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MINOR PROJECT REPORT

2010

CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION
The electromagnetic piston engine consist of a cylinder and a piston, each made of a
magnetic material, inner wall of the cylinder made of cylinder electromagnet that can
be magnetized to one magnetic pole at a time, pole may be either N or may be S ,
piston arrangement consist of permanent magnet fixed on a base end side of piston so
that S pole side can be directed to the base end surface of the piston and N pole can be
directed towards connecting portion, a magnetization unit used for increasing the
magnitude of pole and hence called booster coil.
By creating a magnetic attractive and repulsive force between the cylinder and the
piston by exciting the cylinder electromagnet; and the piston, reciprocal movement of
piston can be obtained that can be transfer through connecting rod.

1.1 OBJECTIVE BEHIND THE SELECTION OF PROJECT


1.1.1 The present project has the objects to provide the electromagnetic piston engine
which can do without a variety of resistance inherent in internal combustion piston
engines
They may include, for example,
1 Air intake resistance of an air cleaner;
2 Resistance of a cam shaft;
3 Compression resistances in a cylinder;
4 Resistance of a piston to an inner wall of a cylinder;
5 Resistance of a cooling fan;
6 Resistance of a water pump; and
7 Resistance of an oil pump.
1.1.2 The present project has the objects to reduces the weight corresponding to a
rotary assembly portion to a smaller value even if a great output is produced
1.1.3 The present project has the objects to provide a system which can be readily
employed together with power transmission mechanisms and so on for use with
conventional internal combustion piston engines
1.1.4 The present project has the objects to provide a system which has a high
efficiency in energy consumption.
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1.1.5 The present project has the objects to provide ready applications to power
transmission mechanisms for use with conventional internal combustion piston
engines, and achieving improved efficiency in utilizing energy

1.2 NESSESITY OF ELECTROMAGNETIC ENGINE


The electric drive motors of such a type, however, lead naturally to an increase in the
weight of a rotor in order to pick up greater outputs and, as a consequence, suffer
from the disadvantages that the weight of the portion corresponding to a rotary
assembly section becomes heavy. The such electric drive motors require a power
transmission mechanism for transmitting the driving power from a power source to
the wheels to be designed to be adapted to the features of the such electric drive
motors. Power transmission mechanisms for internal combustion piston engines,
which have been generally used for conventional vehicles, cannot always be applied
to electric vehicles as they are. These problems impose greater burdens upon the
designing of electric vehicles.

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2010

CHAPTER 2
CONSTRUCTION
The electromagnetic piston engine consists of various component like piston,
cylinder, magnetization unit, bearing, electrode and power supply unit etc.
Application and properties of this component will be discussed in detail hereafter.

2.1 MAIN COMPONENT


Main component of electromagnetic piston engine are:-

1 Piston
2 Cylinders
3 Outer cylinders
4 Electro-magnet
5 Bearing
6 Electrodes
7 Booster coil
8 Contact Mechanisms
9 Connecting rod
10 Connecting Portion
11
Fig 2.1

Piston
The piston 1 is of a hollow shape which has an
opening on a one side and has a permanent magnet 7
fixed on a base end side so that S pole side can be
directed toward the base end surface of the piston and
N pole side towards the connecting portion 9

Fig 2.2

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2010

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Cylinder
The cylinder 2 has a brush electrode 14 pass throughout the
whole length from its outer wall side to its inner wall side.
The cylinder 2 is supported by the outer cylinder 3 with the
help of connecting portion 4 as shown in fig. 1.1. The
connecting portion 4 is fixed to the top portion of the outer
cylinder 3 with a mounting screw 16. An exciting coil 5 is
wound about the connecting portion 4, two electrodes 6 are
mounted on outer side of cylinder 3, and are connected to
lead wires at the both ends of the exciting coil 5.

Fig 2.3

Outer cylinder
The arrangement of cylinder 2 and outer cylinder 3 is shown
in the Fig 1.4 and Fig 1.5, outer cylinder 3 provide support
to cylinder 2 with the help of connecting portion 4.

