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No Extraction

(Zero Waste)

Minimise Waste
(Improvements)

Converting back to
Nature Resources
(without undue effort)

MA0100

Prolong Waste Life


(Create New Uses)

(C) S W Lye

Review Lesson 4: Observe Priorities of


Waste Recovery Management
Usually most
preferred

Usually least
preferred

Reduce material content


Reuse / Remanufacture
components/
refurbish assemblies
Recycle materials
Energy Recovery (if safe)
Dispose of as a waste

Design Principles on Reduce


Adopt approaches to reduce
consumption and wastes (Energy,
Materials and Packaging) Principle
of Eco-efficiency
Seek superior alternatives to better
usage and performance (Efficient
Technology, Solution Assessment,
Renewable Sources and Material
Substitution) Principle of Ecoeffectiveness

No Extraction
(Zero Waste)

Minimise Waste
(Improvements)

Converting back to
Nature Resources
(without undue effort)

MA0100

Prolong Waste Life


(Create New Uses)

(C) S W Lye

Waste Management and its Recovery


Principles & Methods
Extraction

Industrial Ecology
System

Waste

Coverage:
Lesson 2: Waste and its sources
Lesson 3: Design for Env Sustainability: Goals and Principles
Lesson 4: Waste Minimisation and Recovery: Reduce Design
Principles and Techniques
Lesson 5-6: Waste Recovery: Reuse, Remake and Recycle
Design Principles and Techniques; Energy Recovery and
Disposal
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Reuse / Remake / Recycling


Re means to recur or repeat
Reuse involves the process of collecting, cleaning and
refurbishing components and assemblies for use again.
Remaking or remanufacture involves the reuse of nonfunctional products by retaining serviceable and
refurbished components as well as introducing
replacement ones suitable for similar or different use
(re-configuration).
Recycle occurs when the product is no longer in a
serviceable and functional. Used or abandoned
materials are then processed for use in creating new
products.
Reuse

Remake

Recycle

Reuse/Remake/Recycle in Industrial System


Premise: An eco-efficient process that seeks to
create more goods and services by optimising via
reuse/remake/recycle of resources thereby reducing
the environmental impact
Approach: To treat view materials and products that
are obsolete as residues or sinks rather than wastes.
This is because one has not yet learnt how to use the
waste efficiently. Conversely, inputs should be
viewed as sources rather than resources as these
sources need not be from existing resources.
Aim: Increase the rate of recycling as this will
improve the eco-efficiency of the process.
WASTE AS FOOD
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Resource
Residuals

Residuals
Source

Residuals
Source
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Source
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Key Aspects to Enhance Eco-Efficiency


via Reuse/Remake/Recycle
Facilitates Collection and
Recovery
Design for Reuse, Remake and
Recycle

Design for
3Rs

Material
Recovery
Disposal

Waste Collection

Facilitates Material Recovery


Material Recovery involves the collection, sorting and
cleaning of waste to a form where it could then be
used for product or material manufacture. This
recovery activity costs! The higher the cost, the lesser
one would want to recover and use it.
Aim: To minimise recovery cost and salvage materials
that are of good residual values for reuse, remake and
recycle for new products and services
Approaches:
Localised Collection and Recovery
Re-engineered Processes
Create Industrial Symbiosis
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Localised Collection and Recovery


Approach: Colour Code Waste Binning and Recycling
Blue Waste: Residual Materials: Plastic Bags,
Toothbrushes, Discarded Packaging => create electricity
Green Waste: Organic materials, leaves, grass and
garden cuttings => Becomes compost
Red Waste: Hard Materials (Batteries, Paints,
Electronics and Chemicals) => process into useful
commodities
Yellow Waste: Recyclable Waste such as Paper,
Aluminum Cans, Plastics and Glass
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Singapore Colour Coded Bin

Re-engineered
Processes
Outcomes:
97% of 1200 tonnes of
waste produced was
directed from landfills
87% waste sent directly
to reprocessors in bulk
skips
984 vehicle movements
were avoided
Reduce 2.5 tonnes of
carbon emissions

