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Cracking Moment Part B

Dr Antonis Michael
Department of Civil Engineering
Frederick University

What Section Shall be Chosen to Compute

I, A, yp, yb

Bonded Beams

Unbonded Beams

Transformed section
Net concrete section

Method used for effective pre-stress

(Prestressing force accounting for the
Practical Problems Use gross section

Post-tensioned beam with C50/60 concrete
Initial prestressing stress = 951.5 MPa
Effective (after losses) prestressing stress fPe = 827.4 MPa
AP = 1613 mm2 = 0.001613 m2
Compute total moment capacity of the section at mid-span for: (a) fb = 0, (b) fb =
Assume bonded tendons and use gross section

305 mm

y p = 127 mm

610 mm

12.19 m

(a) fb = 0

b h3
12 = h = 0.61 = 0.102m
kt =
A yb (b h ) h

Pe = AP f Pe = 0.001613 827400 = 1334.6kN

M 1 = Pe (y p + kt ) = 1334.6 (0.127 + 0.102) = 305.6kN m

(a) fb = fctm,fl
In addition to the moment to cause fb = 0 an additional moment M2 is needed to
crack the beam
fctm= 0,30fck(2/3)
fctm= 2,12In(1+(fcm/10))

> C50/60

f ctm = 0.3 f ck3 = 0.3 (50 ) 3 = 4.1MPa


f ctm, fl = max 1.6
f ctm ; f ctm = max 1.6
4.1;4.1 = 4.1MPa

b h 3 0.305 0.613
= 0.00577 m 4

yb =

h 0.61
= 0.305m

M2 =

f ctm , fl I

4100 0.00577
= 77.6kN m

M cr = M 1 + M 2 = 305.6 + 77.6 = 383.2kN m

Ultimate Moment Capacity

Loading Stages
Typical loading history and stress distribution across the depth









Comp. Tension



(a) Beam Section, (b) Initial Pre-Stressing, (c) Self Weight and Effective
Prestress, (d) Full Permanent Load and Effective Prestress, (e) Full Service
Load and Effective Prestress, (f) Limit State of Stress at Ultimate Load


Steel Yielding
Service Load Limit
Including Overload
First Cracking Load

Full Perm. Load

Initial Prestressing




Ultimate Moment

Bonded Tendons


Flexural Failure

No shear, bond or anchorage failure

Beams are bonded (Unbonded beams have

different ultimate strength)
Beams are statically determined (For
continuous beams use plastic hinge theory)
Quasi-static ultimate load (impact, fatigue or
long term loading not considered)


Principle of a resisting couple in a

prestressed beam (C-Line Method)

Modes of Failure of Prestress Concrete

Failure start

Concrete Failure end Concrete

General Case: Under reinforced section

Failure starts with excessive elongation of steel
& ends with crashing of concrete

Uncommon Case: Over reinforced section

Concrete is crushed before the steel is stressed
into the plastic range limited deformation
before rupture (brittle mode of failure)
Another Uncommon Case: Too Lightly
reinforced section
Failure occurs by breaking of the steel following
the cracking of concrete. This happens when
the tensile force in the concrete is suddenly
transferred to the steel with an area too small
to take the tension

There is NO SHARP LINE between the

percentage of reinforcement for an over
reinforced and an under reinforced beam but a
gradual transition.
Prestressing steel does NOT exhibit a sharp
yield point Therefore a sharp definition of
balanced condition CAN NOT be made.

Design Assumptions
- plane sections remain plane.
- the strain in bonded reinforcement or bonded
prestressing tendons, whether in tension or
in compression, is the same as that in the
surrounding concrete.
- the tensile strength of the concrete is ignored.
- the stresses in the concrete in compression
are derived from the design stress/strain
relationship given in 3.1.7.

Design Assumptions
- the stresses in the reinforcing or prestressing
steel are derived from the design curves in
3.2 (Figure 3.8) and 3.3 (Figure 3.10).
- the initial strain in prestressing tendons is
taken into account when assessing the
stresses in the tendons.

EN 1992 1 Section 3.3.6 (Steel Material

(1)P Structural analysis is performed on the basis of the nominal
cross-section area of the prestressing steel and the characteristic
values fp0,1k, fpk and uk.
(2) The design value for the modulus of elasticity, Ep may be
assumed equal to 205 GPa for wires and bars. The actual value
can range from 195 to 210 GPa, depending on the manufacturing
process. Certificates accompanying the consignment should
give the appropriate value.
(3) The design value for the modulus of elasticity, Ep may be
assumed equal to 195 GPa for strand. The actual value can
range from 185 GPa to 205 GPa, depending on the
manufacturing process. Certificates accompanying the
consignment should give the appropriate value.

EN 1992 1 Section 3.3.6 (Steel Material

(4) The mean density of prestressing tendons for the purposes of design may
normally be taken as 7850 kg/m3
(5) The values given above may be assumed to be valid within a temperature
range between -40C and +100C for the prestressing steel in the
finished structure.
(6) The design value for the steel stress, fpd, is taken as fp0,1k/S (see Figure
(7) For cross-section design, either of the following assumptions may be made
(see Figure 3.10):
- an inclined branch, with a strain limit ud. The design may also be based
on the actual stress/strain relationship, if this is known, with stress above
the elastic limit reduced analogously with Figure 3.10, or
- a horizontal top branch without strain limit.
Note: The value of ud for use in a Country may be found in its National
Annex. The recommended value is 0,9 uk. If more accurate values are not
known the recommended values are ud = 0,02 and fp0,1k /fpk = 0,9.

EN1992 1 Section 3.3.6

A Idealised
B Design


EN 1992 1 Section 3.3.6 (Concrete

Material Properties)
(3) A rectangular stress distribution (as given in Figure 3.5) may be assumed.
The factor , defining the effective height of the compression zone and the
factor , defining the effective strength, follow from:

= 0,8
for fck 50 MPa
= 0,8 - (fck -50)/400 for 50 < fck 90 MPa

= 1,0
= 1,0 - (fck -50)/200

for fck 50 MPa

for 50 < fck 90 MPa

EN 1992 1 Section 3.1.7 (Concrete

Material Properties)

for fck < 50 MPa

cu3(0/00) = 3,5

for fck 50 Mpa