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GEOLOGY 11: Principles of Geology

Course Outline
Instructor: Gabriel Theophilus Valera
Faculty Room: NIGS 217-A
Research Laboratory: NIGS 110 (Rushurgent Working Group)

Consultation Hours: T-Th 10-4:00 PM


E-mail: gvvalera@up.edu.ph

Any form of cheating in examinations or any act of dishonesty in relation to studies, such as plagiarism, shall be subject to
disciplinary action.
Course Goals: After the end of the course, the student should be able to understand the processes, structure, composition, and history of the earth. The
student should also have a better understanding of Philippine Geology, its practical applications in the fields of engineering, the social and physical
sciences, and its importance to the environment and community.
1. INTRODUCTION (Week 1)
1.1. What is geology?
1.2. Geology as a discipline
1.3. Main branches of geology
1.4. Uniformitarianism and Catastrophism
1.5. Geology and its relevance to daily life
2. THE PLANET EARTH (Week 2)
2.1. A cosmological model on the early development of the Universe:
Big Bang
2.2. A hypothesis on the formation of the Solar System and the
Earth: The Nebular Hypothesis
2.3. Earths basic facts
2.4. Earths large-scale features
2.5. Earths internal structure and composition
2.6. Isostasy: Pratts and Airys theories of isostasy

8.3. Common sedimentary structures


8.4. Resources from sedimentary rocks
9. SEDIMENTARY ENVIRONMENTS (Week 10)
9.1. Terrestrial environments (Alluvial Fan, Fluvial, Lacustrine,
Aeolian)
9.2. Transitional environment (Delta, Lagoon, Beach)
9.3. Marine environment (Shallow Marine, Deep Marine)
10. GROUNDWATER (Week 11)
10.1. Distribution of underground water
10.2. Porosity and permeability
10.3. Groundwater terminologies: Aquifers, springs and artesian
wells
10.4. Geologic work of groundwater: Karst topography
10.5. Problems associated with groundwater

3. PLATE TECTONICS (Week 3)


3.1. Continental drift
3.2. Seafloor spreading
3.3. Plate tectonics
3.4. Types of plate boundaries
3.5. Mechanisms for plate motions
3.6. Philippine tectonics

11. MASS WASTING (Week 12)


11.1. What is mass wasting?
11.2. Factors promoting mass wasting
11.3. Classification of mass wasting processes
11.4. Hazards and some mitigation measures

4. MINERALS (Week 4)
4.1. What is a mineral?
4.2. Properties of minerals
4.3. Classification of minerals: Silicate and non-silicate groups
4.4. Common rock-forming minerals
4.5. Minerals as non-renewable resources

12. METAMORPHIC ROCKS (Week 13)


12.1. What is metamorphism?
12.2. Agents of metamorphism
12.3. Types of metamorphism
12.4. Classification of metamorphic rocks
12.5. Resources from metamorphic rocks

5. ROCK CYCLE (Week 5)


5.1. What is a rock?
5.2. Processes involved in the rock cycle
5.3. Introduction to the 3 main rock types

13. ROCK DEFORMATION (Week 14)


13.1. Types of rock deformation
13.2. Stress and strain
13.3. Structures due to ductile deformation
13.4. Structures due to brittle deformation
13.5. Active faults in the Philippines

6. MAGMA and IGNEOUS PROCESSES (Week 5-6)


6.1. What is magma?
6.2. Types of magma
6.3. Origin and formation of magma
6.4. Magmatic differentiation
6.5. What is a volcano?
6.6. Types of volcanoes
6.7. Types of volcanic eruptions
6.8. Monitoring volcanic activity
6.9. Volcanic hazards
6.10. Philippine volcanoes

SECOND LONG EXAM (Week 13)

14. EARTHQUAKES (Week 15)


14.1. What is an earthquake?
14.2. Elastic Rebound Theory
14.3. Focus and epicenter
14.4. Types of seismic waves
14.5. Seismic waves and the interior of the earth
14.6. Magnitude and Intensity
14.7. Earthquake hazards
14.8. Predicting earthquakes

7. IGNEOUS ROCKS (Week 7)


7.1. Formation of igneous rocks
7.2. Igneous structures
7.3. Bowens Reaction Series
7.4. Classification of igneous rocks
7.5. Resources from igneous rocks

15. HISTORICAL GEOLOGY (Week 16)


15.1. Estimates of the age of the earth and the universe
15.2. Fossils and fossilization
15.3. Absolute dating (Radioactive isotopes and half-life)
15.4. Relative dating (Stenos Laws and unconformities)
15.5. The geologic time scale

FIRST LONG EXAM (Week 8)

16. SPECIAL TOPICS *Optional (Week 16)

8. SEDIMENTARY ROCKS (Week 9)


8.1. Sedimentary Processes: Weathering, erosion, deposition,
lithification/diagenesis
8.2. Classification of sedimentary rocks

THIRD LONG EXAM (Week 16)

CLASS REQUIREMENTS:
1.
3 x 5 index card with 1x1 photo. Please include the following
details:
NAME: Last Name, First Name, MI
STUDENT NO:
COURSE:
MOBILE NO:
EMAIL ADDRESS:
PRESENT ADDRESS:
PERMANENT ADDRESS:
PERSON TO CONTACT IN CASE OF EMERGENCY and CONTACT
DETAILS:

GRADING SYSTEM:
Pre-Final Exam Grade:
3 Long Exams (75%)
Quizzes (10%)
Project (10%)
Class performance (5%)
Final Exam:

2.

1 Bluebook for quizzes

CLASS POLICIES:
1.
Classes will start on time and attendance will be checked 15 min
after.
2.
Three (3) lates is equivalent to one (1) unexcused absence. More
than six (6) absences (both excused ad unexcused) will earn you a
grade of 5.0 (failing grade) for the course.
3. Schedule of quizzes will not be announced.
4. Late projects will not be accepted.
5. Eating and drinking is allowed but avoid littering.
6. Use of any electronic device is not allowed during class hours.
7.
Taking pictures of PowerPoint slides is not allowed. Lecture notes
will be given before every exam.
REFERENCES:
Tarbuck, E.J. and Lutgens, F.K., 2000. Earth Science. 9th ed.
Lutgens, F.K., Tarbuck, E.J. and Tasa, D. 2012. Essentials of Geology, 11th ed.

To be exempted from taking the Final


Exam, the student must pass all 3 long
exams.
If a student fails/misses one of the long
exams, he/she is required to take the
Final Exam.
Pre-final Exam Grade: 70%
Final Exam Grade: 30%

GRADE EQUIVALENTS
1.0
96-100
1.25
91.50-95.99
1.5
87.00-91.49
1.75
82.50-86.99
2.0
78.00-82.49
2.25
73.50-77.99
2.5
69.00-73.49
2.75
64.50-68.99
3.0
60.00-64.49
4.0
56.00-59.99
5.0
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