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The Poser

Is there anything we can do?

If so, what would it be?

Option 1: Reduce all or one of the factors for Population, Affluence and Technology

Likely Outcome: Damper to growth

The Poser

Is there anything we can do?

If so, what would it be?

Option 1: Reduce all or one of the factors for Population, Affluence and Technology

Likely Outcome: Damper to growth

Option 2: Adopt Environmental Sustainability Likely Outcome: Growth Sustain; Environmental Impact Moderated

Environmental Sustainability

(Resource Consumption < Resource Generation)

Year

Resource X

Resource X

Resource X

Resource X

Consumption

Generation

Surplus/(Deficit)

Availability

1

     

100,000

2

20,000

10,000

(10,000)

90,000

3

30,000

15,000

(15,000)

75,000

4

35,000

25,000

(10,000)

65,000

5

35,000

35,000

0

65,000

6

30,000

40,000

10,000

75,000

7

40,000

50,000

10,000

85,000

8

45,000

70,000

25,000

110,000

Environmental Sustainability

(Resource Consumption < Resource Generation)

Year

Resource X

Resource X

Resource X

Resource X

Consumption

Generation

Surplus/(Deficit)

Availability

1

     

100,000

2

20,000

10,000

(10,000)

90,000

3

30,000

15,000

(15,000)

75,000

4

35,000

25,000

(10,000)

65,000

5

35,000

35,000

0

65,000

6

30,000

40,000

10,000

75,000

7

40,000

50,000

10,000

85,000

8

45,000

70,000

25,000

110,000

85,000 8 45,000 70,000 25,000 110,000 Consume Less; Waste Less; Create More MA0100 (C) S W

Consume Less; Waste Less; Create More

Systemic Degradation MA0100 Controlled Gaseous Emissions Strategies Managed Established Chaos Waste Discharge Minimised

Systemic

Degradation

Systemic Degradation MA0100 Controlled Gaseous Emissions Strategies Managed Established Chaos Waste Discharge Minimised

MA0100

Controlled

Gaseous

Emissions

Strategies Managed Established
Strategies
Managed
Established
MA0100 Controlled Gaseous Emissions Strategies Managed Established Chaos Waste Discharge Minimised (C) S W Lye 12
MA0100 Controlled Gaseous Emissions Strategies Managed Established Chaos Waste Discharge Minimised (C) S W Lye 12
MA0100 Controlled Gaseous Emissions Strategies Managed Established Chaos Waste Discharge Minimised (C) S W Lye 12

Chaos

Waste

Discharge

Minimised

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Basic Industrial Ecology Process

Extraction Industrial Ecology System Waste
Extraction
Industrial
Ecology System
Waste

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Basic Industrial Ecology Process

Extraction Industrial Ecology System Waste
Extraction
Industrial
Ecology System
Waste

Where can additional Resources be Generated?

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Waste and its Recovery Principles &

Methods

Extraction

Industrial

Ecology System

& Methods Extraction Industrial Ecology System Waste Coverage: Lesson 2: Waste and its sources Lesson
& Methods Extraction Industrial Ecology System Waste Coverage: Lesson 2: Waste and its sources Lesson
& Methods Extraction Industrial Ecology System Waste Coverage: Lesson 2: Waste and its sources Lesson

Waste

Coverage:

Lesson 2: Waste and its sources

Lesson 3: Design for Env Sustainability: Goals and Principles Lesson 4: Waste Minimisation and Recovery: Reduce Design Principles and Techniques

Lesson 5-6: Waste Recovery: Reuse, Remake and Recycle

Design Principles and Techniques; Energy Recovery and Disposal

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Lesson 2: Waste sources and

its Impact

What is Waste?

Where to look?

What is the impact of waste?

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What is Waste?

Wastes are materials and products that are not

manufactured for the market. The initial

manufacturer/user has also no further use in

terms of his/her own purposes of production,

transformation or consumption, and of which he/she wants to dispose.

