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# Choose the correct alternatives for any of the following:

i) At the interface between gas and liquid, shear stress for a Newtonian fluid
is
a) 0
b) du/dy
c) infinity
d) finite and negative.

## ii) Normal stress can be related to pressure ( P ) as

a) + P
b) P n
c) P
d) P.
iii) Lewis number is defined as
a) Cp / K
b) / DAB
c) K / Cp DAB
d) Kc d / DAB .
iv) Viscosity of gas depends on
a) T
b) T1/2
c) T2
d) T3/2

## v) Continuity equation is:

a) mass balance equation
b) momentum balance equation
c) both mass and momentum balance equations
d) none of these.

## Modes of Heat Transfer - MCQs with Answers

Q1. In which phase of a substance does conduction mode of heat transfer take place?
a. solid
b. liquid
c. gaseous
d. all of the above
ANSWER: d. all of the above

## Q2. Mass transfer does not take place in

a. conduction heat transfer
b. convection heat transfer
c. radiation heat transfer
d. none of the above
ANSWER: c. radiation heat transfer

Q3. What is the condition for conduction mode of heat transfer between two bodies?
a. the two bodies must be in physical contact
b. there must be temperature gradient between the bodies
c. both a. and b.
d. none of the above
ANSWER: c. both a. and b.

Q4. In which mode, does the heat energy transfer between two bodies when they are
separated by some distance and there is no any medium between them?
a. conduction mode of heat transfer
b. convection mode of heat transfer

## c. radiation mode of heat transfer

d. heat transfer cannot takes place with above condition
ANSWER: c. radiation mode of heat transfer

Q5. The radiant heat emitted by any body travels at the speed
a. less than the speed of light
b. more than the speed of light
c. equals to the speed of light
d. unpredictable
ANSWER: c. equals to the speed of light

Q6. The conduction heat transfer with combination of transfer of material also is called as
a. material conduction heat transfer
b. convection heat transfer
c. solid convection heat transfer
d. none of the above

## ANSWER: b. convection heat transfer

Q7. According to the Fourier's law of heat conduction, the rate of heat transfer by conduction
depends upon
a. area of cross section normal to the heat flow
b. temperature gradient
c. both a. and b.
d. none of the above
ANSWER: c. both a. and b.

## Q8. What is the temperature gradient in the conduction heat transfer?

a. change in temperature per unit change in time

b. change in temperature per unit change in distance in the direction of heat flow
c. change in temperature per unit change in cross-sectional area normal to the direction of heat flow
d. change in temperature per unit change in cross-sectional area parallel to the direction of heat flow
ANSWER: b. change in temperature per unit change in distance in the direction of heat flow

Q9. Why is the negative sign introduced in the equation of Fourier's law of heat conduction?
q = kA (dT / dx)
a. because heat transfer rate is inversely proportional to temperature gradient
b. because value of thermal conductivity k is negative
c. because heat is transferred from higher temperature to lower temperature
d. none of the above
ANSWER: c. because heat is transferred from higher temperature to lower temperature

## Q10. The value of thermal conductivity k depends upon

a. the material through which the heat is transferred
b. the intensity of heat energy which is being transferred
c. the area which is parallel to the heat transfer
d. all of the above
ANSWER: a. the material through which the heat is transferred

Q11. The materials which have low thermal conductivity are called as
a. thermal conductors
b. thermal resistors
c. thermal insulators
d. none of the above
ANSWER: c. thermal insulators

Q12. How does the radiation heat transfer occur through perfect vacuum?
a. by light waves
b. by electromagnetic waves

c. both a. and b.
d. none of the above
ANSWER: c. both a. and b.

## Q13. The Stefan-Boltzmann law of thermal radiation is applicable for

a. white body
b. gray body
c. black body
d. all the bodies
ANSWER: c. black body

Q14. According to the Stefan-Boltzmann law of thermal radiation for a perfect radiator, the
rate of radiant energy per unit area is proportional to
a. the temperature of that radiator
b. the square of the temperature of that radiator
c. the cube of the temperature of that radiator
d. the fourth power of the temperature of that radiator
ANSWER: d. the fourth power of the temperature of that radiator

Q15. In the equation for the rate radiant heat energy from a perfect radiator
q = A T4
the constant is called as
a. Black body constant
b. Radiation constant
c. Stefan-Boltzmann constant
d. none of the above
ANSWER: c. Stefan-Boltzmann constant

Q16. What should be the temperature of black body to emit radiant energy which is
independent of the conditions in the surroundings?

