Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 59

Lesson 3: Summary

4 Goals
4 Principles
MA0100

(C) S W Lye

2: Minimise
Ecological Impact

1: Minimise
Resource Usage

Healthy and High


Quality for
Sustainable Living (Eg.
Air, Water, Wildlife)

Balanced
Ecological
Cycles (Eg. Air,
Water)
Abundant Resources
(Current and Future)

A Good Environment
Sustainability Model
4: Establish Dynamic
Systems for Environmental
MA0100Sustainability

(C) S W Lye

3: Maintain Economic
Viability Systems 2

Design Principles on Environmental Sustainability

Principle 1: Natural Capital


Principle 2: Natural Step
Principle 3: Eco-Effectiveness

Principle 4: Eco-Efficiency
MA0100

(C) S W Lye

Material/Process Selection
Not all materials and processes are equally friendly
to the environment and operationally efficient.
An eco-material or eco-process is one where its
acquisition and use would cause minimal
environmental impacts, minimal resource depletion
and minimal regulatory constraints to use and
process. It is also one that minimises risk to the
environment.
Assessment of the suitability of such material or
process tends to be multi faceted and over a life
cycle.
Assessment Tool: Star shaped Tool

Waste Management and its Recovery


Principles & Methods
Extraction

Industrial Ecology
System

Waste

Coverage:
Lesson 2: Waste and its sources
Lesson 3: Design for Env Sustainability: Goals and Principles
Lesson 4: Waste Minimisation and Recovery: Reduce Design
Principles and Techniques
Lesson 5-6: Waste Recovery: Reuse, Remake and Recycle
Design Principles and Techniques; Energy Recovery and
Disposal
MA0100

(C) S W Lye

Waste Minimisation
- Where do we begin?
Waste

Mfg
Process

Extraction and
Processing

Resources
Waste

Materials Use
Extraction Phase
MA0100

Manufacturing Phase
(C) S W Lye

Product/
Package
Use
6

Retirement Phase

How to Minimise
Waste?

MA0100

Waste is still
generated

(C) S W Lye

No Extraction
(Zero Waste)

Minimise Waste
(Improvements)

Converting back to
Nature Resources
(without undue effort)

MA0100

Prolong Waste Life


(Create New Uses)

(C) S W Lye

Waste Recovery Methods


Waste comes in different forms: solid, liquid and gas. In
this section of the video, it reveals a number of main
methods employed in Singapore to recover these forms
of wastes on a large scale. Can you spot them?

What are the waste recovery


methods listed in the video?
Treatment of sewerage
Convert sewerage in pallets that can then
be used as fuel for incineration
Incineration of Waste
Ash for Landfill
Recycling of Waste
Are they in the same category? Are they of the
same priority levels?

Hierarchy Priority of Waste Recovery


Waste Recovery Classifications: Re-cycling,
Reduce, Containment / Landfill, Re-use,
Remake, Energy Recovery
Main Preference Levels: 6
Aim: Seeks to observe the order of preference
in waste recovery levels

MA0100

(C) S W Lye

11

Recycling
Recycle occurs when the product is no longer
in a serviceable and functional. Used or
abandoned materials are then processed for
use in creating new products.
Waste Recovery

Resources

Material
Processing

Product

Minimal
Waste
Recycle

Example: Recycled Paper

MA0100

(C) S W Lye

13

Reduce
Reduce: Lessening the amount of items or resources
that are consumed, using only the amount that is
needed.

Minimal
Resources

Material
Processing

Product

Reduce

Waste

Landfill
Landfill is an organised site for the disposal of waste
materials by burial. Mainly wait for the materials to
degrade back to nature which may or may not be.

Reuse / Remake
Reuse involves collecting, cleaning and refurbishing
components and assemblies for use again.
Remaking or remanufacture involves the reuse of
non-functional products by retaining serviceable and
refurbished components as well as introducing
replacement ones suitable for similar or different use
(re-configuration).
Resources

Material
Processing

Product

Minimal
Waste

Incineration
Incineration (energy recovery) involves burning of
waste materials. In some cases, the heat generated by
incineration can be used to generate electric power.

