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CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION AND LITERATURE REVIEW


1.1 Preamble
The global population is rising continuously and is expected to touch the 9.5 billion mark in
2050 from the current 7.2 billion (United Nations, 2012). This increase in population needs
about 60% additional foods to feed them (FAO, 2013). Against the backdrop, the
sustainability of water resources is a critical issue for fulfilling the rising water demands of
various competitive sectors including agriculture, which is the largest water user and
consumes over 70% of the abstracted freshwater globally (Singh, 2015).
Safe drinking water is one of the most basic human requirements, and one of the Millennium
Development Goals (MDGs) by 2015 is to reduce by half the production of people unable to
reach or afford safe drinking water (WWC, 2010). Provision of safe and adequate drinking
water supply is not only a basic necessity for the healthy living of the community but also it
holds the key to the successful implementation of the sectoral development programmes.
Rapid population growth, urbanization and industrialization have led to a greater demand for
an increasingly smaller supply of fresh water resources in the world.
About 2.7 % of total water available on the earth is fresh water of which about 75.2 % lies
frozen in polar region and another 22.6% is present as ground water (MoWR, 2011). The rest
is available in lakes, rivers, atmosphere, moisture, soil and vegetation. Less than 1% of all
water on earth is available for human consumption (WWC, 2010). Globally, there are
increasing problems related to the availability of fresh water. The crisis of water resources
development and management thus arises because most of the water is not available for use
and secondly it is characterized by its highly uneven spatial distribution (MoWR, 2011).
Accordingly, the importance of water has been recognized and greater emphasis is being laid
on its economic use and better management. It is one of the most essential components for
existence of life on earth. Great civilizations like Mesopotamia have risen where water
supplies were plentiful, such as on the banks of rivers and major waterways. Water is used for
domestic purpose for cleaning, cooking, bathing, carrying away wastes, agriculture
(irrigation), power generation, industries, navigation, fishing, recreation and many other
purposes. Global consumption of water is doubling every 20 years, more than twice the rate
of human population growth. If current trends persist, by the year 2025 the demand for fresh
1

water is expected to rise to 56 percent above the amount that is currently available - which
will result in, as much as 2/3 of the world population; without access to clean water (World
Bank 2002 Report).
The human rights entitles everyone to sufficient, safe, acceptable, physically accessible and
affordable water for personal and domestic uses and the UNO has declared 2005-15 as the
international decade for action, with the motto Water for Life with greater focus on waterassociated issues.
1.2 Global Water Stock
Availability of water on earth today is in no different quantitatively from what was available a
thousand years ago. Three quarters of planet earths area is covered with water. The 1,400
million cubic kilometres (km3 ) of water so present, which is around 97 per cent, is in the
oceans. Only about 3 percent is fresh water; of this 75 per cent lies frozen in the polar
regions; 22.6 per cent is present as ground water, some of which lies too deep; and only a
small portion of fresh water is available in lakes, rivers, soil, atmosphere and exploitable
underground aquifers (Iyer 2003) shown in Table 1.1
Table 1.1 Global Water Stocks
Inland

Waters

(Fresh Volume

(1000 %

Water)
BCM )
Glaciers, Permanent snow 24064
cover
Fresh Groundwater
Ground ice, permafrost
Fresh water lakes
Soil moisture
Atmospheric water vapour
Marshes, wetlands
Rivers
Incorporated in biota
Total Water Stocks
Total Fresh Water Stocks
Source : The United

10530
300
91
16.5
12.9
11.5
2.12
1.12
1,386000
35029

of

Total % of Total fresh

water
1.74

water
68.7

0.76
0.022
0.007
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.0002
0.0001

30.06
0.86
0.26
0.05
0.04
0.03
0.006
0.003

Nations Environment Programme (UNEP),2003

1.3 Water Scenario in India


India has 18% of the world's population, having 4% of water resources of the world. Annual
per capita availability of water decreases from 6,042 cubic meter in the year 1947 to 1,545
cubic meter in 2011 and will further reduce to 1,340 cubic meter by 2025, to 1,140 cubic
2

meter by the year 2050. Average annual potential of 'utilizable' quantity of water in the
country -- 1,121 Billion Cubic Meter (BCM),with surface water- 690BCM), and ground
water - 431 BCM respectively. Estimated annual requirement of water by the year 2050 1,180 BCM (1 cubic meter = 1000 liters) as on 2011. Water Scenaion in terms of Water
Availability form 1951-2061 is shown in Figure 1.1 . Sector Wise Water Uses in 2010,2025
and 2050 are shown in Figure 1.2.

6000
5000

5177

4000
3000
Water Availability (m3/year)

2209
1820
15451341

2000

1140

1000
0
1961 1981 2001 2021 2041 2061
1951 1971 1991 2011 2031 2051
Year

Figure 1.1 Water Scenario in India


Source: ( Ministry of Water Resources, River Development and Ganga Rejuvenation ,
Government of India presented on 08-02-2015).

Figure 1.2 Annual availability of Water in Different Sectors


Source: (Ministry of Water Resources, River Development and Ganga Rejuvenation ,
Government of India presented on 08-02-2015).

The estimates by MoWR indicates that, by year 2050, India needs to increase water supplies
to industries by 5 times, and by 16 times for energy production, while its drinking water
demand will double, and irrigation demand will raise by 50 percent.
The recent estimates (GOI, 2006) on water demand are made by a) Standing Sub- committee
of the Ministry of Water Resources (MoWR) and b)National Commission on Integrated
Water Resource Department (NCIWRD; their estimates are made till the year 2050. Both of
them have triggered a warning bell over the intensity of the problem. Water demands for
Various Sectors as per Ministry of Water Resources and National Commission on Integrated
Water Resouces Division is also shown in Table 1.2.

Table 1.2 Shows Water Demand (in BCM) for Various Sectors
Sector

Standing

Sub-committees NCIWRD

of MoWR
Year
2010
2025
2050
2010
2025
Irrigation
688
910
1072
557
611
Drinking Water
56
73
102
43
62
Industry
12
23
63
37
67
Energy
5
15
130
19
33
Others
52
72
80
54
70
Total
813
1093
1442
710
843
Source: Ministry of Water Resources, Government of India, 2006

2050
807
111
81
70
111
1180

Groundwater has an important role in meeting the water requirements of agriculture,


industrial and domestic sectors in India. About 85 percent of Indias rural domestic water
requirements, 50 percent of its urban water requirements and more than 50 percent of its
irrigation requirements are met from groundwater resources. Groundwater is an annually
replenishable resource but its availability is non-uniform in space and time.
The annually replenishable ground water resource has been assessed as 433 BCM. Keeping
an allocation for natural discharge, the net annual ground water availability is 398 bcm. The
annual ground water draft (as on 31st March, 2011) is 245 BCM.
National Water Policy, 2012 has laid emphasis on periodic assessment of ground water
resources on scientific basis. The National Water Policy, 2012 also states that safe water for
drinking and sanitation should be considered as a pre-emptive need followed by high priority
allocation for other domestic needs (including needs of animals), achieving food security,
supporting sustenance agriculture and minimum eco-system needs. Available water, after
meeting the above needs should be allocated in a manner to promote its conservation and
efficient use. In order to assess prevailing ground water scenario of the country, reassessment
of ground water resources was felt necessary after an interval of two years. It would also
indicate the impact of the present ground water management practices on the ground water
5

regime. In 2012, Ministry of Water Resources constituted a Central Level Expert Group
(CLEG) for an over-all supervision of the re-assessment of ground water resources in the
entire country.
1.4 Constitutional Provisions on Water
In the Constitution, water is a matter included in Entry 17 of List-II i.e. State List. This entry
is subject to the provision of Entry 56 of List-I i.e. Union List.
Entry 17 of List II (State List) of the 7th Schedule
Water, that is to say, water supplies, irrigation and canals, drainage and embankments, water
storage and water power subject to provisions of entry 56 of List I.
Entry 56 of List I (Union List) of the 7th Schedule
Regulation and development of inter-state rivers and river valleys to the extent to which
such regulation and development under the control of the Union is declared by Parliament by
law to be expedient in the public interest.
Art. 262 Disputes relating to Water - Adjudication of disputes relating to waters of interState rivers or river valleys
1. Parliament may by law provide for the adjudication of any dispute or
complaint with respect to the use, distribution or control of the waters of, or in,
any inter-State river or river valley.
2.

Notwithstanding anything in this Constitution, Parliament may by law

provide that neither the Supreme Court nor any other court shall exercise jurisdiction in
respect of any such dispute or complaint as is referred to in clause (1).