## a. temperature of black body should be less than zero

b. temperature of black body should be more than zero
c. temperature of black body should be equal to zero
d. all of the above
ANSWER: b. temperature of black body should be more than zero

Q17. Consider two black bodies at temperatures T1 and T2 (T1 > T2) having same surface
area A, are placed in vacuum. What will be the correct formula for net rate of radiant heat
transfer between these surfaces?
Where is a Stefan-Boltzmann constant
a. q = A (T1 T2)
4

4
4

b. q = A (T1 T2 )
c. q = A (T1 T2)
d. none of the above
ANSWER: b. q = A (T14 T24)

## Q18. Gray body can emits radiation

a. at higher rate than the black body
b. at lower rate than the black body
c. at equal rate than the black body
d. cannot predict
ANSWER: b. at lower rate than the black body

Q19. What is the purpose of using fins in a particular heat transfer system?
a. to decrease rate of heat transfer
b. to increase rate of heat transfer
c. to maintain rate of heat transfer at a constant rate
d. cannot say
ANSWER: b. to increase rate of heat transfer

Q20. Temperature at the end tip of the fin having uniform cross-sectional area is
a. maximum
b. minimum
c. similar to the heat generation temperature
d. unpredictable
ANSWER: b. minimum

Q21. Consider that heat transfer is taking place through a fin having circular cross-sectional
area, one dimensionally as shown in figure.

## The rate of heat transfer by conduction into a section at x is equal to

a. sum of rate of heat transfer by convection out of the element (x+dx) and heat transfer by
convection from the surface between x to (x+dx)
b. sum of rate of heat transfer by conduction out of the element (x+dx) and heat transfer by
conduction from the surface between x to (x+dx)
c. sum of rate of heat transfer by conduction out of the element (x+dx) and heat transfer by
convection from the surface between x to (x+dx)
d. none of the above

ANSWER: c. sum of rate of heat transfer by conduction out of the element (x+dx) and heat
transfer by convection from the surface between x to (x+dx)

Q22. In the process of heat transfer through extended surfaces or fins, the entire surface area
is at
a. the same constant temperature
b. different temperatures
c. maximum base temperature
d. minimum temperature
ANSWER: b. different temperatures

Q23. An engine is fitted with pin fins having thermal conductivity k = 200 W/mK. The diameter
and length of the fin is 2 cm and 50 cm respectively. Calculate the temperature at 10 cm from
the fin base if fine base temperature is 500 0C and fin is in contact with air at 50 0C. Take h =
12 W/m2K
Consider that the fin is infinitely long
0

a. 80.67 C
0

b. 100 C
0

c. 85.67 C
0

d. 185.67 C
ANSWER: d. 185.67 0C

## Q24. What is effectiveness of fin?

a. the ratio of actual heat transferred from fin area to the heat which would be transferred if entire fin
area was at base temperature
b. the heat which would be transferred if entire fin area was at base temperature to the ratio of actual
heat transferred from fin area
c. the heat which would be transferred if entire fin area was at minimum temperature to the ratio of
actual heat transferred from fin area
d. the ratio of actual heat transferred from fin area to the heat which would be transferred if entire fin
area was at minimum temperature

ANSWER: a. the ratio of actual heat transferred from fin area to the heat which would be
transferred if entire fin area was at base temperature

## Q25. What is the effect of thermal conductivity k on fin effectiveness?

a. fin is effective for smaller value of thermal conductivity k
b. fin is effective for larger value of thermal conductivity k
c. thermal conductivity k does not affect the fin effectiveness
d. cannot say
ANSWER: b. fin is effective for larger value of thermal conductivity k

Q26. What is the effect of convective heat transfer coefficient h on fin effectiveness?
a. fin is effective if the value of convective heat transfer coefficient h is small
b. fin is effective if the value of convective heat transfer coefficient h is large
c. fin effectiveness does not affected by the value of convective heat transfer coefficient h
d. none of the above
ANSWER: a. fin is effective if the value of convective heat transfer coefficient h is small

## Q27. Which medium of surrounding is better for fin effectiveness?

a. gas medium
b. liquid medium
c. fins have same effectiveness in both the gas and liquid mediums
d. none of the above
ANSWER: a. gas medium

Q28. For effective working of fins, the thickness of the fines should be
a. large
b. small
c. thickness of fin does not affect the fin effectiveness
d. unpredictable
ANSWER: b. small

Q29. A fin of uniform cross-section A and perimeter P has a base temperature Ts and it is
exposed to fluid having temperature T How is the temperature distribution in the fin given?
a. T T = C1emx C2e mx
b. T T = C1emx + C2e mx
c. T + T = C1emx C2e mx
d. T + T = C1emx + C2e mx
Where,
m = (hP/kA)
h = convective heat transfer coefficient
k = thermal conductivity of fin
T = Temperature of the fin at the distance x from the base of fine
and the constants C1 and C2 depend on the boundary conditions
ANSWER: b. T T = C1emx + C2e mx

