with 12 (100%) principals, confirmed that the classrooms are clean
and well repaired. But 45 (27.8%) of teachers and 20(9.1%) of students disagreed the cleanness
of the classroom. Although the Mean score 3.73 is between the levels of agree so the respondents
support the classrooms are clean and in good condition. The observation also agreed that the
classrooms are almost in good conditions.
In item 2 of Table 6, 109 (67.3%) of the teachers 181(82.3%) of the students agreed that there
were sufficient furnitures for the students. The sufficiency of seat for students was seen during
classroom observation. In the interview with 12 (100%) principals, it was confirmed that there
were sufficient furnitures for the students in each class. But 48(29.6%) of the respondents
disagreed that there were sufficient furnitures whereas 5(3.1%) of the teachers and 17(7.7%) of
the students said that the sufficiency of furnitures was undecided. From the observations there
were sufficient desks but three students were sitting on one desk and this in not comfort. While
the Mean 3.91 which is the level of agreement. So, teachers must give attention for the sitting
arrangement of the students.
In item 3 of the same table, 56 (34.6%) of the teachers and74 (33.6%) students said that
Classroom facilities are organized that promotes the learning activity. On the contrary 97 (59.9%)
of the teachers and 127(57.7%) of the students disagreed and 9 (5.6%) teachers, 19(8.6%)
students said undecided. whereas

which was confirmed by the classroom observation and

principals interview classrooms were not sufficiently organized in away to promote the teaching
learning activity. The mean score also 2.47 fall in the level of disagreement. Then the black
board, the plasma boxes, the desks were not conducive they want some improvement in there
placement.
In itme4

142 (87.6%)

of teachers and

206(93.6%)

of students disagreed that there was

secure and adequate space for students storage in the classroom. 4 (2.4%)of teachers and

3(

1.4%) students agreed that there was secure and adequate space for students storage in the
38

classroom, but 16 (9.9 %)teachers and 11(5%)said undecided. In the interview 10(83%)
principals confirm there was no enough space for storage in the classroom. the Mean score 2.49,
fall in the level of disagreed. From the observation also there was no any space for the students
storage so, the principals must give attention to improve it.
In item 5of Table 6 , 151(93.2%) of the teachers and 198(90%) of students disagreed that there
was a chair in each classroom for a teacher which was assured by the observation almost in all
classrooms no teachers chair and the interview with 12 (100%) of the principals, confirm no
chair for teachers ,some were said it is not necessary because teachers do not sit, they must move
to check students participation. 6 (4.4%) of the teachers agreed that there was a chair for the
teacher but 5 (3.6%) of the teachers could not decide on the availability of a chair in each
classroom. From the observation most classrooms haven't teachers chair, in some classrooms
there are chairs but not comfortable so teachers were not sit and this condition is not conducive
for teachers for their teaching-learning process. The Mean also show 1.6 no comfortable chair for
teachers.
In item 6 of Table 6, 82(50.7%) of the teachers and 112 (50.9%) students said that there were
functional plasma televisions. The interview with the principals confirmed that most of the
plasma TVs were functional but, in most cases, plasma TVs were not functional due to lack of
technician, vandalism of some students and because of lack of electricity. 78(48.2%) of the
teachers and 96 (43.6%) students disagreed whereas 2(1.2%) teachers 12(5.5%) students could
not decide about the functioning of the televisions. From the observation two schools that the
plasma is not functional due to lack of electricity and sometimes no transmission of the program
from the source. The Mean score 3.21 falls on the level of agreed. Hence the respondents accept
the statement. But on the observation teachers do not use the plasma properly according to the
programe. So it wants supervision.
In item 7 of the same table, 42(25.9%) of the teachers and 45 (20.4%) students reported that there
was well-equipped library. On the other hand, 113 (69.7%) of the teachers and 176 (80%)
students disagreed that there was a well-equipped library whereas 7 (4.3%) teachers and
17(7.7%) students could not decide on the matter. The responses of 11 (91.6%) principals
confirmed that the schools have well-equipped libraries. The Mean 2.45 shows no well equipped

39

library. This shows that there was no the necessary reference books for the students as well as for
teachers.
In item 8 of Table 6, 92 (66.7%) of the teachers and 188(85.4%) disagreed that there are wellequipped laboratories 42 (25.9%) of the teachers29 (13.1%) students agreed that the laboratories
are well-equipped whereas 28(17.3%) of the teachers 3(1.36%) students did not decide on the
matter. Most of the school principals confirmed that the laboratories lacked the required
chemicals and lab technician. The Mean 2.31, fall in the level of disagreed. Hence laboratories
were not fully equipped.
In item 9

119(73.5%) teachers and 148(67.3%) of students agreed that the instructional areas

clear and appropriate visual boundaries 37 (22.8%) of teachers and 59(26.8%) students disagreed
with the instructional areas where as 6 (2.7%) teachers and 13 (5.9%) students were said
undecided. In the observation also the instructional areas are almost it is appropriate there is
enough space. The Mean score 3.28 fall in the level of agreement. So the respondents accept the
instructional area is appropriate.
In item 10, 132(81.4%) teachers and 205(93.1%) students were disagreed bout the seat are
comfortable for group work where as 18(11.1%) teachers, 12 (5.4%) students said agreed and 12
(7.4%) teachers and 7 (3.2%) students not decided. From the observation the seat of the students
are not comfortable because the students are sitting in row, but in one school the students sitting
was arranged 1 to 5 group sitting. The Mean score 1.9, fall in the level of disagreed. So the
arrangement of the seats were not comfortable for group work and for discussion in the
classroom.
Generally, according to responses of the majority of respondent teachers, students, the
researchers classroom observation and the responses of the interview with principals, there were
almost no chair and table in each classroom for the teachers. There was shortage of adequate
spaces for personal storage for the students. Most of the laboratories were not equipped with the
required chemicals and have no technician so teachers do not use the laboratories.
The condition of a classroom is also one of the important non-human factors that facilitate or
hinder the instructional or managerial role of a teacher. On the other hand, the data obtained from
classroom observation indicated that the walls of most of the classrooms were painted, the floors

40

were clean, the desks were not comfortable for group work and there was not sufficient space
between students for instructional activities because three students were sitting on one desk.
On the other hand, the buildings of the classrooms were in good condition, the windows and
doors were normal; there was sufficient ventilation and light in the classrooms. But the new G+4
buildings were not comfortable the placement of the buildings are far, the face of the buildings
are behind to old ones so there is a problem to control. The average Mean score 2.8, fall in the
level of disagreement. However, as mentioned in the review of literature, If educators fail to
realize creating an environment where students feel safe, they actively and meaning fully
engaged in the learning process. (Bennett& Smilanich, 2008)
Table 7 Teachers' Instructional Practice in the Classroom
N
o
1
2

7
8
9

11

Items

Respond
ents
A
Teachers plan the content to be T
112(69.1%)
covered early in the year.
S
129(58.6%)

Rating scale
UD
18(11.1%)

DA
32(19.8%)

Mean
3.01

64(29%)
24(14.8%)

3.49

1.65

Teachers' prepare a lesson plan for T


each lesson.
S
Teachers'
respect
students' T
suggestions and ideas.
S

131(80.8%)

27(12.7%)
7(4.3%)

142(64.5%)
104(64.1%)

16(7.2%)
19(11.7%)

62(28.1%)
39(24%)

40(18.1%)

58(26.3%)

122(55.4%)

Teachers'
monitor
students
performance
and
provide
necessary feedback.
Teachers
use
verbal
encouragement for students active
participation.
Teachers give a variety of
interesting and relevant activities
to their students.
Teachers' regularly check students
class work and home assignments.

142(87.7%)

8(4.9%)

12(7.4%)

102(46.3%)

18(8.1%)

108(49%)

153(94.4%)

6(3.7%)

3(1.8%)

106(48.1%)

16(7.2%)

98(44.5%)

T
S

105(66.6%)
93(42.2%)

32(19.7%)
18(8.1%)

25(15.4%)
109(49.5%)

2.40

118(72.8%)

17(10.4%)

27(16.6%)

1.37

86(39%)

37(16.8%)

97(44%)

Teachers involve learners actively


in the teaching-learning process.
Teachers help students during the
transition
between
different
learning activities.
Teachers move around the
classroom to check students'
participation consistently.