1.5 Water Pollution Defined


The word pollution is from Latin Pollutus, which means, of soil or defile. In the dictionary,
pollution is defined as something that makes the water physically impure, foul or filthy, dirty,
stained, tainted or defiled. Since this definition does not cover all the aspects of pollution,
several definitions of water pollution have been advanced such as:
World Health Organization (WHO) defines the pollution of fresh water as it should be
noted that the water is contaminated, when the composition or state is changed so that they no
longer meet the requirements for use in their original state (WHO, 2002).
The United Nations General Assembly proclaimed the period of 2005-2015 as International
6

Decade for Action Water for Life, with the goal to promote efforts to fulfill international
commitments made on water and water-related issues by 2015. According to the UN World
Water Development Report, water pollution typically refers to chemicals or other
substances in concentrations greater than that would occur under natural conditions (UN,
2004).
Water Pollution is addition to water of any substances or changing of waters physical
characteristics in any way which interferes with its use for any legitimate purpose , (US
Senate Select Committee on National Water Resource Committe, Print No.9, Jan., 1960, p-1).
Water Pollution is the presence of any foreign substance (Organic,inorganic,radiological or
biological ) to constitute a hazard or impair the usefulness of water , (U.S.P.H.S , Drinking
Water Standards Item 6, 1962,p-64).
Water Pollution includes discharge of wastes including radioactive and other substances
actually or potentially harmful to such uses and alteration of properties of water in such a way
as to harmful ,including temperature ,tastes,turbidity or odour ( FWPCA, USA, 1962).
Any impairment of water quality that makes water unsuitable for beneficial use ( F.E.
Moss, The Water Crisis NY , 1967, P-64).
Water Pollution refers to a condition of water within a water body caused by the presence
of undesirable materials (APHA et al., 1969).
Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1974 of India describes water pollution as
such contamination of water or such alteration of the physical, chemical or biological
properties of water, or such discharge of any sewage or trade effluent or of any other liquid,
gaseous or solid substance into water (whether directly or indirectly) as may, or is likely to
create a nuisance or render such water harmful or injurious to public health or safety, or to
domestic, commercial, industrial, agricultural or other legitimate uses of to the life and health
of animals or plants or of aquatic organisms.
1.6 Water Pollutants
To assess the suitability of water for various uses, it is necessary to determine the quality of
water available from each source and then compare it with the suitable criteria. If the quality
of water available does not confirm to the required criteria, necessary arrangements may have
7

to be made for treatment of water to achieve the desired quality. Any shift in the naturally
occurring dynamic equilibrium, gives rise to the state of pollution and water pollution is a
state of deviation from the pure condition, whereby it starts affecting the biotic life. The signs
of water pollution are: bad test of drinking water, offensive odors from lakes, rivers and
ocean beaches, unchecked growth of aquatic weeds in water bodies, decrease in number of
fish in fresh water, river water, sea water, oil and grease floating on water surfaces. These
disturb the normal uses of water supply for domestic, agricultural and industrial purposes.
Various types of water pollutants may be broadly classified as follow ( De,1994; Dara,2005)
1.6.1 Organic Pollutants
This group includes disease causing agents, plant nutrients, oxygen demanding wastes,
synthetic organic compounds, pesticides (insecticides, fungicides, herbicides), detergents,
dyes and oils etc.
1.6.2 Inorganic Pollutants
Inorganic salts, trace elements, organometallic compounds, complex of metals with
organics in natural water, finely divided metals or metal compounds, mineral acids and acid
mine drainage, phosphates, nitrates, hydrogen sulfide, cyanides etc. may be listed under this
category.
1.6.3 Suspended solids and sediments
The natural process of soil erosion, agricultural development, strip mining and constructive
activities contribute to soil erosion. Suspended solids in water consists of silt, sand and
minerals eroded from the land. Sediments and suspended particle are important repositories
for trace metals such as Cr, Mn, Cu, Mo, Ni, and Co, etc.
1.6.4 Radioactive materials
These may originate from mining and processing of ores; increasing use of radioactive
isotopes in research, agriculture, industrial and medical applications ( e.g. I131, P 32, Co 60,
Ca 45, S35, C14, Rb 86, Ir 132 and Cs 137); radioactive minerals from nuclear power plants
and reactors ( e.g. Sr 90, Cs

137

, Pu

248

, Am

241

) ; radioactive material from testing and use of

nuclear weaponry (e.g. Sr 90, Cs 137 )


The industrial pollutants can be classified as:
1. Organic substances that deplete the oxygen content and increase biological oxygen
demand (BOD)
2. Inorganic substances like carbonate, chloride, that renders the water body unfit for use
8

and encourages growth of micro-plants


3. Acids and alkalies which affect the growth of fish and other aquatic life.
4. Toxic substances like cyanide, phenol, heavy metals like mercury, lead, arsenic etc.,
which causes damage to flora and fauna.
5. Biological organisms belonging to plant and animal kingdoms, which dwell in water,
which may adversely affect aquatic ecosystem.
6. Bacterial microorganisms both of coliform and fecal origin including pathogens,
mainly responsible for various epidemics.
1.7 Water Quality Standards
Water quality standards serve as the foundation for the water-quality based approach to
pollution control. Water quality standards are state or tribal requirements that define the water
quality goals of a lake, stream, or other waterbody by designating the beneficial uses and
setting criteria to protect those uses. Beneficial uses may include fishing, swimming, boating,
aquatic habitat, agriculture navigation, or others.
WHO produces international norms on water quality and human health in the form of
guidelines that are used as the basis for regulation and standard setting, in developing and
developed countries world-wide.
The water quality guidelines are based on managing risks, and since 2004 the Guidelines for
Drinking-Water Quality included the promotion of Water Safety Plans to identify and prevent
risks before water is contaminated. In 2015, WHO introduced the concept of Sanitation
Safety Plans to support implementation of the wastewater guidelines. WHO works on
promoting effective risk assessment and management practices among all groups, including
suppliers of drinking water, wastewater treatment companies, farmers, communities and
individuals.
To protect human health and aquatic life, states, territories and authorized tribes establish
water quality standards regulating how clean their water bodies should be. The
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) reviews these water quality standards and approves
them if they meet the requirements of the Clean Water Act and EPAs water quality standards
regulations.

Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) came into existence, through an Act of Parliament dated 26
November 1986, on 1 April 1987, with a wider scope and more power, taking over staff,
assets, liabilities and functions of erstwhile Indian Standards Institution (ISI).
As per the Eleventh Five Year plan document of India (2007-12), there are about 2.17 lakh
habitations in the country affected with water quality problems, with more than half affected
with excess iron, followed by fluoride, salinity, nitrate and arsenic in that order. Further,
approximately, 10 million cases of diarrhoea, more than 7.2 lakh typhoid cases and 1.5 lakh
viral hepatitis cases occur every year; a majority of which are contributed by unclean water
supply and poor sanitation. The Eleventh Five Year plan document of India recognizes
dealing with the issue of water quality as a major challenge and aims at addressing
waterquality problems, in all quality affected habitations with emphasis on community
participation and awareness campaigns, as well as on top most priority to water quality
surveillance and monitoring, by setting up of water quality testing laboratories strengthened
with qualified manpower, equipment and chemicals. Keeping this in view, the second
revision of IS 10500 was undertaken to upgrade the requirements of the standard, and align
with the internationally available specifications on drinking water.
This Indian Standard (Second Revision) prescribes the requirements and the methods of
sampling and tests to be conducted for drinking water. This standard specifies the acceptable
limits and the permissible limits in the absence of alternate source. It is recommended that the
acceptable limit is to be implemented as values in excess of those mentioned under
Acceptable, render the water not suitable. Such a value may, however, be tolerated in the
absence of an alternative source. However, if the value exceeds the limits indicated under
permissible limit in the absence of alternate source, the sources will have to be rejected.
Lists of Drinking Water Quality Standrads are shown in Table 1.3 to 1.6.
Table 1.3 Drinking Water Quality Standards WHO and IS : 10500
Sl.
No.

Parameters

WHO 2006

IS 10500 : 2012

Maximum

Highest

Maximu

Highest

Desirable

Permissible

Permissibl

Limits

Limits

Desirable

e Limits

Limits
10

pH

7.0-8.5

6.5-9.2
6.5-8.5

No
relaxation

2
3

Alkalinity
Electrical

200

600

conductivity 750

Turbidity
Total

dissolved

5
Solids 500

6
7
8

Bicarbonate (mg/L)
Sulphate (mg/L)
Chloride (mg/L)
Nitrate (mg/L)

500

2000

200

600

200

400

250

1000

10
1,500

(mg/L)
5

600

1,500

(S/cm)
3

200

200

600

200

600

250

600

45
45

9
10
11
12
13

Calcium (mg/L)
Magnesium (mg/L)
Sodium (mg/L)
Potassium (mg/L)
Total Hardness (mg/L)

75

No
relaxation

200

30

75

200

30

100

150

50

200

100

200

100

500

200
600

Table 1.4 Tolerance Limits for Industrial Effluence (IS : 2490, Part-I-1981)
11

Sl.

Parameters
Maximum tolerance limits for industrial
effluents discharged (mg/l)
Into inland Into public On land Marine / Coastal area

No.

surface

sewers

water
1

Color and odor

for
irrigation

Absent

Absent

Suspended Solid

100

Absent

600
a) For

process

waste water 100


b) For cooling water
200

effluent

10%

above

total

suspended matter
of effluent
3

Partical size of suspended Shall


solids

pass

850 micron
IS sieve

a) Flotable solids, solids


-

max. 3mm
b) Settleable solids max
856 microns

Dissolved

solids 2100

2100
2100

(Inorganic)
5
6

pH value
Temperature C

5.5 to 9.0
Shall

5.5 to 9.0
5.5 to 9.0

not 45 at point

exceed 40 in of discharge
any section
of

5.5 to 9.0

stream

within

15

meters down
12

Stream from
the effluent
outlet
7
8
9

Oil and grease

10

Total residual chlorine

20

1.0

Ammoniacal Nitrogen (as 50

Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen 100

12

Free ammonia (as NH3)


Biochemical

Chemical

5.0

Oxygen 30

50

100

5.0

100

100

250

350

Oxygen 250

Arsenic (As)

Demand
14

1.0

Demand (5days at 20 C)
13

50

(Asian)
11

20

N)
10

10

0.2

0.2

0.2
0.2

15

Mercury (Hg)

0.01

0.01

0.01

16

Lead (Pb)

1.0

1.0

2.0

17

Cadmium(Cd)

1.0

2.0

18

Hexavelant Chromium

1.0

2.0

1.0

19

Total Ghromium (Cr)

2.0

2.0

2.0

20

Copper (Cu)

3.0

3.0

30

13

21

Zine (Zn)

15

15

22

Selenium(Se)

0.05

0.05

0.05

23

Nickel(Ni)

3.0

3.0

24

Boron(B)

2.0

2.0

2.0
-

25

Percent Sodium

60

60

Table 1.5 Drinking Water Standards of BIS (IS: 10500: 1991)


Sl.