Q30. What is the correct formula for the temperature distribution in infinitely long fin?
a. (Ts T) / (T T) = C2emx
b. (Ts T) / (T T) = C2e mx
c. (T T) / (Ts T) = C2emx
d. (T T) / (Ts T) = C2e mx
Where,
m = (hP/kA)
h = convective heat transfer coefficient
P = perimeter of the fin
k = thermal conductivity of fin
A = cross-sectional area of the fin
T = Temperature of the fin at the distance x from the base of fine
and the constants C1 and C2 depend on the boundary conditions
Ts = Base temperature of the fin
T = Temperature of surrounding fluid
ANSWER: d. (T T) / (Ts T) = C2e mx

Q31. How is the rate of heat transfer from the fin given?

a. q = h P k A (Ts T)
b. q = (h P k A (Ts T))
c. q = (hPkA) (Ts T)
d. none of the above
h = convective heat transfer coefficient
P = perimeter of the fin
k = thermal conductivity of fin
A = cross-sectional area of the fin
Ts= Base temperature of the fin
T = Temperature of surrounding fluid
ANSWER: c. q = (hPkA) (Ts T)

## Q32. The parameters of a fin are given below.

Diameter of the fin d = 2 cm
Thermal conductivity k = 200 W/mK
2

0

0

## The air temperature T8 = 50 C

Calculate the rate of heat transfer from the fin.
a. 119.7 W
b. 97.93 W
c. 57.7 W
d. 4.62 W
ANSWER: b. 97.93 W

## Q33. Aluminum is used as a fin material because

a. it has higher convection heat transfer coefficient
b. it has higher thermal conductivity
c. it has lower convection heat transfer coefficient
d. it has lower thermal conductivity
ANSWER: b. it has higher thermal conductivity

Q34. Which of the following arrangements of fins is more effective for the same base area?
1. Large number of closely spaced fins
2. Small number of thick fins
a. Arrangement 1
b. Arrangement 2
c. both the arrangements 1 and 2 are similarly effective
d. unpredictable
ANSWER: a. Arrangement 1
Q35. What does a composite wall mean?
a. two walls of different materials are connected in series without any gap between them
b. three walls of different materials are connected in series without any gap between them
c. more than three walls of different materials are connected in series without any gap between them
d. all of the above
ANSWER: d. all of the above

Q36. When a composite wall of three layers in series having thermal resistances R1, R2 and
R3 respectively. The heat transfer takes place normal to the surface of the layers. How is the
total thermal resistance of the composite system calculated?
a. 1 / (R1 + R2 + R3)
b. ( (1 / R1) + (1 / R2) + (1 / R3) )
c. (R1 + R2 + R3)
d. none of the above
ANSWER: c. (R1 + R2 + R3)

Q37. Calculate the rate of heat flow through a composite wall of having three layers. The
thicknesses of three layers are 0.5m, 1m and 0.2m respectively. Thermal conductivity of these
layers are 2.5 W/mK, 2 W/mK and 2.2 W/mK respectively. The temperature T1 and T4 are
maintained at 1000 K and 200 K respectively. Take surface area of heat transfer 1 m 2.

a. 1011.5 W/m
b. 911.5 W/m
c. 501.5 W/m

d. 1211.5 W/m

## ANSWER: a. 1011.5 W/m2

Q38. Consider a composite wall with two layers combined in parallel and heat is transferred
through wall as shown in figure. The thermal resistances of two layers are R1 and R2
respectively. How is the total thermal resistance (R) of the wall calculated?
a. R = (R1 + R2) / R1R2
b. R = R1R2 / (R1 + R2)
c. R = R1 / (R1 + R2)
d. R = R2 / (R1 + R2)
ANSWER: b. R = R1R2 / (R1 + R2)

Q39. When the layers of a composite wall are in series and the thermal resistance of every
individual layer is given then the total thermal resistance of the composite wall is given by

a. substantiating lower value thermal resistance from higher value thermal resistance
b. adding both the thermal resistances
c. multiplying both the thermal resistances
d. none of the above
ANSWER: b. adding both the thermal resistances

Q40. A composite wall of two layers in parallel as shown in figure has the rate of heat transfer
2 kW/m2. The thermal resistance R1 = 0.6 K/W and R2 = 0.4 K/W. The initial temperature T1 is
at 1000 K. What is the temperature T2 of the other surface?

