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MA0100

Environmental
Sustainability

MP4D06

G Lee
School of Mechanical(C)
& SAerospace
Engineering

Learning Objectives
Provide an overview of the significance of
environmental sustainability, the factors leading
to environmental degradation, and the degree of
contribution by human activities to the
environmental degradation.
Provide an introduction to the developments of
various engineering solutions for environmental
sustainability. To be offered to MAE3 students as
a core course under breadth.

Course outline
Industrial Ecology and Environmental
Degradation, Waste Recovery (Prof Lye SW)
Sustainable Materials, Energy Eff. , Renewable,
Clean Energy(Adj Prof Kang KH)

Global Landscape of Environmental Policies; Life


Cycle Assessment (LCA) - (A/Prof Stephen Lee)
Air Pollution (Prof Lua AC)
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Topics to be covered
Topic

Instructor

Environmental Degradation and Industrial Ecology Greenhouse


gases, ozone depletion and climate change. The industrial eco-system.
World views of industrial ecology. Global energy and material flow.

LYE Sun Woh

Waste and Recovery Re-use, re-make, re-cycle. Extended producer


responsibility. Product-services systems. Issues, challenges, limitations.

Energy efficiency, Renewable, Clean Energy Efficiency of energy


conversion systems (heat engines, fuel cells). Renewable energy.

KANG Kok Hin

Global Landscape of Environmental Policies Carbon economy.


Standards. Organizations.

Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) Methodology. LCA examples. LCA of

Stephen LEE

eco-materials. Exercises. Proxy indicators. Benefits and limitations.


Issues. Trends.

Air Pollution Industrial, power plant and automobile exhaust


emissions. Air pollution abatement technologies.

LUA Aik Chong

Course instructors

Kang Kok Hin,


Co-ordinator

Lye, Sun Woh

Lee Siang Guan,


Stephen

Lua, Aik Chong

Contacts

Contacts

Contacts

Contacts

Email:
khkang@ntu.edu.sg
Phone: 6790 4957
Office: N3-02c-113a

Email:
mswlye@ntu.edu.sg
Phone: 6513 8690
Office: N3-02b-40

Email:
msglee@ntu.edu.sg
Phone: 6790 5580
Office: N3-02c-74

Email:
maclua@ntu.edu.sg
Phone: 6790 5535
Office: N3-02b-56

Course Expectations
Contents
Wide coverage. No textbook. Lecture notes and
reference materials will be provided.
Qualitative (Descriptive) cum Quantitative (Calculations)

Assessment
Continuous Assessments 40% (2 Quizzes: Quiz 1: 12% Lye
SW; 8% Kang KH; Quiz 2: 10% Kang KH; 10% Lee SSG)
Examinations 60% [1Q (LSW); 0.5Q (Lee SSG); 1.5Q (Kang
KH); 1Q (Lua AC)]

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References
http://www.scribd.com/doc/48989767/Overpopul
ation-Vs-Global-Environment-How-much-is-toomuch
U Ayres & L W Ayres. (2002). A handbook of
industrial ecology. Cheltenham, UK.
T E Graedel & B R Allenby. (2003). Industrial
ecology. 2nd ed., New Jersey: Prentice Hall Inc.
D L Goetsch & S B Davis. (2001). ISO 14000
Environment Management. New Jersey:
Prentice Hall Inc.
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Top 10 Environmental Issues according to Planet Earth Herald - 2016

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Top 10 Environmental Issues according to


Planet Earth Herald - 2016
1. Over Population
2. Environmental Damage
owing to Climate Change
3. Eco-system upset
resulting in Loss of Biodiversity
4. Environmental Impact by
Phosphorus and Nitrogen
Cycles
http://planetearthherald.com/top-10-environmental-issues
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Source: Worldometers (5 Jan 2017)


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Loss of Biodiversity
149,642 Forest Loss (Hectares)
83,134 Productive Land Loss
through Soil Erosion (Hectares)
310,714631 Topsoil Erosion from
Farmlands (Metric Tons)
195,366 Desert Land formed due
to Mismanagement