Parameters

No.

IS 100500: 1991
Maximum

Desirable Highest

Limits

Limits

Permissible

Colour Hazen Unit

25

Odour

Unobjectionable

600

Taste

Agreeable

1,500

Turbidity

10

pH

6.5-8.5

No relaxation

Total Hardness

300

600

Iron (Fe)

0.3

1.0

Chloride (Cl)

250

1000

Residual Free chlorine

0.2

Fluoride (F)

1.5

10

Magnesium (mg/L)

30

100

11

Dissolved Solids

500

2000

12

Calcium (Ca)

75

200

13

Magnesium (Mg)

30

100

14

14

Copper (Cu)

0.05

1,5

15

Manganese (Mn)

0.1

0.3

16

Sulphate (SO4)

200

400

17

Nitrate

45

100

18

Phenolic Compounds

0.001

0.002

19

Mercury (Hg)

0.001

No relaxation

20

Cadmium (Cd)

0.01

No relaxation

21

Selenium(Se)

0.01

No relaxation

22

Arsenic(As)

0.05

No relaxation

23

Cyanide(CN)

0.05

No relaxation

24

Lead(Pb)

0.05

No relaxation

25

Zinc(Zn)

5.0

15

26

Hexavelant Chromium

0.05

No relaxation

27

Alkalinity

200

600

28

Aluminum(Al)

0.03

0.2

29

Boron(B)

1.0

5.0

30

Pesticide

Absent

0.001

31

Anionic detergent mg/l

0.2

1.0

32

Chromium mg/l

0.05

No relaxation

33

Polynuclear

aromatic

hydrocarbons
34

Mineral oil

35

Radioactive material:(a) Alfa emitter Bq/l


(b) Beta emitter pci/l

0.01

0.03

0.1

15

As per ISI-IS: 2296-1982, the tolerance limits of parameters are specified as per classified
use of water (Table 1,2,3,4,5 below) depending on various uses of water. The following
classifications have been adopted in India.
Table 1.6 Water Quality Criteria Prescribed for Various Classes of Water Depending on
their Designated Best Use as per IS : 2296-1982
Class of
Designated-Best-Use

Water
A

Water Quality Criteria

Total Coliforms Organism MPN / 100mL shall be 50 or less

without conventional

pH between 6.5 and 8.5

treatment but after

Dissolved Oxygen 6 mg/L or more

Biochemical Oxygen Demand 5 days 20C 2 mg/L or less


Total Coliforms Organism MPN/100mL shall be 500 or less

pH between 6.5 and 8.5 Dissolved Oxygen 5mg/L or more

Biochemical Oxygen Demand 5 days 20C 3 mg/L or less


Total Coliforms Organism MPN/100 mL shall be 5000 or less

conventional treatment and

pH between 6 to 9 Dissolved Oxygen 4 mg/L or more

disinfection
D

Biochemical Oxygen Demand 5 days 20C 3 mg/L or less


pH between 6.5 to 8.5 Dissolved Oxygen 4 mg/L or more

Free Ammonia (as N) 1.2 mg/L or less


pH between 6.0 to 8.5

Electrical Conductivity at 25C mhos/cm Max.2250

Sodium absorption Ratio Max. 26

Boron Max. 2 mg/L


Not Meeting A, B, C, D & E Criteria

Drinking Water Source

disinfection
Outdoor bathing (Organized)

Drinking water source after

Propagation of Wild life and

Fisheries
Irrigation, Industrial Cooling,
Controlled Waste disposal

Below-E

1.8 Iron Ore Resources


Iron is an abundant element in the earths crust, with an average of 2 to 3 % in sedimentary
rocks, to 8.5 % in basalt and gabbro ,which rank iron, the fourth abundant element in the
16

earths crust (GSA,2009 as cited by Yellishetty M.et.al., 2010). Iron ores are of magmatic,
sedimentary and metamorphic origin, hence are from different geological settings. Lateritic
iron ores are prevalent in tropical humid regions over ferruginous bed rocks. The
predominant iron bearing mineral is haematite followed by magnetite.
1.8.1 World Iron Ore Scenario
The global resource base of iron ore is 183.3 billlions tonnes with nearly 4 % of the iron ore
resources in India. However, around 10 % of the global iron ore production comes from
India. Ukraine has the highest reserve base, where as China has the highest production rate.

1.8.2 Iron Ore Resources in India


India is one of the earliest manufacturers and users of iron and steel in the history of the
world. Literature survey reveals many documentary evidences, such as making of various
surgical instruments in the 3rd and 4th century BC. As per IBM estimates, India hosts 28.5
billion tonnes of iron ore resource, of which 10.6 billion tonnes is magnetic and 17.8 billion
tonnnes is Haematite and Goa hosts around 4 % i.e., 1.1 billion tonnes of the total iron ore
resources in India ( IBM.2011). Iron Ore Reserves and Resource Position in India in
2005(thousand tons) as shown in Table 1.7
Table 1.7 : Iron Ore Reserves and Resource Position in India in 2005(thousand tons)

Sl.No
.
1

Magnetite
State
Andhra
Pradesh

Haematite

Reserve

Resource

Reserve

Resource

13.78

39,596

Total

Share

1,463,541

1,463,541

Total

Share

123,443

163,039

1.11

Assam

15,380

15,380

0.14

12,600

12,600

0.09

Bihar

2,659

2,659

0.03

55

55

0.00

Goa

50,112

164,057

214,169

2.02

458,704

254,244

712,948

4.87

Jharkhand

3,391

6,789

10,270

0.10

2,494,42

1,541,32

4,035,746

27.58

Karnataka

148,437

7,663,347

7,811,784

73.56

940,430

735,792

1,676,222

11.46

17

7
8

Madhya
Pradesh
Maharashtr
a

83,435

83,435

0.79

33,917

171,021

204,938

1.40

621

621

0.01

13,997

251,359

265,356

1.81

Meghalaya

3,380

3,380

0.03

225

225

0.00

10

Nagaland

5,280

5,280

0.05

11

Orissa

156

54

210

0.00

2,251,77

2,508,84

4,760,625

32.54

12

Rajasthan

4,225

522,652

526,877

4.96

10,813

19,035

29,848

0.20

13

TamilNadu

481,876

481,876

4.54

38,000

38,000

0.26

760,512

2,730,787

18.67

10,412,54

10,619,48

100.0

7,004,16

14,630,38

100.0

14
15

UttarPrades
h
Chhattisgar
h

All India

206,941

1,970,27
5
7,626,22

0
1
0
9
0
9
(Source: Indian Minerals Year Book 2014, Government of India ,Ministry of Mines)
1.8.3 Iron Ore Mining in Goa
Nature has bestowed minerals of importance upon Goa. Minerals are the backbone of
civilization and development of the country at large. Iron ore, Manganese, Bauxite, High
Magnesia, Limestone and Clay are the chief minerals of economic importance found in Goa,
among which Iron, Manganese and Bauxite are the major minerals found in this State.
However, if taken collectively, iron ore would make up over 99% of the minerals that are
produced in the State of Goa. Goa accounts for about less than 13% of the iron ore production
in India and 35% of the Countrys export. Minor minerals (which are required for the
construction/building and infrastructural sector) are also found in abundance.
The iron ore found in Goa belongs to the Dharwar Super group. Pre-Cambrian Rocks are
associated with Metamorphic Rocks, i.e. Schists and Gneisses. They follow the NNW SSE
Trend. Towards the north of the State, iron ore is mostly Haematic in nature which tends
towards Martite to even magnetic in the Central and Southern bands of the Mining Belt.
In Goa, mining is an important activity for its economy and foreign exchange. Mineral
production in Goa began in the late 1940s, originally for manganese and Ferro-manganese.
By the mid-1950s, emphasis shifted to lumpy iron ore and the 1970s witnessed a phenomenal
18

growth in iron ore production. Iron mining is currently the major extractive industry and is
concentrated along the Ghat section in the east of Goa where a mining belt extends 65 km
from southeast to northwest spanning some700 km2. Goa is the only State in India where a
large number of iron ore mines are concentrated in such a small area. All the iron ore
produced in Goa is exported to Japan, China, Korea, Taiwan and some European countries.
This is because the total iron ore production from the state is less suitable for steel production
(lower the iron content, higher the quantum of fines) in the country at the given level of
technology and domestic demand. Table 1.8 gives the details of total iron ore resources in
Goa.
Table 1.8: Iron Ore Deposits in Goa
Reserve
Sl. No.

Ore

(tonnes)

Remaining (tonnes) Total (tonnes)

1.

Haematite

469844

457328

927172

2.