a. 320 K
b. 520 K
c. 220 K
d. insufficient data

ANSWER: b. 520 K
Q41. What is the formula for the thermal resistance (R) of a hollow cylinder of internal
radius Ri, outer radiusRo and the length l ? Thermal conductivity of the cylinder material is k.
The heat flows from inner side to outer side.
a. R = ln (Ro / Ri) / 2kl
b. R = ln (Ri / Ro) / 2kl
c. R = (Ro + Ri) / 2kl
d. R = (RoRi) / 2kl
ANSWER: a. R = ln (Ro / Ri) / 2kl

Q42. A hollow cylinder of length of 1m, inner radius (Ri) 0.01m and outer radius (Ro) 0.05m
has a thermal conductivity (k) 20 W/mK. The inside surface temperature is at 500K. What is
the outside surface temperature of the cylinder when the rate of radial heat transfer is 3.13
kW?
a. 400 K
b. 360 K
c. 460 K
d. insufficient data
ANSWER: c. 460 K

## Q43. As the radius increases in hollow cylinder the temperature

a. also increases
b. decreases
c. it depends upon the direction of heat flow
d. unpredictable
ANSWER: c. it depends upon the direction of heat flow

Q44. For the composite cylinder as shown in figure, the thermal resistances of every layer
from inside to outside of the cylinder are given as follows,
R1 = ln (r1 / ri) / 2k1l

## R1 = ln (ro / r1) / 2k2l

What will be the total thermal resistance of the composite cylinder?

a. R = R1 + R2
b. R = R1R2 / (R1 + R2)
c. R = R1 / (R1 + R2)
d. R = R2 / (R1 + R2)

ANSWER: a. R = R1 + R2
Q45. What is the effect of change in outer radius of the hollow cylinder on the thermal
resistance of conduction?
a. the thermal resistance of conduction increases with increase in outer radius of the hollow cylinder
b. the thermal resistance of conduction decreases with increase in outer radius of the hollow cylinder
c. the thermal resistance of conduction remains same with change in outer radius of the hollow
cylinder
d. unpredictable
ANSWER: a. the thermal resistance of conduction increases with increase in outer radius of
the hollow cylinder

Q46. What is the effect of change in outer radius of the hollow cylinder on the thermal
resistance of convection?
a. the thermal resistance of convection increases with increase in outer radius of the hollow cylinder
b. the thermal resistance of convection decreases with increase in outer radius of the hollow cylinder
c. the thermal resistance of convection remains same with change in outer radius of the hollow

cylinder
d. unpredictable
ANSWER: b. the thermal resistance of convection decreases with increase in outer radius of
the hollow cylinder

Q47. What is the formula for thermal resistance for convection at the outer surface of hollow
cylinder?
Where,
h = convection heat transfer coefficient
l = length of hollow cylinder
r = outer radius of the cylinder
a. Rc = 1 / h r l
b. Rc = 2 h r l
c. Rc = 1 / 2 h r l
d. none of the above
ANSWER: c. Rc = 1 / 2 h r l

Q48. Consider a plane wall of area A, having a layer of insulation on it. What will happen to
the thermal resistance for convection of wall if the thickness of the insulation is increased?
a. the thermal resistance for convection increases with increase in thickness of insulation
b. the thermal resistance for convection decreases with increase in thickness of insulation
c. the thermal resistance for convection remains same with increase in thickness of insulation
d. unpredictable
ANSWER: c. the thermal resistance for convection remains same with increase in thickness
of insulation

Q49. What is the advantage of using the spherical vessel to store fluids at low temperature?
a. heat transfer in sphere is restricted in all direction by insulation
b. sphere has the smallest volume per unit surface area
c. sphere has the largest volume per unit surface area
d. none of the above

ANSWER: c. sphere has the largest volume per unit surface area

Q50. What is the correct formula for thermal resistance (Rk) of a spherical shell of inner and
outer radii as riand ro respectively and k being the thermal conductivity?
a. Rk= (ri ro ) / 4 ri ro k
b. Rk= 4 ri ro k / (ri ro )
c. Rk= (ri ro ) / 4 k
d. Rk= ri ro / 4 k (ri ro )
ANSWER: a. Rk= (ri ro ) / 4 ri ro k

Q51. What is the formula of the thermal resistance for convection at the outer surface of
spherical shell of inner and outer radii as ri and ro respectively? Taking ho as convecting heat
transfer coefficient of outer fluid.
a. Rc = 4 ho ro

b. Rc = 1 / 4 ho ro

c. Rc = 4 ho ro
d. Rc = 1 / 4 ho ro
ANSWER: b. Rc = 1 / 4 ho ro2