Hierarchical Priorities of Waste Recovery


Management
Usually most
preferred

Usually least
preferred

Reduce resource
Reuse product
Remanufacture
components/
refurbish assemblies
Recycle materials
Incinerate for energy
recovery (if safe)
Disposal as waste

What are the waste recovery


methods listed in the video?
Treatment of sewerage (Energy Recovery)
Convert sewerage in pallets that can then
be used as fuel for incineration (Energy
Recovery)
Incineration of Waste (Energy Recovery)
Ash for Landfill (Landfill)
Recycling of Waste (3Rs)

Summary: Hierarchy Priority of Waste


Recovery
Order of Waste Recovery: Reduce, Re-use;
Remake, Re-cycling, Energy Recovery
Containment / Landfill,
Main Preference Levels: 6
Aim: Seeks to observe the order of preference
in waste recovery levels
Reuse, Remake, Recycle

Resources
MA0100

Product
(C) S W Lye

20

Reduce Conservation of Resources


Reduce: Seeks to lessening the amount of
items or resources that are either
environmentally unfriendly or consumed. No
material employed / consumed results in no
damage or waste.
The call: Use only the amount that is needed.
Waste Recovery

Resources

Product Life

Waste

Design Principles on Reduce


Adopt approaches to reduce
consumption
and
wastes
(Energy,
Materials
and
Packaging)
Seek superior alternatives to
better usage and performance
(Efficient Technology, Solution
Assessment, Renewable Sources
and Material Substitution)

Design Principles for Energy


Environmental Friendly
Seek to use energy sources that are
environmentally preferred means. Example:
Green and clean energy rather than by
incineration.
Efficiency of energy utilisation must be
balanced with toxicity concerns. Example:
Most efficient lighting relies on mercury
vapour in lamps. If permits, select the one
with the most energy efficient / toxicity ratio.

Design for Energy Efficiency


Industry uses substantial amounts of energy.
Example: Estimated that 30% of all energy
consumed in US is inefficiently employed.
Key energy users include total manufacturing,
petroleum and coal production, chemicals and
products.
Key Approach: Improve Energy Efficiency

Ways to Improve Energy Efficiency


- thereby reducing Energy Utilisation

Process and Energy Generation Efficiency


Machineries and Equipment Audit
HVAC
Lighting
Computerised Energy Management

Material Processes
Various types and levels of primary material processes:
Petroleum refining where energy is required for:
de-sulfurize crude oil
produce high octane gasoline without metal additives
Chemicals and chemical products
about 70% of the cost of compressed gas is attributable
to electricity.
Primary metals need energy to
bulk of energy is used to crush the rock and recover the
ore, extract metal from ore, then make ingots and other
purified products.
Of these, the worst energy guzzler is petroleum and coal
production, followed by chemicals and chemical products
and primary metal production.
MA0100

(C) S W Lye

26

Energy Generation
Heat energy is commonly generated but not
all are used. Heat losses are dissipated via
stacks. Determine which process is least
efficient.
Energy for
Intended Use

Losses

Process Energy Flows

Process A: 63.5%; B: 75%; C: 35%

Material-Energy Flow Convention


E1

Material Flow
1

Energy Flow
1

Product
E1
1

Product

1-X

1
X

Process Energy Calculations


Energy Required = X1*E1 + X2*E2 + X3*E3
Where X = Mass; E = Energy Capacity per unit
mass
X1

Process 1

E1

X2

Process 2

E2

X3

Process 3

E3

Process Energy Calculations


Given E1 = 10 MJ/kg; E2 = 5MJ/kg; E3 = 5 MJ/kg
Determine energy required to manufacture a
product having a weight of 0.5kg
0.3
1

Process 1

E1

0.2
0.7

Process 2

E2

0.3
0.5

Process 3

E3

0.2

Process Energy Calculations


Given E1 = 10 MJ/kg; E2 = 5MJ/kg; E3 = 5 MJ/k
Total Energy Required for 0.2kg product =
1*10 + 0.7*5 + 0.5*5 = 16.0 MJ
0.3
1

Process 1

E1

0.2
0.7

Process 2

E2

0.3
0.5

Process 3

E3

0.2

Process Energy Calculations


Given E1 = 10 MJ/kg; E2 = 5MJ/kg; E3 = 5 MJ/kg
Determine energy required to manufacture a
product material weighing 0.5kg
0.3
1