T
S
T

118(72.8%)
101(45.9%)
105(64.8%)

11(6.7%)
31(14%)
19(11.7%)

33(20.3%)
88(40%)
38(23.4%)

28(11.1%)

45(20.4%)

187(85.1%)

T
S

128(79%)
98(44.5%)

8(4.9%)
2(0.9%)

16(9.8
118(53.6%)

41

2.05

4.61

2.44
1.94

2.17

On table 7, 112(69.2%) of teachers and 64(29%) students agreed that teachers have annual plan
to cover the content, and 32 (19.8%) teachers and 129(58.6%) students disagreed and
18(11.1%)teachers, 27(12.2%) students said undecided. But 12(100%) Principals agreed that
teachers planed to cover the content early in the year. From the observation also teachers have
annual plan to cover the content but most of the teachers weekly lesson plan was not much to the
annual plan. The Mean is 3.01, falls in the level of disagreed. So principals as well department
heads and supervisors must supervise the portion coverage of the lesson contents.
In item 2 on the Table 7, 131(80.8%) teachers and 142 (64.5%) students agreed teachers prepare
lesson plans .On the contrary 24 (14.8%) teachers and 62(28.1%) students disagree and 7(4.3%)
teachers and16(7.2%) students said undecided. But 12(100%) principals confirmed that all
teachers prepare a daily lesson plan. The Mean 3.49 shows in the level of agreed teachers prepare
a lesson plan. Also from the observation almost teachers prepare a weekly lesson plan, but most
of the teachers lesson plan not well prepared, the daily lesson objectives, the instructional time
were not put properly. So it want some improvement by principals, head teachers and
supervisors.
In item 3, 104(64.1%) teachers and 22(10%) students agreed that teachers respect students idea
and suggestions, but 39 (24%) teachers and 194(88.1%) students disagreed on students respecting
of their ideas and suggestions and 19(11.7%) teachers, 4(1.8%) students were remain undecided.
The Mean is 1.65. This shows there may be a problem on students suggestion and idea.
In item 4, on the table 7, shows that 142(64.5%) teachers and 12(5.4%) students agreed teachers
monitor the students performance; on the contrary 12(7.4%) teachers and 198(90%) students
disagreed and 8(4.9%) teachers, 10(4.5%) students said undecided. From the document
observation teachers have students attendance, recorded students test results but they do not give
additional help for low achievers. The Mean 2.05, fall in the level of disagreed. Hence the
monitoring system of teachers want some improvement.
In item 5 on the Table 7, 153(94.4%) teachers and 106 (48%) students agreed that teachers
encourage verbally active participation of students and 3(1.8%) teachers ,98( 44.5%) students
disagreed and 6(3.4%) teachers and 16 (7.2%) said undecided. From the observation also some
teachers encourage students when they answer to teachers questions. The Mean 4.6 also support
that there is an encouragement for active participation.
42

In item 6 of Table 7, 105 (66.6%) of the teachers and 49(22.2%) students agreed that teachers
gave a variety of interesting and relevant activities to their students. 32 (19.7%) of the teachers
and 123(55.9%) students disagreed to teachers gave a variety of interesting and relevant activities
whereas the remaining 25 (18.1%) of the teachers and 8(3.6%) students could not decide on the
matter. On the other hand, during the classroom observation, most of the teachers were observed
giving the activities from students textbooks only not giving other additional exercise. The Mean
2.4, fall in the level of disagree. So, teachers must give other related activities to support the
student learning.
In item 7 of the Table 7, 118(72.8%) teachers and 16(7.3%) students agreed that teachers checks
students assignments. 27(16.6%) teachers and 197 (89.5%) students disagreed teachers regularly
check students assignments whereas 17(10.4%) teachers and 7 (3.1%) students were remaining
undecided. On the observation only few teachers check the students class work, and most
teachers do the home works in the class with students. The Mean 1.37 falls in the level of
disagreement. So need to check students home work, class work and other assignments as much
as possible.
Item 8 of the table 7, 118 (85.5%) of the teachers and 88 (40%) agreed that they involved the
learners actively in the teaching-learning process using different techniques. But 33 (20.3%) of
the teachers, 101(45.9%) students disagreed to involving learners actively in the teaching
learning process using different techniques whereas 11 (6.7%) teachers and31 (14%) students
could not decide. In the classroom observation, teachers do not using different teaching-learning
techniques. The steps and procedures followed by the teachers in the teaching-learning process
were not varied. In most classrooms observed, teachers used the instructional time by lecture or
teacher-centered not student-center. The mean 2.4, also shows, the respondents disagreed the
statement. Then, teachers need to use different teaching methodology to make the lesson
interesting.
Item 9 on the table 7, 105(64.8%) teachers and 28 (12.7%) students agreed that teachers help
their students in the transition of different learning activities. But 18(11.1%) teachers and
187(85%) students disagreed in helping of students during the transition of different learning
activities. On the observation few teachers only inform the different learning activities. The Mean

43

score 1.94, fall in the level of disagreed. Then, teachers must improve their teaching activities
according to the students understanding.
On the last item of the Table 7, 112 (69.1%) teachers and 32 (14.5%) students agreed teachers
move around the classroom to check the participation of students. On the contrary 42(19.8%)
teachers and 180(81.8%) students disagreed that teachers move around the classroom to check
students participation consistently where as 8 (4.9%) teachers and 8 (3.6%) students remained
undecided. From the observation most of the teachers stand in front of the students, only very few
are move to check students participation. The Mean2.17, fall in the level of disagreement. So the
respondents do not accept the statement.
But from the interview 12 (100%) principals also confirmed that teachers lacked the commitment
to prepare detailed daily lesson plans which is indispensable to conduct effective teachinglearning. From the observation also teachers lesson plans were not prepared appropriately in
detail, only prepared for formality and most of them do not use it. So the average Mean 2.42
confirms that teachers instructional methodology was insignificant and not appropriate to
achieve the educational goal.
However, from the literature, Delamont (1993:67) states that effective teachers understand
students level of knowledge and design lessons to fit students abilities. Clearly they state the
learning objective for the lesson, told the objectives to their students, to know what they are
responsible for learning. They break concepts and skills into small digestible learning chunks
no more than two or three new ideas per lesson. They change the type of activity during the
lesson to help students concentrate more effectively on each task, pace instructions to allow
students the time they need to achieve learning objectives. (Evertson & Neal, 2006).

44

Table 8 Teachers - Students Relation


Items

Respond

Rating scale

ents

UD

DA

Teachers call most of their

T 76(46.9%)

17(10.4%)

69(42.5%)

students

S 157(96.9%)

26(11.8%)

37(16.8%)

Teachers know the academic

T 64(39.5%)

24(14.8%)

74(45.6%)

background of most of their

S 74(33.6%)

9(4%)

137(62.2%)

by

name

in

the

Mean

4.3

classroom?

2.03

students and prepare lessons


based on their abilities?
Teachers identify the individual

T 45(27.7%)

32(19.7%)

85(52.4%)

needs of most of their students

S 53(25.9%)

10(4.5%)

157(96.9%)

19(11.7%)

76(46.9%)

1.97

and give them the necessary


support?
Teachers

know

the

family

backgrounds of most of their


students

and

treat

67(41.3%)
T

them

1.05
93(42.2%)

26(11.8%)

119(54%)

feel

T 68(41.9%)

29(17.9%)

65(40.1%)

happy when the teacher entered

S 92(41.8%)

42(19%)

86(53%)

accordingly?

Teachers

and

students

2.13

to the classroom.
Average mean

==

2.29

To create a positive learning environment a good relationship is important so teachers should


know about their students backgrounds, prior experiences, interests, and area of need
(Derringtion and Gooddard, 2008). Besides, the core of any teaching situation is the relationship
between pupils and the teachers (Azeb, 1982). Therefore, to work successfully with the students,
teachers must know the interest, family background, homes and the ability of the learners near to
them.

