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.
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,
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u
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*={*!, \,

^\.

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^ + _ _ ( u i , )
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COS ,

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.

* ==*-{-//*,

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sin =

+ V ^*+ ?9

+ /* * + * * *

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. .
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.

40

2 ,
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).

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51

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imipjnim , , , , \\\
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= $ .
5.
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.

42

[ f

ult u2
,
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d,
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{, } ( i|
).
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d

= (, 0) (. 34).
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=*.

, .
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d, ua Xux, . .
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, ( 0 , 0),

1=3^

* \ 1 1*

d,
. d fe,
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43

= (, )- dt
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d , ,

, (, ) d

= + .
(1)
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'
1 d,
,
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d.
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d ,
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d.


(1),
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, ko3(|x))iihiioiit .
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= k d.
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.

44

:

+ + = 0
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+ = 0

(2)

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= 0); ,
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=

d, Q =>
= (,
k = --,
.
. = ,
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0). ,

= 0.
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, ,
. : => {, }4

A i + Bt\ = ,
, (2).

5)

45

2.
,
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+ + = ,
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(. .
).
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,
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,
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(3)


' : ' : : :,

(4)

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.

= , ' : = : ,
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d d! )
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(3)), (. . (4)).
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46

,
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1. |

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(3) (5) .

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+ + = 0
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1 + ] = 0,
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, ,
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, (3)
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d

= t -~ .

(8)
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t .
= M0Mlt ,

47

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0=
(8) ,
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,
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/0= (0, //), {. }


u0e A f0Mi* (9)
*-*> ~

b *

( 10)

.
0 Mlt
0 = M 0ML
= - *0,

= - 0

(10)
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()

,
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al,
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z - 20 = ct.

< 12)


_ _ zp

( 13)

( ),
.

= (*. < *) = { it Zi),
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48

1. I

(13)
* -* 0

*i *

~
\

1/

2 - 0

/ j 4N

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'

( ),
.
3.
,
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+ + = 0.

(15)

= (, )

F(x, ) = -\--\-
; / {, )
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(15) ;

= ( , ), F (, ) > 0,
= (, ), F(x, ) < 0;

(15) , .
d -
- /T//-J-' ,

(15')

X, /1' X/l, I V
, ' = ,
, (I.V) /'(* , ),
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(15'), < 0
:
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,
(15), (15'),
.

6. A40= (x0, ) 1= (1, //,)
, (15),
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0 ,
0(. 3G, ).
. 10 4
. ,

S5!

49

10 M lt :
x = x0+ a t,
y Ua+bt,
0 = {, ) M j R lt
= , 0, = 0. = (, )

01
, 0 ^
^ / ^ 1 . ,

F (, ),
= (, )
.
F (, )

x=*Xo+at,
= +W .

F (%^ ) ==(^ 0+ ^ 0 +
+
+ Bb)t.
0-f+ 0-\- + Bb
,
, F(x,y)

I:
F(, y ) = X t 4-.
t = 0

9, 0, / = I
(, = 1
~ *0. = 1- 0) . .
yt .
F (0, 0) F(xlt )
, /-{- t = 0 t = 1
,
, 0 < < 1,
(*' ') 0 M -fp , ,
F(x, ) .
01 (15)
.

50

[.. I

. , 1 0, =
= t/, F (, )
F (, ) ( ^) -\-\ ( *)-[- (% (/)]/.
F ( x t y) = (l t)F(x0,

y 0)

+ tF(xit //,).

0 < / < 1 , t, 1 / ,
F(x0, ) F(xx, , < / (, ) =
(I t)F(x0f y0) + tF(xlt ) ,
F(x0, ) F (, ) Aft,AIK

, 0
/VI,. >
hi .
4.


.
.
,


.
,

. 1


.
,

d, d

,
,
d,
,
,
(. 37). , , ON (,
, ),
(ON) = ON = ^ 0,
(16)
d.
], =-'0 , i| = sina,
. ,
e = { c o s a , sin a}.

**

51

= (, ) - .
. d, (
) ON N,
ON. ,
= (*, ) d

4 = .
(17)
\ ) e*={cosa, sin },
] = cos -}- sin a ,
(17)
jccosa + (/sin a = 0.

(8)

d,
-
+ + =* 0
(19)
d.
(18) (19)
,
X, (18)
(4) X:
c o sa = /lX ,
eina = X,
)
. ,
(20) ( )
X: > 0 ,
- < 0
X .
X
(20) .
(* -{- 2) X2= cos2a + s i n 2a = 11

X, *

, (19)|
=0 m an X .
# (19) *
X, (18)
.

52

(.

, { , [ =
(19). , = {, |
, d,
(19).
5.
( ).
0 d ,
, ,
0 d.
7. ,
, d

*co$a-f-y$inot = 0.
(21)
(M0, d) - (0, 0)
d
| 0cos a -|- 0sin a
. Af0 d 'K
d t ,
e = Jcosa, sin aj;
d d
N N ' . N N \
(N N ') ,
p(/Vf0, d) 0
(9> d) = \(NN')\.

()-(/) I (NN'),
. .
(//') = (0/')-(/),

(ON') = 0 0 cos a -f-0 sin a ,


()-.
,
( NNr) - x 0cosa-[-y0s\na ,
p (M0. d) IW ) | = | xQcos a-f- y0 sin a p |,
.
d
-}- By = ,
;0^(*, //0)
, . .
^ = = = .

5 51

53

p(Afa, d)

_^| 0-\-0-{-)
V a *+ b *

6.
, .



(. 38).
, ,
,

, . .
,
.
,
d1 dt
(
)
A kX -{- Bky -f- = ,
. 38.
- 1 . 2.
(t, )

, ,
tii = { |, At )t
u2 { B2t 2\
(22)
us :
cos = _____ + % ____
( + \ + ( + \ + \
,4IAi4-f-5l/32> 0 ,
/, dy
A tA.z
.

Al At ^ - B lB t = Q
(23)

dl d2.

, ,

(. 39).
0 g
&, k .
2,

54

(. .
), ,
fai.

. hi 0, ,.= . - 1,
0,, 2= sin ceacos {
ns
. ,
(24)
cos Ou 2 =C(s a
.,cos ct, -f-sin a2sin a t

1 = { , Ai\,
u2 = [ , \,

<

cos at
- 1.2)
>/ w w ~ 4 +Bl
, (24),
Ai&i A2Bi
sin 0lt2 =
VA ] + B l-V A \ + B\

cos 01#2

A\At~{- B\Bj
V A \+ B \

>

(25)

V A \ + B\ '

A\B%A^Bj
A ^ + B J,

(26)

55

,, ,
(
), (
, ):
.
(I) ()
:
= kjX + bjt
/=>1, 2,
ki = tgctj,

k2= tg a 2,
tg 9i. a = tg ( * - !)

tges-tgcci
l + tg a i t g a , '

T. e.

-Mi*

(26')

(I) (II) ,
= , - } - /. , t g a a= c tg a l# . . k2=* ~,

k2k2 1 ( ).
(23')
(26) (25)
(I) (II) (26) (23')

6.

I,
.
, -
0 (*, //. )

(. 40) ut {a blt ,|
M 0A7i HUj = {a2, b2,c2)

,

*
, *

2;

,
0 sUi-p/u*,
(1)

56

1 !

s / ;
, 0

2.
(1) :
x0 = sax + taZt
y - y 0= sbl + lb2t
)
2

Zq = SCj

+ t c 2.

s /
,
. (1) (
(I))
.
(1)

I* a, 1
| , ,
1 22 Ci Cal

0
\
bi
Cl
0
2
-
,

(2)


*) 4- ( - 0) - ( - 0) = 0,

(3)

Ci \

1,

|Ul

(4)
~ \
' 4,1
\ -- \ ai f,a1
, (3)
, = ( , , )
, (1), . . (3)
, = (0, 0, 0)
= (alf blt , j, u* = {a*, btt c2[.
. ,

M q (Xq, /q, 2q) M i = (Xi \% 2j),
//* 2y).
10
M qM i
Xq, ~~
*) M qM j =
~~ , %
^}*
, , (2), . .

Xl Xt \

xt 4 %

2 *0

Z iZo = 0 .

5 6!