Creation of Industrial Symbiosis


Aim: Seeks to share services, utility, and by-product
resources among industries in order to add value,
reduce costs and improve the environment.
Characteristics

Companies co-operate to optimise resource use,


namely by mutually recovering the waste they
generate (waste produced by one enterprise is used
as raw materials by another).
Not necessary confined to one geographical area but
can be in the form of a network.
Build integrated complex processing unit via possible
associations whose objective is to use all the flows of
matter and energy linked to a product processing.
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Small,
Local

Large,
Global

Types of Industrial Symbiosis


Single material and/or energy exchange. Known also
as circular economy
Within a geographically confined space. Deemed to
be eco-industrial development which can be
Greenfield (undeveloped land or left to evolve
naturally) or Brownfield (previous used for industrial
purposes)
No strict requirement of geographical proximity.
Relates to as eco-industrial network
Networks spread in large areas with no distinct
boundaries e.g. regional network. As such, it is
known as virtual eco-industrial network.
Macro level developments with links across regions.
Very large scale Networked Eco-industrial System .

Eco-Industrial Development

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Kalundborg, Danish Industrial Town


Attempt to exploit the substantial potential in their by-products among colocated industries via forming partnerships between stakeholders of the
eco-industrial park . (Macro-scale)
Approach: Develop a highly integrated industrial system that optimises the
use of byproducts and minimises waste that leaves the system. Residues,
otherwise wastes, such as steam, sulphur, fly ash and sludge are to be
exchanged where they are used as raw materials in another industry. Eg.
Gas captured from the oil refinery is now sent to an electrical power station
instead of flared off. This is equivalent to 30,000 tonnes of coal a year.
Use of industrial symbiosis method to create and share services, utility and
exchange of wastes and by-products between companies.
Use eco-efficiency concept to contribute to waste reduction and resource
savings.
Future: Move gradually to more exchanges of material and energy with the
industrial system

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Kalundborg, Danish Industrial Town


Eco-Industrial Park involving six partners
Asnaes power station, largest coal fired plant producing
electricity in Denmark
Statoil, oil refinery, Norwegian company
Novo Nordisk, leading producer of insulin and industrial
enzymes
Gyproc, Sweden, plasterboard for building industry
Kalundborg, excess heat to town heating system
Bioteknisk Jordens, soil remediation company

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Kalundborg, Danish Industrial Town

MA0100

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Key Aspects to Enhance Eco-Efficiency


via Reuse/Remake/Recycle
Facilitates Collection and
Recovery
Design for Reuse, Remake and
Recycle

Reuse / Remake / Recycling


3R Key Focus:
Conserve raw materials and energy that
manufacturers would otherwise use in
producing new products
Reduces the amount of waste and maintain
the material utilisation value

Aim: Prolong Life and retain embedded


value
Reuse

Remake

Recycle

Design Principles on Reuse-RemakeRecycle End of Life (EOL) Strategies


Design Ease for Reuse, Remake and Recycle
Optimising Product Functionality, Material
Recovery (EOL) and Cost Relationships
Prolong Reusability Value via Loop Design
Waste Recovery

Input
Raw

Product Life

Waste

Design Ease for Reuse, Remake Recycle


Principles:
Get most needed materials from recycling
streams rather than raw materials extraction.
This would reduce demand of natural
resources.
Design to increase material utility and enable
recovery when use ceases.
Choose abundant, non toxic, non regulated
materials if possible. If toxic materials are
required, generate them on site rather than
off site so as to minimize losses.