45

Thus, Table 8 discusses teachers relation to their students in the classroom. Accordingly, in item
1 of the table 8, 76(46.9%) of the teachers and 157(96.9%) of the students confirmed that
teachers knew and called most of their students by name in the classroom whereas 69 (42.5%) of
the teachers and 37 (16.8%) of the students said that teachers did not know and call most of the
students by name in the classroom. The Mean 4.3 also shows in the agreement level. This shows
that most of the teachers' call the students by name in the classroom and this will strengths their
relation.
In item 2 of the table 8, 64 (39.5%) of the teachers and 67 (27.9%) of the students responded that
teachers knew the academic background of most of their students and prepared lessons based on
their abilities. Conversely, 74 (53.6%) of the teachers and 173 (78.6%) of the students confirmed
that teachers did not know the academic background of most of their students and prepare lessons
based on their abilities. The Mean score 2.03, However, the review of literature says that
teachers need to inquire the back grounds of their students so that they can connect what they
learn to their instructional decision making (bank etal 2005:243).Therefore, based on the
responses of the respondents, the majority of teachers in the sample schools did not know the
academic background of most of their students and not prepare lessons based on their abilities
which were confirmed by most of the principals responses. The Mean 2.03 falls in disagreement
level. So to be effective teachers need to understand students level of knowledge and design
lessons to fit students' abilities.
Concerning item 3 of the table 8, 45 (27.7%) of the teachers and 53 (25.9%) of the students said
that teachers identified the individual needs of most of their students and gave them the necessary
support. On the other hand, 85 (52.4%) of the teachers and 157 (71.3%) of students replied that
teachers did not identify the individual need of most of their students and give them the necessary
support. Hence, based on the responses, it is possible to conclude that the majority of teachers in
the sample schools did not identify the individual needs of most of their students and give them
the necessary support. The mean 1.97 falls on disagreement level.
In item 4 of table 8, 45 (27.7%) of the teachers and 39 (17.7%) of the students said that teachers
knew the family background of most of their students and treated them accordingly. Conversely,
98 (67.4%) of the teachers and 194 (80.8%) of the students confirmed that teachers did not know
the family background of most of their students and treat them accordingly. Besides, in responses

46

to interview 10 (83.3%) of the principals confirmed that teachers lesson plans did not consider
the different ability groups in the classroom. The principals added that giving support to students
who needed it and trying to know the family background of the students and treating them
accordingly by the teachers were insignificant. While checking the lesson plans, the researcher
observed that detailed daily activities based on different ability groups were not prepared. During
the classroom activities also, teachers were not observed moving around and giving the necessary
support to the students. The Mean 1.05 shows that in the level of disagreement. So teachers do
not knew the students family back ground and not treat them accordingly,
On the last item on the same table 68(41.9%) teachers and 92(41.8%) students agreed that both of
them feel happy when the teacher enters to the class. On the contrary, 65(40./%) teachers
and86(53%) students disagreed to feel happy.29(17.9%) teachers ,42(19%) students were
remained undecided. The Mean 2.13 shows the disagreement level. From this one can conclude
that both of them were not committed to the teaching-learning posses.
In general, based on data obtained from the majority of the respondents, the responses of the
interview with most of the principals and the researchers observation, it was possible to
conclude that teachers in the sample schools lacked knowledge about the ability, individual needs
and family backgrounds of most of their students and the relation with students and students
parents is weak. The average Mean 2.29 confirms that the relationship between teachers and
students was not strong. According to Martain, Yin and Mayall (2006:6) pointed out that
academic achievement and productive behavior are influenced by the quality of the teacherstudent relationship.

47

Table 9 The approach of Principals to support teachers' classroom management.


No

Items

Responde Alternatives
nt

Principals regularly observe

UD

DA

Mean

22(13.5%)

12(7.4%)

128(79%)

2.3

18(11.1%)

16(9.8%)

128(79%)

2.5

6(3.7%)

29(17.9%)

127(78.3)

1.7

9(5.5%)

17(10.4%)

136(83.9%)

2.4

94(58%)

21(12.9%)

56(34.5%)

2.5

your classroom instruction.


2

Principals

give

you

immediate feed back after


observation.
3

Principals
identifying

help

you

by

instructional

problems.
4

Principals conduct trainings


to you to practice different
teaching approaches.

Principals help you to share


best practices from different
teachers.

Average Mean = 2.2

Item 1 on table 5, 128(79%) of the respondent teachers disagreed that principals regularly
observe teachers classroom instruction, and 22(13.5%) agreed and 12(7.4%) undecided. As the
interview of principals 12(100%) confirm that they could not regularly observe teachers
classroom management. They said have no time. The Mean 2.3 shows in the level of disagree. So
principals do not observe teachers classroom instruction and management.
Item 2 on the same table shows 128(79%) of the teachers also disagreed principals give
immediate feed back after observation, 18(11.1%) agreed, and 16(9.8%) remained undecided. the
interview tells us that the principals confirm if they observe, they gave immediate feed back to
the teachers as well as to the students. The Mean is 2.5 in the level of disagree. Hence the
respondents not support the statement because the principals do not observe and support teachers

48

classroom management. So principals need to observe, supervise and support teachers classroom
management.
Item 3 on the table, 127(78.3%) teachers disagreed that principals help teachers by identifying
instructional problems. 6 (3.7%) agreed and 29(17.9%) undecided. The interview of principals
said that, they do not help teachers by identifying the instructional problems in the classroom, but
they confirm always protecting problems in the school compound. The Mean 1.73 falls in the
level of disagreement. So the respondents not accept the statement.
Item 4 on the table, 136(83.9%) teachers disagreed that principals conduct trainings to practice
different teaching approaches and only 9(5.5%) agreed, 17(10.4%) were remained undecided.
The interview of principals tells they give a short training for new teachers when they come to
school at the beginning of the year. The Mean is 2.4. This shows no meetings with teachers to
solve

instructional problems and classroom management problems that teachers face. So,

principals should give attention to solve the problems that face teachers in the teaching -learning
process.
Item 5 on the Table, shows 94(58%) teachers agreed that they share best practices each other. On
the contrary 56(34.5%) of teachers disagreed and 21(12.9%) teachers remained decided. From the
interview the principals confirm teachers share their practices each other in their school and in
their department. From the observation also teachers share their practices by inbuilt supervision
in their departments by the program of the head teacher.
To sum up the principals are busy by routine work, meetings, and other administrative works so
they have no time to support, supervise and to give trainings that helps to strength teachers'
classroom management. And the average Mean 2.2 shows that principals support of teachers
instruction and classroom management is insignificant.

49

Teachers Practice in Classroom Management Techniques


Table 10: Teachers perception of Establishing Ground Rules and Procedures as a strategy
Response
No

1.

Items

Agree

Disagree

No

No

Mean

19

37.3

84

51

1.11

15.7

4.02

13

25.5

3.25

2.0

4.08

Establishing ground rules and procedures is an


authoritative strategy hence it is less
Significant to effectively manage classrooms.

2.

I believe that appropriate classroom discipline


could exist when students are abide by ground
rules and procedures
rules and procedures.

3.

143 88.3

I believe that teachers should make the rules in as 138 85.1


much as the teacher not the students has the
responsibility to determine which student behaviors
are acceptable and which are not

4.

It is certain that students have the right to know not 146 90.2
only the contents of classroom rules but also the
consequences of breaking them.

The table given above is designed to examine the perception of teachers towards establishing
ground rules and procedures as a classroom management strategy. According to the information
given, the mean value of the first item 1.11 is statistically insignificant. Conversely, however, the
mean value of the last three items is statistically significant.
That is to say that teachers believed, as shown in item one, that establishing ground rules and
procedures is an authoritative strategy hence it is less significant for effective classroom
management. The views mentioned in the remaining three items, however, are contradictory
to the first one. Because without having understood that classroom management could be
maintained through establishing ground rules and procedures, teachers could not be expected
to have the awareness that appropriate classroom behavior could exist with the existence of

50

rules and procedures. And at the same time teachers couldnt be demanded to be cognizant
and to assume that establishing ground rules and procedures is the responsibility of teachers,
and the students right is to know the contents of rules and the consequences of breaking them.
One could then say that lack of the necessary awareness about the significance of ground rules
and procedures has a profound impact on the teachers commitment of managing the
classrooms effectively.
Table 11: Teachers Perception on the Ranking of Classroom Management Practices.
No

Items

No

Average
Rank

1.

Establishing ground rules and procedure

29

17.90

2.

Using harsh forms of punishments

1.85

3.

Reinforcing the students appropriate behavior

38

23.53

4.

Organizing the instructional materials and the


19

11.72

1.85

6.17

students seats properly


5.

