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Recognizing and Managing Almond

Trunk and Scaffold Diseases

David Doll
NSJV Almond Day
UCCE Farm Advisor, Merced County
January 22nd, 2009
David Doll
UC Agricultural and Natural Resources
UCCE Merced County
6-23-10

Orchard Tree Diseases


David Doll
UC Agricultural and Natural Resources
UCCE Merced County
6-23-10

Ceratocystis Canker in Almond


Fungal Disease caused by
Ceratocystis fimbriata

Transferred around the orchard by


fruit flies and beetles

Associated with injuries that


expose the tree’s cambium
- Shaker Damage
- Pruning Wounds
- Limb Breakage

Typically found on scaffolds


David Doll
Central San Joaquin Almond Day
UCCE Merced County
6-23-10

Ceratocystis Canker in Almond


David Doll
Central San Joaquin Almond Day
UCCE Merced County
6-23-10

Ceratocystis Canker in Almond


Disease Control – Canker Prevention --

Avoid tree damage at harvest:


Insure orchards are relatively dry prior to harvest
Reduce bark damage, used skilled shaker operators

Adjust Pruning Schedule:


Prune mature orchards in early fall to avoid cool, rainy weather
Prune nonbearing trees late to avoid rainy periods
Pull pruned branches from trees with caution to avoid wounding

Disease Control – Canker Removal--

If choosing to surgically remove cankers, perform actions in the spring to


avoid rainy periods.

Topical applications of various fungicides and bark penetrants have not


(yet) provided control of canker growth.
David Doll
Central San Joaquin Almond Day
UCCE Merced County
6-23-10

Botryosphaeria Canker in Almond


Fungal disease caused by
Botryosphaeria dothidea

Causes cankers on trunks,


scaffolds, and branches

Infects trees through natural


openings and wounds

Spores are spread through the air

Becoming an emerging disease,


with no control yet determined
David Doll
Central San Joaquin Almond Day
UCCE Merced County
6-23-10

Band Canker in Almond


David Doll
Central San Joaquin Almond Day
UCCE Merced County
6-23-10

Botryosphaeria Canker in Almond


David Doll
Central San Joaquin Almond Day
UCCE Merced County
6-23-10

Scaffold and Branch Canker


Lenticel & growth
crack infections
David Doll
Central San Joaquin Almond Day
UCCE Merced County
6-23-10

Pruning Wound Infections by B. dothidea


David Doll
Central San Joaquin Almond Day
UCCE Merced County
6-23-10

Sources of Inoculum
Primary
Airborne spores moving in from outside of the orchard
- Neighboring orchards with infections
- Other hosts which include Walnut, Pistachio,
Eucalyptus, Olive (just about everything…)

Infected plants within almond rows


-Water splashed; airborne spores

Secondary
Spores from previously infected trees and trunks
Spores from current infections within the orchards
- Water splashed; airborne spores
David Doll
Central San Joaquin Almond Day
UCCE Merced County
6-23-10

Multiple Year Infection by B. dothidea


David Doll
Central San Joaquin Almond Day
UCCE Merced County
6-23-10

Secondary Inoculum Sources


David Doll
Central San Joaquin Almond Day
UCCE Merced County
6-23-10

Points of Infection for B. dothidea


1) Growth crack in trunks
2) Pruning Wounds
3) Lenticels
4) Rough bark
5) Cracks at the base of
shoots
6) Fruit Peduncles

Timing of infection is unknown. Most likely occurs in the winter- spring or when
excessive moisture is present.
David Doll
Central San Joaquin Almond Day
UCCE Merced County
6-23-10

Points of Infection for B. dothidea


Inoculated tree Infection Length of canker
part (%) mm (inches)

Peduncle 100 19.5 (~3/4”)

Pruning wounds 100 112 (~4.5”)

Cracks on woody 45 4.1 (~3/16”)


shoots
Cracks on green 0 0
shoots
Leaf scars 0 0

Inoculations were made on Carmel


David Doll
Central San Joaquin Almond Day
UCCE Merced County
6-23-10

Botryosphaeria Canker Management


Fungicide mixtures with latex paint to control band canker on
Nonpareil (Butte County)

Treatment Rate per acre Score (severity


of canker)
Abound 15.4 fl oz 0.9 a
Pristine 14.5 oz 0.5 ab
Captan 4L 1.125 gallons 0.6 ab
Plant Shield 2.5 lb 0.3 b
Control: latex --- 0.7 ab
paint only
Control: no paint --- 0.5 ab
David Doll
Central San Joaquin Almond Day
UCCE Merced County
6-23-10

Botryosphaeria Canker Management


Fungicides sprayed at petal fall to control infections in the
canopy of Nonpareil trees (Colusa County)