Wastes may be generated during the extraction

and processing of the raw materials into intermediate and final products, the consumption

of final products, and other human activities.

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into intermediate and final products, the consumption of final products, and other human activities. MA0100 (C)
into intermediate and final products, the consumption of final products, and other human activities. MA0100 (C)

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Types of Waste: Physical Form

Solid Waste: discarded materials other than fluids

Liquid Waste: Sometimes known as effluent (discharge) flows are waste materials that contain free liquids of less than 1% of solid waste. Eg,. Waste lubricants, sewerage Gas Emissions and Pollutants: Introduce into the atmosphere of chemicals, particulates or biological materials that cause discomfort, disease, or death to

humans, damage other living organisms such as food

crops, or damage the natural or built environment.

damage other living organisms such as food crops, or damage the natural or built environment. MA0100
damage other living organisms such as food crops, or damage the natural or built environment. MA0100
damage other living organisms such as food crops, or damage the natural or built environment. MA0100

Solid Waste

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) separates

Municipal Solid Wastes into several categories.

Containers and packaging: Boxes, bottles, cans

Yard wastes: composed of grass clippings, leaves, twigs, branches, and other garden refuse.

Durable goods: Designed to last longer than three years, include appliances, tires, batteries, and electronic equipment.

Nondurable goods. Newspapers, clothing, disposable

tableware, office paper, wood pallets, and diapers, which all

have a lifetime of less than three years.

office paper, wood pallets, and diapers, which all have a lifetime of less than three years.

Lubes, cutting oils

brake),

commercial vehicles, aircraft, trains and large

machineries must be changed periodically.

Lubes have additives and are of different viscosities. Cutting oils are usually 2 5% oil emulsions in water

Lube

oils

used

in

cars

(engine,

gearbox,

with

detergents,

biocides,

chlorinated

paraffins,

halogenated and non-halogenated additives to improve performance.

chlorinated paraffins, halogenated and non-halogenated additives to improve performance. MA0100 (C) S W Lye 21
chlorinated paraffins, halogenated and non-halogenated additives to improve performance. MA0100 (C) S W Lye 21

Sulfur oxides & PAHs

Sulfur oxides are produced when fuels are burnt. They cause respiratory problems and form acids in the atmosphere.

Polyacrylic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are very stable organic molecules of C and H 2 .

PAHs are carcinogenic which is cancer causing.

PAHs are released into the atmosphere as gases (e.g. napthalene)

or minute particles during the incomplete combustion of organic

materials.

during the incomplete combustion of organic materials.  Sources of PAHs  cars, trucks, ships and

Sources of PAHs

cars, trucks, ships and aircraft,

industrial power generation,

oil refining and waste incineration

domestic heating and cooling.

power generation,  oil refining and waste incineration  domestic heating and cooling . MA0100 (C)

Types of Waste: Energy Form

Action of transferring otherwise usable energy

into a form that is no longer useable. Modes of Loss:

Loss of control over the method as to the

energy is transferred and converted,

Loss energy to waste as a function of that

conversion or transfer or by the waste in

conduction between mediums.

Energy Loss

Energy Loss Process losses from boiler, power-house and steam 730 energy units of loss representing 36.5%

Process losses from boiler, power-house and steam 730 energy units of loss representing 36.5% of initial value

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Nature of Waste

Toxic or Hazardous: Hazardous or harmful waste are

those that potentially threaten public health or the environment. Such waste could be inflammable (can easily catch fire), reactive (can easily

explode),corrosive (can easily eat through metal) or toxic (poisonous to human and animals). Examples include fire extinguishers, old propane tanks, pesticides,

mercury-containing equipment (e.g, thermostats) and

lamps (e.g. fluorescent bulbs) and batteries. Non-Toxic or Hazardous: Non toxic wastes are wastes

that do not pose a serious threat to the environment or

animals if decomposed carefully. Examples are food

leftovers, bits of paper and rubbish stored in dustbins.