Telling

students

the

daily

instructional 3

objectives regularly
6.

Using the allocated classroom time only for 10


instructional purposes

7.

Using open channel of communication

35

21.60

8.

Exhibiting wittiness

12

7.40

9.

Facilitating smoothness and momentum

1.85

10

Maximizing students classroom participation

5.55

Classroom management is the most essential and the most difficult aspect of instruction, for
without discipline there could be no effective teaching. It is bearing this fact in mind that the
items stated in the table given above were designed. And the striking feature of the table is
that there exists a wider difference of values among those Practices, which were given ranks 1
to 3, and the rest. According to the information stated reinforcing the students appropriate

51

behavior 38(23.5%) using open channel of communication 35(21.6%) and establishing ground
rules and procedures 29(17.9%) were the Practices that teachers thought of significant for
effective classroom management. Respondents, on the other hand, mentioned telling students
the daily instructional objectives regularly and harsh punishment as the least classroom
management Practices.
From the analysis made it can be concluded that motivation, using open channel of
communication, and establishing ground rules and procedures have got the teachers necessary
awareness as practices. However, teachers did not conceive that telling students the daily
instructional objectives regularly, the proper utilization of instructional time and the maximizing
learners active classroom participation gave less attention as aspects of classroom management
practices.

52

Table 12 Students Response on the Utilization of Classroom Management Practices


Response
No

1.

No

No

No

Average
Grand
Mean

31

14.1

41

18.6

148

67.3

0.46

a. by giving extra work?

13

5.9

72

32.7

135

61.3

0.45

b. by ignoring the disruptive behavior?

164

74.5

46

20.9

10

4.6

0.95

c. by sending them to the principal office?

135

61.3

58

26.4

27

12.3

0.50

d. by sending them out of the classroom

3.6

19

8.6

193

87.7

0.51

a. using acknowledgement?

87

39.6

75

34.1

38

17.3

0.73

b. using praise?

4.0

20

9.2

191

86.8

0.17

c. making the lesson content attractive?

2.7

11

4.6

203

92.3

0.11

d. making the classroom lesson challenging?

3.2

14

6.3

199

90.5

0.13

38

17.3

56

25.4

126

57.3

0.60

126

57.3

62

28.2

32

14.6

0.85

1.3

2.7

211

96

0.05

220

100

2.7

10

4.6

204

92.7

0.10

2.7

3.2

207

94.1

0.08

Always(2)

Items
How often do teachers show personal interest
in all students work?

Sometimes (1)

Never (0)

How often do teachers use the following


techniques to effectively handle the student's
classroom disruptive behavior?
2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

How often do teachers encourage the student's


classroom commitment by:

How often did you find difficult to understand


or follow teacher's communication in class?
How often teachers are fail to listen the
students questions responses and suggestions?
How often do teachers begin the daily lesson
by telling the instructional objectives?
How often have you been given the chance to

7.

participate in formulating ground rules and


procedures?

8.

9.

How

often

do

teachers

give

rewards

considering the students' sex?


How often are students allowed to sit wherever
and with whom they wish to sit?
Average of Grand Mean

0.45

53

All the items that are given in the table above are developed to get the students view to the
teachers commitment of employing the above mentioned Practices of classroom
management.
According to the students response given above, it is manifested that except handling the
students disruptive behavior by withdrawing privileges and failing to listen the students
questions and responses, the mean value of the remaining items was found relatively to be
equal to 0.5
The mean value of the items allowing students to sit wherever and with whom they wish to,
giving rewards by considering the students sex, starting the daily lesson by telling the daily
instruction objectives, encouraging the students classroom learning by making the classroom
lesson challenging, making the lesson content more attractive and using praise was almost
equal to one. This meant that the teachers commitment of using the Practices mentioned
above for the sake of classroom management was discouraging
Moreover, as shown above the average grand mean of all the items was 0.45. This could tell
us to suggest that the teachers classroom endeavor to effectively manage classroom through
employing the multifaceted Practices was used in rare cases
Hence, according to the students response the grade nine and grade ten teachers of Addis
Ababa City Administration Secondary schools were less committed to employ the main
content focused Practices to secure instructional effectiveness through managing their
classrooms properly.
All the items given in the tables 12 to be developed to observe the teachers commitment
towards the four content focused classroom management mentioned earlier.

54

Table 13 The utilization of motivational Practices


Response
No Motivational activities

Always (2) Sometimes


(1)

Never (0)

No

No

No

Grand
Mean

1.

Teachers provide students activities that 2


are personally challenging

5.6

13

36.1

21

58.3

0.47

2.

Teachers treat boys and girls equally

16.7 20

55.5

10

27.8

0.9

3.

Teachers are willing to help those slow 3


to learn

8.3

30.6

22

61.1

0.47

4.

Teachers ask only bright and bold 31


students

86.1 2

5.6

8.3

1.83*

5.

Teachers use a variety of teaching 14


techniques

38.9 17

42.2

13.9

1.25

6.

Students respond to questions willingly 18


(voluntarily)

50

50

1.5*

7.

Students are attentive to the teacher, one 7


another and the task the lesson is
completed

19.4 19

52.8

10

27.8

0.91

Average of Grand Mean

11

18

1.05

The table given above contains those items that are designed to test the teachers commitment
towards using reinforcement as a classroom management strategy. As it is seen, it was only
the mean values of asking bright and bold students (1.83) responding to questions willingly
(1.5) and employing a variety of teaching techniques (1,25) were found above the mean value
of one.
Conversely, however, providing students personally challenging tasks, showing willingness to
help slow learners and keeping the learners attention active until the lesson is completed had
the mean values of less than one?
This meant that most grade nine and grade ten teachers were seen less committed to use many
of the various motivational devices as classroom management Practices. And if they were
seen committed, their deduction was limited mainly to giving the chance to respond to the

55

questions posed only to those bright and bold students. Hence it is safe to say that in spite of
its old age of introduction, motivation is termed as an infrequently used classroom
management strategy. This may happen due to the fact that the training the teachers received
on how to develop and deploy those motives which are potentially sensitive to evoke the
students attention and interest to a given task might be minimal.
But as said so far, most scholars seem to agree that giving learners tasks of personally
challenging, treating of both sexes indiscriminately and showing interest to help slow learners
are preconditions for preventing the disruptive behavior of students successfully. Moreover,
the students on-task behavior, paying attention to their colleagues as well as to their teachers
could also be so durable when they are given the necessary atmosphere to observe that their
appropriate classroom behavior is preceded by equally worthwhile reinforcement.
To go a bite further, out of the whole motivational tasks that are displayed on the table given
earlier teachers were observed asking bright and bold students more frequently (1.83) than
others. This tradition of giving more and better chance of responding to questions frequently
to those who are bold but less competent and commonly noticed as active learners would
cause many others to assume themselves marginalized. As the result, those marginalized
students would inevitably create classroom chaos through involving themselves on tasks that
are unrelated and irrelevant to their learning.

56

Table 14: Teachers Reaction to Appropriate and Inappropriate Classroom Behavior of


Students.
Response
No

1.

Always (2)

Motivational activities

Sometimes

Never (0)

(1)

Grand
Mean

No

No

No

a. Acknowledgement

28

77.8

16.7

5.5

b. Simple praise

8.3

10

27.8

23

63.9 0.44

c. Smile

19

52.8

25

22.2 1.30

d. Nodding the head positively

12

33.3

17

47.2

19.5 1.14

Teachers reaction to the students


appropriate behavior is

Average of Grand mean


2.