Treatment Rate per acre Dead shoots


and fruit per
tree
Echo 720 4 pints 8.0 ab
Echo Ultimate 3.6 lbs 15.7 a
Topsin M 4.5 + 20 fl oz 4.4 b
Ziram 8 lbs
Topsin M 4.5 + 30 fl oz 10.6 ab
Ziram 8 lbs
Pristine 14.5 oz 8.3 ab
Control --- 13.1 ab
David Doll
Central San Joaquin Almond Day
UCCE Merced County

Irrigation Management for 6-23-10

Disease Control
35
a

(% of trunk circumference)
30 Splitters
No splitters
b
25 a
a

Canker size
a
20

15
b
10

Ju

Au
ct
ly

g
21
1,

25
,2
2

,2
00

00

00
4

5
Trees were inoculated in the spring with observations made on the three dates.
David Doll
Central San Joaquin Almond Day
UCCE Merced County
6-23-10

Botryosphaeria Canker Management


1. Major pruning wounds need to be protected
2. Infected trees need to be removed entirely
3. Protecting the tree trunk with fungicides may be
effective; curing the cankers seems very difficult
- Liquid limed sulfur and copper fungicides are ineffective against
Botryosphaeria pathogens

4. Avoiding wetting the tree trunks (sprinklers or


micro-sprinklers) reduces band canker
David Doll
Central San Joaquin Almond Day
UCCE Merced County
6-23-10

Hull Rot in Almond


Fungal disease caused by
Monilinia fructicola
-Sacramento Valley and Northern San
Joaquin
Rhizopus stolinifer
-San Joaquin Valley

Causes yield loss, spur loss, and


limb death

Infects trees through the hull,


translocating toxins up the
branch

Spores are spread through the air


David Doll
Central San Joaquin Almond Day
UCCE Merced County
6-23-10

Hull Rot in Almond


David Doll
Central San Joaquin Almond Day
UCCE Merced County
6-23-10

Cultivar Susceptibility to Hull Rot


Highly Susceptible: Moderately Resistant:
Butte Aldrich Morley Yokut
Kapareil Chips Padre 10102W
Nonpareil JIML Plateau 1-87
Winters Kahl Rosseta 2-43w
Livingston Ruby
Moderately Susceptible: Mission Sano Wood Colony
Johyn Jeanette
Price 2-19E Highly Resistant:
Sonora 25-75 Carmel Fritz Savana
Donna Monterrey
David Doll
Central San Joaquin Almond Day
UCCE Merced County
6-23-10

Hull Rot Management


Rhizopus and Monilinia
can only infect the hull
after it splits

Management practices to
reduce the timing of
hullsplit
-Nitrogen
-Water
David Doll
Central San Joaquin Almond Day
UCCE Merced County
6-23-10

Hull Rot Management - Nitrogen

Leaf Nitrogen Content (%)


500 250 125 0
3
2.5
2
1.5
1
0.5
0
1992 1993 1994 1995
LINEAR P = 0.003 0.001 0.010 0.020
David Doll
Central San Joaquin Almond Day
UCCE Merced County
6-23-10

Hull Rot Management - Nitrogen

Hull Rot Strikes per Tree


500 250 125 0
45
40
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
1992 1993 1994 1995
LINEAR P = 0.004 0.001 0.001 0.020
David Doll
Central San Joaquin Almond Day
UCCE Merced County
6-23-10

Hull Rot Management - Water

Water Coming Out


(Artists conception) Magnifying Glass

(Plastic bag)
(Pressure
Gauge)

Air Pressure
David Doll
Central San Joaquin Almond Day
UCCE Merced County
6-23-10

Hull Rot Management - Water


Proposed benefits of regulated deficit irrigation for
almonds during hull split:
1) Reduce Hull rot
2) Reduce Stick-tights (Improve Harvestability)
3) Save Water

Prescription:
1) Measure stress using midday Stem Water Potential (SWP)
2) Prior to hull split: -7 to -9 bars SWP (fully irrigated baseline)
3) During hull split: -14 to -18 bars SWP (mild to mod. stress)
4) After hull split: -7 to -9 bars (as close to harvest as possible)
David Doll
Central San Joaquin Almond Day
UCCE Merced County
6-23-10

Hull Rot Management - Water


David Doll
Central San Joaquin Almond Day
UCCE Merced County
6-23-10

Hull Rot Management


No need to apply fungicides, can be controlled
through cultural practices
Avoid excessive nitrogen; maintain leaf nitrogen
levels to 2.2-2.5%
Induce a mild water stress at hullsplit; allow
trees to drop to -14 bars on stem water
potential before watering
-Use a pressure chamber for measurements and your
intuition as double-check