57

1
* I
1 = 0.
* i \
1
*1

,
= (* , , ),
, (3).
: 1 = (*, %),

, .
:
8. ,
, ,
Ax + By-\-Cz + D = 0.

(5)

, = (, , ),
(5), .
. (5),
,
.
2.
.
(5)

5 + + = 0
(6)
:
9. u = {g, tj, }

-\ By | -|- ~ 0 ,
(5)
,
=

(6)

. 1 = {, |, }
(5). - 0 = (0, 0, 0)
;
0 ^ ( 04-, 0 + , 0 + ),
(5), ,
0 + 0+ 0+ 0 = 0,
(# + 6) + (0+ )-(2 + ) + 0 = 0.
( )
,
1 + *| + = 0.

(6)

58

[. I

2 = ||, ], } (6).
- 0 = (0, 0, 0) (5),
0, =*(04-?, + 1. *4*)
(5) (6} (5). 0
(5),
. .
.
X

2 -2

( )
+By 4- -f D = ,

(5)

+ + = 0.

(8)

, ,
-j- -|- -f- D *= 0,

()

( ) (7) .
, (8) ,
(, , | (7) (), (50)
, 0 = (0, 0, ) (7)
.
3.
. 1*
( ), ,
, .

. ,
,
V, , ,
, ,
(. . ):
, * , ,
V,
,
.
, ,

Ax + By + Cz + D = 0
(0)
A 'x + B 'y + C'z + D' = 0t

(9')

, . .
\ +
=

' + '4-' = 0

69

( 10)
( 10')

. , ,
,
I ': = ' : = ':.
\____________________

( )

, ,
' : = : = : = D ' : D,

( 12)

(9) (9) ,
. , (9) (9') ,
, . .
(11), , , X
' ,

' = ,

' = .

, D' = XD, . * (12).


, 0 = (0, 0, 0) -
(9) (9/),
0 + 0-j- 0 = D,

'0 4- '0 -+- '0 = D \

' = , ' = , ' = , , D '=X D .


.
, (12)
(9) (9').
, !|11.1>11. (9) (9')
,
, . ,
(II), (12), ,
': = B ' : B = C i C ^ D ' : D .
(13)

10. (9) (9')
Ry + -f- D = ,
Ax + B 'y + Ci + D '^ Q
,

A ' : A = B ' : B = C ' : C = D' : D.

(1 2 )

GO

( I

(9) (9')
, ,
(11).
,
, ,
(13).
4.
.
. ,

A x + By + Cz-t-D = 0,
(9)
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(9')
, . . : : A' i ' i \

'

\
'

1
'|-

fl'l

, (9) (9') ;
, . . 0 = (0, 0, 0),
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I
fl I ,
, , - , 0, = 0

Ax + B y * - D - C t iU
' 1 ' * / - '.
, (jr,,, //, ?) - ,
(9) (9'). ,
, ,
0
u = AVVf=j, . }>
, ,
, , -

= 0,
(10)
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: : ' : ' : ',
, ,
>= [, , }.
,

= ?u0J

6!

, 0
0 = {, bt } .

b,


\
1 .
I
1 '

2 2

' I *

= \ '

I
'\


0 _ __ 2 2Q

~~

(
<!')

-( ') * (0, yi)t 20).


(I) ()

M 0/Vf0 = {x0

X q, , Zo Z0}t

{, , }
'* = \', ', '},
. .
* *

'

20

'

0.

, , . .
TOi , koi; ui
.
,
(I) (). , (I) ()
= {0, 0, 0) .
, , ,
At-=(0, 0, z 0)
0 --(, b, ) ^ = {', \ '\.

2

% = 0,
(2 ')
'
'

62

[.

(I) () .
, ', , , (2')
.
,
(I) (), , 0
= (0, //, z0) ,
u0 = {a, b, ) M fll* = * - , '00, ^ - 0\.

X*0 - 0
* 2 = 0 .

5.
,
.
, .

F (, , z ) is + By + Cz + D *=0.
(14)
,
=*(, , ),
F(x, , ) > 0 , 4=(, , ),
F (, , 2) <10.
,
(14) . -

, :

.
,
, .
, 6.
11. 40= (*0, 0, 0)
= (xlt ylt zj)
, (14),
10 ; 0 1
,
(. 41).
,
,
. (14)
. , ,
. 0=-(*, 0, 0),
(14),
. 0 = (0, >)
, \
(I) 1! = (, ylt ) (. 42).
20> 21( , 9= (0, 0, 20)

63

(1); 20< , 0
(14).

12. ,
(14), ,
; ,
(14), .
, .

13. (14),
={, , ), - 0 =
= (0, 0, 0) (. 43),
(14),

[ I

6.
.
, .
14. (
)
+ + + = 0.

(15)

= | , , [ .
, = {,
\, (} ,
,
(n, u) =

, ,
, . . ,
.
()
() ON (. 44); N

.

(. .
= N). >

;


ON (. .

)
:


cos a, cosp, cosy,
e = {cosa, cos , cosy}.
ON
ON
^ ,
. (, , )
- .
, ,
N,
ON. , = (, , )

/ =

*61

63


cos a - f cos - cos ,
(%%z)

* c o s a - f # cos cos = 0,
(16)
, , ;
.
-
-j- By -f- Cz -f- D = 0
(15)
. , ,
?
(15) (16)
, ,
co s a

>./4,

X D

co s
c o s y
-

(17)

X. (17) X, :
(17)
X*(* + * + *) = cos* -f- cos* 4- cos* =1,

(18)
^ 7 7 * + * + * ''
X
(17):
0, < 0 , , X
, D.
. 1Inc X,
, D,
(15). >= 0
X .
: ()
(15)
(16), (15)
/.
,

.
15. ( 0, ) 0 = (0, 0%0)
, (16),
3

. .

66

, , (17)
= xQt = 0, z Zq, . .
( 0 n) = |xec o sa + /0cosp + 20co.sY-p|-

(15),
4 = (, y0t zQ)

( 0, ) J j ^ J g + Czo + D ^'
7.
;
. d ,

,
. , (
), (. 45);
0 .

d

(. 46), .
d
, .
0 , , ,
,
sin = | cos |.

d
0 __ _ jo

(19)

6)

67


-\- By-\-Cz -J- D = 0,

(20)

=*{, , ] = {, , )

-f* B b - \ -

^
COS
= ..

-
;
+ * + *+*'

,
sinij? =

+ + \

V ^

(19) (20)
, , . .

_______ __
~ ~ *


-|- By -f Cz -j- D 0

(20)

(20')

' + ' + ' + D ' = 0


( , ,
),
= {, , ],
' = {', \ ].

cos =

____________

' + ' + '____________

V a *+ B * + & - V '*-\- 2+

(20) (20')

'4- ' + '= 0.


.
. ,

=
ylt ) d (
),
X __ 1/0 _

z z0

. ,
dy ,
d
2 . Af^vTa

68

; I

. ,
-, d.
,
U = ( , , },

01= 1= {1- <),

MQt
X0 0 2Zq
Xi-XQ - 2i20

, 0}

-, 4, (*, ,)
d.
a lx x x) + b (// - ) + ( - ,) 0.
,
% d
.
,
dy ,
0[ 0, 0,
0. S

0,
ju|; (1 d)

V *+

f-c-

II

. .

, (
)
;
.
I.


,
= * + b x+ c.

(1)

f
^ )
. , = 0,
= 2,

(2 )

.
, . .
, .) ,
.. *
(2) 2 I ,
2,
* 2/,

> 0

(. 47).

(3)

(3) :
,
(3),
( ).
.

F

- -

(4)

70

(.

. .

(3), d,

() (. . 47),
= (*, ^ (3).
(3) ,

d
+

(6 )

F *1
2 = 2, r ^ x J

+ 1*

= .

,
:
= .
(7)
: , /
(7), (3).
, (3)
, /'
.

S II

7!


(3):
.
F
d t . ,
F d. "
F g (. 48), d\
? ' t D;
|D F | . g
/ ,
D?
::.
._ 4\*,
DF. *.*. F
o j d
= "
..
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* = 2,
(3)
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(3).
,
, F d. ,
(. .
) .
.
, (
) (
).

,
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(3)
, ,
, .

.
,
, ( );
,
,
(3).
= (*, ) (3),
= (*, ),
.
*

72

. .

