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EXPERIMENT VI

SCR, TRIAC, SSR AND H - BRIDGE


I.

End Result
Study the characteristics of SCR, TRIAC, and SSR
Study the application of Bipolar Transistors

II.

Scope
A. Theory
SCR (Silicon Controlled Rectifier)
SCR (Silicon Controlled Rectifier) is a diode which has the
function as the controller. SCR is made of a mixture of P and N which
consists of PNPN (Positive Negative Positive Negative). SCR has three
terminals, there are anode, cathode, and gate terminal. Therefore, SCR also
called Triode. The gate is used as a controller. These are the symbol and
the physical form of the SCR:

Figure 6.1

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SSR (Solid State Relay)


SSR is a component with similar function to that of a Triac and
relay. SSR is an electrical switch that is often used on a high voltage (AC)
circuit, yet is controlled using DC voltage. The Solid State Relay consist of
four pins that can be divided into two groups; two input and two output
pins. The input pins are given DC voltage, whereas the output pins are
given AC voltage. Schematics and pictures of the real object can be seen
on Figure 6.2 below.

Figure 6.2 Solid State Relay


TRIAC
TRIAC is equivalent to two parallel SCR which linked. In the
TRIAC, current can flow back and forth did not like the SCR can only
stream flow only in one direction. TRIAC has three terminals, namely
terminal 1 (MT1), the terminal 2 (MT2), and Gate. TRIAC is divided into
2 types of Low-Current TRIAC can be contacted by a strong current of 1
ampere and has a maximum voltage of up to several hundred volts and
Medium-Current TRIAC can be contacted up to 40 ampere current
strength and has a maximum voltage of up to 1,000 volts, therefore the
SCR and TRIAC typically used in high voltage switching circuits. These
are the symbol and the physical form of TRIAC:

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Figure 6.3
The function of an SCR (Silicon Controlled Rectifier) is similar to
that of a diode, which is to act as a switch. To put it simply, the SCR is
equivalent to two transistors connected in reverse. The SCR consist of
three pins, which is the anode, cathode and gate. The anode and the
cathode connects when we give trigger current to the gate. TRIAC (Triode
for Alternating Current) is an SCR that can work in two directions (AC).
In general, the way we turn a TRIAC on is similar to that of an SCR.
H - Bridge
In this practicum, will be discused the aplication of the transistor as
a switch in the H-bridge circuit. H-bridge is a circuit that often used to
adjust the movement of the DC motor. H-bridge is often used for robotic
aplications or tools that require the motor in industry.

Figure 6.4

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Figure 6.4 show the basic circuit of an H-bridge. In its apclication,


usually the input enter the Left Top then enter the Right Bottom, and the
input enter the Right Top then enter the Left Bottom. Here is the table of
input and their effects.

Figure 6.5

Figure 6.6

LEFT TOP & RIGHT

RIGHT TOP & LEFT

Direction of mottor

BOTTOM

BOTTOM

rotation

ON

OFF

Clockwise

OFF

ON

Counter-Clockwise

OFF

OFF

ON

ON

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Stop
Stop (short-circuit)

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B. Reference
1. Thomas L. Floyd. (2008). Electronic Devices, Conventional Current
Version. Edisi 8. Pearson, Prentice Hall. New Jersey. 978-0-13-615581-2.
2. Kevin F. Brennan & April S. Brown. (2002). Theory of Modern Electronic
Semiconductor Devices. Edisi 1. John Wiley & Sons. New York. 0-47141541-3.
3. Jimmie J.Cathey. (2002). Electronic Devices and Circuits. Edisi 2.
McGraw-Hill. New York. 0-07-139830-9.
4. Floyd, Thomas L.. (2003). Electronics Fundamentals: Circuits, Devices
and Applications. Edisi 6. Prentice Hall. New Jersey. 0131111388.
5. Robert L. Boylestad & Louis Nashelsky. (2006). Electronics Device and
Circuit Theory. Edisi 9. Pearson, Prentice Ha. New Jersey. 0-13-197408-4.
6. Robert T. Paynter. (2003). Introductory Electronic Devices and Circuits,
Electron Flow Version. Edisi 6. Pearson, Prentice Ha. New Jersey. 0-13120675-3.
7. Malvino, Albert Paul. (1985). Semiconductor Circuit Approximations.
Edisi 4. McGraw-Hill. New York. 0070398984.
8. Millman and Halkias , Integrated Electronics, Mc Graw-Hill, 1982.
9. Malvino, Semiconductor Circuit Aproximation, Prentice-Hall, 1985.
10. Floyd, Electronic Device Conventional Current Version Pearson
Prentice Hall, 2005.