Design Ease for Reuse,


Remake and Recycle
Design for Modularity, Simplicity and
Recovery
Observe Material Embodied Utility
Values

Design for Modularity


Modular design makes it faster and cheaper to
reuse and build a new product
Reused modules / standard components are
not only ready designed but also tested for
reliability. Developers can reuse the modules
for similar and possibly in different
applications
Such modules / components could be based
on a set of standard functional and
compliance characteristics

Design for Modularity


Standard-size carton boxes, interchangeable
bottle caps

Design for Simplicity and Recovery


Example: Material recycling hundreds of
television sets
Task: Locate, sort, clean to provide efficient
material recycling
Approach: Assuming material diversity is not a

functional design consideration, the fewer the


number and types of components and materials,
the better. A product consisting of two metal and
three plastic types is better than those having
many metal and plastic types

Design for Recovery


Design for Disassembly is a recovery process.
The cost of recovery is dependent on the
disassembly time. The harder it is to
separate, the longer is the disassembly time
making it less attractive to recover

Design for Quick Release


Quick
release
mechanism
shortens
disassembly time as well as better able to
group different materials separately.

Poor Design for Disassembly:


Join Materials make Parts
Difficult to Separate

Design Ease for Reuse, Remake


and Recycle
Design for Modularity, Simplicity and Recovery
Observe Material Embodied Utility Values
Maintain Material Utility Values
Use non-hazardous or non-toxic materials
whenever possible
Adopt one material type rather than mixed

Material Utility and Degradation


Avoid degrading material as little as
possible so as to avoid depleting its
embodied utility
Material degrades for various reasons
owing to Abrasion (mechanical), Creep,
corrosion fatigue, Polymer Weathering, Rot,
Micro Pitting, Cracks, Thermal Shock, UV
degradation and Wear
This could shorten material useful life and
makes its performance less efficient

Avoid Use of Hazardous or Toxic Materials


Hazradous good can exist in the form of solid,
liquid, or gas that can harm people, other living
organisms, property, or the environment.
Hazardous or Dangerous goods may be
radioactive, flammable, explosive, toxic,
corrosive, biohazardous, an oxidizer, an
asphyxiant, a pathogen, an allergen, or may
have other characteristics that render it
hazardous in specific circumstances.
Some of the items commonly put into the
garbage bins include motor oil, paint, batteries,
cleaning supplies, and even medications.

Avoid Use of Hazardous or Toxic Materials


When such harmful chemicals are incorrectly
disposed off and thrown into landfills, they
can leach into soil, run into waterways,
contaminate the air, harm the environment
and present a health risk to humans, plants
and animals.
Hazardous materials are seldom recycled and
involved proper disposal and storage solutions
which could utilise added resources.

Use Single Material Type; Avoid


Material / Waste Mixtures
Alloy is formed when two metals are mixed
together. Similarly, plastic mixture is obtained
when two plastics are mixed together.
This affects the sales price of the salvaged
materials as the more contaminants they are, the
less value are they.
The material properties of the more superior
material in the mixture also weakens or degrades
compared with its virgin materials.

Value vs Material Purity

Material-Energy Flow Convention


E1

Material Flow
1

Energy Flow
1

Product
E1

1-Re

Product

1-Re

Re

Recycle Process

Re

Primary vs Reuse Processes


E2
E1

P
1

Collection &
Cleaning, C1,
C2, C3

Mfg
Processes,
C1, C2, C3

Energy:
Y*E2 + P*E1 = 1* E1
Y*E2 = (1-P)* E1; P = 1 Y
E2 = E1 (Adopt Reuse
when E2 < E1)

Y
1
1

Materials:
X+Y=1
P+Y=1
P=X

Product

X
1

Primary vs Reuse Processes


E1

P
1

E2
Collection &
Cleaning, C1,
C2, C3

Mfg
Processes,
C1, C2, C3

Energy:
0.6*E2 + P*E1 = 1* E1
0.6*E2 = (1-P)* E1; 0.6*E1
Adopt Reuse when E2 < E1

0.6
1
1

Product

0.4
1

Materials:
X+Y=1
P+Y=1
P = X = 0.4; Y; X , P

Primary vs Remake Processes


E1
1

Mfg Process
CM1
1

E2

Product

1,1,1

E3
1

Mfg Process
CM2

Mfg Process
CM3
CM = Component Module

Energy (Primary Process)


