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MIDDLE EAST TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY

DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING


CE 241: MATERIALS SCIENCE

LABORATORY REPORT # 1: Determination of Modulus of Elasticity and


Poissons Ratio of Concrete

LAB GROUP: 6

ABDULLAH ATHAR
2125854
SECTION # 6

MAHSUN KACI
2092906
SECTION # 6

SUBMISSION DATE: 05.12.2016

Table of Contents
1. Objectives and Scope.
3
2. Preliminary Remarks.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

3
Test Specimen... 5
Apparatus.. 5
Test Procedures..... 6
Calculations... 6
Results. 13
Discussion of Results...

13
9. Conclusion...
14
References..... 15

1- Objects and Scope:


The object of this experiment is to observe the behaviour of concrete under
the application of stress produced by uniaxial compressive forces. The scope
of this experiment is to calculate the Modulus of Elasticity and Poissons
Ratio of concrete.
2- Preliminary Remarks:
Stress:
It is the force applied per unit area of the material. For this experiment we will consider
compressive stress i.e. the stress resulting from the application of
compressive forces. Stress is calculated by using the given formula:
= F/A, where
= stress
F = applied force
A = Area upon which the force is being applied
Strain:
It is the deformation per unit length of a material and is also called axial
strain. For this experiment we will consider compressive strain i.e. the
strain resulting from the application of compressive forces. Strain is
dimensionless and is calculated by using the following formula:
= L/Lo, where,
= strain
L = change in length
Lo = original length

Lateral Strain is the ratio of deformation of the dimension of a body


perpendicular to the direction of the applied force (lateral dimension)
to the original lateral dimension.
1 = d/d where,
1 = lateral strain
d = deformation
d = original lateral dimension

Deformation:
It is the alteration in the dimension or shape of a material as a result of
application of stress or the variation in temperature. (For this experiment we
will observe deformation resulting from the application of stress)
Elastic Materials:
The materials which return to their original dimensions and shapes after
being subjected to deformations resulting from the application of external
forces.
Hookes Law:
This law states that in an elastic body, the stress and strain are proportional
to each other, independent of time.

Modulus of Elasticity (Youngs Modulus):


It is the ratio between stress and stress and measures the stiffness of a
material.
E = /, where
E = youngs modulus
= stress
4

= strain

Poissons Ratio:
It is the ratio between lateral strain and axial strain.
v = -1/ a, where,
v = Poissons ratio
1 = lateral strain
a = axial strain
Isotropic Materials:
Materials which exhibit the same properties in all directions. The specimen
under observation i.e. concrete is also an isotropic material.
3- Test Specimen
The specimen being used is a solid cylinder of concrete. The cylinder has a diameter of 10 cm
with a height of 20 cm.
4- Apparatus
A UTM (universal testing machine) is used for this experiment. It is an apparatus used to
measure the tensile stress and compressive stress of materials.

Figure 1: Universal Testing Machine (UTM)


5- Test Procedure
I.
Place the cylinder vertically between two level plates in the UTM.
II.
Load the specimen and then unload it, repeating the process thrice.
III.
Record the applied load and displacement data from the UTM continuously.

6- Calculations

Time (s)

Figure 2: axial force time.

1-

2nd

Loading Rate

Time (s)
f(x) = - 5091.88x + 305983.6

Figre 3: Second loading rate.

At

t(0)=61,1289

At

F( 0)=5252,57

At

t( 1)=61,6294

At

F(1)=7798,64

Loading Rate=[ F (1)F (0)]/[t(1)t (0)]=[7798,64(5252,57)]/[61,6294611289 ]=5087,1546

graph this rate egual=5091,9

2- 3rd Loading Rate


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Time(s)
f(x) = - 5092.41x + 611563.91

Figure 4: Third loading rate.


At

t ( 0 ) =120,1865

At

F( 0)=505,706

, at
, at

t( 1)=120,687
F(1)=3050,6

Loading rate=[ F(1)F (0)]/[t (1)t (0)]=[3050,6(505,706)]/[120,687120,1865 ]=5084,703

graph this rate egual =5092,4

3- Elastic modulus for second loading


ax ial strain
f(x) = 233536.79x + 0.29

Figure 5: Axial stress axial strain for second loading.

Stress =

force ( F )
, At t ( 0 )=60,128 F=131,868 A=5050=7853,9816
area( A )

F 131,868
Stress = =
=0,017
A 7853,9816
Strain=Deformation (L)/original length( L)

Deformation=

LVDT ( 1 ) + LVDT ( 2 )
, So at t ( 60,128 ) ,
2

L=(0,002+(0,005))/ 2=0,00172

L=1300 mm , Strain=

L 0,00172
,=
=1,323105
L
130

also , slope of this graph=Elastic m odulus( E2)=23353


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for second loading

4- Elastic modulus for third loading

ax ial strain
f(x) = 23409.61x + 0.34

Figure 6: Axial stress axial strain for third loading.