III. Devices

Osciloscope

Experiment Box

Electronic Devices Experiment Module 4

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IV. Instruction of Laboratory


A. Procedure

Potensio1
100 K

1. SCR (Silicon Controlled Rectifier)

SCR and TRIAC are the most


frequently used for controlling the
series that using high voltage.
With using SCR and TRIAC, we
can control that series using low
voltage.

VPS

RK
1K2

VRK

VCC

Potensio2
10 K

SCR
1K

MCR 100

10 K

LED

VG

VP2
RG

GND

Figure 6.4

Create a Closed SCR


1. Turn POTENSIO2 to its minimum position (CCW).
2. Measure VPS, turn POTENSIO1 until you get VPS = 15 Volt.
3. Turn POTENSIO2 slowly (CW) until the LED light up. Measure the
voltage and current in accordance to Table 6.1 (after the LED light up,
switch the box power off and switch back on to turn the LED off).
4. Calculate the trigger current (IT) and trigger voltage (VT) of the SCR in
accordance to Table 6.1.

Table 6.1
Vp2
VG
IG
VRk
ILED

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IG

VRG
RG

I LED

VRk
Rk

IT

= ..

VT

= ..

Keep SCR closed


1. Turn POTENSIO2 until the LED light up.
2. And turn POTENSIO2 to its minimum position (CCW).
3. Measure VRk, and turn POTENSIO1, lowering VPS until right
before the LED turn off, record VRk and IRk in Table 6.2. (Repeat
the process until you succeed).
4. Record VP2, VRk and IRk.

Table 6.2
VP2

VRk

IRk (mA)

IH = ..

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2. TRIAC

Figure 6.5

1. Turn POTENSIO4 to its minimum position (CCW).


2. Record the voltage across the capacitor and Triac into Table 6.3,
and plot the signal (VC & VTRIAC).
3. Turn POTENSIO4 to its maximum position (CW), and repeat step
2 2.

Table 6.3
Potentiometers Position

VC

Vtriac

Minimum
Maximum

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Vc

Vtriac

3. SSR (Solid State Relay)

10 K

5K

3K

OUT 1 OUT 2

Figure 6.6

1. Use the SSR module.


2. Turn the POTENTIOMETER to its minimum position (CCW).
3. Configure the OSCILLOSCOPE to AC mode and measure VOUT.
4. Record VOUT in Table 6.4.
5. Turn the POTENTIOMETER to its maximum position (CW).
6. Configure the OSCILLOSCOPE to AC mode and measure VOUT.
7. Record VOUT in Table 6.4.

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Table 6.4
POTENTIOMETER

VOUT

Minimum
Maximum

4. Aplications of Bipolar Transistors on a H-Bridge


TIP125 /
TIP127

TIP121 /
WBG 245

TIP121 /
WBG 245

TIP125 /
TIP127

2N3904
2N3904

47

2N3904
10K

470

470

3K3
10K
2N3904

3K3
OUT1

47
1000 uF

IN1 ON

OUT2

IN2 ON

Figure 6.7
1. Use H-BRIDGE module.
2. Slide switch to the IN1.
3. Observe the direction of motor rotation.
4. Then slide switch to the IN2.
5. Observe the direction of motor rotation.
6. Record the direction of motor rotation in accordance with the
direction of switch in Table 6.5
Table 6.5
IN1

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IN2

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B. Final reports requirement for minimum grade


1. Explain the function of Thyristor and Relay.
2. Explain the differences between a Four Layer Diode, SCR, DIAC,
TRIAC, and SSR.
3. Explanation on how to turn SCR, TRIAC, and SSR ON and OFF.
4. A description of motor.
5. A description of H-bridge and how it works.
6. Can we build a H-bridge without Q6 and Q8 (see figure 8.5 in
attachment)? Give the schematic if the answer is yes! Give the
explanation of your answer!
7. Analyze how SCR works and the effects of turning P1 and P2 on the
circuit.
8. Analyze how TRIAC works and the effects of turning P1 on the
circuit.
9. Analyze why the voltage measured is lower when the Lamp lights up
brightly.
10. Analyze how SSR works and the effects of turning the
POTENTIOMETER on the circuit.
11. Analyze of the workings of the H-bridge and connect the explaination
of the data analysis with the explaination of the workings of the circuit
in the experiment.
12. Simulate the experiments using Multisim! (use MCR22_2 as a TRIAC
and 2N5444 as an SCR in the simulation)
13. Simulate the power amplifier experiment in multisim. (you can change
the TIP 41A with 2N3904 and TIP 42A with 2N3905)
14. Simulate the H-bride experiment in multisim. Find the current trought
the DC motor
15. Give conclusions to the experiment you just did (min 8)!

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IV.

Attachments

Figure 6.8:

Figure 6.9:

Figure 6.10 :
15+ VAC
15- VAC

15+ VDC

AC

AC

SSR-EZ480D18S

R1
5K

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RL
3K

Vout

R3
10K

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Figure 6.11 :

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