E1 + E2 + E3
Materials
1,1,1

Primary vs Remake Processes


E1
1

E1
Mfg Process
CM1

Collect & Clean, CM1


Collect & Clean, CM3

E3

1
1

E2
1

Mfg Process
CM2

Product

E3
1

Mfg Process
CM3

E2

Remake
Process, CM2

Energy (Primary) Energy (Reuse/Remake) Re Process Selection


E1 + E2 + E3
E1 < E1; E2 < E2; E3 < E3
E1 + E2 + E3

Primary vs Recycle Processes


ERe1
E1

Recycling
X

1-X
1

Primary
Mfg Process

1-X 1
1 1

E2

Secondary
Mfg Process

1
1

Product

1-X
1-X

Formulate Energy and Mass Equations


for Primary and Recycle Processes
Energy:
Process 1 (Raw Materials): E1 + E2
Process 2 (Recycle) = X*ERe1 + (1-X)*E1 + E2
= E1 + E2 + X*(ERe1 E1)
Materials:
Process 1: 1 unit mass of raw materials
Process 2: 1-X unit mass of raw materials;
Recycle: X unit mass
Recycling process may consume more energy if ERe1 > E1

Example: Aluminum primary and secondary can


production

Energy Saving
Production: 70.4 kWhr/kg
Recycled: 3.97kWhr/kg
Material Saving
Recycled: 23%

Extraction
Production
of cans

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Primary vs Recycle Processes


ERe1
E1

Recycling

1-X-Y
1-X

1-X 1

Primary
Mfg Process

1 1

Secondary
Mfg Process

1
1

Product

1-X -Y

E2
ERe2
Y
Recycling

1-X -Y

Formulate Energy and Mass Equations


for Primary and Recycle Processes
Energy:
Process 1 (Raw Materials): E1 + E2
Process 2 (Recycle) = X*ERe1 + Y*ERe2 + (1X)*E1 + E2 = E1 + E2 + X(ERe1-E1) + Y*ERe2
Materials:
Process 1: 1 unit mass of raw materials
Process 2: 1-X-Y unit mass of raw materials;
Recycle: X and Y unit mass
The additional term, Y*ERe2 indicates that it is not energy
profitable if recycling is to convert back to its original raw state

Example: Reuse of Peroxide Bath


Production: 50,000 silicon wafers per year
Overall Chemical Cost: $2,300 (constant for new
chemicals)
Recycled Chemical Costs: $12/litre (1988);
$15/litre (1998)
Each bath: Five litres in volume (1988, 1998).
Ten silicon wafers per hour can be processed.
Depleted peroxide bath (1988) : 100 lifetime
hours; (1998) 180 lifetime hours
Calculate cost for processing batch of silicon
wafers (1988, 1998). Is it worthwhile to recycle
from cost considerations only?

Process Cost Calculations


Process Data
Process Number: 50,000 silicon wafers
Number of wafer bath set processed per hour:
50,000/10 = 5,000

1988: Depleted Bath Life: 100 hours


Number of bath change needed: 5,000 / 100 = 50
Cost of each bath: 12*5 = $60
Overall Chemical Cost = 60*50 = $3,000

1998: Depleted Bath Life: 180 hours


Number of bath change needed: 5,000 / 180 = 28
Cost of each bath: 15*5 = $75
Overall Chemical Cost = 75 * 28 = $2100
Findings: Not for 1988. Worthwhile in 1998. The cost of
new chemicals remains unchanged at $2,300 (1988, 1998).