Magnetite

15675

206998

222673

(Source: National Mineral Inventory, IBM, 2012)

1.9 Environmental Impact of Mining


Mining is one of the major activities causing water pollution and threatens the quantity and
quality of surface and ground water resources in many part of the country. The impact of a
mining operation commences with exploration activities, extends through extraction and
processing of minerals and may continue even after closure of the operation. Surface mine
development and underground mine working below piezometric level invariably change the
hydraulic gradient, thus affecting ground and surface water flows regime vis--vis their water
quality and quantity.
Globally, an estimated 30 million people are involved in large scale mining,

and it

represents 1 % of the Worlds work force ,with a further 13 million involved in small scale
mining. It is estimated that mining occupies some 0.2 % ( 37,000 km 2) of the worlds land
surface (Dudka et. al, 1997 as cited by Hilson G., 2003).
Mining, being the foremost core sector industry in India, plays an important role in the
19

changing economic face of the country. It is essential for keeping pace with industrialization
and attaining higher standards of living. During process of mining, it affects all the
components of environment and the impacts are permanent/temporary, beneficial/harmful,
repairable/irreparable, and reversible/irreversible. Mining and associated activities also have
qualitative and quantitative impacts on the water regime in and around the mines. It cause
changes in ground water flow patterns, lowering of water table, changes in hydrodynamic
conditions of river/underground recharge basins, reduction in volumes of subsurface
discharge to water bodies/rivers, disruption and diversion of water courses/drainages pattern,
contamination of water bodies, affecting the yield of water from bore wells and dug wells etc
Mining and associated activities have qualitative and quantitative impacts on the Water
regime in and around the mines. These are briefly outlined hereunder (COINDS, 2007);

All the surface water bodies have to be removed from the area designed for the
mining and associated activities.

All the aquifers, including the watertable aquifer, above the mineral deposit to be
extracted are damaged.

If there are high pressure aquifers below the mineral deposit, it becomes necessary to
pump the water from the aquifers to reduce the water pressure to facilitate mining.

Water in the nearby water bodies gets polluted due to leaching from the overburden
dumps, discharge of pumped mine water, and other activities in the vicinity of the
water bodies.

During rainy season the runoff water from the areas surrounding the mines carries
with them a large quantity of the suspended solids into the nearby water bodies.

Impacts of open cast mining are very severe; the magnitudes of post disturbance sediment
levels may be higher compared to other land use changes such as deforestation, agricultural
intensification, road building and urbanization ( Brown , 1974; Jackson , 1982 ; Bruijnzeel,
1990 ; Bruijnzeel , 1993 as cited by Krishnaswamy , et al ., 2006). Open cast mining all over
the world is known to have devastating effects on river ecosystems, but the impacts on
20

humid tropical area is severe ( Bird et al, 1984 as cited by Krishnaswamy , et al., 2006).
The most conspicuous positive impact of iron ore mining in India is social and economic
upliftment. Almost all iron ore mining areas support large local communities who are
completely dependent on mining and associated operations. Around 34,000 people earn their
livelihood from iron ore mining and allied activities in Goa. The local people have got better
healthcare, education, living standards, as some of the benefits, due to mining.

1.10 Sources of Water Pollution in Mining Areas


The following are the major sources of water pollution from the Iron Ore Mines
(COINDS, 2007).
1. Surface run-off from various mining areas during monsoon e.g., waste/reject
dumps, tailings pond seepage/overflow etc.
2. Pit water discharge from mines operating below water table
3. Oil and grease pollution from workshops effluent
4. Effluents generated from the Ore Processing Plant
1.10.1 Surface Runoff
The single most important environmental aspect of mines is the surface runoff from various
areas during monsoon, because most of the iron ore mines in India are located on hilltops
with steep slopes and in dense forest areas, and sometimes in areas with high rainfall. Surface
run off from the mining and other areas gets laden with aluminous lateritic soil from mine
benches, exposed outcrops etc. As the iron ore contains only traces of sulphur, the surface
runoff water does not get acidic, but become highly turbid, due to loosening of soil caused
due to the mining activities. Direct discharge of the surface runoff to the natural Nallahs will
certainly affect the water quality of the Nallahs, as well as rivers in the region. Major sources
of runoff from the mines are as follows;
Waste dumps areas
Ore handling and stockpile areas
Haul roads
Other areas like workshops, garages, service centers etc.

21

Waste rock /rejects generated, are separately dumped on the proven barren ground beyond the
ultimate pit limit. Waste dumping is carried out systematically in stages with each stage of 15
m in height and with sufficient width in order to maintain the natural angle of repose. In
most of the large mines, sedimentation basins have been provided for treatment of the surface
runoff or diverting to the tailing ponds. In addition to this, garland drains around the waste
dumps along with retaining walls & toe bunds and check dams across the Nallahs were
provided to arrest the runoff, besides establishing vegetation cover over the waste dumps.
Weathering and atmospheric precipitation are also one of the most common source of water
pollution. Several studies revealed that the elevated concentration of dissolved solids
including trace elements in surface water bodies, is due to various natural factors such as
lithology of basin, geochemistry, evaporation rate, physical & chemical weathering and
atmospheric precipitation etc. The major literature has been reviewed, such as Siyue and
Zhang, 2008;, Panigrahy and Raymahasay, 2005; Panday et al. 1999; Meybeck and Helmer
1989; Sarin and Krishnaswami, 1984). The dominant rock of the major ions in the basin
provides an insight into chemical weathering in the catchment, since weathering of different
parents rock ( e.g; carbonates and silicates) yields different combination of dissolved ions
into solution ( Chen, 1987; Hem,1985; White,2002). Acid Mine Drainage (AMD) affects
water quality by lowering pH, increasing TDS and adding undesirable amounts of heavy
metals and sulphates (Biesecker and Georgy ,1965; Corbett and Growitz, 1967 ; FWPCA ,
1968; Hill , 1988).

1.10.2 Pit Water Discharge from Mines


An open pit mine has two distinct stage exert a different type of influence on the groundwater
system. The first stage is during actual mine operation. Its major impact is to lower the
peizometric surface around the mine site. Quality degradation of surface and ground waters,
which are intercepted by the mine, may also occur. The second stage takes place after the
mining operation has ceased and reclamation has been completed, the post mining period.
For the kind of climate in Goa,with annual average rainfall of 4.0m and pit working below
the ground water table,some of the working have reached 60m below the groundwater
table,winning the ore at the pit bottom is really a challenging part of the mining activity. Also
in order to avoid the collapse of soft clay benches,garland drains are made on all exposed
benches to divert the storm water into the pit. The deep pits generally have a pumping rate of
6 cubic meter of water for every ton of ore mined below the water table. The water pumped
22

out from the pit is non-toxic and contains limited suspended solids. To control the suspended
solids,systematic aarangement at the pit bottom to divert murky water and allowed to settle
there and then pumped out to the series of settling ponds with the proper filtering media and
whenever required, the pit water is treated with hydrated lime and flocculants.
1.10.3 Effluents from Workshops and Garages
The effluents generated from the Workshop and auto garage mainly consists of oil and solids.
Separate effluent treatment plants have been provided for treatment of these effluents in most
of the big iron ore mines. The effluents are treated in series of sedimentation tanks with oil
traps. Rivers in Urban areas have also been associated with water quality problems because
of the practice of discharging of untreated waste water from domestic and small scale
industries in to the water bodies which leads to the increase in the levels of water
contamination (Rim-Rekeh et al 2006; Khadse et al 2008; Upadhya,1990; Venugopal et al
2010). Careless disposal of domestic sewage or other wastes is the major source of various
types of contamination such as excessive nutrients, organics matters, toxic chemicals,
bacteria and other pathogens and trace /heavy elements etc.( Van Vilet and Zwolsman,2008;
Neal et al. 2005; White and Rassumen,1998).
Singh and Hassain (1998) revealed that variation in TDS in the Alaknanda basin is controlled
primarily by lithology and climate. The reported studies indicates that the Alaknanda and its
tributaries are alkaline in nature.
Khan et al. (2003) studied the water quality around Neyveli Lignite Mines in Tamil Nadu.
The Study revealed that the elevated concentration of heavy metals( i.e. Pb, Cr, Fe, Cu, Ni,
Co, Zn, and Mn) were recorded in untreated waste water discharged from mine pits, flyash
ponds and industrial effluents in the vicinity of the Neyveli mines-industrial complex. This
untreated waste water drains in to natural reservoirs resulting in concentration, several times
higher than average world river water values.
Kumar and Bahadur (2009) reported seasonal variation of the Kosi river water quality.
Several studies have been conducted by various government and non-government
organizations to evaluate water quality status in industrial zone of Orissa. Some isolated
investigations have been made regarding water pollution in various industrial zone of
Brhaminin river basin by various researchers such as Panda et al.2006a; Sundary et al. 2006 ;
DOWR, 2004 ; Nayak et al.2001; Mohanty et al; 2004; Konhauser et al.1997; Sundary ,
2006).
1.10.4 Effluent from Ore Processing Plants
In most of the mechanized iron ore mines, ore is processed either in dry or in wet circuits
23