1. ?!


; ,
.
2.
.
, :
Fi F2 (. 49) ecr.yj ' ;
2.
F2 *
\
i
2 *

.
(<)
,
).
P\F2,
,
, FXF2

. ,
(()
, ! .
- ;!. 2a = \F1M \-{+ 1 / ^ 1 ^ 1 / ^ , 1 = 2, > 1 = ,
!. | / ;,1| |-| FtM ! = i^ ifa I
. . /',7'V ^
, > .

; < I.
,
:
=-- 2.
,
FvF., , . . 0 = /1=*
~ \ ,
.
; , 1\ f 3
. , <
.
,
(

73

). ,
.
FtF2.
.
/71= ( , 0), 9= (, 0);
F1 , F2 .
, = (xt )
. rl = p(F1, ) ra = p(Fa, )
Flt Ft . rL
.
' i = V (* + ) + *

'j = V ( x - c ) i + t/t .

= ( , ) ,

r1- f r a = 2a,
(1)
. .
I' V l '}-!

I V ( x - < v \-u2 = 2.

()


.
(1) ,
.
.
,
( + )2-J- 2 = 4 4a Y ( )2 -f- 2 4~ (* )2+ 2

(2)

( )
(2 2) + 22 = 2 (2 2).

(3)


~ <2 hvimio;
2, />=-*- - - <~ .
(3)
-2 + 21 = 2b2

(4)
/ , (4)
, ,
= (, ), (),
(4). , ,
= (, ), (4),
, . . = 2.

74

. .

{. II

, = (, ^ ,
(4). rlt
Fx F2.
= + (x + cJ + rA
(5)
(4)
(6)

* = * 2,

(5);
ri =

+ ] / '

2 + * -|- .V* = +

+[

\*,

^ = ( + ^ ^ = ( + 4

(7)

,; ,
. (4) ,
| | ; . < 1 ; ,
. .
-\- > 0, (7) - f ,
, - a f ex.

(D


()
(I) (II) 1-\-2 = 2, = (*, )
.
, , (4)
; .
,
,_ - |
}

* _ -*

? ~

4=v'=

(8)

(4) .
, A i = (x, ) ,
. . (4), c iio iu t b o m
' = (, ) (. 50),
, = ( , ),
. ,
.

S3)

75

: ,

; = (, ) (4),
* = { , ),
, (4),
.
, ,
(4),

,
= { , )

t f l b

'

. . | | , \\

) ,

x - - J ,
(
)
.
.
A t = ( , 0), 3= (,0), = (0, ),
B2 = {0,b)t . . ,
.
,
(
)
.
3. |).1
.

,


/', \
(. 51)
. 2.
.
2
.
2 .
FlF2 . ,

76

. .

[ II

, .
,
, .
. 51 ,
l^ l^ ll^ ilH A ^ il.
. . 725.
= , 1,

| ? 3| - | 7 1| = !7 7 2|.
,
h\h\ . -
, . . , .
, -
.

nincpftoM, . . Fx Ftt
. -
, (
).
, on.
.
/',/ Toi;ia / \ ( - , ), F2*=(c, 0).
(9 /^ .
r1= p(Flt ) 2 = (/;2, ) = (, )
Ft F2. , .2
.
rt = V ( x + c ) * + ! f .

3= ( - ) + *.

(1)

-- (, ) ,

| 1- | = 2
(2)

, 2= i t 2.
(1),
V ( ) + 2- V { - ) + 2= . 2(1.

(3)

i 31

77

(3) ,
. .
,
( + )2+ 2= 42 4 / ( * - ) + + ( - )2+ 2
( )
(2 2) 322 = 2 (22).

(4)
> , 2 2 ; .
62, b = -f 22. (4)

632*/2= 28

_
.
* 2 ~~ 1

(5)

, (5)
| ; ,
, 4 = (, ),
(5), (2).
= (, ) ,
(5). 2 .

(+)2+*,

( l t)

zt(a + e x ).

(6X)

r, = { a - c x ) .

(62)

rx=


rt . - ,
, (6j) (6,)
. ,
(6,) (2). (5)
, | | ^ > 0 .
: , = (, )
* > 0 < 0 . > 1 ,

\ \> .
(7)
> 0 (6j) ,
+ ,
\ = +

*>0.

78

1 II

(7) , * > 0 (62)


, ,
= +

*>0.

(II4)

(1+) (+) , > 0


= 2,
(, ), (5),
.
< 0 \ (7) , (6)
, ,
,
, =

< 0.

(6) ,
,
^_______ ___________
2=

< 0 .

( ")

= 2.

, ,
(5), , (5)
.
.
(I), (II)
.
, ' = 2-\-,

. + 4
(8)
*

^ \
(9)
1+ ()
() ( ),
,
.
(5) 1
*

I.

= |/

* ~

, ^ 0 , ,
^ 1 ^ 0, . . | ^ . ,
< < , = + ( , 52

31

79

), * = 0,
:
, = , At =s
= ( %0), 2~ ( , 0),


.
.
,
: ,

^ , ,
^ .


,
,
.
,

, ,

b (. 53).
x = z t a , y=*dzb,

* 1*

( )


,
ypaiiiiciiihiMH
I <'
= - ~ *

( )

.
= - -
. ,

. 53.

= .
- , ^ .

(. . 53) * ()
:
= (, ),
= (, ').

80

. .

1 II

:
f
aft
, ,
. . ', ,
.
' .
,
,
, .

xlz^a. - ^
. . 53.
4.
(),
F, d,
, --
, F (. 54 55).

, ( ),
.

, dit d2 (-

81

Flt F2)

< .\ ,
, , . .
(. . 54).

. 5.

<?>1,
, %

(. . 5>).
, ,

1)

2)

,
(2 )

82

. .

1. II

( )
, , = ~ , ()
,
( ).
( )
, ^ ,
,
( ).
, = 0 (
)- .
- ;
,
d.
,
d. ,

(3)
.
, =
() ( ).

<*+\,

.
, (3) .
: -
= (, ) (3), Af
.
, , . .
= (, 0), d
=

- = { + )4+
62 = ( * + ) = [ + ) 2-

(3),

. .
(2 2) 24- 22 = 2 (2 2).

(4)

i <1

, = - ^ - < 1 ,
(4)
* '

83

2 2 = *

.
, -> 1, 2 2 = 2
(4)
*

At .
, :
,
,
:

.
F, d,
, 1.
, < 1 > 1
, F
d.
, F FD
d , FD
, ' , FD
,
__
[
(5 )
!)

, 7
FD 2: . .
OF = e2OD.

(5')

(5) (5') , Ft D
.

OF ,

F = (, 0),

D = (d, 0)

= ( , 0).

84

1 1

A, F D
, , d ,

c -\-e d
\+

(6)

c = e *d.

= ,

|
II
.

, F d
,
, ,

c A -ft l

1+<*

+
\+

c-\-ed

(\+)

&d+ed -

(1 - ) *

.
( )
1; <?>1.
,
= \ .
, , ,
:
, (/ ),
.
:
( )
At,
At F
( ) 6^i At
( )
,
=

( At ),

.

, e < \ t
, = 1,
,

5 5J

85

5. . ,

1. . .
- F ,
.
^ '.
' 2\
.
, , .

,
, '. .

* - 6*
(.v, )

J =
2 .'

F, . .
= ,
, '
y*

2 2 = z t .
/1

-'
= ( \ //)

1
6* 1

= ~ - .
: :
y z h
* 2 = i t ~

. .

1 II

, ( 4)
,

,
:

(2)

,
( , , = 1 = ).
, ( )
= &,
, .

J)

. 50.

2.
,
. ,
.
.
F
( (. 56),
(. 57) (. 58));
,
d.

F, 6 /VI d.
1,
(3)

5|

87

. 6.
D d ,
, ,

D M , (
).
(DMX) = (DF)+(FMX),

(4)

(DF) | UF j =

(FMX) cos ,
FM , . .
. (

88

. . .

[.

) (DMx)=s \DMx |*=. (4)


,
6 *= -6 - cos 1

+ e r c (

, 6 (3),
= p + e r cos q>,

1 *
, ()
.

A Ills
.

!.

1.