1.72*

1.15

Teachers reaction to the students


inappropriate classroom behavior
2.1

Ignoring

the

inappropriate 31

86.1

13.9

1.86*

behavior
2.2 Using negative personal response

5.6

8.3

31

86.1 0.19

2.3 Standing near the trouble makers

36

100

13.9

27

75.0

11.1 0.36

36

100

36

100

2.4 Showing signals to stop the


inappropriate behavior
2.5 Putting their hand on the students
shoulder
2.6 Ordering the students to leave the
classroom

57

It is said in the literature review that the rewards given should be dependent upon the behavior
exhibited. Accordingly, the items stated in the table above were set to examine the teachers
reaction to the students appropriate and inappropriate classroom behavior.
As can be seen on the table above, it was said that acknowledgement (1.72) was always
deployed to motivate the students appropriate classroom behavior. Smile and nodding the
head positively were, on the other hand, used less frequently. Of all the reactions given,
however, none was appeared to be neglected as that of simple praise (i.e. 0.44). This shows
that more often than not the teachers reaction to the students on task behavior did not go
beyond acknowledgement.
According to the information given on item two of the same table, it is depicted that whatever
the students inappropriate classroom behavior might be ignoring the inappropriate behavior
(1.86) was the teachers primary reaction. But the teachers had never been observed to stand
or standing near the troublemakers, put their hands on the students shoulder and order the
students to leave the classroom for their off-talk behavior.
From the analysis made above, it can be said that acknowledgement and ignoring the
students dysfunctional acts were the primary measures that teachers commonly used in
reaction to the students appropriate and inappropriate classroom behaviors respectively.
However, all the students may not be responsive to the same sort of motives. Moreover,
ignoring the students inappropriate behavior wont reliably ensure to prevent the students
dysfunctional behavior. Therefore, giving the necessary reaction both to the appropriate and
inappropriate classroom behavior of students could lead them to manage classrooms
effectively.

58

Table 15: Time utilization


Response
No

1.

Items

Always

Sometimes Never (0)

Grand

(2)

(1)

Mean

No

1.1posing questions to the class

11

1.2announcing goals

No

No

30.5 7

19.5

18

50

0.8

36

100

41.7 13

36.1

22.2

1.19

61.1 9

25.0

13.9

1.42*

52.8 14

38.9

8.3

1.17

16

44.5 12

33.3

22.2

1.22

31

86.1 5

13.9

1.86*

18

50

17

47.2

2.8

1.47*

8.3

16.7

27

75

0.33

22.2 9

25

19

52.8

0.75

77.8 3

8.3

13.9

1.64*

Teachers begin the daily lesson by:

1.3checking whether students are in their 15

proper seats or not


22

1.4demanding the students attention

1.5checking whether students have done 19


their homework or not
1.6starting demonstrating the lesson
2.

Teachers bring the daily classroom lesson to


an end by:
2.1 reviewing the main ideas of the lesson
2.2 setting assignments and other reading
materials based on the lesson
2.3 briefly outlining what will happen in the
next lesson

3.

Teachers make the next activity of a lesson 8


or step immediately available (pacing
activities)

4.

Teachers make fast, automatic lesson 28


transitions

1.08

Average of Grand Mean

59

In most cases the utilization of instructional time can be seen from the beginning of a lesson,
closure, and pacing and transitions perspective. And so as to use the allocated classroom time
effectively, performing primary the necessary activities in each of the planned time segments
cant be questioned.
As item one of the table given above shows, the mean value of demanding the students
attention to begin the daily lesson was 1.42. Moreover, 1.22 of the teachers was observed starting
the lesson by starting. Some others, on the other hand, were seen checking whether students were
in their proper seats and had done their homework or not before starting the lesson.
The second item deals with how teachers brought the daily lesson to an end. In effect, majority
of the teachers observed were used to terminate the lesson by reviewing the main ideas of the
lesson (1.86) and setting assignments and other reading materials (1.47).
As shown in the third item, the teachers commitment to keep the pace of classroom lesson was
given a mean value of 0.75, which is in fact less than that of the average grand mean.
The last item of the same table revealed that teachers always made fast, automatic lesson
transitions (1.64). From the analysis made above it can be inferred that:
a. Instead of starting the daily lesson by starting, teachers were seen demanding the
students attention;
b. Teachers usually brought the daily lesson to an end by reviewing the main ideas of the
lesson and setting assignments and reading materials;
c. Teachers were less committed to keep the pace of classroom lesson;
d. Teachers were seen making fast, automatic lesson transitions.
Therefore, one can conclude here then that teachers were seen less committed to use the
allocated instructional time during the beginning of a lesson, transitions and pacing of a lesson
properly.
However, extensive literature on time management confirmed that in order to reduce and
eventually avoid time wastage giving priority merely for those instructional oriented activities,
which are described in each of the given time segment appears to be essential.

60

Accordingly, instead of demanding students to pay their attention, posing questions to the
whole class, announcing the daily instructional objectives or demonstrating the lesson
immediately may serve to use the time allotted efficiently. Moreover, having a well-organized
lesson plan that specifically considers the switching of lesson from lecture to seat work, from
discussion to lecture etc., may prevent students not to engage themselves in chaotic activities.
Above all these, making the consecutive lessons available for immediate use could also be
indispensable to minimize the students off-task behavior.
Table 16 Ground Rules and Procedures in the classrooms
No
1.

Items

Yes

No

No

No of

18
18
18
18

100
100
100
100

Classroom rules and procedures


1.1Are established
1.2Are clear and followed
1.3Are few in number
1.4Are posted in the bulletin board

Table 17: The Application of Ground Rules and Procedures


Response
No

Items

Always
(2)

Sometimes
(1)

Never
(0)

No

No

No

%
2.8

Students talk without raising their 31


hands and called up on

86.1

11.1

2.

Students leave their seats without permission

36

3.

Students are being quite while the 13


teacher or someone else is talking

36.1

16.7

17

Average of Grand Mean

Grand
Mean
1.83*
0

42.2

0.9
0.91

According to Snowman (1993: 630), because of the special nature of adolescence and
consecutive classes with different students high school teachers must concentrate their efforts
on preventing misbehavior. In effect, as Emmer et al (in Snowman, 1993: 631) suggested

61

classroom rules be specifically stated, discussed with students on the first day of class, and for
seventh-eighth, and ninth-graders, posted in a prominent place.
It is on the basis of the information given above that the items 1.1 and 1.4 on table 16 were
formulated. According to the observation given, in all the sample four secondary schools in the
sub-city where the observations was conducted, classroom rules and procedures were not
established.
Due to lack of ground rules and procedures, therefore, during classroom discussions students
talked without raising their hand and called upon (1.83). And it was few students seen being quite
while the teacher or someone else was talking (0.9). However, no one was observed tending to
leave his/her seat without getting his/her teachers permission.
Table 18.Teachers position, and students seating arrangement
Response
No

Motivational activities

Always (2)

Sometimes
(1)

Never (0)

No

No

11.1

11.1

48

77.8

0.3

27

75.0

22.2

2.8

0.97

No
1

Teachers change their position in room


when they teach.
4

Grand
Mean

Teachers remain continuously stationary


during lesson presentation

Teachers stand next to target students as


Lesson continues with little movement

36

100

Teachers advise low achievers about


where they should seat

36

100

Teachers permit mainly high achievers


to take the front seats

36

100

Teachers place low-achieving students on front seats .

36

100

7.

Teachers mix high and low achieving 36


students

2.0*

Average of Grand mean 0.7

62

Research in students space organization suggests that careful design of physical space can
have a considerable effect on students attitudes and conduct (Evalls and Lovell, Nash, and
Doyle in Rinne 1997: 108). It is to check the practice of the concept that the research finding
revealed that the items in the table given above were formulated.
According to the information given, the mean value of teachers changing their classroom
position periodically and remaining stationary were respectively 0.3 and 0.97. In addition, the
table depicted that teachers neither permitted high achievers to sit in the front seats, low
achiever to sit closer to them nor advised low achievers about where they should seat. It is
also shown that teachers did not stand next to target students as lesson continues.
Alternatively said, during classroom lesson presentation teachers did not periodically change
their position. Moreover, neither high nor low achievers were given the privilege to sit in the
front seats or closer to their teachers.
Therefore, even though usually assigning seats to students on a random basis appears to be so
acceptable, remaining stood stationary in front of students may make the teachers commitment
of classroom management ineffective. As Rinne (1997: 113) said, periodically during
lectures, class discussions, seatwork, and all other modes of teaching, change your position in
the room, taking notes and materials along with you as needed and as practical. Use the entire
room. As teachers change the action zone in the classroom, those students who sit front and
center at the teachers new location will begin to interact more with the teacher, engaging
more in two-way conversation (Doyle, 1986). So, teachers must change their position to check
their students participation.

63

Table 19 The application of teachers communication skills


Response
No

Items

Always
(2)

Sometimes
(1)

Never (0)

No

No

No

Grand
Mean

1.

Teachers are clear in their lesson 20


presentation.

55.5

10

27.8

16.7

1.4

2.