depending on the quality of ore feed. Ore having high alumina and silica are generally
processed in the wet circuit mainly to improve the quality of the ore and to remove the
impurities for smooth Blast furnace operation. In wet circuit, the ore is crushed, scrubbed,
washed, wet-screened, classified etc. Water requirement for this purpose is in the tune of 1 m 3
per tonne at various stages of Runoff Mine (ROM) . Effluents generated from ore washing
mainly consist of suspended solids. The effluent is initially treated in classifier to recover the
coarser particles as ore fines. The overflow of the classifier, mainly consisting of finer solids
i.e. tailings, is sent to thickener for solid -liquid separation. After settling of the tailings at the
bottom of the thickener, clarified overflow water (about 60 %) is reclaimed and recycled to
the system. Clarified water from the Tailing Pond is also reclaimed and recycled back to the
system in majority of iron ore mines in India. In some mines, where there is no provision of
reclaiming water from the pond, the clarified water is discharged through a weir.
1.11 Water Pollution in Mining Areas
Water resources have been the most exploited natural system, since man strode the earth. As a
result of rapid increase of industrialization, urbanization, civilization and other developmental
activities, our natural water system is being polluted by different sources. The last few
decades have caused a dramatic increase in the demand for river water, as well as significant
deteriorations in water quality throughout the world (Chun et al., 2001). The surface and
groundwater resources are steadily declining because of increase in population, industrial
growth, pollution by human, agricultural and industrial wastes and unexpected climate
change. Most human activities involve the use of water in one way or other. It may be noted
that mans early habitation and civilization sprang up along the banks of rivers. Due to
increasing industrialization on one hand and exploding population on the other, the demands
of water supply have been increasing tremendously. Moreover considerable part of this
limited quality of water is polluted by sewage, industrial waste and a wide range of synthetic
chemicals. The quality and quantity of water supply is of vital significance.
Surface water is the water on the surface of the planet such as in a stream, river, lake, wetland
or ocean. It can be contrasted with groundwater and atmospheric water. It is not isolated from
the groundwater resources but instead it interacts with a variety of physiographic and climatic
landscapes. The interactions between groundwater and surface water are complex
(Sophocleous, 2002) in nature. Groundwater is an important source of surface water. Surface
24

water is most vulnerable to pollution due to their easy accessibility for disposal of
wastewater. Both the natural processes, such as precipitation inputs, erosion, weathering of
crustal materials, as well as the anthropogenic influences viz. urban, industrial and
agricultural activities, increasing exploitation of water resources, together determine the
quality of surface water in a region. Rivers play a major role in assimilation or carrying off
the municipal and industrial wastewater and run-off from agricultural land. The municipal
and industrial wastewater discharge constitutes the constant polluting source, whereas, the
surface run-off is a seasonal phenomenon, largely affected by climate in the basin. Seasonal
variations in precipitation, surface run-off, interflow, groundwater flow and pumped in and
outflows have a strong effect on river discharge and subsequently on the concentration of
pollutants in river water. Since rivers constitute the main inland water resources for domestic,
industrial and irrigation purposes, it is imperative to prevent and control the rivers pollution
and to have reliable information on quality of water for effective management.
Groundwater occurs almost everywhere beneath the land surface. It is the water found
underground in the cracks and spaces in soil, sand and rock. It is stored in and moves slowly
through geologic formations of soil, sand and rocks called aquifers. Natural sources of
freshwater that become Groundwater are (1) areal recharge from precipitation that percolates
through the unsaturated zone to the water table losses of water from streams and other bodies
of surface water such as lakes and wetlands. Areal recharge ranges from a tiny fraction to
about one-half of average annual precipitation. Because areal recharge occurs over broad
areas, even small average rates of recharge represent significant volumes of inflow to
Groundwater. Streams and other surface-water bodies may either gain water from
Groundwater or lose (recharge) water to Groundwater.
Water is continuously in motion; its velocity is highly variable, ranging from a few meters per
year to several meters per day. Groundwater resource is a replenishable but a finite resource.
Rainfall is the principal source of recharge, though in some areas, canal seepage and return
flow from irrigation also contribute significantly to the groundwater recharge (Chatterjee and
Purohit, 2009). Groundwater resource comprises of two parts - dynamic resource in the zone
of water-table fluctuation which reflects seasonal recharge and discharge of aquifers and
static resource below this zone, which remains perennially saturated (Das, 2006).
Groundwater overuses lead to a decrease in its quantity. In recent years the management of
groundwater resources attracted much attention in most of the parts of world. Groundwater is
25

not a non-renewable resource, such as mineral or petroleum deposit, nor is it completely


renewable in the same manner and timeframe as solar energy. Recharge of Groundwater from
precipitation continually replenishes the groundwater resource, but may do so at much
smaller rates than the rates of ground-water withdrawals. Groundwater development may take
place over many years; thus, the effects of both current and future development must be
considered in any water-management strategy. The effects of ground-water pumping tend to
manifest themselves slowly over time. Losses from groundwater storage must be placed in
the context of the period over which sustainability needs to be achieved.

Unfortunately, the excessive use and continued mismanagement of water resources to supply
ever-increasing water demands to profligate users, have led to water shortages, increasing
pollution of freshwater resources and degraded ecosystems worldwide (e.g., de Villiers, 2000;
Tsakiris, 2004).Remote sensing with its advantages of spatial, spectral and temporal
availability of data covering large and inaccessible areas within short time has become a
handy tool in exploring, evaluating, and managing vital groundwater resources (Chowdhury
et al., 2003). The geographic information system (GIS) has emerged as an effective tool for
handling spatial data and decision making in several areas including engineering and
environmental fields. The combined use of remote sensing and GIS is a valuable tool for
the analysis of voluminous hydrogeologic data and for the simulation modeling of complex
subsurface flow and transport processes under saturated and unsaturated conditions (e.g.,
Gogu et al., 2001; Gossel et al., 2004).
Shamruck et al., (2001) studied the effect of chemical fertilizers on groundwater quality in
the Nile Valley aquifer, Egypt and found the major ion concentration of Nitrate (20 to 340
mg/L), Sulphate (96 to 630 mg/L), Phosphate (7 to 34 mg/L) and Potassium (7 to 28 mg/L).
Ammann et al., (2003) reported about the groundwater pollution by runoff. Almasri et al.,
(2004) evaluated regional long-term trends and occurrence of Nitrate in the groundwater of
agricultural watersheds in Whatcon County, Washington.
Ghose et al., (1999) showed the impact on groundwater quality due to the disposal of iron ore
tailing. Gupta and Gupta, (1999) have found high Hardness value and MPN of coliform in the
drinking water of Satna, Madhya Pradesh. Narayana and Lokesh, (1999) has determined the
quality of groundwater of bore wells in MIT campus Manipal, Karnataka and found that the
physicochemical parameters were within the maximum permissible limits of drinking water
standards. Pillai et al., (1999) observed that there were significant variations in the physico26

chemical and biological characteristics of drinking water of Durg Municipality. Dahiya and
Kaur, (1999) has studied the physico-chemical characteristics of groundwater in rural areas of
Tosham subdivision, Bhiwani district, Haryana. Dash et al., (1999) has studied the
groundwater of Hemgiri block of Sundergarh district and observed that the groundwater of
the area is suitable for both domestic and irrigation use. Elampooranan et al., (1999) has
studied the groundwater quality in Nagapattinum and Thanjavur districts. Nagarajan and
Priya, (1999) studied the groundwater quality deterioration in Tiruchirapalli, Tamil Nadu and
found TSS, Iron and Magnesium values beyond the permissible limit.
Singh and Parwana, (1999) studied the pollution load in the groundwater in Punjab state due
to industrial wastewater and found the presence of Chromium and Cyanide in groundwater
beyond permissible limit of drinking water standards. Jach et al., (2000) studied the
groundwater quality in Sagar district, Madhya Pradesh and found that groundwater of the
area falls under the category of low Sodium hazards. Jha and Verma, (2000) studied the
physico-chemical properties of drinking water in town area of Godda district under Santal
Pargana (Bihar), India. They have reported that most of the water quality parameters were
within the limit of drinking water standards, however well water was characterized by a very
high concentration of chloride, chromium and selenium. It has been reported that the well
water of that area appears to be poor quality and not suitable for drinking purposes.
Muralikrishna and ShasiShankar, (2000) investigated the groundwater quality of the samples
of Karkala and found that the Groundwater samples analyzed were safe from the point of
chemical aspect but bacteriologically, all the well water samples were highly contaminated.
Srinivas et al., (2000) studied the groundwater quality of Hyderabad by taking 32 tube well
water samples and reported that Electrical Conductivity, Total Dissolved Solids, Total
Alkalinity, Hardness, Calcium, Magnesium, Sodium and Chlorides were above the
permissible limit according to WHO and Indian Standards. Freeda et al., (2001) studied the
drinking water quality of five villages in Jayakondam Panchayat Union, Ariyalur District,
Tamil Nadu and it was found to be suitable for drinking. Mohapatra et al., (2001) showed the
correlation study on physico chemical characteristics of groundwater in Paradeep areas. Ruj,
(2001) studied the groundwater quality of north western part of Bankura district, West Bengal
and found 78% of the water samples from tube wells exceed the permissible limit for potable
water with respect to Iron. Jayasree, (2002) studied the Chemistry of coastal water in
Thiruvananthapuram and reported that there is deterioration of water quality in certain
regions. Sharma et al., (2002) reported about the impact of industrial pollution on
27

