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LTE Network Throughput Estimation

Alexander Babkin, Alexey Pylenok, Alexander Ryzhkov, Andrey Trofimov


The Bonch-Bruevich Saint-Petersburg State University, Saint-Petersburg, Russia
{aryjkov@mail.ru}

Abstract. Now LTE is considered to be a prominent radio access standard to


meet the needs of the society. LTE networks throughput optimization is one of
the main problems under consideration. Two LTE network computer models are
worked up to estimate downlink achievable throughput: for macro and femto
LTE networks. Considering macro networks four frequency deployment scenarios are analyzed and their throughputs are compared. In femtocell structure the
scenario with two femtocells is under discussion.
Keywords: LTE, eNodeB, frequency deployment, throughput, femtocell

1. Introduction
LTE network allows to construct a flexible service environment due to their two
genuine features. The first is an all-IP network. It means that all the network interfaces are IP-based with the only exception of the radio interface. The second
LTE
networks are heterogeneous. There is a variety of LTE structures: macro and micro
outdoors, pico and femto indoors. Therefore it is required to find different approaches
when estimating LTE networks outdoors and indoors effectiveness.
Real throughput values may be obtained after long duration traffic statistical analysis. Now, at the beginning of LTE networks deployment we need to have the tools to
compare various structures efficiency. With this purpose two LTE network computer
models are presented in this report. The models dont imitate Base Station Node
Scheduler in details but come along with its main function: to choose the optimal
transmission format in accordance with signal to interference ratio at the receiving
point. So the models proposed are to draw signal to interference patterns around
Evolved Base Station Nodes (eNodeB) at the first stage of the computer simulation.
The next stage of our research is to estimate eNodeB throughput on these patterns
basis.
The organization of the paper is as follows.
In the first part we compare the efficiency of the different frequency resources allocation strategies in outdoors network. The main objective is to estimate comparative
downlink eNodeB throughput for a number of radio band fraction scenarios. Now
there is no common point of view which scenario to held on and the numerical estimation will be of great help in a sense. We shall calculate downlink throughput only
because it is downlink traffic mainly that comes in collision with channel resources
limits.

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In the second part of the paper the structure of two femtocells is being analyzed.
LTE femto networks are cost effective and easy to develop. There are strong signals
that come to the receiving points in femtocells that allows to use the most effective
that results in data rate increas
mu
modulation methods, MIMO space multiplexing
increase.
disand in two eNodeB femto network is di
Downlink throughput in a sole femtocell
fem
cussed below.

2. LTE Macro
M
Network NodeB Throughput
When planning LTE network
network, the principle problem is how to allocate channel rresources in the adjacent eNodeB. The signal to interference ratio (SINR) improvement
is one of the main objectives because higher SINR makes it possible to use more eff
efficient modulation and coding scheme.
The new MATLAB SINR calculation model was worked up for eNodeB downlink
throughput estimation. Known as ECC
ECC-33 Hata-Okumura propagation model exte
extension up to 3.5 GHz was used for pass loss calculations [1]. The new SINR model
comprises antenna pattern as well. As a result a number of SINR patterns for different
frequency deployment scenarios were obtained. There are 4 scenarios
scenario under consideration (Fig.1).
1. Three eNodeB make a cluster; each eNodeB utilizes
utilizes 1/3 of the frequency band.
2. Fractional frequency reuse: the radio band is divided into 3 parts and each part is
allocated to a certain sector of each eNodeB.
frequency band.
3. Every eNodeB
deB utilizes the whole
w
4. Soft fractional frequency reuse: it differs from scenario 2. In this case the whole
frequency band may be utilized in the interior zone of the eNodeB.
In Fig.11 the sectors with the same frequency band are of the same
ame colour. .

Fig.1. Frequency Deployment Scenarios

A standard antenna pattern is used in the SINR model is shown in Fig.2.


patThe computer simulation brought a set of the typical trefoil form signal loss pa
terns and SINR patterns for various frequency deployment scenarios (Fig.3).

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Fig.2. Antenna Pattern (k80010691, Kathrein)

Fig.3. eNodeB Signal Loss Pattern (dB)

As a result, the cell area around the eNodeB is divided into a number of zones with
different SINR inside. The next step was to match a certain SINR with a corresponding CQI (Channel Quality Indicator). CQI is a specified parameter but it is a vendor
problem to establish the correlation between CQI and SINR. Considering some vendor materials we used for the computer simulation the approximation curve CQI as
the function of SINR at a user receiver input that is shown in Fig.4.

Fig.4. CQI as a function of SINR

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Each CQI determines the most efficient downlink transmission format that can be
assigned. In Table 1 the correlation between CQI, modulation type, code rate and the
expected maximum downlink data rate is presented for LTE FDD network with the
210 MHz bandwidth.
Table 1. CQI and Modulation&Coding Schemes

CQI
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15

Modulation
QPSK
QPSK
QPSK
QPSK
QPSK
QPSK
16-QAM
16-QAM
16-QAM
64-QAM
64-QAM
64-QAM
64-QAM
64-QAM
64-QAM

Code Rate
0.08
0.12
0.19
0.30
0.44
0.59
0.37
0.48
0.60
0.46
0.55
0.65
0.75
0.85
0.93

Bit Rate, Mbit/s


0.95
1.46
2.35
3.75
5.47
7.34
9.21
11.94
15.02
17.04
20.73
24.35
28.23
31.92
34.66

The average eNodeB downlink throughput is calculated at the assumption that the
user density is constant inside the sell. In this case the zone partial throughput with a
fixed CQI is proportional to the zone area. Area histograms for each frequency deployment scenario in Fig.1 (percents of the cell area for various CQI) are presented in
Fig.5.