. ,
1),
2, ,
.
2, 3
.
^ 8,
, ' [, $,
, :
( )

( ) .
, .
, [,
, ( ), . .
",
2, 3,
*'=> 2

alk *1

(>)

21 31
* = 13 23
23 33
,, 2, .3 (,
, , .
|, 2, ,
1) ,
.

00

[ II!

*
.
[, '>, '| , et, 2, 3

[, '2, :
')

-1

(1)
e|t *. 3.
, , ,
\ \ ' ( =*
= /V/) .
= , -,
elf 2, 3 , , , -,
[, 2, 3
\ \ ',
u = xeL4- 24-

= x't[ 4- yt 24- z'eS.

[, , (1);
= , + , -4- ze3 = ( + al2y' 4- 13') , 4*

+ (1' -f <4/ 4- <h%


z' ) 3 4- (a8i*' + <' + ^) 3.

, 3, , ,
, 2, 3
, . .
= ' + a l2y '+ a u z \
y = an x '+ a t2y '+ a 2sz\
(2)
^ ^ '+ '+ '.
, ,
( ) .
10

13
?

13


(3)
31
,
;
* elt , 3 el, ). 3.
.
2.

.
^ 0'eje*ei :
ai

$ 2)

61


. ,
12 O'ejeJeJ , ,
'= (0, y0t z0) 2, 3;

", , . = 0+ ", = 0 + ", - z 0 + z", \
", " ', ', (2) ( ,
, , , () ",
if "). :
:
= 0+ 1* -f 1' + a tf? , |
= + * 4- ?# + Ovt' , I
2 = Z0 + asix' + a3iy ' + a ^z; J

(43)


x = x0+ a llx '+ a liy', \
+ <h\X* 4- a ^ tf. J

fljs
|


a,k (43) (43)
.
2.

1. .
.
.
.
. ^ 0e[ej
. ^

^ [*
OeJ ( ej) (. 59 60). : Oeje*
,2 ,
( , ej).
. Oexea
,
, * ^ ! -).

92

[ III

, e(.
,2 ( ) ,
! |; .,,
, (. 9),

2 (. GO). .
,
, ,, ,
cos a, sin :
', = (cos , sin },

:
$ = jeos ( 4- -) sin ( + ) } ,

21

93

. .
2 = { sin a, cos },

$ { sin , cos },

C2 = jsina, cos }.
elf 2 |, 2 :

cos a
sin a

cos a
sin a

sin a |
cos a ||

sin all
cos a I '

det C = 1,

(i)

det C = 1.

()

e,, e2 e|, e'2


/,
njXHIUHMinO/lOJk OfHICHIIUI/HHUniHN .
d e t C - - l , det C = 1
,
:
. () ,
, ,
.
,
;
:
= ' cos ' sin , \
, .
, ,
\ ,
*= sin a -|- // c o s a )
J
= ' -}-/' , \
, .
,
} .
*/=** sinceI/ co sa J
r
2. . ()
.
.
,
* :
* *= 1.
(1)
, , .
(1) * , * = .
* = ,
* ,

94

1 lit

( i \, 2, ... \ / = 1, 2, . . . . )
11/1 + . .. + (/ = 0 ( i ^ l ) ,

cl, = 1,
(, )
. ,
* = , :
1 / + . . . + </ = 0 ( / # / ) , c ii-t-...+ cjb 1.

1.
(1) ,
.
2. ^1
1 .
,
det (let 1= dot 1,
1= *, , del 1 = detC* =
det ,
(det )* 1, detC = 1.

:
3.
.
.

Clf *13

rkai

< *


elt 2, 3, ,
el = c iie1-fc iae34-c13e3. j
e 'i = csiei + C t f a + c2Je3,
|
(2)
ea = C3l e x -f ^32^ + 333, )
cj, ej, ej ,

, ej, ej,
,

,
.
:
elf 2, 3 el, e'Jt ei,
el,
3,
1,
( ).
3 .

95

. , 1, 13 [
elt 2, 3 , . .
,, ,
( i) ^12 = (1 ^2)

3)


^11 = (^1 l)* ^*22~ (2 ^2) ^23 ^ (2i a)f
^31 =

i)

f j 2 (^> )>

^ = (> )*

, 1( 2,
3, ej, ej, el
, ,
elf 2, 3 ,
* \, ej, ej
|, 2, 3 ( !).
,
,, 2, ;||
( ) ej,
e'it ^, cik
/ *. i, k = \ , 2, 3.
( 3 2) , ,
, , ,
- = cos a , */ = sina,
* = (, el) = co sa, = (, el) = cosp ( ,
, ,).
,
.

4.
,
is Kill <L
(
sin a cos a ' det C = 1,
u
C -

cos a
sin a |
sin a cos a i| *

det C 1.

(H )

,
^
\\. Oeje] 0 , 2
(ran [ ,),
, \.
, (I),
(II).

96

1. II!

3. ()
( )
( ) ,
;
(. .
) .

2.
elt 2, 3 el, ej,
: e,e2e3^
,
, . .
( ^ ) , ( ,2~!& !
~ ^ ) ( ,23^;^ 4 eje^ea
~,'*';
efejej).
,
*3 (. .
) , 1.
,
-1 .
, :
I: elf ,
II: ej, e'it ,; III: ^, 4', ej.
I II, II III I
III , |, |. Cni=C|nCib
, det det | det , .
:
; ()
,
, , -
, , ,
, .
, .
,
, - elf *. 3 ,
, 2, 3 , 2, ( 3)
0 01
0 1 0 ;
[ 0 I
1, , elf 2, 3 ,. 2, ( 3)
, .
, ',, ei, ej
: ,
2, 3, , , 2, ( 3). -

*31

97

, , ej, ei, ej,


elt 2, 3, e,t e2f ( eg).
, elf 2, 3 ej, ei, 3
( ) :
et , t?, ( 3) ,, 2, ;|
1; , ,, 2, ( 3) ej, , ej (
)
. .

. , -
1 , eg. ;
elf 2, ( ) .
,
(. . - ,
), . ,
ei, ej, ej
*, eg
- ,
, ,
; =
,
e J - e j,
ej =
.

0

1 0,1

1 0 ]
0 0

11

I.
,
, ,
, , :

,, . .,; *. , ,; : 1(
,
2 i
8, , ^; ^, 3, eg
.
.
, elf 2, eg ej, , ei
, /,
a ^ t ^ b , ej,
', :

1 1. 2. 3.
! = 5 *>
*-1

98

[. f i t


cje . .
t a ^ t ^ b , i = a
,
3, . .

*1

- e .
-=1.
< 5 .-0 ,

?=>
--,
= I,

f = 6 ej, ej, :
e' ' = i X e*;=1

<=1.2,3.

, , ', ', ej
0, = (*, i/^t {), , //0, '
^ t ^ b /, * ~ " = * = 0, xj =
= xe, i/$ = i/0, 2$ = #, ' = (0, i/o. 0). ,
^* O'eleJeJ
.
.
t ,
t = a t = b,
() 0,''',
( t = a) ,****,
0'*;** ( ,,
,
a < : f ) .
.
,, *, 3 ej, ei, ej
, , ,
*^b, el, ei, ej ej, ej, ej
, b < ,t< ,c t
4, 3 [, ej, ej ,

, 2, 3
( a ^ t ^ b ) el, ei, ej, ej, ej,
ej elf *,
3. , f = ( a + b) t
? "= Z 4 = I
/ ' t = b , , effl = ej . .,
i ' e b t ~ a , , ej6= ef . .

, , *
.
, a ^ t ^ , b

< 1.
:
1.
2, t\, ej, ^
, .
,
( 0

0 (/) =

(0
(0

(0
( 0
(/)

(
( 0 ,
(

^ t < b\

, D(a) (&) .
0 ( 0 ,
(0, 12(/)........ t,
/ a ^ f ^ b .
,
/0, a < t n< b ,
(/0) = 0. 11<> , D (/0)
, 2, 3 ej4, ^, '4
.
:
16. ()
.
. ,

. ,

, . .
.
, .
OeJe'jeJ ,
^O'eJe^eJi

O 'eV e'. ^ ^ / ^ ^
^ 0 ' 1 * ^ ~ '\\3, ( ),
^.^ ~ 0 ' ; -
0 '\&
; ,
.