Fig 2.4

Electromagnet
Field Intensity
A more current that flows through a wire, the stronger the magnetic field will be. As
with the magnets magnetic field, the flux lines are closer together near the wire, and
they move further apart as they move away from the wire. The field, then, is stronger
near the wire, and becomes weaker with distance.

Fig 2.5
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The decrease in the number of lines of force per unit area is in inverse proportion to
the distance from the conductor. That is, at a distance of one inch from the conductor,
for instance, there is one-half the density of force as at a distance of one-half inch.
Interaction of Electro-magnetic Filed
The fields of two current-carrying wires interact. If two wires carrying current in
opposite direction are brought close together, their magnetic fields will oppose one
another, since the flux lines are going in opposite directions. The flux lines cannot
cross, and the fields move the wires apart. Where as the wires carrying current in the
same direction are brought together, their magnetic fields will aid one another, since
the flux lines are going in the same direction & they will join and form loops around
both wires, and the fields bring the wires together. The flux lines of both wires add to
make a stronger magnetic field.

Fig 2.7
Opposite current cause opposite fields that
repel

Fig 2.6
Stronger field can be produced by
combining a few wires
Electromagnetism in a loop
If the wire is twisted to form a loop, the magnetic fields around the wire will all be
arranged so that they each flow into loop on one side, and all come out on the other
side. In centre of loop, the flux lines are compressed to create a dense and stronger
field. This produces magnetic poles, with north on the side that the flux lines come
out, and south on the side that they go in.

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2010

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Fig 2.8
When a wire is being formed into a loop,
all of the circular fields enter one side of
the loop and leave the other side.

Fig 2.9
The flux lines are compressed
in the centre of the loop to
create a strong field. The N pole
is produced on the side that the
flux lines come out.

Electromagnetism in a Coil
If a number of loops are wound in the same direction to form a coil, more fields will
add to make the flux lines through the coil even denser. The magnetic field through
the coil becomes even stronger. So, many loops helical wound to form a strong
electromagnet called a coil or solenoid.

Fig 2.10

Fig 2.11

A close-wound solenoid will createAa stronger magnetic field

c
l
o
s
e
w
oFig 2.12
u
n
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s
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The left-hand rule for a solenoid gives the direction of the poles: If your fingers are
wrapped around the wire in the direction of the electron current flow, your thumb will
point to the N pole.
Magneto-motive Force
The magnetizing force that is caused by current flowing in a wire is called the
magneto-motive force (mmf). The mmf depends on the current flowing in the coil and
the number of turns in the coil. If the current is doubled, the mmf will be doubled.
Also, if the number of turns in the coil is increased, the mmf will be increased. The
mmf, then, is determined by a term called ampere turns, which is the electric current
multiplied by the number of turns of the coil. As the mmf increased, the number of
flux lines also increases. But there will be points at which the mmf bring increased
will no longer produce more flux lines. This is known as saturation point.

Fig 2.13
Variation between flux density and mmf(A/turn)

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Fig 2.14
Formation of Electromagnet
Bearing

The piston 1 is supported in the interior of the cylinder 2 with a bearing 15 to enable a
smooth reciprocal movement (vertical movement) in the axial direction of the
cylinder. The piston 1 is arranged to reciprocally move in the distance indicated by
"L" in the drawing. The bearing 15 is disposed each in the upper and lower positions
along a circumferential direction of the inner wall of the cylinder 2 (i.e. the outer wall
of the piston 1) and is made of ceramics so as for the piston 1 to fail to be connected
magnetically to the cylinder 2. The bearing 15 may be replaced with as called roller.

Electrode
The cylinder 2 has a brush electrode 14 pass throughout
the whole length from its outer wall side to its inner
wall side. Topside end of the brush 14 is made in such
way that it will come in contact with the copper plate
electrode 12 slide able.