Design Principles on Reuse-RemakeRecycle End of Life (EOL) Strategies


Design Ease for Reuse, Remake and Recycle
Optimise Product Functionality and Recovery
(EOL) Relationships
Prolong Reusability Value

Optimise Product Functionality and


Recovery (EOL) Relationships
A product composes of various assemblies,
sub-assemblies and components
Different assemblies and components may
involve various recovery approaches
Principle: At end of life, the aim is to maximise
the amount of recovery from the product vis-vis with other alternatives
Approach: Assess and rate the extent of the
product recovery via the tree diagram

Identification of Material Types


for Recycling

Recovery Observations on Coffee Maker:


More entities at higher priority levels of recovery (less energy and materials
requirements to manufacture the same product from raw materials) are
preferred
The more entities being classified as landfill and unknown, the greater the
risk on the impact to the environment

Material Selection and Reusability


Reusable vs Disposal
The higher the reusability, the greater the
material grade. (photocopier papers, high
grade quality cutlery)
Disposal products should make use of
lowest material grade (Toilet papers,
cutlery)

Daily Decisions on Reusable Products


vs Disposable Ones
Using rechargeable batteries in place of one use
alkaline batteries
Avoid buying beverages in plastic bottles opt
for glass where possible.
Carry your own thermal mug and ask coffee
retailers to fill it for you rather than taking a
disposable cup.
Take reusable cloth bags to the shops with you.
Do not use bin liners for solid waste. Just tip
them rubbish into the bin.

Design Principles on Reuse-RemakeRecycle End of Life (EOL) Strategies


Design for Reusuability, Remaking and
Recyclability
Optimise Product Functionality, Material
Recovery (EOL) and Cost Relationships
Prolong Reusability Value

Maximise/Prolong Reusability Value


Loop Design
Closed vs Open Loop
Useful Life, Mass Flow
Loop Size and Stages

Loop Designs
Closed vs Open Loop
Closed Loop relates to reusing or recycling components or
materials to make the same product again. (Horizontal
recycling)

Example: Aluminum cans to aluminum cans; Glass


bottles to glass bottles; Drive shaft to drive shaft in
trucks
Open Loop: Reuses materials to make a different product
(cascade recycling)
Example: Office paper to Brown paper bags to newspaper to
grocery bags to toilet papers; Polystyrene trays to foam board
insulation; PTFE soda bottles to carpet fibres

Loop Preference
Depends on the material demand and usage. All factors being
equal, closed is preferred in terms of material utilisation life
extension.

Loop Convention
1

1-Re

Product
1

Product

1-Re

Re
w
1-Re

Product
Re1

Re= Re1 + Re2

1-W

1-W-Re

Re
Re2

One Primary Closed and two Secondary


Open (Cascading Level) Loops
Disposal

Raw Material
Product 1, L1

1-Re
Re

Re1

Key Parameters
Unit Mass
Material Utilisation Life

Recycling

Re2

Re3

Disposal
Product 2, L2

Product 3, L3

Disposal

Concept of Utilisation Life, (Time-Weight)


Various materials have different useful lives which
usually depend on the product use.
Example 1: If 1 kg of aluminum is used to produce a car
casement which can last for 3 years. After that, it is to
be disposed off. The material utilisation life (U-Life) is
said to be 3 years.kg.
Example 2: If 1 kg of aluminum is used to produce 200
cans which can last for 3 years. After that, these cans
are disposed off. The material U-life (time-weight) is
also 3 [1/200 *3 *200] years.kg
Both examples have the same U-Life
A large U-Life means that the material is used for a
longer period of time before being retired

Closed Loop Computation of


Product/Material Extended Life
Raw Material, M

Disposal, M*(1-Re)

Product 1, L1
CL = Extended
Product/Material
U-Life
L1 = Product ULife ;
Re = Recycled
Fraction
Recovered from M
Product
Wt of Raw/Virgin
Material = Mkg

Recycling, M*Re
If M=2kg; L1 = 3 years; Re=0.7 then
Once Recycle Only: CL = M*L1 + M*Re * L1
CL = 10.2years.kg
Twice Recycle Only: CL = M*L1 + M*Re * L1
+ M*Re2 * L1
CL = 13.14 kg.years

Closed Loop Computation of


Product/Material Extended Life
Raw Material, M

Disposal, M*(1-Re)

Product 1, L1
CL = Extended
Product/Material
U-Life
L1 = Product ULife ;
Re = Recycled
Fraction
Recovered from
Product
Wt of Raw/Virgin
Material = Mkg