2
^
O'eleieJ

23,
O'ejejei,
0 't\e &

()
()
()

( : ,
'&;, , , ,

100

O'ejeJeJ O'ejeje^).
(), (), () ,
O e te 2e s O'e&eJ. .
.
:
.
.
OeJe$ , ? ?, ] = ].
_}4 , ^ ej \ ,
ei =* 0? \ ( ?)

( ,
?), 2= \. , ,
0 < < < , ej 2 (. 61, ),
j 0J,
_(. JH , ), , ,
0j 0. t, 0 < ^ 1 ,
(, \ ?{,
$, / : (1 /).
/, 0 < / < 1,
=[ ],
ej, '2 OEjE;,
] .
\, 2 / ,
. . ,
/ 0 I
() ?2 Oeje*.
. ,2
, . ej = 0]

, OeJeJ
, * (. 62).

j,
*,
* : ( 1 0 /, 0 < / < 1. ,
0 i = el OefeVa t
t 0 I
$!]!1 Oeie;eJ.
.

.
,.23
, ,
,
O'eJe^eJ.
1
' ;
, .
, 3= 0 ej = 0 j.
( )
0 3J (. 63)
d. 3 (
) d , ^ ^ ,
8 ej , =*03
= ^. 1 = 0 1
2==0 - * ej,

102

1 . I l f

, [ (
), . . \\.
_ Oefejei , '2,
e*_=0t [. ,
( OEj ( [
0? \=_ej, 0{ (
2) ,
0 | ej, . . , ( ej).
, ,23 [ ( - 1\) 2
.
.

( , ):
). ( )
, ,
.
,
. ,
, ,
.
.
5'. (
) ,

( , ).
,23 O 'e^eJ
. ,23 0';'3) , ,
.
O'ejejf ej)
O'eJeieJ O'ele^.
6. ,23 O'eleJeJ
,
(
) .

.
.
() -
, () .
, , .
. ^
()
( ).
() , .

I 41

103

( ),
-
.
4.

5;
,

, .
(
), OeleJeJ
Oeje2e3 ( ,
).
, . 101102, ,
[& , : d
(, <'3)
: 0, ,23
d, ^,
, ,
* ( , )
[ ( Oe^es,
, OeleJeJ).
. d%
^ ,
, , Otxt % OeJeJ.
^ , , , d,
,^; *
d -
et. d
(. 64), ^,'
,2. ,
(
,) , 0 ^ < 2 .
,2 , 3 (
,23),
*) ef.
2 - ej, 3
.
3 3
0, 0=^0 ,
d, [. ^,'
*) -
()
, .
, .
, ,

104

[ 111

'
. Oefe*e3 OefeJ"eJ,
,2 !,2.
OeJe^'eJ ' (
ej) (
ej (

jej, ,' ej),


ej" ^.
:
, 0 \| < 2, , ej ,2,
, 0 < ^ , 3 ej 3ej,
<, 0 ^ < 2 ,
ej Oejej,
Oejejej
^29. ,23 |>, 0, <,
Oejejej,
^.
, ,2
, 3 (
Oeie2e3) .
, [, d (
^ 0,'3). ^
d 0 .
eg ej, ,
* ej"; ,'23 (
) Oe[ej"ej. , <
ej. ,
ej , t u ej"

105

|, , OeJeJ"ei (, Oeje^e,)

OeJeieJ ( ^).
!& (
,2, )
( );
,
( 0 ^ < 2 , 0 ^ ;
0 ^ ( < 2 . );
OeJeJeJ.
5.

. ()
,
. ()
, (
Oc,t2i*4 ):

* 0 'e\t\ ( O 'eje^)
, .
(), ,
',
,
(. 65).
, ,
(. 65, ),
(. 65, ).,

106

,
.
, - 2
^ :
M i = (xlt ), 2 = (2, 2).

(Mi. M J = V ( * i - 2)*+(1 - %,)2 | M i M i



ylt 2, 2,
O'e[ei
, ,
\ 5 (
)
( \, ) = ] / ( - *,)* + (, - .,)1,
2%
:
,
,
?
:
.

, ( )
^
( ^ ). , (*, ) ,

*]

107

O'eje^ (
O'eie^ej), , ,
{ )
',

,
(. 66 67). ,
, . ,
.
. 66 67
,
.
6.
.

( ) -
JUjSii (. 68). , M t
Mb,
, 1,
.

, {
, 0^
. :

108

[ II

1 = 0 1
'^ &
,

<.
,


,
:
2
(
)

()
V

(
).


:
/ u, v
u \ v',
u-+-v
u'
' (
).
, :
3 ,, ...
. . . . \, . . . , ',

Xjiii -f- Xjiij 4* . .. + )**


, . . . .
Xju( 4- XjU2 -j-. .. 4-^nuA
ul,
( Xj, X.*, . . . , ).
,
, , :
4
(, ,
,
).
5 npeodfXioueaHuio
.

ft )

100

,
, O'eje^
, '^^
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&.
.
,
.
.
6

1( 2, . ..
- 6~%

|, ^, ...
, , , .

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,
. ,
7 (
I ) II II'
( ) ' ( ')
II',
II.

. . II
2, I '\^. ,
.
\ 2 , ], = ^14-*
, 3,
u '= le i+ T ]e 2,

'15.
, t| . =
= 61 + * , '[2

, , ).
.
:
, , -
0 O'ej[^, ,
2 \^,
.

,

.
, <
I II.

, ,
II - III.
, I II, , ,

<
2^ 1

.
,, 9
(. . ),
?
.
,
. :
8 ( )
.
.
. ,
, (
O tfa) \
0'[. :
9 {
^ O'eJeJ) ,
( ^ )
, ,
0't\eh .
,
+ + = 0

(1)

( Oeje,) , ,
0'{^.

( O'ele^eJ)
, 1^
Ax + B y + C z + D = 0,

(2)

, (2),
O'eleJeJ.
,
4- Bty 4- Dx = ,
AfX 4- ^ 4- 2 4=
,

*-** _ _ * *

111

,
, 0'eie>&.
,
7. ,
, ,
.
.
, ( ,
) ,
^ 3

;
()

O'eie^a
, ,

.
8.

(),
d
d \ 0 1
d
'\ d',
^,
^
,
' d \
X (. 69).
. X , , ( MJM!),
,
8 .
8, . (
OtAt ^
(, ifo),

( | ) ,

1+ 1

= * ( , ).


~~ 1-fiX

<3)

(
JH*

112

(. III

M lt , \, ,
0, M lt ,
O'eie^. - (3),
, M f AfoMJ
8 .

:
9.
,

, ,
( )

', \ '
.

,

, , ,
()
O', \ \ .
, ,
. .

^ /1 , et ,
. "

el = 0 ' \ ^ ' '.




, ^ , ,
' , 0'eie2. ,
= (0, 0) , = (1, 0) _ \
= (0,1)
= 2 =
! = (' ^ '.
,

. ,
. ,
, , , ',
\ ', elt el,
,

'

7.

,2 O'ejei.
, Oeje*
'
(. 70).
ej,

:
1*11 flj I , q
/|\
e; = c12e , + c 2Je2,
1%

)
, , b '.
\ ' '

\ '

' = 1 ' + \' + . ]

:


\

, ,

.

'
.
||> (2),

' !
, . . ;

' ( ),

' -\-1-\-,
' 21 - 22 + ,

I
*2*

q
(3 )

, *
(
).
,
*11 *121

114

, , , ** (, )
= (', '), ' ' (3),

O'eJeJ,
13=5 4-

4= c12ej -}- 2.
,
,
= {, ) '= *(\ '), \ '
, (3):
.
^ ,
, b (3).

:
,
1^3,

1| * * * |
~ I *21 *12 *13 1
*31

*31

*33 J

, ,
b, ; ,
= (, , 2)
' = (*' * *')
* '= cu x + c x# + C iw i+ a t |
' = + 22 4 ^ -f b, J
(4)
* ^++ + . ]
.
. , ,

, .

,
.

( ).

:
\, *={ 2).
, ,
,

-\%

::1 -

'

115

^
u1( u2 \ = [\, \\, 2= {'%,\\,
'-+,
y k= c2lxh + c 22yh

= 1. 2).

j \ -\-2

Cz!xi4*Cai(/| |


1 \\
1 |1

\ I <.1 *1
1 '! x i

yl 1
I

<Ui, uJ) = d etC -(u lt ).


