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Evaluation of Public Policies

Introduction

Dear Colleagues;
He team to charge of this course you is it more cordial welcome to this course that
aims to provide information theoretical and practice on the evaluation of public policies, for
foster a culture of the evaluation and to a use each time greater of its methodology,

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promoting its knowledge and use from them / as managers public.


For who us dedicated professionally to the evaluation and programs public policies,
always is a reason of satisfaction provide les to them participating them tools that les allow a

first approach to the world of the evaluation and address processes evaluative of them
interventions public that managed or of which are responsible for.
The evaluation in the framework of the analysis of political public

The development of the evaluation is has produced in some States more belatedly
that in others. In the last final decades of the 20TH century and at the beginning of the 21ST

century, there were political, social and economic transformations that have allowed to return
preeminence to the assessment within the academic agenda of international bodies and
public administrations that have dealt mainly in the normative, and evaluate the results
thereof.

public policies, is makes necessary review the concepts of public politicy, analysis of public

policies and evaluation of public policies. A first definition, according to the guide of
evaluation of public policies of the Basque Government (Spain), is that "public policies are a

set of objectives, decisions and activities that a Government is implementing to solve a

series of needs identified in a territory". Also, it stresses that "born through a decision political

from an authority public". It is therefore, decisions from the public administration whose
receptors are citizens. In the decisions of a Government, its priority should be manage and to
adapt the available resources in favor of the development of the society. What are those

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Due to the relative development of the evaluation in the framework of the analysis of

Evaluation of Public Policies


Introduction

needs and how give them response with them resources available are the issues underlying
in this takes of decisions, by what is of an aspect very relevant and that affects to any aspect
dependent of the management public.
The analysis of public policies is occupies, in general, of them problems public and
of how those powers public them address. This refers to what are regulatory phases of the
development of public policy (a public problem resolution), on the basis that not all public
problems should be resolved by Governments, since civil society already meets many of
them, and how the collaboration between the two is becoming a necessity in today's society
for the resolution of complex social problems (governance), so in a second phase pass to
explain how is can evaluate the results obtained in the resolution of a problem public.
Effectively, the object of study of the analysis of public policies consists both in them
problems public and how these are defined as, precisely, in how the powers public attempt to
give response to such problems. "By which, not is is both of worry is of them features own of
them institutions, of the regulations, or of them groups present, as of consider those aspects
that are relevant or significant with regard to the adoption and put in practice of a public

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politicies" (Subirats, 1992: 13)[1] .


Thus, the analysis of public policies has a character practical and applied. Does not

even arise the study of public problems in abstract, but how these are defined to be
addressed. This character, appears in the same concept and, for example, William N. Dunn
defines policy analysis as "a discipline of applied social science which uses multiple methods
of inquiry and discussion to produce and transform relevant information for policy and which
can be used in contexts political to solve problems related to the policies" (Dunn, 2012)[2] .
Precisely, that capacity and intention of the public policy analysis to study and
explain the concrete processes of action of the public powers giving a response to social

problems, is what makes emphasis on its application and utility for better governance and

treatment from public affairs.


In addition, the analysis of public policies has expanded its object of study,
especially since the decade of the seventies. This, among others, is a way in which there has

been an increasing response to the analysis of public policies and has focused on the study
of the phases of formation of the policies and programs, having as objective the information

useful for the taking of decisions.


The positions of policy analysts, noteworthy that Laswell (1962) and Dye (1995) that
consider that policymakers held in identifiable stages that can be examined individually.
These would be:
detection of the problems and needs;
elaboration of the diagnosis: conceptualization and definition of the problems and
needs, inclusion of them same in the agenda of the Administration;

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Evaluation of Public Policies


Introduction

the design of a plan of action, which is establish who and how is makes the
political or program. This is, formulation of the objectives of the intervention
public, choice of them instruments and definition of the actions;
execution or implementation in practice; and, finally,
the evaluation of the political or program applied that includes their monitoring
and control.
In this planning process evaluation is considered the last step. Its objective is to
assess the results of the policy and, in turn, to serve as a basis for the planning of public
intervention in the long term, forming part of a feedback process, exploiting its conclusions
and recommendations.
The conception of public policy analysis incorporates both claims to know the effects
of the policies executed as the attempt to rationalize the taking of political decisions, taking
advantage of the lessons of the experience.
The evaluation of the public polices is a part of that analysis general that is occupies
of rating the performance of them powers public in its attempt of solve problems. It is not only
a task to evaluate the results obtained, but also to improve the information with which public