Teachers are consistent


dealing with students.

in

their12

33.3

17

47.2

19.5

1.14

3.

Teachers use firm voice


appropriate volume

at

an

16.7

25

69.4

13.9

1.03

4.

Teachers look at all students as


26
lesson goes on.

72.2

16.7

11.1

1.61

5.

Teachers look at target student


6
more frequently than others.

16.7

23

63.8

19.5

0.97

6.

Teachers touch the shoulder of


target students of inattention.

54

100

7.

Teachers physically comfort or 3


reward students during instruction.

8.3

19

52.8

14

38.9

0.69

8.

Teachers accept
feeling, view.

students 9

25

17

47.2

10

27.8

0.97

the

Average Mean

0.98

Weber citing Carl Rogers (in Cooper 1986-375) said that the facilitation of significant
learning is a function of certain attitudinal qualities that exist in the interpersonal relationship
between the teacher (the facilitator) and the student (the learner) The inter personal
relationship between the teacher and the student can be kept going only when the classroom
instruction is conveyed in a sense that gives attention and meaning to the students.
The item stated in the table above are then formulated to examine the kind of communication
skill that teachers frequently employed to effectively transmit the information aspired.
As revealed, looking at all students as lesson goes on and presenting the lesson clearly had
mean values of 1.61 and 1.4 respectively. Moreover, the observed teachers of grade nine and

64

grade ten were consistent in their dealing with students (1.14) and used a firm voice at an
appropriate volume (1.03), though the mean value is almost equal to one.
In contrast with the views mentioned above it is manifested that looking at target students
more frequently than others, touching the shoulder of target students of inattention, physically
rewarding students during instruction and accepting the students feeling and view had a mean
value of less than one.
This explicitly shows that transmitting the lesson clearly and calmly, using a firm voice at an
appropriate volume, dealing the issues of students consistently, and having a face-to-face
communication with all the students, touching the shoulder of inattentive students and looking
at target students was not as such promising.
Of all the skills that teachers had been observed less committed, however, none exceeds in its
worth of mentioning as that of ignoring the views and feelings of students. Because, as
Levenson (in Snowman 1993: 636) said, Students seem to respond more positively to
schooling when they are treated as individuals, when their feelings and opinions are taken into
account ---. And as practically seen in many classroom occasions, students may exhibit
disruptive behavior when they assumed to have failed getting their feelings accepted and
valued. Therefore, so as to optimize the rapport between the teacher and his students so that
students could get the chance to express their needs, feelings and wants so freely, giving them
a conducive situation is the concern of practice it.

65

CHAPTER FIVE
SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
This chapter contains the summary of the major findings of the study, conclusions and
suggestions to solve some of the problems found out.
5.1 Summary
The main purpose of this study was to examine the extent of teachers awareness of classroom
management practices, and their commitment towards employing the practices for securing
effective classroom instruction. This study was conducted in four government secondary schools
of the Addis Ababa City Administration. In the course of the study, an effort was exerted to
answer the following basic questions.
1. How do teachers facilitate the school physical environment and classroom facilities to
implement effective classroom management?
2. Is there a well-designed classroom rule and procedure that would lead students to secure
consistent classroom learning?
3. How do teachers organized the objectives of their daily lessons that actively engage the
students in the teaching learning activities?
4. To what extent are teachers committed to properly use the time- allocated for the classroom
instruction?
5. How do teachers actually organize their classroom to promote interaction of students with
the curriculum, with each other, with the teachers themselves and with the physical
environment?
On the basis of the above basic questions, the following findings were revealed.
1. from the respondents personal characteristics
1.1 Sex wise, majority of the respondent teachers were males and in the case of students the
majority is females,
1.2 Majority of the respondent teachers are young and majority are experienced from1-5 years
and joined the teaching profession in their early ages, i.e. from 20-30 years old,
66

1.3 All the respondent teachers are first Degree holders and had received training in Teacher's
Training Institutes hence hopefully all of them would receive the necessary training in
professional courses that would enable them to equip themselves with the very essence of
classroom management.
2. No establishing of ground rules and procedures with students as well as with teachers, and the
rules and procedures were not posted in any classroom. But in the literature Rudolph
(2006:22). States that the most effective classrooms established rules and procedures. He
also maintains an effective classroom has posted rules and logical consequences for breaking
those rules as well as established classroom procedures.
3. Majority of the respondent teachers had the necessary perception that having possessed the
skills that are essential for effective relation could enable them to manage classrooms
effectively.
4. Teachers did not have the awareness that the pattern of student's sitting arrangement
determines the kind of teaching method employed.
5. Teachers believed, though it is an authoritative strategy, that establishing ground rules and
procedures had a profound impact on the teacher's commitment of managing the classrooms
effectively. But if they are committed they could establish democratic rules and procedures
with the participation of students.
6. It was noted that teachers had the awareness that instructional objectives are indispensable to
manage classrooms effectively.
7. It is shown that teachers had the perception that motivation is significant to manage classrooms
effectively. But they did not realize that motivation could be attainable with the sex, ability
and background of students.
8. Most teachers were seen less committed to use many of the various motivational devices. In
spite of its old age of introduction, it was only acknowledgement and simple praise seen used
as the strategy of classroom management very frequently.

67

9. According to the information obtained, teachers depicted that whatever the students'
inappropriate classroom behavior might be ignoring was the most commonly used technique
of managing the student's off-task behavior
10. From the analysis made above, it was shown that teachers did not starting the daily lesson by
telling the objectives of their lessons. Teachers were also less committed to keep the pace of
classroom lesson, and they were seen making fast, automatic lesson transitions. Alternatively
said, majority of the teachers were seen less committed to use the allocated instructional time
during the beginning of the lesson, transitions and pacing of the lesson properly.
11. There is no classroom rules and procedures were found established. Due to lack of ground
rules and procedures, therefore, during classroom discussion students were seen talking
without raising their hand and called upon.
12. It was found out that during classroom lesson presentation teachers did not periodically
change their position. Moreover neither high nor low achievers were given the privilege to sit
in the front seats or closer to their teachers.
13. From the observation conducted in the four secondary schools, it was manifested those
classrooms:
a. Were furnished with desks and chairs for all students
b. Were well-ventilated and Were properly lighted
d. Almost neat and clean
f. Had row-pattern of seating arrangement except in one school sitting arrangement is by
grouping one to five systems.
Conversely, however, the classrooms observed have been found out that they had
a. No properly set and clean board
b. No permanent seats for students
From the description given above it can be said that more or less the physical layout (feature) of
the classroom was conducive to enhance students classroom learning. However, all the
68

classrooms had a uniform pattern of seating arrangement, i.e. row pattern of arrangement. So it is
not comfortable for group work.
14. Most teachers were not committed to manage their classes properly because teachers do not
developed clear instructional objectives in their weekly lesson plan, lack of commitment, lack
of communication with students parents and lack of using the time effectively were seen in
the observation and these are great problems to manage the classroom.
5.2 Conclusion
Classroom management and classroom instruction are two sides of the same coin. In effect,
effective classroom instruction can't be achieved without the existence of effectively managed
classroom. However, as commonly seen, teachers mainly of beginners, were seen failing to
manage their classrooms. This is mainly for either they don't have the necessary awareness of that
classroom management practices or are less committed towards employing the practices
effectively.
Teachers had the necessary awareness in almost all the content focused classroom management
practices. But their commitment to employ the practices was minimal. And with this less
commitment quality classroom instruction can't be imagined.
In general, there is a need for empowerment of teachers for management of their classrooms.
Teachers should be given the opportunity to identify their own needs. They should explore new
ideas and information. It is important for teachers to possess and develop a set of skills to
perform their task effectively. They should think about their classroom management practices.
5.3 Recommendations
Based on the analysis made, the following are suggested.
1. Teachers were seen using motivation as a classroom management strategy without considering
the student's sex, ability and background. The assets of giving emphasis to the sex, ability and
background of students is necessitated for students of different sex, ability and background
have different motives. Therefore, teachers need to consider the student's sex, ability and
background including economic background while using motivation as a classroom
management strategy.
69