.
,, 2, 3

ul, uj, uj,



(;, u;, uJ) = detC <u1, 2, uj).
,
10. (
)
, ( ) -
( ,
),
.
. (
)
<) .

IV

1.


F(xu . . . . *) = 0 ,


(I)

F(xlt . . . , )
. F ( . . . , )
(1).



F(x, ) 0 ,
F(x, , ) = 0 .

(12)
(!3)

:

; , ,

;

*2+ </2+ 2=
. ,
, ,
( )
. , (1), ( 13),
( ), ,
, ( ) .

, .

* >1

111

, = 0,
, = 0,
, .
, ( * = 0)

,
. ,
, 2 0
,
, ,
= 0. ,
xa-fr/a-j-l 2* -f- 3# -f 7
; ,
, .
,
, ,
,
.
2 0
. ,

. :
, (
),
, ? ,

,
, , .

.

VI ( 8)
IX ($ >) .
, , ,

,
,
, , ,
. ,
,
, , :

(12)
;
(, )%
(12),
( ).

1(8

:

(1)
. = ( , , )
, (13),
, .
,
,

X.
^ ,
(1*) F(x, )
: Af,
, , F(M)z=sF (, ).
O'eleJ,
, ,2 , ,
Oejei \ \
:
2

X C n t + C r f f + 9 \

-='+ '


::1


\1 ,*| Q

F( M)
\ ' , F ( x , )
(2)
! if\ F (, )
F' (*, ) \
det

F ( M ) ^ F ( x , y ) z * F ( c l l X, + c l i y ' + c x, c2ix ' + c i2y ' + c i )=s

^ F ' { x \ y ).

(3)

x \ if - M O'eje^

03
, ,2

F(x, ) = 0 .
(1*)
, -
(1J # Otxc2,

119

(1{)
'^* (12) (1*),
2 O'eJeJ,
. ,
^
(1,) ,
0 'e|ej (1*) .
, (2) axpt f
F(x, )
( ' + , ' +

( + ' + ,),


F' ( \ '),
s ^ p + q. ,
^

F (, ) .
, O'eje',
.
, (1), ( -
) , ,
;
, (1).

.
2.


,
.
1)| <icneiin
^ (, ) ^

2 I

>-/* n2j//3 " 2^1*

-{-0

(12)


F(x, */) = <*>(*, ) + 21(, ) + <>,

<)

4>(, ) = allx* + 2altx y + a iiy*

(2,)


F(x, ),
/(*, )=*1 +
F(x, ).

120

1 TV

11 ^12
flat * I

<(, i/) = ax2-|-2a13A:r/4-a2^ 2;

^ 1 13|
I
I
=

<(, ).

.

F(x% , ) ^ 112 + 2 + 222+ 213 + 2 + 2 +
+ 2 + 2& + 23 + 0, (13)


(, , )
+
+
+
+ %<**$* + a 13z2, (23)
21(., //, ),
/(*, , z ) = a lx + a iy + atz,
Z7(jc, , z)
, )*<(*, , z) + 2l(xt , z ) + a 0.
, F (, ),
F (, , ) .
,
, ^ ,

= + 1 ,
= ||1| 13
det 0,
(3)
y = ciix '+ c ity',
II*

(4)
='+- )
(3)
,^ {^ ,
(4) 00' *= {0, 0).
, F (, )
(4).

*4

121

F(, ) = ' + 0, = ' + 0,


( 12)
F(x, y ) ^ F ( x ' + xa, ' + 0)*= (' + +
+ 2a,i (* + 0) (' + 0) + ,2 (1 )* -(- 2at (' + ) +
+ 2 ( ' + (/) + = :' + 2 ' + ^ +
4" 2 ( 4" ai) - 2 (21.*0+ 221/ + ) </ +
+*3 + 2, 2 + 5 -1- 2,0+ 21/0+ 0 = F ( * ', ')
<*' + 2 al2x ' ~j-ai2y ' -\-2a\x+ 20'$' 4~

Z7'**', 1)

(ia

an =
fl12fl12*
fl2 ~ fl22*
*

(5)

H
l "*jVe l " 2.
/ (jc0> //).

.
(5), \ = a llt \ , ' = 2, ,
(4)
F (, ) .
:
F (, , )
F ( , , zf) 3 s a tlx' -\-21'' -\-a'i2y' -{-2a\sx'z' -{4~ 2^2 z' + 2' 2q\x ' 4- 20'$' 4- 2.'' 4~nj, (13)

~ .

12

* ^ 2 * ^1.4

=,1^4"|2"1 ^ 1
^ = 0*1*0 4- 22*/4- 23*0 4- 2,
fla = 31*0 4* 4 owe04 *
a l = F ( x 0, 0, 0).

3 3 ,

()

/3),
' (}, ') ' (\ \ ' ) ,

<(, ) ( , , ) .

1. ' ' ( \ '),

\ ')
(, ), ((, , )

122

:
' - ,

[ IV

(6)

*, , , .

.
det * = det , (6)
det ' = det - (det )1.
(7)
, , ,
, detC = z h l
det ' = det .
,
,2 ( ,23) F (, ) (
F(x, */. *)) (
). ,


.
.
. ,
, v
^ ( u , v); , ,
, . .
^ ( M i- b ^ U j, v) = VF(U j, v ) - f V ? ( u 2, v),
4f (u,
+
v ,)-f V P (u,
u u2, u; v v2, v
V
,
v.
v elt *,
u Jfjej + + *33,
v = + & + */33,
,
4r (u, v ) =

, ^ ( ),

, ' (#, ej) alft


Y(U, V ) = 2

i,/-i

///*

(8)

(8)

/.
= \04/ ,/-1

*4

123

1,
2, 3. ,
, . . = .
' (u, v) ,
v V (, v) = 4'(v, ). atJ =*
= Y (e/t
=
e/) = a//
. : -
,
(!).
/(u, v)
g () ,
S () = / (, ).
,
:
0 ( u ) - V ( u # ),
,
.


4f,
.
, -
, :
() ==(, ).

V ( + v , u + v ) = Y ( u + v, ) + Vf u + v, v) =
= (, ) + 2 ( , v) + <F(v, ) = () + 2(, ) + (v),

'(, V )
(9 )
V
u, V,
u, v, u-j-v. (9)
(u, v).

' (u, v)

(. V )= 2 ,,.
*./-1
3
( ) = 2 ai/Xfr,
/.y-i

124

'

1. IV

. . () = (, )
,
, , *.

,
XIV.
,
.
: ( ) ,

( ) ,
.
, , ,
,
( ) .
:
, . . ,, , 8,
.
:
() = \ + \ + \,

,, + * + & ,

%, 3
( ).
3.

Oejea. ,

, OeLet,
O'eJeJ;

, ,
O'eleJ ,
! .
- ,

F ( x t ) ~ 0.

(!,)


,
, , ,
(!*),
' ,
erf I, ( l t)
Oe^j, ,
, O'eje^. , II

3]

125

'

I ^-1,

, II I
orf.
. I II
,

.
( ),

, . , ,
, ,
.
:
I
?(, ) = 0

(12)

Oe,et. aifxfvtHHo
I II, -
O'e\t\ ( 12).
,2. ,
,
,, 1
yf ^ c u x + c 22y-\-cit )

X 9 *= + +

(, ) \
' ( ,2).
: I
(12) ,2.
Octca II,
1 ;||> ( 2 ) .
: ,
' \ (2),
(12).
, ' ' (2)
(12).

.
, ,
, . .
,
.
IX
.

120

1 IV

4.
, ,
(, ) ,2,
(, ) ,

F(x, ) - 0 .
,

,
. , ,

, ,
,
.

.
, , .
()
*).
, .
,
() , ,

^ . (, )
,
, .
. , ( )
( ), (4, ,
), , ,
, u = iVflM2.
, 2
() 2.
= 2-

= ~\

.
2
,
. ,

(
, ,
, ). , -1
1 )

, ,

Ml

KOMlW-KCHblE

127

, ;
:
={*. }.
, - () ,
.
, :
, , -, = (, ), -,
= {, j , .
Aix= (if,, 2) *=(2, 2)
=
\ x = x2 xlt = % \\ 41=(|,
= [, | = (*! + *, + )
, 2.
=
) '
')
u -f u' = \ + \ + ' \ , = {,

() X = |, }.
0 = {0, 0 | - ;
{ , ) ,
- |, //|.