Some of the Global Hazardous

Waste Generated as reported in

Basel Convention

Toxic Pollutants from energy generation

Process

 

Pollutants

 
 

C0 2

CH 4

N0 x

S0 2

H

2 S

HCl

Particles

Fossil

             

Coal

 

 

   

Petroleum

 

 

     

Natural gas

 

         

Others

             

Nuclear

             

Refuse incineration

       

Biomass incineration

 

       

Renewable

             

Hydro-thermal

         

   

Solar

             

Hydro

             

Wind

             

Where to look?

Material and energy flow transformation activities in the manufacture of products, byproducts and wastes throughout the industrial ecological systems.

Material Product Waste
Material
Product
Waste

Where to look? Waste Sources

Where to look? Waste Sources Resources Extraction and Processing Mfg Process Materials Use MA0100 (C) S
Where to look? Waste Sources Resources Extraction and Processing Mfg Process Materials Use MA0100 (C) S
Where to look? Waste Sources Resources Extraction and Processing Mfg Process Materials Use MA0100 (C) S

Resources

Extraction and

Processing

Mfg

Process

Waste Sources Resources Extraction and Processing Mfg Process Materials Use MA0100 (C) S W Lye Product/
Waste Sources Resources Extraction and Processing Mfg Process Materials Use MA0100 (C) S W Lye Product/

Materials Use

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Product/ Package Use 29
Product/
Package
Use
29

Example: Production of

Fossil fuels

All energy comes from the sun

The sun’s energy promotes the formation of bio-mass

The bio-mass decays and forms fossil fuels trapped in sediments as coal, gas, oil and tar sands.

In one year,

the USA consumes one billion tons of coal to generate electricity

humanity consumes fossil fuel that took nature about

1 million years to produce.

Coal and fossil fuels are non-renewable.

Fossil fuels: lifecycle (LC) impacts

Petroleum, an important commodity, is used in

most transportation systems to move people and

goods from one place to another.

Petroleum (Latin petra (rock) oleum (oil)) LC

Process Stages

Exploration and Production , i.e. raw petroleum from beneath the earth

Refining

Storage

Transportation

, i.e. raw petroleum from beneath the earth  Refining  Storage  Transportation MA0100 (C)
Petroleum Wastes from exploration  Primarily from drilling and well completion  Drilling wastes are

Petroleum

Wastes from exploration

Primarily from drilling and well completion

Drilling wastes are generated in the form of drilling mud, drill cuttings and chemical additives (heavy metals,

chlorides and polyacrylic aromatic hydrocarbons [PAHs])

They degrade the soil and contaminate groundwater affecting marine life.

It is mainly disposed off underground or in waste

disposal units. Potential harm to livestock, agriculture, aquatic and bird life and groundwater sources.

Petroleum Wastes from production  Spent (used) filter media for crude oil.  Tank bottom

Petroleum

Wastes from production

Spent (used) filter media for crude oil. Tank bottom sediment. Oily debris saturated with crude oil.

Low grade radioactive scale deposits on the

insides of pipes and vessels that are hazardous when inhaled as a dry dust.

Ozone-depleting CFCs are used as fire and

explosion suppressant.

Petroleum Wastes from refining  Hazardous solid wastes : dissolved air-flotation- floating solids, slop-oil-emulsion

Petroleum

Wastes from refining

Hazardous solid wastes: dissolved air-flotation- floating solids, slop-oil-emulsion solids, heat- exchanger-bundle cleaning solids, API separator sludge, and leaded-gasoline-tank bottoms. Waste water from cooling towers, boilers.

Air pollution is caused by direct releases such as

process, storage, transport, fugitive and

secondary emissions.

Petroleum Wastes from storage  Industrial, commercial, domestic users of petroleum products consume fuels, lubricants,

Petroleum

Wastes from storage

Industrial, commercial, domestic users of petroleum products consume fuels, lubricants, transmission / heat transfer fluids, insulants.