Process 1

E1

0.2
0.7

Process 2

E2

0.3
0.5

Process 3

E3

0.2

Process Energy Calculations (#2)


To manufacture a product of 0.5 kg; one would
require 2.5kg (0.5*1/0.2) of raw materials
Total Energy Required = 2.5*10 + 1.75*5 +
1.25*5 = 25 + 8.75 + 6.25 = 40 MJ
2.5

Process 1

E1

1.75

Process 2

E2

1.25

Process 3

E3

0.5

Impact on Process Waste Reduction


Given E1 = 10 MJ/kg; E2 = 5MJ/kg; E3 = 5 MJ/kg
Determine energy required to manufacture a
product material
0.2 (0.3)

0.9

Process 1

(1.0)

0.7

0.15 (0.2)
Process 2

(0.7)

E1
Energy Required for 0.35kg (0.2 kg):
15.25MJ (8.71MJ)

0.55

0.2 (0.3)
Process 3

(0.5)

E2

0.35
(0.2)

E3
Previous Energy Required for 0.2kg: 16.0MJ

Impact on Process Energy Efficiency


Given E1 = 9 (10) MJ/kg; E2 = 4 (5) MJ/kg; E3 =
5 (5) MJ/kg. Determine energy required to
manufacture a product material
0.3
1.0

Process 1

0.2

0.7

E1
Energy Required for 0.2kg: 14.3MJ

Process 2

E2

0.3
0.5

Process 3

0.2

E3
Previous Energy Required for 0.2kg: 16.0MJ

Machineries and Equipment Welding Equipment Example


Machineries and Equipment do
not operate at the same
efficiency over their life time
Audit Energy Assessment can
be conducted to determine its
operating performance and cost
based on current and when new
Production monitoring tools such
as AlwaysOn alert systems
used in welding operations could
be employed to measure weld
performance,
equipment
condition, and efficiency.

Equipment Maintenance Action


Period of Use (yr)

Efficiency (%)

<1

90

Servicing: Twice a year

1-2

80

Servicing: 3 times a year

2-4

70

Servicing: 4 times a year with


part replacement to improve
performance to 75%

4-7

50

Servicing: Monthly, part


replacement and major
overhaul to maintain 75%
efficiency

Maintenance

Target Efficiency: 75%

Heating, Ventilating and Air- Conditioning


Help to maintain good indoor air quality
through adequate ventilation with filtration
and provide thermal comfort.
% of energy use is more for lighter than
heavier industries.
Substantial savings may be available
Improving the shell efficiencies of buildings
ie. Rubber window seals, high ceiling, and
plant facade

Lighting
Accounts for 20% of industrial uses.
Provision of adequate visibility for performing
operations
Uses windows and skylights to bring sunlight
into your home and reduces the need for
artificial lighting
Employ Auto On/Off Light Sensors; Auto Low
Power Standby Mode

Computerized Energy Management


Sensors to monitor boilers, motors, fans and
lights.
Replacing aging HVAC equipment with computer
controlled functions such as in HVAC equipment
can reduce about 30% of energy saving
Have varying material processing rates and
variable speed drive motors to better output and
performance requirements. 20 50% reductions
in energy consumption have been reported

MA0100

(C) S W Lye

41

Design Principles on Reduce


Adopt approaches to reduce
consumption
and
wastes
(Energy,
Materials
and
Packaging)
Seek superior alternatives to
better usage and performance
(Efficient Technology, Solution
Assessment, and Material
Substitution)

Design for Material Reduction


Principle: Design for minimum use of
materials in products, processes and services
Approach: Dematerialisation

Dematerialisation
De-materialization concerns minimisation of the total
flow of matter and energy used to provide equivalent
services.
De-materialization is usually measured in terms of
mass of materials per unit of economic activity or per
capita, for an industry sector, national, regional or
global economies.
Reduce
Resource Consumption

MA0100

(C) S W Lye

44

Dematerialisation can be based on relative or


absolute measures.
Relative dematerialisation relates to reducing the
quantity of materials needed to accomplish the
same task.
Absolute dematerialisation considers the
reduction in the total amount of matter circulating
within the industrial system.