At t ( 120,1865 ) , F=505,706 A=5050=7853,9816
F 505,706
Stress = =
=0,06
A 7853,9816
Strain=Deformation (L)/original length( L)

Deformation=

L=

LVDT ( 1 ) + LVDT ( 2 )
, So at t ( 120,1865 ) ,
2

0,002+ (0,007 )
3
=2,510
2

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L 2,5103
L=130 mm , Strain=
,=
=1,923105
L
130

also , slope of this graph=Elastic m odulus( E3)=23410

for third loading

5- Poissons ratio for second loading


axial strain

f(x) = - 0.21x - 0

Figure 7: transverse strain- axial strain second loading


Transverse strain=Lateral deformation/Original laterallength

Lateral deformat i on=(0,44 /1)(Value of COD) At t(60,12893)=COD=0,00029825305488


So , Lateral deformation=0,44 /0,0014343=1475,258

then, Tranverse strain=lateral deformatin/original length=1475,258 /100(originallength)=14,753

axial strain has already calculated at figure 4

Poisson s ratio=(tranverse strain /axial strain) , slope of Figure7


Transverse strain /axial strain=0,209
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Poison s ratio ( v2 ) =(0,209 )=0,209 for second loading

6- Poissons ratio for third loading


axial strain

f(x) = - 0.21x - 0

Figure 8: transverse strain -axial strain for third loading


Lateral deformat i on=(0,44 /1)(Value of COD) At t(120,1865)=COD=0,00044
So , Lateral deformation=0,44 /0,00044=1000

then, Tranverse strain=lateral deformatin/original length=1000 /100( originallength)=10

axial straanhas already calculated at figure5 third loading

Poisson s ratio=(tranverse strain /axial strain) , slope of Figure 8


Transverse strain /axial strain=0,210

Poison s ratio( v 3)=(0,210)=0,210 for third loading

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7- Results
Loading Rate
Loading Rate for Second Loading = -5091,1 Ns-1
Loading Rate for Third Loading = -5092,4 Ns-1
Elastic Modulus
Elastic Modulus for Second Loading (E2) = 23353 MPa
Elastic Modulus for Third Loading (E3) = 23410 MPa
Average Elastic Modulus (Eavg) = (23353 + 23410) / 2
= 23382 MPa
Poissons Ratio
Poissons Ratio for Second Loading (v2) = 0,209
Poissons Ratio for Third Loading (v3) = 0,210
Average Poissons Ratio (vavg) = (0,210 + 0,209) / 2
= 0,210
8- Discussion of Results
In this experiment we found out how to calculate both the Elastic Modulus
and the Poissons Ratio of concrete using their relation with stress and strain.
The Elastic Modulus showed us the stiffness of concrete while the Poissons
Ratio showed us the tendency of concrete to expand/contract in a lateral
direction when a compressive/tensile force is applied to it longitudinally.

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When we conducted the experiment, we took three readings by loading and


unloading our specimen thrice. However, we only considered the second two
readings and neglected the first one because it may contain unwanted errors
by the experimenter or the machine and provide us with inaccurate results.
Moreover, we used two LVDTs in this experiment and averaged their results.
This was done to avoid any possible errors and acquire results as accurate as
possible.
The original Poissons Ratio for concrete (v concrete) varies between 0,15 to 0,25
and the value determined from this experiment i.e. v concrete = 0,210 lies well
inside this range which affirms the accuracy of this experiment. Moreover,
the original value for the Elastic Modulus for concrete (Econcrete) varies between 14000 MPa
to 41000 MPa and the value acquired from this experiment i.e. E concrete = 23382 MPa lies entirely
inside this range which confirms the accuracy of our results.
For an isotropic material, its Bulk Modulus (K) and Shear Modulus (G) can be
calculated by using the following formulas K = E / 3 (1 - 2v) and G = E / 2 (1
+ v) respectively. Since, concrete is an isotropic material and the Elastic
Modulus (E) as well as the Poissons Ratio (v) are known, both the Bulk
Modulus (K) and the Shear Modulus (G) can be calculated.
Bulk Modulus (K)
K = E / 3 (1 - 2v)
K = 23382 / 3 (1 2 (0,210))
K = 13437 MPa
Shear Modulus (G)
G = E / 2 (1 + v)
G = 23382 / 2 (1 + (0,210))
G = 9662 MPa

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Finally, if we endeavour to calculate the Elastic Modulus from the force


longitudinal deformation graph for this specimen, we can determine its value
because both the dimensions for this specimen and relation of Elastic
Modulus with stress and strain are known.
9- Conclusion
We calculated the stress and strain of concrete using the data acquired from
the UTM and the LVDTs and from those, we further calculated the Elastic
modulus and Poissons Ratio. Hence, this experiment showed us the relation
of Elastic Modulus and Poissons Ratio with stress and strain.

References:
1. Erdoan, Turhan Y et al. (2010). Introduction to Material Science for Civil
Engineers. (1st ed.). Ankara: METU Press.
2. http://www.engineeringtoolbox.com/concrete-properties-d_1223.html
3. http://www.eduresourcecollection.com/civil_sm_Strains.php
4. http://www.efunda.com/formulae/solid_mechanics/mat_mechanics/elastic_
constants_g_k.cfm
5. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Universal_testing_machine

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