Major culprits: benzene, toluene, ethyl-benzene, xylenes

(BTEX). They leak from underground storage tanks and oil spills. Hard to detect because they are very soluble in water.

Other petroleum waste products:

Gasoline; crude oil; lubricants / cutting oils; aqueous

waste; sulfur dioxide and polycyclic aromatic

hydrocarbons (PAHs).

Petroleum Wastes from transport  160,000 miles of pipe criss-cross continental USA.  In the

Petroleum

Wastes from transport

160,000 miles of pipe criss-cross continental USA.

In the 1990’s, leaks exceeding 2,100 gallons, occurred about 4 times a week, spilling about 6M gallons a year.

Main causes of oils spills from inland transportation and

distribution (1987 1995):

Equipment failure

(50% of total volume)

Operator error

(9%)

Transportation accident

(7%)

Dumping

(2%)

Natural causes

(4%)

What to look? Waste Sources

Processing

Process Plant for Materials and Products

Production of Goods: Common Plant Sources of Waste

Process Delivery Flow

Sources of Waste Flow (Delivery or Shipping, Disposable) Example: Coke Production

Product Use

8 common plant sources of waste

Stack (heat) losses

8 common plant sources of waste Stack (heat) losses Over/under materials/product reqd Evaporation Raw material Process

Over/under materials/product reqd

waste Stack (heat) losses Over/under materials/product reqd Evaporation Raw material Process losses Handling losses

Evaporation

(heat) losses Over/under materials/product reqd Evaporation Raw material Process losses Handling losses Cleaning losses

Raw material

Over/under materials/product reqd Evaporation Raw material Process losses Handling losses Cleaning losses Rejects/Scrap
Over/under materials/product reqd Evaporation Raw material Process losses Handling losses Cleaning losses Rejects/Scrap

Process losses

Handling losses

Cleaning losses

Rejects/Scrap

Coke Manufacturing Story

Contents

Coke Manufacturing Story Contents Water CO 2 Beet Sugar Syrup Phosphorus Caffeine Aluminum Can MA0100 (C)

Water

CO 2

Beet Sugar

Coke Manufacturing Story Contents Water CO 2 Beet Sugar Syrup Phosphorus Caffeine Aluminum Can MA0100 (C)

Syrup

Phosphorus

Caffeine

Aluminum

Can

That can of Coke … (1/3)

James Womak & Daniel Jones. “Lean Thinking

How Coca Cola is made

Daniel Jones. “ Lean Thinking ” How Coca Cola is made  Australian bauxite transported to
Daniel Jones. “ Lean Thinking ” How Coca Cola is made  Australian bauxite transported to

Australian bauxite transported to a chemical reduction mill where 1 ton of bauxite is purified into half a ton of Al 2 0 3 in half an hour. The Al 2 0 3 is shipped across two oceans in giant ore carriers to Sweden or Norway where it is smelted in 2 months by cheap hydro-electric power. Half a ton of Al 2 0 3 is smelted to a quarter ton aluminum metal in 2 hours.

10-meter long ingots are cured for two weeks, then shipped to roller mills in Sweden or Germany where they are heated to 190 deg F and rolled into one-eight inch thick sheets.

These sheets are coiled and shipped to another cold rolling mill where they are further rolled ten fold thinner, ready for fabrication.

further rolled ten fold thinner, ready for fabrication. Source: Hawkens, Lovins “Natural Capitalism” MA0100
further rolled ten fold thinner, ready for fabrication. Source: Hawkens, Lovins “Natural Capitalism” MA0100
further rolled ten fold thinner, ready for fabrication. Source: Hawkens, Lovins “Natural Capitalism” MA0100

Source: Hawkens, Lovins “Natural Capitalism”

That can of Coke … (2/3)

That can of Coke … (2/3)  In England , these thin aluminum sheets are punched

In England, these thin aluminum sheets are punched and formed into cans, which are then washed, dried and painted with a base coat and then the specific product information.