Changing Faces
about WildLife
Habitat 2016

1,713,876 Tons of Live Beings


Biological Waste
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Top 10 Environmental Issues according to


Planet Earth Herald - 2016
1. Over Population
2. Environmental Damage
owing to Climate Change
3. Eco-system upset
resulting in Loss of Biodiversity
4. Environmental Impact by
Phosphorus and Nitrogen
Cycles

5. Shortage of Clean Water


6. Ocean Acidification on
Marine Life
7. Pollution
8. Ozone Layer Depletion
9. Over Fishing / Harvesting
10. Deforestation

http://planetearthherald.com/top-10-environmental-issues
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Facts about Water


Water: Planet earth has ample amounts of water
present on the surface. However, in terms of
usable water, only 3% is useful. That means
97% of the water on the planet is too salty to
drink or use in agriculture. The 3% freshwater
can be found in some lakes and rivers across
the globe.
(Nature Resource and Waste
Production)
The distribution is varied across the globe see
water footprint.

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A Global Crisis?

1,205,448 Tons of Fish Caught


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294,295,597 Carbon Dioxide Emissions (Metric Tons)

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Lesson 1
Understanding Environmental Sustainability
A Model for Environmental Impact
Assessment

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Environment Sustainability

Concerns with preserving the


integrity of the physical
environment exposed to the
impacts of human activities.

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Why the great concern?


- Some Common Reasons

Over Extraction / Harvest


Wastage / Disposal Issues
Economic Impact

Pollution / Devastation
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Concerns: Link to Earth


Carrying Capacity
Carrying capacity refers to the number of individuals
who can be supported in a given area within natural
resource limits, and without degrading the natural social,
cultural and economic environment for present and
future generations - GDRC Org.
Earth Carrying Capacity is dynamic. Earliest estimates
during the early 18th century put the number being
around 12 billion. Current studies state slightly over 3
billion people noting changing environment and
peoples aspirations.
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What
factors
affect it?

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Industrialisation and Gas Emissions: Utrecht


University, Netherlands Study Report
From around 1800, there was a surge in methane
emissions, and most of the gas emitted today is manmade, says the study. "This footprint of the surge is
visible on a global level. That's what surprised us," said
Ms Sapart, Utrecht investigator.
The verdict: Unbridled gas emission is greatly affecting
and destroying our eco-system via pollution and global
warming. It is harmful to humans, animals and plants.
Current industrialisation processes need to be refined
and more environmental friendly processes be adopted.

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+ Growth
Intrinsic Quality for
Sustainable Living
(Eg. Air, Water, Wildlife)

- Degradation

Resources

Ecological
Cycles (Eg.
Air, Water)

(Renewable, Non-Renewable)

Earths Carrying Capacity

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Environmental Impact:
3 Scenarios
Environment Degradation: Consumption of
renewable resources > Natures ability to replenish
leading to unsustainability.
Environment Equilibrium: Consumption of
renewable resources = Natures ability to replenish
resulting in steady state.
Environment Sustainability: Consumption of
renewable resources < Natures ability to replenish
leading to environmental sustainability.
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+ Growth
Intrinsic Quality for
Sustainable Living
(Eg. Air, Water, Wildlife)

- Degradation

Resources

Ecological
Cycles (Eg.
Air, Water)

(Renewable, Non-Renewable)

Sphere of Environment
Sustainability

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IPAT: Environmental Impact


Model

I = (P, A,T)
Where: I = Environmental impact, P =
Population, A = Affluence (GDP/Person),
T = Technology (Impact/Unit of GDP)

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Population Factors of
Consideration
Size or Number of People
Demographics
Rate of Population Change

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Rate of Population Change, R


R = (B D) + (I E)
B = Birth Rate; D = Death Rate
I = Immigration Rate; E = Emigration Rate

Example:
In 1990, a country has the following rate of change per
1000; birth rate is 15; 8.1 for death rate; 5.0 for immigration
and 3.6 for emigration. Comment on the rate of population
change.
R = (15 8.1) + (5.0 - 3.6) = 6.9 + 1.4 = 8.3 per 1000
Population rate of change would increase.
Environmental Impact: Expected rate to increase*
* Other factors hold constant
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Population Forecast
A country has a population of 4 million in 1990.
From 1990 to 2005, it grew at a stable annual rate of 3%.
What would be the population number in 2005 and
expected number in 2020?
Solution:
2005 Population: 4 * 1.0315 = 6.23 million
2020 Population: 4 * 1.0330 = 7.22 million (assuming the
same rate of population growth)