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Fig.5. CQI Area Distribution in a Cell

The histograms in Fig.5 and the bit rate values in Table 1 make it possible to estimate the average eNodeB downlink throughput and to compare the different scenarios
for frequency resource allocation. The results are presented in Table 2.
Table 2. Average eNodeB Downlink Throughput

Frequency deployment scenario


1
2
3
4

Downlink Throughput, Mbit/s


4.4
12.6
5.5
11.9

As it follows from Table 2, scenarios 2 and 4 bring almost the same downlink
throughput. However scenario 4 is more preferable, as it can provide more opportunities for subtle subband allocation in the sectors of a cell in depend of the sector loads.
There is dynamic frequency resource control in LTE networks and the soft fractional
frequency reuse is optimal for eNodeB load balancing purposes.

3. Femtocell LTE Network Throughput Estimation


Femtocell is a small cell with a low power eNodeB (transmitter power less than 13
dBm), so femto base station is called Home eNodeB (HeNB). First and foremost LOS
signals are to be received in a femtocell that provides high SINR at the receiver point.
It is proposed that TDD would be on usage in femtocell networks. LTE specifications support 7 different frame configurations for TDD transmission. In the example
presented below configuration 1 is applied, where downlink/uplink transmission time
ratio is 3:2 [2], [3].

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The special MATLAB femtocell model was worked up for signal strength and
SINR calculation indoors. The model calculates the total signal generated by the numerous rays (1000) from HeNB taking into account the losses when rays reflecting
and passing through walls. It comprises COST231 Indoor multiwall model for signal
losses estimation as well [4].
We introduce femtocell structure on the office building floor (Fig.6). The floor size
is 8m wide and 24m long. All the rooms are of the same size separated by thin walls.
The HeNB maximum output power is 13 dBm and it uses a stub antenna. We didnt
take into account other floor femtocell interferences due to significant signal interfloor losses.

Fig.6. Plan of the Floor

Within the limits of the paper 4 femtocell network scenarios were considered:
1 HeNB 1 in the room 1,
2 HeNB 1 in the room1and HeNB 2 in the room 4,
3 HeNB 1 in the room1and HeNB 2 in the room 3,
4 HeNB 1 in the room1and HeNB 2 in the room 2.
As the result of the computer simulation the field, SINR and CQI patterns were obtained. In the case of the CQI patterns the curve in Fig.4 was used. For obtaining
downlink bit rate in TDD LTE networks the table analogous with Table 1 for bandwidth 10 MHz was calculated.
CQI pattern on the floor for scenario 1 is shown in Fig.7 and the corresponding bit
rate histogram in Fig.8. CQI scale is indicated on the right side of Fig.7 (Fig. 9, 11
below). The deep black means the lack of communications. In Fig.7, 9, 11 on the
horizontal and vertical axes are distances (m) in accordance with the plan of the floor
(Fig.6).
In Fig.8, 10, 12 on the horizontal axis is the maximum bit rate (Mbit/s) and on the
vertical axis is the percentage of the floor area where this bit rate can be achieved. In
addition thick horizontal lines in Fig.8, 10, 12 mark the average throughput AT
(Mbit/s) of the HeNB.

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Fig.7. CQI Pattern Scenario 1

Fig.8. Bit Rate Distribution Scenario 1

In scenario 2, when two femtocells are set with maximum diversity the patterns for
both HeNB are quite the same as in scenario 1. They start to change in scenar
scenarios 3
(Fig.9, Fig.10) and 4 (Fig.11,
(Fig.1 Fig.12).

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Fig.9. CQI Patterns Scenario 3

Fig.10. Bit Rate Distribution Scenario 3

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Fig.11. CQI Patterns Scenario 4

Fig.12. Bit Rate Distribution Scenario 4

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The computer simulation results are presented in Table 3, that contains the distance
between two HeNB, downlink throughput in each femtocell and the total network
throughput. Thus this model gives the opportunities for various femtocell structures
analysis and effectiveness estimation.
Table 3. Femtocells downlink throughput

Scenario
Distance between HeNB, m
HeNB 1 average throughput, Mbit/s
HeNB 2 average throughput, Mbit/s
Network average throughput, Mbit/s

1
15.1
15.1

2
21
14.2
14.1
28.3

3
13
11
12.3
23.3

4
6
10
9.9
19.9

Discussed in the report eNodeB throughput calculation models and the calculation
results will be used in LTE network planning and optimization.

4. References
1. Comparative Study of Path Loss Models in Different Environments/Manju Kumari, Tilotma Yadav, Pooja Yadav, Purnima K Sharma, Dinesh Sharma// International Journal
of Engineering Science and Technology
2011. Vol.3, 14. . 29452949.
2. 4G LTE/LTE Advanced for Mobile Broadcast/ Eric Dohlman, Stefan Parkvall, Johan
Skld Elsevier Ltd, 2011, ISBN 978-0-12-385489-6 431p.
3. 3GPP TS 36.211; Physical Channels and Modulation.
4. 3GPP TR 101 112; Selection procedures for the choice of radio transmission technologies of the UMTS.

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