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Alcoholism and Alcohol Dependence: Basis for Deviant Behaviour

By: Crim. Sherwin A. Cabutija


A Research Presented to
Dr. Nelson Nabe
Requirements for the MCJ 215

June 2015

In this paper of alcoholism and alcohol dependence basis for deviant behaviour the
reader will learn to distinguish the two, its continual existence in the society and also the
factors as basis for deviant behaviour. This research also discusses the sociological impact of
an alcohol user or alcohol dependence to an increasing problem of deviant behaviour. In
addition to, in order to understand and determine whether certain behaviour should classify as
deviant we must put highest regard on sociological concept.
Alcoholism together with gambling and prostitution is considered deviant if the norms
of the society provide limitation conceptualizing such behaviour. Thus deviant may only arise
base on the culture of the society.

1. Deviant behaviours may take on various social dimensions that serve to distinguish
them from one another. Most forms of deviance involve behaviour that are carried out
in patterned and predictable ways. Culture refers to a body of widely shared customs
and values which provide general orientations to ward life and specific ways of
achieving common goals (Palmer & Humphrey, 1990). Culture, then, provides a
backdrop for the establishment of acceptable behaviour. Behaviours that fall out side
of defined cultural parameters and considered, in varying degrees of deviant
behaviour (Linton, 1955).
2. (Humphrey) have two viewpoints on human behaviour, the normative perspective and
the situational perspective have been advanced to define deviant behaviour. The
normative perspective sees deviance as human behaviour as that violates existing and
generally accepted social norms. Hence, from the normative perspective, a naked man
running down the street not only provides an example of deviant behaviour, but it also
makes it easy to see the man himself as a deviant.

The situational perspective shifts the focus away from the individual and to the
social situation surrounding the behaviour in questions. Hence, the situational
perspective is relativistic in that it understands deviance primarily in terms of when
and where it occurs.
3. (Merton) in his theory of anomie is based on the analysis of behaviour deviating
from prescribed patterns of conduct and his search for an explanation of how it is
that the frequency of deviant behaviour varies within different social structures and
how it happens that the deviations have different shapes and patterns in different
social structure.
4. Human behaviour is the voluntary and involuntary attitude a person adopts in order to
fit societys idea of right or wrong (Soriano), however, deviant behaviour is the
behaviour of an individual or groups of individuals that contradicts to the standard
norms set by the society, thus alcoholism will remain deviant if the society prohibits
its existence.
5. Alcoholism is a debilitating disorder for the individual and very costly for society
(Gilpin, 2008). Alcoholism is also known as alcohol dependence, is a common
disorder. Therefore, in order to decide whether any specific act is normal or
deviant, it is necessary to know more than only what a person did. Alcohol use is
the most commonly used psychoactive substance in the world and is one of the
leading causes of death and disability (Swahn et al, 2013).
6. The development of alcoholism is characterized by frequent episodes of intoxication,
preoccupation with alcohol, use of alcohol despite adverse consequences, compulsion
to seek and consume alcohol, loss of control in limiting alcohol intake, and emergence
of a negative emotional state in the absence of the drug (American Psychiatric
Association 1994).

7. Substance dependence is more common among trauma-exposed individuals; however,

most studies suggest that Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) accounts for the link
between trauma exposure (TE) and substance dependence. Individuals with more
traumatic events had heightened risk for alcohol and nicotine dependence, and PTSD
symptoms partially accounted for this risk. However, marijuana dependence was only
significantly related to PTSD symptoms. Clinicians and researchers should separately
assess different types of dependence among trauma-exposed individuals both with and
without PTSD symptoms.
8. Most people probably do not know that problem drinking and addiction are not the
same. People who abuse alcohol are not necessarily addicted. Researchers and experts
now emphasize that alcohol problems range along a continuum from mild to severe.
An example of a mild alcohol problem might be habitual Friday-after-work drinking
that result in regular Saturday morning hangovers. The most severe problems are
physical dependence and life-threatening physical consequences of heavy drinking
such as liver disease.
9. Research has shown that alcohol use is associated with alcohol addiction, other drug
use, unintentional injuries, physical fighting, criminal activity, suicidal ideation and
attempts, and increased risk of HIV/AIDS. In order to address this global public
health issue, the World Health Organization (WHO) recently prioritized the global
reduction of the harmful use of alcohol.
10. Higher levels of alcohol dependence were associated with social consequences from
drinking as well as with greater quantities of alcohol consumed. (Skinner, Harvey,
Allen, Barbara, 2012). As alcohol dependence increased, Ss were less likely to show
up for their first treatment appointment. The degree of alcohol dependence was
directly related to psychopathology (thinking disorder, hypochondriasis, persecutory

ideas, anxiety, and depression) and also to physical symptoms of the nervous,
cardiovascular, and digestive systems.
11. Emotional and interpersonal impairments associated with alcohol-dependence have
been recently explored, but the distorted cognitive representations underlying these
deficits remain poorly understood (Collignon M, et al. 2013). The present study aims
at exploring the presence of maladaptive social self-beliefs among alcohol-dependent
individuals, as these biased self-beliefs have been recently shown to play a crucial
role in the development and maintenance of other psychopathological states (social
anxiety and depression).
12. All experts, including those who believe in the disease model, agree psychological,
social and environmental events are important elements in the development of
problem drinking patterns. Research shows that learning has a great effect on the
development of harmful drinking behaviour. People learn how to drink, what to
expect from drinking and to use drinking for certain purposes. People who have
experienced rules about appropriate drinking learn those rules and rituals (although
they may not always use what they have learned). Those who see mostly uncontrolled
drinking with the intention of intoxication learn to drink that way.