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Demographics
On demographics:
Relates to gender
and age distribution
Different gender and
age groups
consume different
resources and rates.
Profile of gender
and age groups
change over time
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Concept of Equivalent Person


Gender and age groups impact the environment
differently. A measure of its impact is to base it on a
particular age group / gender. All other age / gender
groups are measured with respect to this group.
Age Group
0-14
15-30

Equivalent Person
0.8
0.9

31-45
46-60
61-75

1.0
1.0
1.1

75+

1.15

Base
Age
Group

Gender: Neutral
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Equivalent Person Calculation


Age
Group

Equivalent
Person

Number Number of Equivalent


of People
People

0-14
15-30
31-45

0.8
0.9
1.0

50,000
60,000
100,000

46-60
61-75
75+

1.0
1.1
1.15

110,000
80,000
150,000

172,500

Total

550,000

564,500

54,000
100,000
110,000

Gender: Neutral
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Changing Population
Country

2015
Population
(per million)

2020
% Population
Population
Change
(per million)

A
B
C

150
1100
850

170
1000
900

+13.3
-9.1
5.9

D
E

100
250

120
280

+20.0
+12.0

Country B is the most populous but its population is


however declining. Country D is the least populous but
experiences the largest growth increase.
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IPAT: Environmental Impact


Model

I = (P, A,T)
Greater Environmental Impact: Larger Equivalent
Population Size,
Population Rate of Increase

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Population on Environmental
Impact (EI)
Measures
Amount of Vital Resources* Available or
Extracted (Now or Future) within a Region
Amount of Vital Resources* Available or
Extracted per Person (Nominal or
Equivalent) within a Region
* Resources deemed to be critical such as owing to lack,
sustenance or economic usefulness

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Population on Resource Availability


Population (per
million)
150
1100

Resource
Availability
(per 1000 kg)
400,000
200,000

Resource
per person
(kg)
2.67
0.18

A
B
C
D
E

850
100
250

60,000
280,000
50,000

0.07
2.80
0.20

*Assuming factors are


scalable and equal.

Country

Country A has the most amount of resources and E the


least. Hence, for the same amount of resource used, this
would impact country E more than A*.
For resource per person, country D is the most and country
C the least. If every person uses 0.1kg more of the
resource,
country C would be
affected whereas D 42be
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the least*.

Population on Resource
Availability (Now and 2020)
Country

2015
Population
(per million)

2015
2020
2020
Resource
Population
Resource
Availability (per million) Availability
(per 1000 kg)
(per 1000 kg)

A
B
C

150
1100
850

400,000
200,000
60,000

170
1000
900

320,000
160,000
36,000

D
E

100
250

280,000
50,000

120
280

224,000
40,000

Country A has the most amount of resources (2015 and


2020). Country E is least in 2015 but expected to be
replaced by C.
Like all other countries, its resources are dwindling. If
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nothing is done, this resource would be exhausted.

Population on Resource Availability Rate


Per Person (Now and 2020)
Country

2015
Population
(per million)

2015
2020
2020
Resource per Population Resource per
person (kg) (per million) person (kg)

A
B
C

150
1100
850

170
1000
900

0.18
0.07

1.88
0.16
0.04

D
100
2.80
120
1.87
E
250
0.20
280
0.14
Country D has the most amount of resources available per
person (2015) but nearly on par with country A in 2020.
Country C is least in 2015 and remains so in 2020.
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Population on Resource Availability


Rate of Change (Now and 2020)
Country

2015
Resource per
person (kg)

2020
Resource per
person (kg)

% Resource
Change

A
B
C

2.67
0.18
0.07

1.88
0.16
0.04

-29.6%
-11.1%
-42.9%

D
E

2.80
0.20

1.87
0.14

-33.2%
-30.0%

Between 2015 and 2020, all other countries register decline


in its resource availability per person with country C
accounting for the most decline. Country B seems to fare
better
than the rest.
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IPAT: Environmental Impact