Recycling, M*Re
Infinite Recycling:
CL = M*L1 + M*Re * L1 + M*Re2 * L1 + M*Re3
* L1 + . (1)
Multiply both sides by Re gives
CL * Re = M*Re* L1 + M*Re2 * L1 + M*Re3 * L1
+ .... (2)
(1) - (2) gives CL (1 - Re) = M*L1(assuming Ren
is negligble when n is very large)

CL = M*L1/(1 - Re)

Example 1: Closed Loop


Raw Material, 2
CL = Extended
Product/Material
U-Life
L1 = Product ULife ;
Re = Recycled
Fraction
Recovered from
Product Mass
Mass of
Raw/Virgin
Material = 2 kg

Product Life ,
3 years

Recycling, 70%

CL = 2*L1/(1 - Re)
= 6/(1-0.7) = 6/0.3
= 20.0 years.kg
Comparisons:
No Recycle: 6 years.kg
One Recycle: 10.2 years.kg
Twice Recycle: 13.14 years.kg

Disposal, 30%

Closed Loop Recycling Rate and


Extended U-Life
% Recycling, Re

Extended U-Life 1/(1-Re)

10%
20%
50%
80
90
100%

1.11 or 11% increase


1.25 or 25% increase
2 or 100% increase
5 or 400% increase
10 or 900% increase
Infinity

Can exceed the product life owing to its recursive looping

Two Open (Cascading Level) Loops


1

1 -Re1 Re2 Disposal


Product 1, L1

Raw Material
Re1

Re1
Disposal
Product 2, L2

Re2
Product 3, L3

CL = L1 + Re1 * L2 + Re2 * L3
U-Life of CL depends on L1, L2, L3, Re1 and Re2
The higher Re1 and Re2, the larger the CL

Re2
Disposal

Example 1:Compute Re
(having same CL as P2)
0.7

P2, L1
1

Disposal

0.3

CL(P1) = 0.3*L1/(1-Re)
CL(P2) = 0.7*L1
0.3/(1-Re) = 0.7
0.4286 = 1-Re
Re = 0.5714

P1, L1

Infinite
Re

Example 2:Compute Re
(having same CL as P2 and P3)
0.7

0.1

P2, L1
0.6

P3, 0.5L1

Disposal

0.3

P1, L1
CL(P1) = 0.3*L1/(1-Re)
CL(P2,P3) = 0.7*L1 + 0.6*0.5L1
0.3/(1-Re) = 1.0
0.3 = 1-Re
Re = 0.70

Re

Example 3 (Closed Loop)


Mass Flow, M = 5000kg/hr; Mass Recovery
Rate = 0.7
Waste rejection rate from recycling process =
10%
Draw Flow Diagram and Total Mass Flow
Generated

Disposal

Product

Mass
Flow, M

0.07
0.63

Recovery /
Recycling Process

0.7

Mass Flow Computation


Total Mass Flow = M + (0.63)*M + 0.632M +
0.633M + .
M = 5000kg/hr
Product Life

Mass
Flow, M

Disposal
0.07*M

0.63*M

Recovery /
Recycling Process

0.7*M

Example 4 (Open Loop Recycling)


Two mass flow of materials, M1 (8000 kg/hr)
and M2 (6000 kg/hr) are used to produce two
different products, P1 and P2.
Recovery mass rates for P1 is 0.6 and P2 is 0.1.
Draw Flow Diagram and derive total mass flow
equation
M1

M2

P1

Disposal

0.6

Recovery/
Recycling
P2

0.1

0.6M1 + 0.1M2

Mass Flow Computation


M1

M2

P1

Disposal

0.6
Recovery
/Recycling

P2

0.6M1 + 0.1M2

0.1

Total Mass Flow = M1 + 0.6M1 + M2 + 0.1M2


= 1.6M1 + 1.1M2
= 12800 + 6600
= 19400 kg/hr

Example 5 (Open Loop Recycling)