2. Teachers were not starting the daily lesson by informing the objectives of their lesson, to
concentrate the students attention. Teachers were also less committed to keep the pace of
classroom lesson and they were seen making fast, automatic lesson transitions. Also teacher's
commitment to utilize time management as a classroom management was minimal. Hence, in
order to use time management as a significant component of classroom management teachers
are advised to begin the daily lesson either by announcing goals or starting demonstrating the
lesson itself. Besides, teachers need to consider their time utilization during pacing and
transitions
3. Though teachers had the necessary awareness of establishing ground rules and procedures as
strategy of classroom management, there were none in all the schools where the study was
conducted. Hence, teachers, with the students active involvement, need to formulate ground
rules and procedures so that the students classroom off-task behavior can be handled
4. During lesson presentation, teachers have never been observed changing their classroom
position periodically. Therefore, teachers need to change their position periodically so that
they can properly manage the students off-task behavior
5. Telling the daily instructional objectives to students regularly could help students not to lose
their attention and concentration. Therefore, teachers need to tell students the instructional
objectives on a daily basis.
6. Principals must give attention for the teaching learning process instead of other routine works
and meetings. So they must help and support teachers by visiting every classrooms, teachers
instructional method, teachers lesson plans, utilization of the instructional time to cover the
lesson content on time and it is important to follow students academic achievement to enhance
the expected goals.
7. Teachers may use helping materials or teaching aids, using laboratories, modern technological
tools to make the lesson active, interesting and effective teaching learning.
Generally, teachers need to use their knowledge and resources to make the lesson interesting and
understandable for students; they need to manage class time, individual and group interactions,
student behavior, and classroom resources to create a supportive learning environment. This
environment should produce creativity, cooperation, individual growth, social development,

70

parent communication, student interaction, and good behavior. There is a need for leadership
based on knowledge rather than on authority; on intrinsic motivation rather than on extrinsic
motivation; and on preventing problems from occurring rather than punishing students after a
problem behavior has occurred. It is, therefore, necessary to promote and maintain a balanced
approach conducive to learning and growth.

71

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76

Appendix A
Addis Ababa University
School of Graduate Studies
College of Education
Department of Educational Planning and Management
Questionnaire to be filled by Gulele Sub city High Schools /9-10/ School Teachers

Direction- This questionnaire is part of the study designed to collect relevant data related to
classroom management practices in Gulele sub city high schools/9-10/ of Addis Ababa. Its main
purpose is to investigate classroom management practices, to identify the problems, and suggest
their possible solutions and recommendations. Hence, your cooperation in giving genuine
information will be of great value for the success of the study.
N.B All your responses will be kept confidential. No need of writing your name.
Thank you in advance for your cooperation.

Part One: General Information on Personal Data


Direction : please indicate your response either by putting an X mark in the box given or by
writing short answer where necessary on the space provided.
1. Name of the School: ________________________
2. Sex:

A. Male

B. Female

3. Age :

A. 20-30

C. 41-50

B. 31-40

D. 51 years and above

5. The subject you teach ____________________________________________


6. Qualification:

A. Diploma

C. MA/MSc

B. BA/BSc/BEd.

D. If any other specify _______

7. Years of your work experience as a teacher:


A.1-5 years

B. 6-10 years

C. 11-15 years

D. 16 and above

8. Grade levels you are teaching:


A. 9 th

B. 10th

C. Both 9th and 10th

77

Part Two: Teachers experience in classroom management skills.


Direction: In rating the physical environment and availability of facilities and your application
of motivation in the classroom, on the scale developed, use an X mark in the
rectangle provided, in front of the item, and under one of the given scale value that
you think best represents your judgment. The numbers 5, 4, 3, 2, and 1 on the scale
represent Strongly agree, Agree, Undecided, Disagree and Strongly disagree
respectively.
2.1 Physical environment / setting/:- the physical classroom setting .
No

Items

Scale Values
5

The walls, floors, and furniture are clean and in good repair.

The furnitures are adjusted and sufficient to the proper size


for the students.

The rules, routines, & procedures posted in a manner that is


easy to see.

Facilities is organized in a manner that promotes learning.

Students do have secure and adequate spaces for personal


storage in the classroom.

There is a functional plasma television in the classroom.

There is a teachers' furniture in the classroom


There is a well-equipped library.

There are well-equipped laboratories

Instructional areas of the classroom are clear with


appropriate visual boundaries for the students.

10

Students seats are comfortable for group work.

78

2.2 Teachers instructional practice in the Classroom


No

Items

Scale Values
5

I plan for the content to be covered early in the year

I prepare a lesson plan for each lesson.

I respect my students suggestions and ideas.

I monitor students performance and I provide the necessary feed

back to my students
5

I use verbal encouragement for active participation of my students


in the classroom

I give a variety of interesting and relevant tasks to my students

I regularly check students class work and home assignments.

I provide equal opportunity to respond and became involved in


instruction.

9
10

I help the students during the transition between different learning


activities.
I move around the classroom to check students participation
consistently

2.3. Teacher- Student Relation


No

Items

Scale Values
5

I call my students by name in the classroom

I know the academic background of my students and prepare


lessons based on their abilities

I identify the individual needs of my students and give them the


necessary support

4
5

I know the family background of my students and treat them


accordingly
I feel happy when entered in the classroom.

I communicate the students parents to inform about their


childrens academic performance.

79

2.4 Principals support teachers instructional management


No

Item

Principals regularly observe teachers classroom instruction.

Principals give you immediate feed back after lesson observation.

Principals help teachers in identifying instructional problems.

Principals conduct short training to teachers that can practice and

learn various teaching approaches.


5

Principals help to organize meetings for teachers to solve


instructional problems.

Principals helps teachers to share best practices from different


teachers

3.Teachers Practice in Classroom Management Techniques


3.1Teachers perception of Establishing Ground Rules and Procedures as a strategy

No

Classroom Rules and procedures

Establishing ground rules and procedures is an authoritative


strategy hence it is less Significant to effectively manage
classrooms.

I believe that appropriate classroom discipline could exist when


students are abide by ground rules and procedures.

I believe that teachers should make the rules in as much as the


teacher not the students has the responsibility to determine which
student behaviors are acceptable and which are not

It is certain that students have the right to know not only the
contents of classroom rules but also the consequences of breaking
them.

80

3.2Teachers Perception on the Ranking Of Classroom Management Practices


No

Items

Average
Rank

1.

Establishing ground rules and procedure

2.

Using harsh forms of punishments

3.

Reinforcing the students appropriate behavior

4.

Organizing the instructional materials and the students seats


properly

5.

Telling students the daily instructional objectives regularly

6.

Using the allocated classroom time only for instructional purposes

7.

Using open channel of communication

8.

Exhibiting wittiness

9.

Facilitating smoothness and momentum

10

Maximizing students classroom participation

81

Appendix B
Addis Ababa University
School of Graduate Studies College of Education
Department of Educational Planning and Management
Questionnaire to be filled by Gulele Sub city High Schools /9-10/ students

Direction:- This questionnaire is part of the study designed to collect relevant data related to
classroom management practices in Gulele sub city high schools /9-10/ of Addis Ababa. Its main
purpose is to investigate classroom management practices, to identify the problems and suggest
their possible solutions and recommendations. Hence, your cooperation in giving genuine
information will be of great value for the success of the study.
N.B:-. All your responses will be kept confidential. No need of writing your name.
Thank you in advance for your cooperation

Part One: General Information on Personal Data


Direction: Indicate your response either by putting an X mark in the box given or by writing
short answer where necessary on the space provided
1. Sub-city: ___________________________
2. Name of the school: ________________
3. Sex:

A. Male

B. Female

4. Age: _______________
5. Grade level:

A. 9th

B. 10th

82

Part Two: The physical classroom setting and facilities


Direction: In rating the availability of facilities and the condition of classroom physical
environment on the scale developed, use in X mark in the rectangle provided, in
front of the table, and under one of the given scale values that you think best
represents your judgment. The numbers 5,4,3,2 and 1 on the scale represent:
5= strongly agree

4= Agree

3= Undecided

2= Disagree

1= strongly disagree

2.1 Physical environment / setting/:- the physical classroom setting and facilities
organized in a manner that promotes learning.
No

Items

Scale Values
5

The walls, floors, and furniture clean and in good repair.

The furnitures are adjusted and sufficient to the proper size for
the students.

Classroom facilities are organized in a manner that promotes


learning.

Students do have secure and adequate spaces for personal


storage in the classroom.