, , , ,

.
.
, = { 2\ ua=={xt ,

,
, . .
I*1 * 1 - 0 .
1*1 I
.
.

(, ,
).
, ,
ulf u2, u3 - , *
. ut {, )| = {, }
. , =
= {, ]} ] :
- + ,

.

128

{. IV

, u, =
= {2.
,

( , 2)
Ee 6i*i + 6***
( ^ ^ + * ^ )
4,
.

. ,
,
te,.

.
0 = (0, 0),
, = (1, 0} ^*={0, 1}.
,
,
= , - ^,
(1)
(/ .
- (. .
) 1)

' - ( , )


ei

{ciu

= cnei "

( cik, t, k = \ t 2, ).
,
(1),
t[ *
= x'ej -f()
' if
O'ejei (,
, ').
*) .

$ <1

129

O'eJeJ
' .
III,

=* '' -\-at \
= ' + ^ ' + , j

. . , . 113.
,
, , 1; , 2\ ,
.
, ,

, , .
+ + =>0.
(3)

, - (3),

(k A )x + (k B )g + (k Q ~ O t
- ,
.
, kA, , ,
(3) )
.
,
2 fe + 3 fy -f 0
:
2* + I =0.

x + ly Q
.
, ,
F(x, ) - 0 ,
F (, ) - ,
,
, XF(x, )
. , , ,
![? .
1, , ,
* + * + 1 -0 .

130

,
. i (
, , 1).
,

(4)
* * + * = ,
.
0 = (0, 0).

x + itj = 0,

i y = 0,

(5)


& + iftK (x + iy )(x -ty ).

, ,

F (x, ) = ,
.

-
.
, ()

.
, :
~ ( , //, ).
, ,
* ,
, , 2
0123.
.
, . . = (, , ),
,
.
i) , (
) : x*-f-- f 1 = 0
i ; , ,
^ - J - 1 * 0 , ,

!

II

131

M t = (xlt yv ,), 4,
2)
,
( d ).
= x2 xl, y = yi yl, z = z2 zl
. ,
.
,
, ,
,
.
= {*. , -


,
, . . , ,
, .
.' iicianiiciiMociii .
, =
= {* , ,
. .
, ,
,
(
) 'je&eJ,
\ , 9
ej, ei, ej
.
,
. ,
, ,
, -2 = 3.

,
(, , ) = 0
.
.

(

, ,
, ).
, , .

132

5. .
.
1. . F (, )
Fx(x, ) /'(*, ):
F (xt ) = F j(, y)-F 2(x, ),

F(x, ) = 0,

(1)


( * , / / ) - 0.
/ ( , ) 0.

<2)
(3)

, (1) / (2)
(3).
, ,
2 2 = 0,

| / 0 - ,

? |-//2

, *
v | ill

<>,

hi

am .
.
F (, yt z) F i(x, , z) F2 ( , , z),

F(X, , ) = 0

* . * 2) = 0,
F2(x , , ) = 0 .
, ,
* + 2 + * - * = 0

+ + *=0 x-f-i/ z = 0.
2. . .
( ),

133


, ,

fix , ) = 0,
(4)
.
, (4) ,
/i.
= (, , ) (4) (. 71),
' = (, , '), ' ,
(4).
,
,
0 = (, , 0),
. ,
,
- / =
- (, , 0) ,
;
./
.
,
.
,
S,
, ,
(
)
- ,
.
,
. R
, ,
, , ,
z .
S F(x, , ) 0.
F (, , )

(, , z)z~z*g(x, , z ) + f ( , ),
k ^ l . , g(x, , )^=0.
0, 0, z0,
g(x0, ^ 0)=, 0.
F ( )
~ / ( )
,
F {> *) = 0. . Af0 = (0, yQ, z,)

134

(. IV

5,
=*
=*>
?.
5 .
, g (x , , z) = 0, 5

/(* . !/) = 0,
, S .
.
, (
.

3.
. .

- ,

/
(, , 2) = 0,
(5)
(, , ) ( -
, , ).

:
(*). (, , )
(5) (. 72),
( ).

135

D , _('* \ ')--
, ' ' = (

, ' =
f/
=. (*, , ) -
, (>,, /, ) = (, , ); =>
= (*, /, ) (4), (, , 2) = , ,

\ ,) = (, , 2) = 0, . . '
(5). ,
, (. 73).
123
elt 2, ;
- 0 0 ',
. ,

^^
2 = 1 . , ,
'&
F{x, ) 0,
2= 1
(6)
. (, //, ) -

=
= (% . 1). 0, 9

)=0.
0 = {9, 9, 1} , ,
( 8)

(8) = ( , , )
5,
: ~(, //, )
S, ,
t (8), *0, 9
(6).
(7)
*0=" / . f t

t 1=3%

(8), (7)

( )
Af = (x, , ) S. F

136

-
( ,

. iv

| )

tcTb :, , .

M (xt , ), 2 = 0,
, 2) = 0

(5)

S .
(5) ,

5 , 2 = 0
(, , ) * 0 .
4.
. (
xt/z.
(, 2) ,
, , 24-//,
F(u, z )= F (* + \ ).
, F (*+ , )
, , , . .
/(*, /, ) .
, f (, , )
, F(x*-by*, ) x2-f*/a
,
. ,
/(*, //, ), /(., //, z) F (2-f- /2, ),

1(, , 2) 3 3/4 ** + *, Z) ; (*+ '1) \-az- + 2bz |-.


/(*, , 2)
, f( x , 1/, 2) F (** +
),
S,

F (** + */*, ) = 0.
(9)
Afo = (x0. 0 ) (9).
2 = 0, 0
(. 74), Q = (0, 0, z0),
0. , ,
= \ + /5,
%+ *=*\

2=20.

/0 (9), F (r*, ) = 0,
= (*, , ) **+#* =*

5 51

1:47

= 2, 2 = 0, (9). ,
0 (9),
, 10
. ,




(9),

. ,

,
,

(*-\-*)+2+
-J 2hz-\ c 0.
V/
,
. 74.

,
( ),
. ,

F (** +

*) = 0

= 0, . .
F ( x , z) = 0 ,

= 0.

,
, .
, ,
*2 + */*-2 = 0.

(10)

, 0,

2 2 ( + )( ) = 0,
= 0;
(10)
(. 76).
,

.# +
( ). , .

138

1 IV

it

kZ

I
I
I
I
I

. 77,

, 78.

* 5!

139


= 0;
,
. 76;

, ,
, 0

(. 77, 78).
,
(. 79, 80),

1 ,
:
( . ,

+ - + '= > .
,

, (,
);
1);
.
2, 3, 4 ,
.
5
.

/'(* , )

F (,

= ,

+ 2 1 +

^ -f

2,* -f 2& + aQ

(1)

.
, F (*, )
.

( ,

F (*, ) ,
, ).
*) ,
-\- -\- = 0 + + > = 0,
, ,
.

141

1 ,

1.


. ,
,2

<(, ) = an x2- f 2a.xti + aniu*



F (x , ) = , * -f- 212 + 22* 4- 2aLx + 2^ 4- 0

( 1)

,
=* '

cos // sin ,

'

COS

fjL.

i
F ( * ) = ( * cos2 2'' cos a s i n a - f //'" sin2 a) -f+ 2^12
cos a sin a xy' sin2a sin a cos a + x 'y ' cos2a) - f
+ n 22 (x'* sin2a -j- 2x'y' cos a sin a -j- j / 2cos2a) 4 -

a'n = cos2a 4- 2aVi cos a sin a -\-a.u sin2a,


H|4
= iff |cos
COSft.ft.mM||
r*4-n,
^j =
i i rif-ii,. (cos* a 2)4 - cos a sin a,
',!=//,! mu
*a 2r/l3
cos a mii a 4-^., cos2a,
*a
2rfl3co.set
aj = ! cos a 4-a -2mii a,
^ = s in a 4- a2 os a.
, ;4 =*0, .

n12cos2a 4- (n22 - an ) cos a sin a axx sin2a =* 0,

(3)

(4)

, * 0 ( 1*= 0
- (, ) 4 - ^2).
(4)

&

g M g LI

V jo t i g |i ) a 4

*20ia

-4 ^

(5)

142

( - ) 2- ]* > 0, (5)
.
'= ,, ci'n -X,,
.
^ ,
(5),
(*. ) * + 21 + <hiH%

'( * \

F (, )
( ' , ^ ' '

(')

., .2
: Xj =?^^=0, F (, )
(2) ,
, , .
, :
1 ,^=0, 2=^0.
2 Xlt 2 ,
.
2.
: X j^ O , 3 0.
-, ' ([\ [>), . .