Model

I = (P, A,T)
Greater Environmental Impact: Larger Equivalent
Population Size,
Population Rate of
Increase
(Present and Future)
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Equilibrium point between


population consumption and
environment replenishment

Over
population

Over-Population

(a state when a group of


people, or any living organisms for that matter, surpass
the natural load sustainability of its environment)
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Affluence: Wealth and


Material Comfort
Gross Domestic Product: A Measure of
Affluence within a Region
Gross Domestic Product is an indicator used to
gauge the health of a country's economy or size
of its economy. It represents the total dollar
value of all goods and services produced over a
specific time period. The bigger the GDP, the
bigger the size of the economy, the larger the
total dollar value produced
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Affluence: Wealth and Material


Comfort (Gross Domestic Product
over Population) within a Region
Country
A

Population
(per million)
150

GDP (per
million)
430,000

GDP/Capita
million $
286.7

B
C
D

1100
850
100

400,000
260,000
28,000

363.6
305.9

250

5,000000

20000

Assuming factors are scalable and equal, country E is the


most affluent in terms of absolute and per capita
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Affluence: Wealth and


Material Comfort
Affluence on Environment Impact

Resource Use
Growth in Affluence

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Affluence on
Resource Use
Resource Use =>
Consumption and
Wastes

United States

Developed
Countries
Undeveloped
Countries

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Affluence on Resource Use


Affluence
Country

Population
(%)

Very
Affluent
Affluent
Less
Affluent

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Waste (%
Waste
Generated per
capital %)
72 (14.4)

Energy (%
Energy
Consumed
per capita %)
24 (4.8)

16

18 (1.13)

51 (3.19)

79

10 (0.13)

25 (0.32)

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Expected Consumption

Consumption
per Person

Earth Carrying
Capacity per
Person

Rising Affluence
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GDP Growth in developing countries is expected


to increase. Such developing countries have large
population concentration. More intense demands
and competition for Earths resources are
expected.
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Affluence: Wealth and


Material Comfort

I = (P, A,T)
Growth in Affluence; Increase Resource Use
or Consumpion
Future: Grossly Unchecked Resource Use
(Consumption and Waste Generated) can
greatly deplete and degrade Earths
Resources and its Carry Capacity

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Technology
Process to convert
materials for product
use or services
Technology
Adoption Outcomes:
Higher Resource
Consumption, Higher
Process by-products
and Waste

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Process By-Products and Waste


Process by-products: Toxic Materials
and Gas Emissions (Carbon Dioxide)
Process Inefficiency: Process Waste Materials used in production but not sold
Subject of Waste: Would look into it in
greater depth in later lessons

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IPAT: Environmental Impact


Model

I = (P, A, T)
Increase Gas emissions and Wastes owing to use of
technology (all other factors hold constant)

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iPAT Factor Evaluation


Country

Population
(per million)

GDP (per
million)

% Global CO2
Emissions

A
B
C

150
1100
850

430,000
400,000
260,000

4
9
4

D
E

100
250

28,000
5,000000

1
18

Types of Measures
Absolute Measures
Comparative Measures
Weightage Index Measures
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iPAT Single Factor Evaluation


Country

Population
(per million)

GDP (per
million)

% Global CO2
Emissions

A
B
C

150
1100
850

430,000
400,000
260,000

4
9
4

D
E

100
250

28,000
5,000000

1
18

Absolute Measures:
On Population: Country B
On GDP: Country E
On Technology: Country E since it emits the largest % of
global CO2 emissions. Assuming carbon monoxide, a
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undesirable
by-product is produced
owing to technology. 60

iPAT Single Factor Evaluation


Country

Population
(per million)

GDP (per
million)

% Global CO2
Emissions

A
B
C

150
1100
850

430,000
400,000
260,000

4
9
4

D
E

100
250

28,000
5,000000

1
18

Is this a fair measure to


Absolute Measures:
evaluate these countries on
On Population: Country B
environmental impact?
On GDP: Country E
On Technology: Country E since it emits the largest % of
global CO2 emissions. Assuming carbon monoxide, a
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undesirable
by-product is produced
owing to technology. 61