Two mass flow of materials, M1 (8000 kg/hr)
and M2 (6000 kg/hr) are used to produce two
different products, P1 and P2.
Recovery mass rates for P1 is 0.6 and P2 is 0.1.
Of these 15% of the recovery rates are treated
as rejects.
Draw Flow Diagram and derive total mass flow
equation

Mass Flow Computation


0.09M1 + 0.015M2
M1

M2

P1

Disposal

0.6
Recovery
/Recycling

P2

0.51M1 + 0.085M2

0.1

Total Mass Flow = M1 + 0.51M1 + M2 + 0.085M2


= 1.51M1 + 1.085M2
= 12080 + 6510
= 18590 kg/hr

Loop Length
Loop represents the path in which processors
provide services to enable resources to be used
and transformed from one segment to another.
A long loop would therefore have more processes
or intermediary stages in it compared to a short
one.
Generally, the shorter the loop, the better as
short loops are better able to retain materials and
energy embodied in products during the
manufacture.

Waste Minimisation and Recovery Methods


Reduce

Reuse, Remake and Recycle

(Aim: Material Reduction)

(Aim: Prolong Waste Life)

Adopt approaches to reduce


consumption and wastes
5 ways to improve energy efficiency* process, machine efficiency calibration,
aircon, lighting energy saving features,
computerised energy mgt
5 ways to reduce material consumption
dematerialisation, reduce processes,
centralization, one-stop location

Seek superior alternatives to better


usage and performance
Technology Substitution
Alternative Substitution*
Material Substitution

Material Collection and Recovery Methods


Design for End of Life Strategies
Ease for for Reuse, Remake and Recycle
Design for Modularity, Simplicity and Recovery
Observe Material Embodied Utility Values

Optimise Product Functionality, Material


Recovery (EOL) and Cost Relationships*
Prolong Reusability Value
Adopt Recycle Loop Design via Extended
Utilisation Life*

Energy Recovery and Landfill

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Waste to Energy Recovery Technologies

Incineration
Gasification
Proloysis
Anerobic Treatment

Incineration
Deliberate combustion of waste usually in an oxygen rich
environment at a high temperature, reducing it into ashes,
flue gas and heat. It is also known as "thermal treatment."
Incineration may emit harmful gases and air pollutants, but it
is helpful in destroying toxins and pathogens in some sorts of
hazardous wastes.
Its gaseous and particulate pollutants resulting from the
incineration would need to be cleaned before they are
dispersed into the atmosphere.
Incinerators reduce the solid mass of the original waste by
8085% and the volume by 9596%, depending on
composition and degree of recovery of materials.
Incineration does not completely replace landfill but
significantly would reduce the necessary volume for
disposal.
Heat generated can be recovered and used to generate
electricity.
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Gasification Technology
Gasification is not incineration. The process
attempts to convert feedstocks (organic or fossil
based materials) into their simplest molecules carbon monoxide, hydrogen and methane.
Process mechanism: Requires material to react at
high
temperatures
(>700
C),
without
combustion, with a controlled amount of oxygen
and/or steam.
Product: Resulting gas mixture that is
combustible gas as fuel or main energy resource.
http://gasification.org/page_1.asp?a=79&b=85

Pyrolysis
Pyrolysis: A type of thermolysis, most commonly
observed in organic materials exposed to high
temperatures.
Mechanism: Involved in charring organic
substances where gas and liquid products are
produced. Char relates to a solid residue richer in
carbon content.
Example: charring wood, starting at 200300 C
(390570 F). Extreme pyrolysis, which leaves
mostly carbon as the residue, is called
carbonisation.

Anaerobic Digestion
Collection
of
processes
by
which
microorganisms break down biodegradable
material in the absence of oxygen.
Product: Biogas, consisting of methane,
carbon dioxide and traces of other
contaminant gases. Biogas can be used
directly as fuel, in combined heat and power
gas engines or upgraded to natural gas-quality
bio-methane.
Other Merits: Reduces the emission of landfill
gas into the atmosphere.