groundwater quality in Kalmeswar area, Nagpur district, Moharastra. Garg, (2003) reported
that the physico-chemical parameters of groundwater from ten sampling locations of
Chitrakoot region for four seasons during the year 2000 and was found to be suitable for
drinking. Jain et al., (2003) reported the groundwater quality in Malaprabhaa sub-basin,
Karnataka.
Elangovan and Balasubramanian, (2004) studied the groundwater quality in Salem Namakkal
districts and reported that the water is suitable for drinking purposes. Chaudhari et al., (2004)
studied the quality of groundwater near an industrial area at Jalgaon (Maharastra) and also
studied Water Quality Index which suggests that the water is not suitable for direct
consumption.
Srinivasamoorthy et al. (2008) studied about correlation and factor analysis for assessing
the quality of groundwater in Mettur region of Tamilnadu. They concluded that factor
analysis indicated hydro-geochemical processes like weathering, ion exchange, and
anthropogenic contributes to groundwater chemistry. The saturation index indicates
dissolution and precipitation contributes fluorides dissolution along with mixing.
Bhabesh et al. (2007) attempted a study on geo-environmental quality assessment in Jharia
coalfield, India, using multivariate statistical analysis and geographic information system
modeling techniques. Water quality index, calculated for each sample network station in the
study area to assess the suitability of water for human consumption, revealed very poor to
poor quality surface water and mine water. Srinivastava and Ramanathan (2007) applied a
statistical method for geochemical assessment of groundwater quality using graphical and
multivariate statistical methods. A geochemical assessment of the groundwater quality and
its possible contamination in the vicinity of the Bhalswa landfill site was carried out. The
statistical analysis, spatial and temporal variations indicated the leaching of contaminants
from the landfill to the groundwater aquifer system.
Water chemistry and biological aspects of Rous River, Australia (Eyre and Pepperrell, 1999),
Coastline of Mauritius (Daby et al., 2002), Bow river watershed (Little et al., 2003),
Burlington and Hamilton sewage (Rao et al., 2003), Sagami river, Japan (Iwashita and
Shimamura, 2003), Odiel River, South West Spain (Olias et al., 2004), Shibetsu River,
Shibetsu area and Bekkanbeushi River, Akkeshi area (Woli et al., 2004) have been
extensively studied outside India. Surface water chemistry in various parts of World are
shown in Table 1.9.
28

Table 1.9 Surface water chemistry and biological aspects study in various parts of World

S.No.

Surface water source

Investigator/s

Year

Lake Lanao, Philippines

Willium

1978

River Nida, Poland

Starzecka

1979

crocodile river, South Africa

Keller

1960

Rous River, Australia

Eyre and Pepperrell,

1999

Coastline of Mauritius

Daby et al.,

2002

Sagami river, Japan

Iwashita

and 2003

Shimamura
7

Longchuanjiang River

Siyue Li et al

2011

Rawal Lake Reservoir, Pakistan

Malik & Nadeem

2011

Danjiangkou Reservoir, China

Li & Zhang

2010

10

Begnas Lake of the Pokhra valley, Nepal

Khadka

and 2012

Ramanathan
Li & Zhang (2010) had evaluated major ion chemistry and weathering processes of the
Danjiangkou Reservoir, China .The study found Ca2+ and HCO-3

as dominant ions

contributed 6381% and 7381% of the total ions respectively which is due to carbonate
weathering (of limestone). The SO2-4 found in the reservoir water was primarily due to
anthropogenic emissions and the oxidation of sulfide minerals in the drainage basin.
In another study, monthly variations in major elements and solute fluxes of Longchuanjiang
River were also examined (Siyue Li et al., 2011). The river water shows higher
concentrations of Ca2+ and HCO3, which in total accounts for approximately 78% of the total
ionic budgets and has strong relation with flow rate of water. Chemical budget of the river
waters indicates that carbonate weathering largely dominates the riverine water chemistry.
83% of cations in the Longchuanjiang river originate from carbonates and 17% from silicates.
The total CO2 consumption rate by rock chemical weathering within the upper
Longchuanjiang basin is 376.6103 mol/km2/yr, higher than the world average of 246103
mol/km2/yr. The CO2 consumed by rock chemical weathering in the upper catchment of
Changjiang basin constituted a significant part of global carbon budget. Anthropogenic
activity contributes about 10.4% of the dissolved solute.
29

Malik & Nadeem (2011) used multivariate analysis technique for the Spatial and temporal
characterization of trace elements and nutrients in the Rawal Lake Reservoir, Pakistan.
Results showed serious metal pollution of surface water. Mean concentration of Zn, Cd, Ni,
Cu, Fe, Cr, and Pb in both seasons and Mn in post-monsoon were well above the permissible
level of surface water quality criteria. Rawal Lake Reservoir is deteriorated due to
anthropogenic inputs from untreated poultry and municipal waste, recreational and carwashing activities, and agricultural runoff in its catchment.
Khadka and Ramanathan (2012) evaluated major ion composition and seasonal variation of
chemical composition in the Begnas Lake of the Pokhra valley of Nepal. The results showed
that SO42-, PO43-, and NO3 - increased as compared to previously reported values. Ca2+,
Mg2+, and HCO3- are present in higher concentration, and it explains the influence of
carbonate weathering on the major ion concentration. The study further revealed that,
although the major ion concentrations are within tolerable limit, the ever deteriorating water
quality, as manifested by growth of macrophyte vegetation, indicates that other factors may
also be regulating water quality by releasing limiting elements. Since the interaction between
sediments and overlaying water is the key process controlling the water quality, further
extensive research incorporating aspects of sedimentwater interaction is required for better
management, conservation, and preservation of the natural integrity of the lake.
In India, pioneering studies on limnology of river and lake ecosystems were carried out by
Banerjee et al., (1999) on river Tikara and Brahmani, Gambhi, (1999) on Maithon Reservoir,
Jain, (1999) on Khnop Reservoir, Bhuvaneswaran et al., (1999) on river Adyar, Patel, (1999)
on Pitamahal Dam, Sharma, (1999) on river Yamuna, Singh and Parwana, (1999) on River
Damodar, Gyananath and Samiuddin, (2000) on river Godavari, Kausik et al., (2000) on river
Ghaggar, Chatterjee and Raziuddin, (2001) on river Nunia in Asansol, West Bengal, Kaur et
al., (2001) on river Satluj, Garg et al., (2002) on western Yamuna canal from Tajewala
(Haryana) to Haiderpur treatment plant (Delhi), Abbasi et al., (2002) on Buckinghhum canal,
Martin and Haniffa, (2003) on river Tamiraparani, Srivastava and Srivastava, (2003) on river
Gaur at Jabalpur, Sinha et al., (2004) on river Ram Ganga, Singh and Gupta, (2004) on river
Yamuna and Guru Prasad and Satyanarayan, (2004) on Sarada river basin.
Kumar et al (2007) investigated the impact of coal mining on ponds of Jharia town, Dhanbad,
Jharkhand. The study found higher concentration of anions and cations above the WHO
limits. This revealed the enrichment of pollutants and pose threat to local population residing
30

there. The pond waters are alkaline, at all sampling sites that control weathering pattern and
availability of dissolved solids in Jharia pond water. The correlation matrix shows a good
relation between Total Dissolved Solids and Conductivity/turbidity.
In another study Singh et al (2011) did assessment of hydrogeochemistry, elemental flux, and
quality of mine water in the Pootkee-Balihari mining Area, Jharia coalfield, India. The study
showed general ionic abundance as: Mg2+, Ca2+, Na+, K+ and HCO3-, SO42- , Cl- , NO3-, Frespectively. Weathering of rock forming minerals and ion exchange processes are the major
controlling factors for mine water chemistry. Elevated Concentration of SO 42- in some of the
samples was due to the Pyrite Weathering. The parameters of major concern found in the
study were TDS, hardness, Mg2+, and SO42-. Except Fe all the metals found in the study were
within the levels of drinking water.
Gupta et al (2012) investigated major ion chemistry and distribution of metals in coal
mine Pit Lake contaminated with industrial effluents. The study reveals dominance of
alkaline earths (Ca2+and Mg2+) over total cation strength, while SO 42- and Cl- constitute the
majority of total anion load as explained by weathering of CaMg silicates and dissolution of
Ca2+ bearing minerals present in parent rocks and overburden materials. Weathering of Ca
Mg silicate is supposed to be the major contributor in geochemical processes.
Singh et al, 2012 carried out chemical characterisation of meltwater draining from Gangotri
Glacier, Garhwal Himalaya, India, to understand major ion chemistry and to get an insight
into geochemical weathering processes controlling hydrochemistry of the glacier. Calcium
and magnesium are the dominant cations, while sulphate is the dominant anion followed by
bicarbonate. Weathering of rocks is the dominant mechanism controlling the hydrochemistry
of drainage basin. Glacier System is largely controlled by carbonate weathering and partly
controlled by silicate weathering. The role of atmospheric precipitation is minimal in the
dissolved ion content, as the equivalent ratios of Na/Cl and K/Cl are significantly higher than
those of marine aerosols of the meltwater of Gangotri Glacier. The relative high contribution
of (Ca+Mg) to the total cations (TZ+), high (Ca+Mg)/(Na+K) ratio (2.63) and low
(Na+K)/TZ+ ratio (0.29) indicate the dominance of carbonate weathering as a major source
for dissolved ions in the glacier meltwater.
Thomas et al. (2013) had studied Seasonal variation in major ion chemistry of a tropical
mountain river, the southern Western Ghats, Kerala, India to understand various geochemical
processes as well as process drivers controlling the water quality and patterns of the
hydrochemical composition of river water in Muthirapuzha River Basin. They found Ca 2+ and
Mg2+ dominated in the cations, while Cl- followed by HCO3-dominated in the anions. The
31