The cans are flanged (no top yet), sprayed inside with an anti-

corrosion coating and inspected.

The cans are then palletized, forklifted and warehoused until needed.

The bottler cleans them before filling with water mixed with flavored syrup, phosphorus, caffeine and CO 2 gas.

with flavored syrup, phosphorus, caffeine and CO 2 gas.  The beet sugar is harvested in

The beet sugar is harvested in France and then trucked, milled, refined and shipped to the bottler.

Phosphorus is mined in Idaho, USA. The by-products are cadmium and radioactive thorium. The mining company

processes the phosphorus into food grade 24/7 using electricity

enough to supply 100,000 people.

Another supplier ships the caffeine to England.

food grade 24/7 using electricity enough to supply 100,000 people. Another supplier ships the caffeine to

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41

Source: Hawkens, Lovins “Natural Capitalism”

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That can of Coke … (3/3)

The filled cans are sealed with an aluminum “pop-top” lid at the rate of 1500 cans/minute

and stacked in cardboard cartons made from

forest pulp.

The palletized cans are shipped to a regional distribution warehouse before ending up in a

supermarket, where a can is sold typically

within three days. The consumer

the

buys

12

of

ounces

phosphate-tinged, caffeine-impregnated,

caramel-flavored sugar water.

Source: Hawkens, Lovins “Natural Capitalism”

Outcome

Process Involvement

6-8 countries

> 10 processes; 5 material transformations

> 5 types of process materials

Waste Statistics

In England, 84% of all cans are discarded and

end up as solid waste.

Americans throw away enough aluminum to replace the entire US commercial aircraft fleet every three months.

What a waste of resources and effort not to mention its

impact on the environment?

What to look? Waste Origins

Processing

Process Plant for Materials and Products

Common Plant Sources of Waste

Process Shipping Flow

Sources of Waste Flow (Delivery or

Shipping, Disposable) Examples: Coke Production

Product After Use - Consumption

Statistics on

Product/Material Waste

To make a …

The amount of waste

generated is …

Semi-conductor chip

… more than 1000 times its weight

… Semi-conductor chip … more than 1000 times its weight Lap top computer … about 4,000
… Semi-conductor chip … more than 1000 times its weight Lap top computer … about 4,000

Lap top computer

… about 4,000 times its weight

Ton of paper

Lap top computer … about 4,000 times its weight Ton of paper 98 tons of various

98 tons of various resources

Singapore Annual Waste Profiles

Source: Zero Waste Singapore MA0100 (C) S W Lye 46
Source: Zero Waste Singapore
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American product/

material wastes

Annual waste of the USA 50 trillion pounds.

If you include waste water, the figure is closer to 250 trillion pounds.

To count 50 trillion at the rate of one per second would take the whole lifetime of 24,000 people.

Americans waste nearly 1 million pounds of materials per person per

year.

920 million square yards of carpet

28 billion pounds of food discarded in the home

3.7 trillion pounds of construction debris.

360 billion pounds of organic and inorganic chemicals used in manufacturing

710 billion pounds of toxic waste generated by chemical production

3.3 trillion pounds of carbon in CO 2 emissions

Less than 2% of the total waste stream is actually recycled mainly

paper, glass, plastic, aluminum and steel.

Source: Hawkens, Lovins “Natural Capitalism”

Waste Generation Stages

Waste
Waste

Extraction and

Processing

Mfg Process Waste Product/ Package Use 48
Mfg
Process
Waste
Product/
Package
Use
48
Waste Extraction and Processing Mfg Process Waste Product/ Package Use 48 Resources Materials Use MA0100 (C)

Resources

Waste Extraction and Processing Mfg Process Waste Product/ Package Use 48 Resources Materials Use MA0100 (C)
Waste Extraction and Processing Mfg Process Waste Product/ Package Use 48 Resources Materials Use MA0100 (C)

Materials Use

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Impact of Waste

Economics

Ecology

Humans

Waste on Company’s Finance

Waste represents losses

Labor expended in making the product is wasted

Raw material with useful value is lost in waste stream

Waste-handling and shipping incurs expenses

Waste-disposal incurs charges

Waste is a huge economic liability

The average cost of waste to a company is 4.5% of its

turnover.