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Elcetrode

Fig 2.15
Electrode

2010

MINOR PROJECT REPORT

The other topside end of the brush 14 is further disposed to pass all the way through
the outer cylinder 3 so as to permit a flow of current from the outside. The brush 14
may be made of carbon and the topside end portion of the brush 14 may be formed in
the shape of a so-called roller to reduce wear by the sliding movement. Fig 2.15
shows an example of the brush 14 formed at its topside end portion in the shape of
such a so-called roller. As shown in the drawing, the brush 14 is mounted at its
topside end portion with a cylinder-shaped electrode 14a so as to be rotatable and the
cylinder-shaped electrode 14a is disposed to come into contact with the surface of the
copper plate electrode 12.
Booster coil
The connecting portion 9 is wound with an exciting coil 8 for a booster (therefore
known as "booster coil"). The lead wires on the both sides of the booster coil 8 are
connected each to a copper plate electrode 12 inserted completely in the axial
direction

on

the

outer

wall

side

surface

of

the

piston

Contact Mechanism
contact mechanism for feeding electricity to the booster coil 8 is not restricted to a
contact mechanism with the copper plate electrode 12 and the brush 14 and a variety
of contact mechanisms may include, for example, such as a slideable contact
mechanism in which the connecting rod 10 is made hollow, the lead wire of the
booster coil 8 passes through the hollow portion of the connecting rod 10, a ring
electrode is mounted on the crank shaft side so as to make a turn in the
circumferential direction of a crank shaft, and a brush is disposed to slide together
with the ring electrode.
.

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CHAPTER-3
WORKING PRINCIPLE
Working principal of electromagnetic piston engine based on fact that The magnetic
force strongly attracts an opposite pole of another magnet and repels a like pole

Attraction
When two magnets or magnetic objects are close to each other, there is a force that
attracts the poles together.

Repulsion

Fig 3.1
Opposite pole attracts

When two magnetic objects have like poles facing each other, the magnetic force
pushes them apart.

Fig 3.2
Like pole repels
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3.1 WORKING
In operation of the electromagnetic piston
engine, a current is fed through the booster coil
8 in the direction in which the magnitude of the
magnetic pole of the permanent magnet 7 is
increased. The feeding of electricity to the
booster coil 8 can be performed by supplying a
current to the copper plate electrode 12 through
the sliding copper plate electrode 14. This
feeding can excite the whole area of the piston 1 to the S pole by the magnetic forces
of the permanent magnet 7 and the booster coil 8.
The excitation of the exciting coil 5 can be performed in a following manner. A
current is fed in the direction of exciting the cylinder 2 to the S pole and the outer
cylinder 3 to the N pole during a period of time during which the piston 1 moves from
the top dead center to the bottom
dead center (in the direction from bottom to top in the drawing). On the other hand,
the current is fed in the direction of magnetizing the cylinder 2 to the N pole and the
outer cylinder 3 to the S pole during a period of time during which the piston is being
directed to the top dead center from the bottom dead center (from to the top from the
bottom in the drawing). The feeding of the exciting current is performed repeatedly in
a periodical way. By exciting the exciting coil 5 in the manner as described
hereinabove, the S pole of the piston 1 and the N pole of the cylinder 2 become
attracting each other during the time during which the piston 1 moves toward the top
dead center from the bottom dead center, thereby raising the piston 1 toward the top
dead center by the attracting force. As the piston 1 has reached the top dead center,
the exciting current of the exciting coil 5 is inverted.
The inversion of the exciting current then excites the cylinder 2 to the S pole to
repel the S pole of the piston 1 and the S pole of the cylinder 2 from each other and
the repellent force pushes down the piston 1 downwardly toward the bottom dead
center. As the piston 1 has reached the bottom dead center, the exciting current of the
exciting coil 5 is inverted again. These repetitive actions create a reciprocal
movement of the piston 1 in the cylinder 2 and the reciprocal movement is then
converted into a rotary movement of a crank shaft 11 through the connecting rod 10.
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CHAPTER-4
ADVANTAGE OF ELECTOMAGNETIC ENGINE

It is an objective of the present project To provide a magnetically actuated


reciprocating engine.

This electro-magnetic engine can be is easily adapted for replacement of


existing gasoline powered automotive engines.

This electro-magnetic engine provides a control strategy which assures the


timely adjustment of power to the engine.

It is easy and simple to operate.

It is eco-friendly

This system remove the necessity of installment of a mechanism for cooling


the internal combustion piston engine and thus decreases the entire weight of
the engine

Additional objects, advantages, and novel features of the invention may be realized
and attained by means of the instrumentalities and combinations, or by their
equivalents.