Function
MA0100

Overall
(C) S W Lye

45

Dematerialisation
to disappear without trace via minimisation

Avoid sharp corners to permit thinner walls


and less stress
Use greater number of smaller supporting
ribs rather than few larger ribs to reduce
deflection
Metals inserts to provide strength instead of
having thick section

Reduce Material Consumption


Avoid packaged products if loose ones would
do.

Adopt one stop centralised facility instead of


multiple individual workstation installations

Reduce Material Consumption (#2)


Adopt one process production rather than
multiple process production

Go for longer lasting products than multiple


short life ones. (Rechargeable rather than
term life)

Design Principles on Reduce


Adopt approaches to reduce
consumption
and
wastes
(Energy,
Materials
and
Packaging)
Seek superior alternatives to
better usage and performance
(Efficient Technology, Solution
Assessment, Renewable Sources
and Material Substitution)

Adopt Energy Efficient Technology


Go electronic and paperless where possible
Switch to More Energy Efficient Technology:
Example: Inverter Technology for Welding
Machining where inverter-based power
sources can deliver more power output
resulting in a better performance-to-size ratio
and smoother operation.
350kg to 80kg

Better Solution Assessment


Various forms of lighting available from use of
incandescent lights, fluorescence lights to high
efficiency bulbs (0.07-0.1 of incandescent
lights).
Principle: Balanced between energy usage and
cost assuming toxicity is not a concern. Opt for
the one with less energy usage per unit cost
over a period of time.

Lighting
Energy
Consumption

Example: Choice of Lighting


Organisation has 30 offices.
Each office has an average of four desks.
Each desk currently makes use of one 60W incandescent bulb.
Its average usage is 8 hours a day.
Organisation would like to explore using 13W fluorescent unit
of similar lighting intensity.
Cost of bulb is $0.90 and fluorescent unit is $10.
Local energy cost is $0.27kWh.
Problem:
Determine the annual cost of the two options.
What long is the breakeven period in order for the
fluorescent unit to replace the incandescent bulb?

Lighting Energy Calculations

Daily Bulb Energy Used: 30*4*8*0.06 = 57.6kWh


Daily Bulb Energy Cost = $15.55 (57.6 * $0.27)
Annual Bulb Energy Used: = 21024kWh (365 days)
Annual Bulb Energy Cost: = $5676.48
Daily Fluorescent Energy Used: 30*4*8*0.013 = 12.48 kWh
Daily Fluorescent Energy Cost = $3.37
Annual Fluorescent Energy Used: = 4555.2kWh (365 days)
Annual Fluorescent Energy Cost: = $1229.90
Breakeven Period, BP:
5676.48X + 0.9*(30*4) = 1229.9X + 10*(30*4)
4446.58X = 9.1*(30*4) = 1092
X 0.2456 years or 89.6 days (approx.)

Material Substitution
Aim: Reduce cost and chance to improve
design while fully satisfying functional and
economic requirements.
Replace carbon steel, iron and zinc die casts
with high strength steel, aluminum, copper
(mostly electrical) and plastics.
Incorporate natural fibre reinforced plastic
components for weight reduction over glass
reinforced ones.

No Extraction
(Zero Waste)

Minimise Waste
(Improvements)

Converting back to
Nature Resources
(without undue effort)

MA0100

Prolong Waste Life


(Create New Uses)

(C) S W Lye

56

Review Lesson 4: Observe Priorities of


Waste Recovery Management
Usually most
preferred

Usually least
preferred

Reduce resource
Reuse product
Remanufacture
components/
refurbish assemblies
Recycle materials
Incinerate for energy
recovery (if safe)
Disposal as waste

Design Principles on Reduce


Adopt approaches to reduce
consumption and wastes (Energy,
Materials and Packaging) Principle
of Eco-efficiency
Seek superior alternatives to better
usage and performance (Efficient
Technology, Solution Assessment,
Renewable Sources and Material
Substitution) Principle of Ecoeffectiveness

Thank You
End of Lesson on Reduce

MA0100

(C) S W Lye

59