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decision-makers and managers operate in the design of public interventions, and contribute
to generate knowledge that improves the practice of public management, to make more
decisions, rational and allow the joint learning of Administrations and the plural debate of the

whole of the citizenship and of the groups in which it is organized, on the results of public
interventions.
The evaluation as instrument of rationality of the action public is fashionable. But,

what's the difference between evaluation of other techniques considered related, control,
auditing, monitoring?, what is its source?, which their utility? Is the evaluation technical
management, instrument of responsibility political or lever of change that helps to the

modernization administrative? Where fits the evaluation within the analysis of the political
public?

In reading the book Handbook of public policy analysis: theory, politics, and
[3]

methods , the authors explain the why the stage - process of evaluation is a crucial moment
in the public policy cycle. On this point it is sufficient to reiterate that, on the one hand, the

evaluation stage is the time which allowed, despite the complexity of reality, reconsider the

methods, indicators, coherence between inputs and processes, causal assumptions and
hypothesis of policy change.
Evaluation has traditionally been considered as a "phase" of the life cycle of a public

policy - the final phase-. And this despite the fact that the evaluation has expanded its object
of study and can be an instrument for the analysis of the other phases (i.e. you can make
assessment of the design or formulation of a policy, its implementation or execution, etc.).

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Evaluation of Public Policies


Introduction

However, the have been mistakenly regarded as an exclusively "final" phase, it is that less
attention is attracted by the analysts of public policy.
The evaluation is can define as an appreciation based in data of a strategy, project,
political or program and of its results, through the determination of its relevance, impact,
efficiency, effectiveness and sustainability. The evaluation focuses on the results, the design,
implementation and management processes. It should not be confused with monitoring the
application and reporting, audit, inspection, investigation or evaluation of individual results.
Although adopt the form of an analysis based on data, the assessment not is a research
academic[4] .
He effort also should focus is in generate culture evaluation in the joint of the
administrations public and of them institutions that manage programs and political designed
to give response to problems, demands and needs social. And create evaluation culture
involves persuading policy-makers and managers of the usefulness of the evaluation to
incorporate more scientific rationality in public decisions, to know the real results of their
action, and also as a learning tool, providing knowledge for change and improvement

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organizations.
Enhance the culture of the evaluation of the political is also generate a new culture
of management, that necessarily has of implement is of form gradual and that requires time.
Enhancing the culture of assessment also is to train and provide tools that enable your

practice. But, also, not can lose of vista a contribution fundamental of the evaluation as is

that, without exclude relating as it efficiency and the efficiency of the action public, is of

balance them with others criteria fundamental of value public: equity, cohesion social,

stewardship, cooperation institutional, harmonization, transparency, participation, etc., that

are fundamental for issue a trial of value more integral on them political public I.e., that is to
say, the evaluation of public politics try to connect democracy, control and efficiency,
understanding that this last, in the sector public, not can conceive since the criteria of market,

but must balance is with others criteria of value own of it public understanding and explaining
the tensions inherent to them different interests that is crisscross in the action public. This is

especially important in relation to social policies.


Last but not least, evaluation is also an essential tool to overcome the challenges

that governments must face in the current context, such as the need to achieve greater

openness for public administrations; To satisfy a growing citizen demand for more and better

information on the results obtained in the use of public resources; Greater participation and
involvement of citizens in the public sphere, and the need for greater transparency of
governments and administrations

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Evaluation of Public Policies


Introduction

Bibliography
- Handbook of Public Policy Analysis: Theory, Politics, and Methods, edited by. Frank
Fischer,

Gerald

j.

Miller,

and

Mara

S.