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CHAPTER-5
FUTURE SCOPE
Electric cars have been receiving lots of hype over the years as a car that is run using
electricity, and not fuel. These cars help in reducing the consumption of fuel, and are
thus growing in popularity and economy today.
The electric car is not something new to the car industry as they have been around for
some time. In fact, presently, they are the leaders in future cars. It is mainly because
of its limited range that most of the BEVs that consumers can access are called NEVs,
or neighborhood electric vehicles.
Of course, the source of energy for the car is electricity which is provided with the
help of an on-board battery that is basically Lithium-ion or Nickel metal-hydride. The
refuel time for the battery is usually overnight for most cars.
There is no need of repeated replacement of the battery of the car. You have to
replace it only once in four years, where the cost of the battery lies between $1,000 to
$2,000. These cars have to be charged periodically; this is why there are some electric
charging stations in the US. However as only an electric outlet is required for
recharging the car, there are some states that have public access electric outlets for
your recharging purposes.
Advantages of the electric car
The greatest advantage of this car is that they are zero-emission vehicles where there
is no emission from the tailpipe. However the electricity that is used to power these
cars is produced from an energy plant by combustion of fossil fuels. Though fossil
fuels are used here, it is argued that it is better for these fuels to be expelled at the
plant than at the tailpipe.
Another advantage to buying an electric car in the US is that there are numerous
financial incentives offered when buying an electric car. These incentives include
cash rebates, tax credits, free re-charging and even free parking in some states.

CONCLUTION
Trolley cars and trains that depend on electricity from overhead lines have shown that
electricity is better than steam or gasoline in many ways. Attempts to run cars with
power from storage batteries have been successful for short distances, but failed to
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become popular because there are not enough spaces on such vehicles to carry the
quantity of batteries required for an average business or out-of-town trip. Either a new
type of electric engine or lighter and more compact power source is indicated for a
solution.
In designing the present engine, we avoided the shortcomings of conventional
electric motors. We also shelved our electric car that has electrically operated pistons
that are connected to cranks and crankshaft. The former takes too much current, and
the latter has neither the power nor the speed. In the latter case, the engine was not
only sluggish, it was too costly and mechanically cumbersome to equate the rigidity
of crankshaft connected pistons to the flexibility of electromagnetic movements.
The present invention has new and useful features, which, in combinations,
produce a new type of engine that consumes comparatively less energy than other
engines of comparative power known to us. It also has several components, which are
not unique when taken individually, but in their combined form they lose their
conventionality and become important new factors in the static and the dynamic
features of the new engine.
This invention is not an electric motor. It is an engine, a combination of many
units whose coordinated functions produce a usable mechanical movement or power.
Just as a conventional gas turbine engine is composed of a gas compressor, pump,
burners, turbine, heat exchanger, electric system, motor, lubricating device,
ventilating system, flywheel, etc., this engine has many units or parts, such as
permanent magnets, electromagnets with metallic cores, electromagnets with
magnetic-fluid cores, turbine, polarity wheel, etc., that contribute to the overall
purpose of the invention.

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REFERENCES
[1] Electro-magnetic reciprocating engine from
http://www.freepatentsonline.com/4317058.html
[2] United States Patent 4317058 from
http://www.freepatentsonline.com/4317058.pdf
[3] Basics of Magnetism from
http://www.school-for-champions.com/science/magnetism.htm
[4] Properties of Magnetic Materials
http://www.ndted.org/EducationResources/CommunityCollege/MagParticle/Physics/MagneticMatls.
htm
[5] Electromagnet from
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electromagnet
[6] How an Electromagnet Works from
http://www.howstuffworks.com/electromagnet.htm
[7] Make an Electromagnet from
http://www.sciencebob.com/experiments/electromagnet.php
[8] Solid Sate Switches from Mechatronics by W. Bolton, page no. 194
[9] Step-up and setp-down transformer from Electrical Machine by Ashfaq Husain
page no. 1.4
[10] Engine opration from Automobile Engineering by R.B. Gupta, page no. 15-29

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