relationship between Cl- and Na+ implies stronger contributions of anthropogenic activities
modifying the hydrochemical composition, irrespective of seasons. Weathering was primarily
responsible for Na+ and atmospheric depositions as well as anthropogenic sources were
responsible for Cl- in the river water.
Paul & Sinha (2013) investigated the seasonal variations in the river water quality of Ganga
in lower stretch with respect to heavy metals contamination. They found significant seasonal
change in the concentration of Zn, Pb, Cd and Cr in surface water. The study found the
highest concentrations of Zn, Pb, Cd, and Cr in summer, while lowest during monsoon
period. It .was observed from the study that concentration of most of these heavy metals were
much higher than the maximum permissible limits given by BIS. The reason behind higher
concentration of heavy metal load in the river surface water was attributed to the discharge of
industrial effluents and municipal wastes of river bed and catchment area.
Singh et al 2013 carried out qualitative assessment of Surface water of West Bokaro
Coalfield, Jharkhand by using water quality index method. The study found water Quality
Index to be an effective tool for the assessment of spatial and temporal changes in water
quality. The quality of water were evaluated by testing various physico-chemical parameters
such as pH, Total Dissolved Solid, Total Hardness, Turbidity, Bicarbonate, Total Alkalinity,
Calcium, Magnesium, Fluoride , Chloride, Nitrate and Sulphate. The computed WQI shows
that 28.6% of water sample falls in the good water category. On the other hand 42.9% of
water samples fall in the poor category and 28.6 % falls in very poor category. Water Quality
Index of 71.5% samples indicates that the water is not suitable for direct consumption. This
study concluded that more than half of the surface water was polluted as indicated by WQI
and prior treatment is required for using it in drinking purposes.
Water quality study was carried out in Singrauli area of the north India to know the water
quality at selected sites. Physico-chemical parameters like pH, total dissolved solids (TDS),
bicarbonate, hardness, calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, chloride, sulphate, copper,
iron, cobalt, manganese, zinc, and chromium were analyzed in 27 water samples. Locations
selected for sampling were based on the preliminary field survey carried out to understand the
overall impact of mining and industrialization on the surface and groundwater resources of
Singrauli. Base map, drainage map, and land use/land cover of the study area were prepared
from Survey of India topographic map 63 L/12 on 1:50000 scale and satellite data of IRS P6
LISS III 4th May 2010. Land use were categorized into 15 categories out of which major area
occupied by open forest covers 20.3 %, uncultivated land 20.2 %, cultivated land 12.6 %,
dense forest 11.0 %, and other categories cover 35.8 %. The results obtained were compared
32

with World Health Organization standards for drinking water quality. The physico chemical
analysis shows alkaline nature of water, soft to moderately soft; TDS and total alkalinity
exceeds the desirable limit. The major ions in water like calcium, and magnesium are within
desirable limits, and sulfate and potassium exceed in limit at some locations, whereas sodium
and chloride show higher values. The minor ions like copper and zinc show values within
desirable limits whereas iron, cobalt, and chromium show higher values than the desirable
limits which deteriorate the quality of water (Khan et al 2012).
Warhate and Wankar (2012) provided information on the ground and surface water Pimpari
area in order to appreciate the impacts of mining activities on the quality of water and to
discuss its suitability for human consumption from the water quality index values. The water
quality of Pimpari village which is very near to the open cast mines (WCL Kolera Pimpari)
were calculated by considering eight parameters viz. pH, total hardness, TDS, chloride,
nitrite, nitrate, sulphate and sodium. For the study the water samples were collected from a
Nula, a river (surface water) and three tube wells (ground water) during Dec. 2003 to April
2006. The Nula receives discharged water from the mine. The river water analysis was
carried out considering two stations; one before discharged and other after discharged. The
study revealed that the water quality is poor at Nula and unfit for human consumption
without treatment whereas, the river and ground water is acceptable.
Singh et. al. (2011) carried out the hydro geochemical study of groundwater in Dumka and
Jamtara districts to assess the major ion chemistry, hydro geochemical processes and
groundwater quality for domestic and irrigation uses. Thirty groundwater samples were
collected and analyzed for pH, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids (TDS), total
hardness, anions (F-, Cl-, NO3-, HCO3-SO42-) and cations (Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+). The analytical
results show the faintly alkaline nature of water and dominance of Mg 2+ and Ca2+ in cationic
and HCO3 and Cl- in anionic abundance. The concentrations of alkaline earth metals (Ca 2+ +
Mg2+) exceed the alkali metals (Na+ + K+) and HCO3 - dominates over SO42- Cl- concentrations
in the majority of the groundwater samples. CaMgHCO 3 is the dominant hydro
geochemical facies in 60 % of the groundwater samples, while 33 % samples occur as a
mixed chemical character of CaMgCl hydro geochemical facies. The water chemistry is
largely controlled by rock weathering and ion exchange processes with secondary
contribution from anthropogenic sources. The inter-elemental correlations and factor and
cluster analysis of hydro-geochemical database suggest combined influence of carbonate and
silicate weathering on solute acquisition processes.
33

Bhattacharya et al. (2011) investigated the groundwater chemistry with special concern to
metal pollution in selected communities in the Wassa West district, Ghana. In this mining
area, 40 ground water samples, mainly from drilled wells, were collected. The groundwater
has generally neutral to acidic pH values and their Eh values indicate oxidizing conditions.
The dominating ions are calcium, sodium, and bicarbonate. The metal concentrations in the
study area are generally lower than those typically found in mining regions. Only 17 wells
show metal concentrations exceeding WHO guidelines for at least one metal. The main
contaminants are manganese and iron, but arsenic and aluminum also exceeded the guidelines
in some wells, probably affected by acid mine drainage (AMD). Metal concentrations in the
groundwater seem to be controlled by the adsorption processes. Hydro geochemical modeling
indicates super saturation of groundwater with respect to several mineral phases including
iron-hydroxides/oxides, suggesting that adsorption on these minerals may control heavy
metal and arsenic concentrations in groundwater. The area is hilly, with many groundwater
flow divides that result in several local flow systems. The aquifers therefore are not strongly
affected by weathering of minerals, due to short groundwater residence times and intense
flushing. The local character of groundwater flow systems also prevents a strong impact of
acid mine drainage on groundwater systems in a regional scale.
Purkait et al. (2010) focused on occurrence of various heavy metals in surface water of
Ganga river around Kolkata. The river was polluted due to discharge of Waste water from the
dumping of organic wastes from nearby residential and commercial areas through Kolkata
Muncipal Corporation. SAR content of the sewage water samples was in the range of 4.977.95, which indicates the waste is rich in nutrients (N,P,K) content. In case of heavy metals,
the effects of sewage input can be observed in the commly higer elemental concentrations in
downstream from urban areas. The concentration of Mn. Zn, Cu, Pb, Cd, Ni, and Fe of the
total samples were found with a mean value of 34.93, 9.6., 5.65, 9.355,0.53, 10.31 and 170.24
ppm respectively, which was higher than prescribed limits.
Ground water samples were collected from thirteen (13) open wells at various locations in
study area during pre and post monsoon season. The physico-chemical parameters such as
pH, Electrical conductivity, TDS, Total hardness, Ca2+ hardness, Mg2+hardness, Ca2+ ion,
Mg2+ ion, Chloride, and COD were analyzed (APHA, 1998) to know the present status of the
groundwater quality. Drinking water quality (IS: 10500) of pre-monsoon season was better
than post monsoon season. Few water samples were slightly alkaline along with high
dissolved solids( Reza and Singh 2011).
34

Anshumali and A.L. Ramanathan (2007) did a comprehensive and systematic study of
Seasonal variation of the major ions of Pandoh Lake, Mandi District, Himachal Pradesh,
India to understand the geochemical processes controlling water quality. The study found low
concentrations of Na+ and K+ indicating minimal contribution from the weathering of
silicate minerals to Pandoh Lake. The molar Mg2+/Ca2+ ratio indicates that the influence of
carbonate weathering to water chemistry is very high compared to other Indian lakes from the
Himalaya region. Correlation matrix and principal component analysis were used to identify
various factors influencing the ionic strength of Pandoh Lake waters. Major ions (Cl -, PO3-4,
HCO-3, NO-3, SO2-4, Na+, K+, Ca2+ and Mg2+) show increasing trends from monsoon to winter
and then decreasing trends in the summer. It is inferred from the study that lake is not highly
polluted or influenced by anthropogenic activities as reflected in the NO -3and PO34

concentration in different seasons.

Singh et al (2007) had did qualitative assessment of 77 Mine water samples of Raniganj
coalfield area, India, to assess its suitability for domestic, industrial, and irrigation uses. The
anion chemistry was dominated by HCO3- and SO42- On average, Cl- contributes10 and 19%
of the total anionic balance, respectively, in the Barakar and Raniganj Formation mine water.
The cation chemistry is dominated by Mg 2+ and Ca2+ in the mine water of the Barakar
Formation and Na+ in the Raniganj Formation mines. Concentrations of some trace metals
(i.e. Fe, Cr, Ni) were found to be above the levels recommended for drinking water.
Relatively high values of EC, TDS, TH, SO 42- Fe, Mn, and Cr in a number of mine water
samples, make the water unsafe for drinking purpose. Surface water studies in India are
shown in Table 1.10.
Table 1.10 : Surface water chemistry studies in India
S.No.