There is teachers furniture in the classroom

There is a functional plasma television in the classroom.

There is a well-equipped library

There are well-equipped laboratories

Instructional areas of the classroom have clear, visual boundaries


for the students.

10

The students seats are comfortable for group work.

83

2.2 Teachers instructional practice in the Classroom


NO

Items

Teachers plan the content to be covered early in the year.

Teachers' prepare a lesson plan for each lesson.

Teachers' respect students' suggestions and ideas.

Teachers' monitor students performance and provide necessary

5 4 3 2 1

feedback.
5

Teachers use verbal encouragement for students active participation.

Teachers give a variety of interesting and relevant activities to their


students.

Teachers' regularly check students class work and home assignments.

Teachers involve learners actively in the teaching-learning process

Teachers help students during the transition between different learning


activities.

10

Teachers move around the classroom to check students' participation


consistently.

2.3 Teacher student relation


No

Items

Scale values
5 4

Teachers call students by name in the classroom

Teachers know the academic background of their students and


prepare lessons based on their abilities

Teachers identify the individual needs of their students and give them
the necessary support

4
5
6

Teachers know the family background of their students and treat


them accordingly
Teachers and students feel happy when the teacher entered to the
classroom.
Teachers communicate with parents to inform about the students
academic performance.

84

3 Students Response on the Utilization of Classroom Management Practices


3.1 Students' Response to the Application of Classroom Management Practices
No

Item

Always

Some
times

How often do teachers show personal interest in all


students work?

How often do teachers use the following techniques to


effectively handle the student's classroom disruptive
behavior?
a. by giving extra work?
b. by ignoring the disruptive behavior?
c. by sending them to the principal office
d. by sending them out of the classroom

How often do teachers encourage the student's classroom


commitment by:
a. using acknowledgement?
b. using praise?
c. making the lesson content attractive?
d. making the classroom lesson challenging?

How often did you find difficult to understand or follow


teacher's communication in class?

How often teachers are fail to listen the students questions


responses and suggestions?

How often do teachers begin the daily lesson by telling the


instructional objectives?

7
8
9

How often have you been given the chance to participate


in formulating ground rules and procedures?
How often do teachers give rewards considering the
students' sex?
How often are students allowed to sit wherever and with
whom they wish to sit?

85

Never

Appendix C
Addis Ababa University
School of Graduate studies
College of Education
Department of Educational Planning and Management
Classroom observation checklist
This checklist is designed to collect information about teachers classroom management practices
in Gulele sub city high schools /9-10/ of Addis Ababa. Since one of the instruments for data
gathering is observation, the information obtained through this instrument will be used to
consolidate the data obtained through questionnaire from teachers, principals and students.

Part I: General Information


1.

Sub-city: ____________________

2.

Name of the school: ______________________

3.

Grade and Section ______________ Date ________________

4.

Subject ________________________ Topic ________________

5.

Number of students in the class

6.

Time lesson begins ____________________ Time lesson ends ______________

M _________ F ________ Total _______

Part II: Personal information about the teacher to be observed


1.

Sex _______________

2.

Age _______________

3.

Year of experience in teaching ____________________

4.

Qualification _____________________

86

Part III: Availability of facilities and condition of the classroom physical environment
Direction: Indicate the availability of facilities and condition of the classroom physical
environment by putting an X mark in the space provided, against the given item,
under the given scale value that best represent your judgment
Key:

5= Strongly Agree

4= Agree

3= Undecided

2= Disagree

1= strongly disagree

3.1 Physical environment / setting/:- the physical classroom setting and facilities
organized in a manner that promotes learning.
No

Items

Scale
Values
5 4 3 2 1

The walls, floors, and furniture clean and in good repair.

The furnitures are adjusted and sufficient to the proper size for the
students.

Classroom facilities are organized in a manner that promotes


learning.

Students do have secure and adequate spaces for personal storage in


the classroom.

There is teachers furniture in the classroom

There is a functional plasma television in the classroom.

There is a well-equipped library

There are well-equipped laboratories

Instructional areas of the classroom have clear, visual boundaries for


the students.

10

The students seats are comfortable for group work.

87

2.2 The utilization of motivational Practices


No

Item

Scales

Teachers provide students activities that are personally


challenging

Teachers treat boys and girls equally

Teachers are willing to help those slow to learn

Teachers ask only bright and bold students

Teachers use a variety of teaching techniques

Students respond to questions willingly (voluntarily)

Students are attentive to the teacher, one another and the


task the lesson is completed

2.3

Teachers Reaction to Appropriate and Inappropriate


Classroom Behavior of Students

Teachers reaction to the students appropriate behavior is


a. Acknowledgement
b. Simple praise
c. Smile
d. Nodding the head positively

Teachers reaction to the students inappropriate classroom


behavior
2.1 Ignoring the inappropriate behavior
2.2 Using negative personal response
2.3 Standing near the trouble makers
2.4 Showing signals to stop the inappropriate behavior
2.5 Putting their hand on the students shoulder
2.6 Ordering the students to leave the classroom

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Always

Sometimes

Never

Always

Sometimes

Never

2.4 Instructional Time utilization


No

Items
Always

Sometimes

Never

Teachers begin the daily lesson by:


1.1posing questions to the class
1.2announcing goals
1.3checking whether students are in their proper seats or not
1.4demanding the students attention
1.5checking whether students have done their homework or
not
1.6starting demonstrating the lesson
Teachers bring the daily classroom lesson to an end by:

2.1 reviewing the main ideas of the lesson


2.2 setting assignments and other reading materials based on
the lesson
2.3 briefly outlining what will happen in the next lesson
3

Teachers make the next activity of a lesson or step


immediately available (pacing activities)

Teachers make fast, automatic lesson transitions

2.6 The Application of Ground Rules and Procedures


No
1

Items

Yes

Classroom rules and procedures


1.1Are established and known
1.2Are clear and followed
1.3Are few in number
1.4Are posted in the bulletin board

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No

2.7 The Application of Ground Rules and Procedures


No
1

Items
Students talk without raising their hands and called up on

Students leave their seats without permission

Students are being quite while the teacher or someone else


is talking

2.8

Teachers position,
arrangement

and

students

Always

Sometimes

Never

seating Always

Sometimes

Never

Sometimes

Never

1
Teachers change their position in room periodically
2
Teachers remain continuously stationary during lesson
presentation
3
Teachers stand next to target students as Lesson continues
with little movement
4
Teachers advise low achievers about where they should seat
5
Teachers permit mainly high achievers to take the front
seats
6
Teachers place low-achieving students close to them
7
Teachers mix high and low achieving students

2.9 The application of teachers communication skills


No

Items

Always

Teachers are clear and calm in their lesson presentation.

Teachers are consistent in their dealing with students.

Teachers use firm voice at an appropriate volume

Teachers look at all students as lesson goes on

Teachers look at target students more frequently than others.

Teachers touch the shoulder of target students of in


attention.

Teachers physically comfort or reward students during


instruction.

Teachers accept the students feelings, view.

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Appendix D
Addis Ababa University
School of Graduate Studies
College of Education

Department of Educational Planning and Management


A. Interview Questions to be answered by secondary school principals
1. Do teachers prepare lesson plans to cover the subject content on time?
2. Do teachers set clearly the daily objectives of their lessons?
3. Do teachers use different instructional methods in classrooms?
4. Do teachers include relevant, interesting or challenging activities in their daily lesson
plans?
5. How do teachers organize their classrooms to promote interaction of students?
Individual work?
Pair works?
Group work?
6. Do teachers use the instructional time effectively?
7. Do you meet regularly with teachers to discuss on teachers?
classroom management practice?
8. How do you describe is the academic learning is the primary
focus of the school?
9. How is your role in the school rules and procedures?
10. Do you regularly observe and support teachers classroom instruction? If your answer is no
what are the reasons?
11. Would you explain the school facilities are available?

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DECLARATION
I, the undersigned graduate student, declare that this thesis is my original work and has not been
presented for a degree in any other university, and that all sources of materials used for the thesis
have been duly acknowledged.

Name: Zufan Ayalew Asseres


Signature:
Date: ____________________________________

Addis Ababa University

This thesis has been submitted for examination by my approval

Advisor Name: Ato Ayalew Shibeshi (Asso. Professor)


Signature: ___________________________
Date: ___________________________________

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