Comparative Measures
Technology vs Population
Technology vs Affluence per capita

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Technology vs Population
Country
A
B
C
D
E

Population
(per million)
150
1100
850
100
250

% Global CO
Emissions
4
9
4
1
18

% / Per Cap
(per million)
0.0267
0.0082
0.0047
0.0100
0.0720

Assuming carbon monoxide, a undesirable by-product is


produced owing to technology. All factors are scalable and
equal. Country E employed of technology seemed to be most
problematic as it emits the largest % of global CO2 emissions
(both in terms of absolute and per capita).
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Technology vs Affluence per


capita
Country
A
B
C
D
E

GDP/Capita
million $, (A)
286.7
363.6
305.9
280
20000

% Global CO
Emissions (B)
4
9
4
1
18

A/B *106
71.7
40.4
76.5
280
1111.1

A/B equates to affluence per unit of CO emission. Country


E employs the technology most effectively to generate the
greatest level of affluence. Country B faired the worst.
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Affluence (held constant) vs


Technology
Country

GDP/Capital
million $, (A)

% Global CO
Emissions (B)

B/A *10-6

A
B
C

286.7
363.6
305.9

4
9
4

0.014
0.025
0.013

D
E

280
20000

1
18

0.0036
0.0009

B/A equates to CO emission per unit affluence. Country E


seems to deploy its technology most effectively to attain a
certain level of affluence whereas
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IPAT: Conflicting Factor Trends

? I = ( P, A, T)
No proper deduction can be made unless the
relationships between the factors can be
established. One approach is to make use of
weighted index. This converting set values
into indices.

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iPAT Factor Evaluation (Index)


Ctry
A

Pop. (per
million)
150

Pop.
Index
5.0

B
C
D

1100
850
100

100.0
75.0
0.0

E
Range

250
100-1100

15.0

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(150-100) *1000

-------------------- = 5
100
(850-100) *1000
-------------------- = 75
100

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iPAT Factor Evaluation (Index)


Ctry

Pop.
(per
million)

Pop.
Index

GDP (per
million)

GDP
Index

%
Global
CO2
Emissi
ons

Tech.
Index

Total
Index

150

5.0

430,000

8.09

17.65

30.7

1100

100.0

400,000

7.48

47.06

154.5

850

75.0

260,000

4.67

17.65

97.3

100

0.0

28,000

0.0

0.00

0.0

250

15.0

5,000,000

100.0

18

100.00

215.0

Range

1001100

0-100

28,0005,000,000

0-100

1-18

0-100

Country E has the largest environmental impact index

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IPAT World Trend Summary

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World iPAT assessment


I = P, A, T
Growing Population: Likely to +50% over the
next 50 years affecting Earths ability to
replenish itself. (2015: 7.33 billion, 2014: 7.25
billion. +1.1% faster than long term growth)
Increasing Gross Domestic Product per
capital: Likely to +300% to +500%. Resource
availability would a potential problem.
Moderate Technology: Likely to +50% +90%
leading to greater waste and gas emissions.
Globally, environmental impact is on the increase
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Singapore iPAT assessment

I = P, A, T
Population = Plan to increase to 6 million or
more from 5.5 million
Affluence = GDP/per capita expected to grow
Technology = Use of technology to enhance
productivity
Nationally, environmental impact would have more
pronounced on the population if nothing is done

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The Poser
Is there anything we can do?
If so, what would it be?

Would explore that in the weeks


that follow

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Lesson 1: Summary
What is environmental sustainability?
Concerns with preserving the integrity of the
physical environment exposed to the impacts of
human activities
Why is it of great concern?
Ability of the Earth to carry its load or capacity
thereby unable to meet human needs
What are the key factors affecting environmental
impact?
Environmental impact is affected by population,
affluence and technology deployment. Current
trends seem to suggest that the impact cost on the
environment is expected to increase. If it is not
address, this could have dire consequences.
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Thank You
End of Lesson 1

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