Surface water source

Investigator/s

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11

River Yamuna
River Gandak
River Ganga and Yamuna
River Kallayi, Kerala
River Jhelum
River Subarnarekha
River Tikara and Brahmani
River Gaur, Jabalpur
River Gomti
coal mining on ponds of Jharia
Pandoh Lake, Mandi District,

Chakravarthy et al
David
Ray et al
John
Raina et al
Mishra et al
Banerjee et al
Srivastava and Srivastava
Singh et al
Kumari et al
Anshumali
and

12

Himachal Pradesh
Ramanathan
Surface water of West Bokaro Singh et al
35

Year
1959
1963
1966
1978
1984
1994
1999
2003
2004
2007
A.L. 2007
2013

13

Coalfield
River Ganga

Paul & Sinha (2013)

2013

1.12 Water Pollution Studies in Goa Mining Region


Mining activities involve the conjunctive production of groundwater as they require
considerable pumping out of water. Many studies have highlighted the negative impact of
Goas mining activities on local hydrology (MS Swaminathan 1982; TERI 1997; G.T.
Marathe, IIT; B.S. Chowdhri and A.G. Chachadi; NEERI Report; Regional Plan of Goa,
2021.) As water tables drop due to the drainage of water into mining pits in zones of
unconfined aquifers, local wells go dry and affect availability of water for domestic needs and
agriculture and this impacts local lives. Water shortages as a result of mining activities have
been well documented (TERI, 1997; TERI, 2002). Evidence from studies (TERI, 2006) also
Report of the WGEEP 2011 80 reveals that the impact of changes in groundwater is
disproportionately borne by women who are more vulnerable to insecurity, poverty, and ill
health.
Agriculture has also been severely affected in the area due to extraction of ground water, vast
areas being covered by siltation and mining dust, thus destroying farms and livelihood (TERI,
1997; Kerkar, 2010; Goa Team Presentation to the WGEEP, 2010). Agricultural fields at the
foothills of the dumps and mining areas have been severely impacted due to siltation from
mining. This has led, at times, to serious conflicts between those involved in agriculture and
mining in the area. A current case in point is Colomba village in Sanguem taluka, where 23
mining concessions granted during the Portuguese regime are located and which cover 75%
of the village. A few of these mines have already commenced activities. In other words this
agricultural village is under the shadow of being completely consumed by mines, leading to
local agitation. Another village is that of Caurem. Kerkar (2010) in his paper to the WGEEP
notes Very few villages in Goa are blessed with the ecological heritage of sacred groves,
perennial springs and rich forests like that of Cavare of Quepem in south Goa. But today,
(the) very existence of Cavare is threatened on account of increasing mining activities.
Agriculture and mining, people and mining companies, are pitted against each other. Current
36

laws offer inadequate compensation for those whose land and livelihood is taken away by
mining. Many of these environmental and social impacts do not get reflected when one hears
of the value that mining contributes to the gross state domestic product (GSDP). An
exploratory study to value some of the impacts of mining in Goa using 1996/97 data, for
example, suggested that even if this partial accounting of the environmental and social
impacts is netted out of the value created by mining activity in terms of value added to GSDP,
the true income would be only 15% of reported income (Noronha, 2001; TERI, 2002, ).
More recent papers in response to the NCAER Report (2010) suggest that the benefit-cost
ratios no longer favour mining in Goa (Basu, 2011; Mukhopadhyay and Kadekodi, 2011).
In Goa, the most common water bearing formation are the laterites occurring almost all over
Goa. The mechanism of recharge to deeper crystalline rock is also shown in figure. While
detailed geological work has been undertaken in Goa since 1962, most of the hydro
geological work has been done much later. Short-term water supply investigation has been
carried out by the officers of the Geological Survey of India from the Southern region prior to
1970. Subramanian (1971) carried out the first systematic hydrogeological survey in the
northern part of Goa. Govindrajan et al. (1974) have studied the lateritic soils of Goa and
concluded that topography, geology, climate and vegetation have played a prominent role in
the development of lateritic soils in Goa. Subramaniam (1981) concluded from his study
that the rivers and their perennial tributaries in Goa retain high discharge mainly due to the
effluence of the leaky laterites all along their course, and more particularly in post-monsoon
period. Ghosh (1985) studied the rainfall contribution to ground water recharge as 16% and
evapotranspiration and surface run-off as 32% and 52%respectively. The stage of
groundwater development in the coastal and mining areas is fairly high but well within the
safe limits (Chachadi, 2009).

Laterite varies in their physical characteristics both laterally

and vertically thereby possessing variable potential to yield groundwater. The depth to
groundwater level fluctuations varies, depending on the thickness of the unsaturated zone and
the rainfall pattern.

Rainfall is the main source of recharge.

Systematic hydrogeological

investigations were carried out in parts of south Goa by CGWB and found that the
groundwater occurs under water table condition in the shallow zones of laterite and
weathered crystalline rocks and under semi-confined condition in the crystalline rocks
underneath the laterite (Adyalkar, 1985).

37

Marathe and Shah (1987) computed the hydraulic conductivity of different grades of iron ore
cores and rocks of Goa and estimated hydraulic conductivity as 0.526m/day for iron ore
formations and 0.136 to 0.3 m/day for various clays(rejects).
Pahala kumar (1996) carried out detailed studies in the mining areas of North Goa for
evaluation of groundwater potential using remote sensing and GIS techniques, which have
indicated that iron ore beds can form aquifers.

The dating of water samples indicated that

the shallow laterite aquifer and deep iron ore aquifers are not hydraulically connected (Pahala
kumar 1996, Venkataraman, et al, 1992).
Detailed studies on impact assessment of open cast mine dewatering on rural drinking water
supplies in the mining belt of Goa was carried out by Chachadi and it was concluded that the
mine pit dewatering has influenced the local shallow groundwater wells, but is a site specific
phenomenon at Pissurlem area of Cudnem watershed in North Goa and hence cannot be
generalized for the entire mining belt. Plateaus are most common landforms confined to
midlands of Goa, they occur at elevations ranging from 40 to 80 m (amsl).Generally they are
covered with hard sometimes massive laterite on the flat portion and boundary detrital laterite
on the slopes. The laterite is varying in thickness from < 5 m to > 30 m and is underlain by a
thick sequence of clays of varying degree. The laterite located on the plateaus does not
generally form aquifers because they cannot hold water due to their topographical settings
(Chachadi, 2009).
The boundary between the clay and fractured and weathered basement rock often made of
phyllites and metasediments are responsible for confined groundwater. The intervening clays
are not impermeable, but can store and vertically transmit some quantity of water for
replenishing confined aquifer. Majority of the iron ore deposits are located below the hilly
plateau areas ranging in elevation from few m to over 100 m (amsl) in the midland areas.
These plateaus are composed of laterite cover followed by a thick layer of various clays. In
these clays are the iron ore bodies located mainly in the form of powdery ore and lumps. For
exploring the iron ore, the mining activity has to be carried out by cutting the top laterite
cover on the plateaus and removing clay overburden. The mining activity induces flow of
groundwater into the mine pit from unconfined laterite aquifer under favorable hydraulic
conditions and also forms the confined iron ore body aquifers during mining. The water has
to be pumped out to provide dry conditions at the mine pit bottom for ore extraction (The
Energy Research Institute, TERI,2009 Report).

38

Mining activities involve the conjunctive production of groundwater as they require


considerable pumping out of water. Many studies have highlighted the negative impact of
Goas mining activities on local hydrology (MS Swaminathan 1982; TERI 1997; G.T.
Marathe, IIT; B.S. Chowdhri and A.G. Chachadi; NEERI Report; Regional Plan of Goa,
2021.) As water tables drop due to the drainage of water into mining pits in zones of
unconfined aquifers, local wells go dry and affect availability of water for domestic needs and
agriculture and this impacts local lives. Water shortages as a result of mining activities have
been well documented (TERI, 1997; TERI, 2002). Evidence from studies (TERI, 2006) also
Report of the WGEEP 2011 80 reveals that the impact of changes in groundwater is
disproportionately borne by women who are more vulnerable to insecurity, poverty, and ill
health.
1.13 Need and Scope of the Present Study
Public representatives, NGOs and other stakeholders have been raising the issues of alarming
water pollution levels and concerned about the management of water resources particularly
in mining areas. Initial literature survey reflects that there is no systematic study in this
regard. With a view to delineate the regional environmental assimilative capacity and to plan
proper development of mining activity in the Goa region, Center of Mining Environment
/Environmental Science and Engineering at ISM has undertaken a pilot study for carrying out
Environmental Impact Assessment study of mining in Goa region and to arrive at a proper
management plan to sustain existing mining without damage to environmental components
under the sponsorship of MoEF/GOI. As a part of this project, present study has been
initiated with the following defined objectives:
1.14 Objectives of the study

Assessment of the water quality of surface and ground water resources in the Goa
mining region.

Characterization of receiving environment for selection of Hotspots, with particular


reference to its utilities, pollution contamination levels, aesthetics and socio-economic
aspects.

Assessing efficacy of existing water pollution management practices and delineation


of a strategic water management plan for different waste loads and designated usages
for present and proposed iron ore mines and other industries in Goa mining region.

39

1.15 Outlines of the Thesis


Chapter 1 presents overview of water resources, Sources of water pollution in mining area,
Iron ore mining industry and their impacts on environment, literature review on Water
qualities studies, Scope and objectives of the study.
Chapter 2

provides description of

the Study area. with

physiography, topography,

Geology, climate, land cover ,Iron ore deposits in Goa.


Chapter 3 - contains the details of the water quality assessment with respect to physicochemical and trace / heavy elements of collected samples of surface water and ground water
over various seasons.
Chapter 4 elaborates on the indexing approach for water quality index for surface and
ground water samples in the Study area.
Chapter 5 Discuss Mitigation measures for water resources as followed by Various mining
comapanies .
Chapter 6 deals with the salient features of conclusive remarks obtained from critical
analysis of the study, followed by suitable recommendations for effective measures for water
resource.

40