Sidney

www.untag-

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smd.ac.id/.../PUBLIPOLICY(PublicAdministration. )
- OECD (2010) Glossary of Key Terms in Evaluation and Results Based Management

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Evaluation of Public Policies


Introduction

Programme of the course


During the development of the course the same has been structured by modules
that contain materials of reading essential and bibliography required. To facilitate the
understanding of texts and not bore the specialized readers, has been incorporated into the
bibliography a glossary where it explains different concepts which will be used throughout the
course, in order to avoid the confusion resulting from the use of the running of several terms
which are assimilated erroneously, as for example evaluability, evaluation, impact.
Each academic module has been structured on the basis of particular, objectives
has designed a methodology of assessment, which is presented as work practical and at the
same time constitutes a tool of learning that helps to fix and validate the acquired knowledge.
Each module with their areas thematic can consult is of way independent without losing its
sense, even so is recommended the reading for the follow-up full of the course in the order
established.
The thematic areas to be addressed during the development of the course are:
Conceptual process of evaluation issues , f ACEs and criteria to be considered in

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the evaluation of public policies. The role of the evaluator. Is delimits the object of analysis
and are summarized the main contributions theoretical. Also embroider the functions and

usefulness of evaluation, with particular emphasis on the previous possibilities that has a
program to be evaluated (evaluability) and the different types of assessment can be
undertaken.
Based on of them alleged of the existence of a study of needs, of the definition of

objectives and of the establishment of a strategy of intervention in the program to assess, is

define different types of evaluation. Its development attends to the classification of the
evaluation according to their content; i.e., according to the elements of the program are
assessed. This option has been taken on the basis of considering this perspective extends

the temporal interpretation of the evaluation, understanding it as a "philosophy" or "culture" of


planning which must imbue each of the phases of development and implementation of

programs.
The conceptual or design evaluation highlights aspects of the elements justifying the
need for the intervention and the design of its strategy: problems, means and objectives.
The evaluation of the management system is dedicated to the evaluation of the

procedures put in place by the productivity centers to run and manage the actions of public

programmes, as a way to improve their application, their effectiveness and efficiency.


Methods of assessment of effectiveness and efficiency , s and performed a review
of the main techniques used for the assessment of results and impacts, identifying their
advantages and disadvantages and pointing out some of the most relevant considered

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Evaluation of Public Policies


Introduction

applications.
The evaluation of the system of follow-up, examines the mechanisms and
procedures for the collection of information, before, during and after the programme has
finished, it will be necessary to evaluate the intervention.
The evaluation of results and of impact., is describes the place that occupies the
assessment of results and their implication with the evaluation of impacts
Directions to perform the work practice (TP) and work end (TF)
Them works practical to develop in this course by modules, will consist in the
description and analysis of a policy, program public in which this or had worked being to
choice of each participant. The realization of these works is individual.
The project's Final work (TF) must be presented at the end of the dictation of the
modules; any documentation will not be accepted before or after.
As a prerequisite for obtaining the final certificate, students must take an end-ofcourse project. The presentation of Final project work constitutes a prerequisite for the
projects:

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completion of the course and the issue of the respective certificate. Is will accept two types of

Design of project to assess a stage / phase of a political, or program.


Produces a final report about a process of evaluation according to the cycle of life
of the political / program that will evaluate: programming / design; implementation /
execution; results / impact.

Hope this course will help them reflect, analyze phases of an evaluation process

with a broader view. From CIESI are convinced that will gain theoretical and methodological
tools to be applied when planning and work in the various policies, programs, regardless of

the themes that are treated and the scope to which it is applied this tool.

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Evaluation of Public Policies


Introduction

[1]

Osuna, Jos Luis; Marquez, Carolina; Cirera, Ana; Velez, Carmen; Institute of Regional development,

University Foundation, 2000: guidelines for the evaluation of public policies


[2]

Dunn, William N. (2012). Public Policy Analysis: an introduction. 5th ed.p. cm. ISBN-13: 978-0-205-25257-

2ISBN-10: 0-205-25257-5.
[3]
Handbook of Public Policy Analysis: Theory, Politics, and Methods, edited by. Frank Fischer, Gerald j. Miller, and
Mara S. Sidney www.untag-smd.ac.id/.../PUBLIPOLICY (PublicAdministration. )
[4]
ILO Evaluation. A new framework of policies and strategies of evaluation in the ILO. GB.294/PFA/8/4 294.a

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meeting Council of Administration Geneva, November of 2005.


.

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