Process Steps
Begins with bacterial hydrolysis where insoluble organic
polymers , such as carbohydrates, are broken down to
soluble derivatives that become available for other
bacteria.
Acidogenic bacteria then converts sugars and amino acids
into carbon dioxide, hydrogen, ammonia and organic acids.
Acetogenesis: These bacteria convert these resulting
organic acids into acetic acid, along with additional
ammonia, hydrogen, and carbon dioxide.
Methanogens convert these products to methane and
carbon dioxide.

Landfill
Site (also known as a dump, rubbish dump or
dumping ground) for the disposal of waste
materials by burial.
Modern, secure landfills are depressions in
the ground or above-ground facilities that are
filled with waste and sealed to avoid contact
with surrounding soil, air or water.
Landfills can be for hazardous, non-hazardous
and combination.
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Landfill Objectives
Concentrate waste and isolate it from other
resources that could be adversely affected by
contact with the dangerous chemicals
contained in some wastes.
For Non-Hazardous Landfills
Confined to as small an area as possible.
Compacted to reduce their volume.
Covered (usually daily) with layers of soil.

Hazardous Landfills
Sanitary landfill: Normally located outside a city or away from
human population where toxic waste, trash and garbage are
disposed of by burying them between layers of earth.
Toxic waste is broken down into innocuous products
biologically, chemically or physically. The system of sanitary
landfills involves biodegradation by living things (i.e.
microorganisms).
High concentration of gases and the unpredictability of the
landfill contents, which often include sharp objects, landfill
excavation is generally considered dangerous.
Quality of materials residing within landfills tends to degrade
and such materials are thought to be not worth the risks
required to recover them.
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Examples:

Soil Remediation

MA0100

Toxic Cleanup

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Water Treatment

87

No Extraction
(Zero Waste)

Minimise Waste
(Improvements)

Converting back to
Nature Resources
(without undue effort)

MA0100

Prolong Waste Life


(Create New Uses)

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Waste Minimisation and Recovery Methods


Reduce

Reuse, Remake and Recycle

(Aim: Material Reduction)

(Aim: Prolong Waste Life)

Adopt approaches to
reduce consumption
and wastes
5 ways to improve energy
efficiency* - process,
machine efficiency
calibration, aircon, lighting
energy saving features,
computerised energy mgt
5 ways to reduce material
consumption
dematerialisation, reduce
processes, centralization,
one-stop location

Seek superior
alternatives to better
usage and performance
Technology Substitution
Alternative Substitution*
Material Substitution

Collection and Recovery


Methods
Design End-of-Life
Strategies
Ease for Reuse, Remake
and Recycle
Design for Modularity,
Simplicity and Recovery
Observe Material Embodied
Utility Values

Optimise Product
Functionality, Material
Recovery (EOL) and Cost
Relationships*
Prolong Reusability Value
Adopt Recycle Loop Design via
Extended Utilisation Life*

Back to Natural Resources


(Aim: Max Extract/Min Impact)

Energy Recovery
Incineration
Gasification
Proloysis
Anerobic Treatment

Landfill
Hazardous
Non-Hazardous

Past Sample Questions


Rubber Tex, a company, uses rubber to make tyres. It was
estimated that 60% of the used tyres are rethreaded and reused.
Such rethreaded tyres can only be reused once. Another 30% of
the used tyres are processed into tyre chucks which are divided
into three equal portions (A, B and C) of 10% each by weight.
Portion A of the tyre chunks is sent to the incinerator to derive
energy whereas Portions B and C are used in the production of
boots (10%) and track surfaces (10%) respectively. For the boots,
only 50% of them are recycled back for boot production. The
remaining along with the used track surface materials are
assumed to be destined for landfill sites. The product useful lives
of tyres, boots and track surface are 2 years, 1.5 years and 3
years respectively. Draw the loop diagram.

Thank You
End of Lesson on 3Rs, Energy
Recovery and Disposal

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