Waste costs often exceed the cost of total labor used.

Waste on Ecology

The world is made of ecological communities of living organisms. Wastes generated are recycled or disposed

which finally would re-enter (flow through) into

the environment.

These wastes could harm the environment when

(a)The ecological cycle is upset or broken caused by over harvesting or destroyed (b)Wastes contain hazardous and toxic substances that contaminate or pollute the environment streams.

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Note: 50 known dead zones across the globe, with the one in the Gulf of

Mexico being the largest covering an area of around 4200 sq kilometres

53

Waste on Humans

Hazardous waste generally represents a small fraction of

overall waste. Example: constitutes approximately 1% of all waste generated in Europe

Such waste can present a potential risk to both human

health and the environment.

Hazardous waste is typically the subject of special legislation and requires special management

arrangements to ensure that hazardous waste is kept

separate from and treated differently to non-hazardous waste.

Example: Application of Principle -

Effects on Chemicals on Endocrine System

Background:

Endocrine system consists of mainly eight major glands

in a human body.

These glands make hormones which are chemical messengers. They travel through your bloodstream to tissues or organs.

Hormones influence the metabolism, development and growth of a human being. Digestion, elimination,

breathing, blood circulation, maintain body temperature,

mood and reproduction functions could be affected.

In US, the most common endocrine disease is diabetes.

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Observations: Effects of Chemicals on Hormone System

Synthetic chemicals are widely dispersed in the environment. Humans are exposed to at least some suspected endocrine disrupters, possibly at significant levels. Effects of synthetic chemicals on the hormone system can occur at very low doses and may be cumulative or even synergistic. Effects are often time-dependent rather than dose

dependent.

Low-level exposures (possibly even single exposures) during critical periods of development may lead to long lasting effects in an organism. The effects of endocrine disrupters may not follow simple linear dose response curves.

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Lesson 2: Summary on Waste

Waste

Sources

Process and its related

byproducts

Product use

Types

Solid,

Liquid,Gas

Energy

Loss

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Types of Waste

Solid Waste: discarded materials other than fluids

Liquid Waste: Sometimes known as effluent (discharge)

flows are waste materials that contain free liquids of less than 1% of solid waste. Eg,. Waste lubricants, sewerage

Gas Emissions and Pollutants: Introduce into the atmosphere of chemicals, particulates or biological

materials that cause discomfort, disease, or death to humans, damage other living organisms such as food

crops, or damage the natural or built environment.

MA0100

damage other living organisms such as food crops, or damage the natural or built environment. MA0100

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damage other living organisms such as food crops, or damage the natural or built environment. MA0100
damage other living organisms such as food crops, or damage the natural or built environment. MA0100

58

Waste Generation Stages

Waste
Waste

Extraction and

Processing

Mfg Process Waste Product/ Package Use 59
Mfg
Process
Waste
Product/
Package
Use
59
Waste Extraction and Processing Mfg Process Waste Product/ Package Use 59 Resources Materials Use MA0100 (C)

Resources

Waste Extraction and Processing Mfg Process Waste Product/ Package Use 59 Resources Materials Use MA0100 (C)
Waste Extraction and Processing Mfg Process Waste Product/ Package Use 59 Resources Materials Use MA0100 (C)

Materials Use

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Impact of Waste

Finance -

affects Cost

and

Effectiveness

Ecology

Upset

Resource

Generation and

Availability

Human

Harmful to

Health and Environment

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The Answer is Clear

NO MORE TIME AND MONEY TO WASTE BUT TO ACT

REDUCE WASTE → REDUCE RAW RESOURCE CONSUMPTION

DEVELOP WASTE MINIMISATION

SOLUTIONS

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Thank You

End of Lesson 2

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