- *,
'

\ I //

F' ( \ ')
( \

') - (

, / ) -

=^* -f-Xji/" -f-2(X|XQ~|-\)* -f-2(X2t/4

(6)

aj
=**3*-f- Xgi/o " 2fl|X -f- 2^f/o -f- 0 F (x<j, *Ai) '0 ',
* (6) , . .

XixJ + aJO, ^' -f * = 0.


(7)
^ *5^ 0* Xj ,=
0, (7) !
* * , '
^ ( , )
V 4 ^ / + < 4 0.

(8)

143

(8). :
: X,
.
: ^ X,
.
. . ' ,
X,, 2 , ';
, , 2: Xj
.
(8)
( 8' )

; -

2, ~ ;
2. (8'), . . (8),
XI
= 1.
J
.

0,
, ^ , ,< 0 ;

,= 62; (8)
aV 32 2= 0,

. .

(+ ')( * - ) = 0.

(9)

,
'. (9) ,
.
. . X, 2 .
, uj-/- 0.
X, 2
, (8)
(8'), ,
|

; 2 b2,

, .
X, X, oj,
(8) ,
4*

1.

( 10)

154

1 V

,
; \ ,
.
'0*=*0. (8>

X, ,

aV * -f &* 0 ("

biyr) (b i t / ) - 0.

(11)

,
;
(

+ thtj - ,
" ib tf 0.
, (8) ,
(6) (
), ,
.
3.
: , 0.
Xj.X, () , X,. , 2 = 0.
Oeje*
(, ) - 0

/'(* ',

2', J 2\' |

0.

(12)

:
A.
0. (12)
\ . .
**'%+ qxr -f* ,
, . .
.
. ;==0. (12)
1 '* + 2 ^ , + 0* 0 .

(13)

'\
:
( )

(\) ,
\ '% (13) ,
, \ \ (13).

2]

145

,
, (12),
(1), ( )
.
.

( ),
,
,
: (
),
( ) (
),
().

,
;
.
2.
-
, :
f ( x , ) = (, ) + 21 (, )+
<(, ) = + 2 + ^ 1. l(x, y ) = a lx + a iy.

(1 )

(2)

,
(*, //).

''' F (, )

( \

|0 + 2 ( \ y ')+ a l.

()



, .
(. IV, 2), , . .
'-\- 0, = '+ 0, , aJt, 32
(, ) .
, (, ),
, .

| v


'= 0 , ,
*

-f-2a!ix' ' ' ' 9


1/') + ^ ,

( . IV, 2)
I <
1 *ii

*1* I _ |*i 1 *12 I


<4* 1 *2t 1

.
1. ()
V -c .^

,
II 11

. . , .
2. 1)
J ( , 12, 22, alt 2, 0)
F (, )= 1* + 2-f 2 7-J- 2
-f- 2a#+
0
.
(3)
F (, )
F

(/) = \'* -h ,2,* | -

2nix' -1-2// -f- ;.

, . .
(3), allt 12, 22, alt ,
J (*

J {\\

^12

f l2 2 i

2 f l o ) i

(4 )

J
F(x, ).

6 = 6 (, 1?, 22, 1> ^2 ) = I


** }
| **1 *2 I
_


S = 5 ( a llt al2,

& Qq)

4~

) . ( -
, * ...)
, = ,
. .

147

, (3)
( - ), (3)
1 ,
S ' = S.
S, ,
*=
= \
, ,
.
, ,
|1 11 1
ajj at .
(, 12, &22* ^1* ^2
at

Oo

^(, )

(, , I) -= , - 212 + ai2y74- 2axxt 4- 2a^yt -f a j \
(3)
x = cllx '+ c l2y '+ c lt \
= ' + c n y + c tl \

(5)

*= Ox* 4-0*/'4-1 /'.


(, , ()

/
'(*', \ ^ + < 6 * ^ 4 -2 0 5 ^ + 2 ^ 4-
( ', \% . . ,
(* ', ')). (, , /)

, |
- fin / .
at

a,

a0

(5)
, . .
c lt

Cll

c 2l

C 22

Cl

12
-1 .
21 ^22

,
A W i, <*1*.

\,

a;, aj) = A (au> al2r a^,

a lt a

a0).

148

( V

1.

*11 0\
</,
| <'2 <
(1) /<- i
.
1. :
S -\~.

6-

an ais
21 ^22

F (, ) - 6 ), = 0,
0 '''
{, '),
( 6', ', ( \ '),
\
).
, |(i\ )
F (, ) , . .
, (*, ) ,

, S = an -f 22
.
<p(.t, ) .
1
. / >

* Hiv'-I -./
// .,\' I ..,//

( * . U)

"** I - . '/ I <>*


</')=3 <**'*+<4|
\

(2')

0.

(6)

, S ,
$=

<*22= <*11+ <*22">


)
, , }
I

(7]
. I <* 0
6:
, I1 anOqtl J
1 *
1 1 <*>' 1
. . \ ' S, .
, (6).
(6) -

149

2]

<(, ). ,
, (6)
S2 - 45 = [ + ,,)2 - 4 ( 52 - )) = ( - )2 + 4],

0.

(8)

2.
,
=*22.

flj2 = 0*

(9) ,
,
.
, (
(5) 1)
<(X, ) = + 2al2xy -f *
'( \
\
((>).
X, .2, ,
' (. . a]j), * .
, 1 X* ,
, ,
<( , ) ^'8+ ^'* ( .2' +
- ^'2).
( ') .
(3) 1:
a'it = X, = an cos2a - f 21cos a sin +022 sin2,
\2 = 0 = cos sin + a l2 cos1 al2 sin2 -f-. cos sin .
cos , sin
. 11
Xt cos = an (cos3 + cos sin2) -f 2al2 cos* sin
al2 cos* sin
sin3 + 0*2 (sina cos cos sin2),
. .
cos = an cos + al2 sin ,

tg a = l=!L.

(10)

! ,
alt = 0, <(*, )
.

150

1 V

3.
,
, (10)
,
^ ( , ) 2552 + 21 -{- 7

2 -{- 0

(!)


' 2+ , + 2!*' + 2aiy' + aQ.

()

F (xt ) 0
: ( Xt ^ 0 , 2 0)
( X,,
). ,3 = 6,
=/-, 0.
, 6 ;/ 0. ,
,
. .
|4~** I
= +, }
F { )
^*(6* )=62 + 21146 |+ 2|* + *.

( )

(1*)

0, 0 (2), . . 0 '= ( * 0, 0)
. ,
* = 4-*0, / = 4- (1)
F(x, )**%,* |*2fiie6i| 1-<11| | 2 (,, vH |
|-,)-}-I-2(a.,.v | /..,./ a ) i\-[-F(x0, 0).
0 ,
, . .
*1*4-2 + * = 0,
/= 1 , 2.
(3)

6 = 13
0,
21 22
(3) *0, 0.
, ^ X.J
X25X4-6 = 0,
(10)

0' (1)
F ( , ) = 1*' 4- / 4*

(I)

*]

151

*.
Xi 0 0
\ fli
= flai Q& = 0 0
0 0 *
2
\

<*; =
*

'

,
'' F ( , )

F (x \ r t = V

4 ^ + j .


2.

(, ) =/,,*2 -\- 2 | .1 | 2atx |- 2, \-0 -0 ,

1\ 0 .
,
O '= (x 0t 0), (3),
'' . , (10)
.
f (*, )= 0
V '* + >.*/ + ! = 0.

(4)

1. (4), ' =(0, 0),


'',
. ,
6=^0 F(x, (/) = 0
. F (, t/) = 0
.
(4)
. .
= 0 (4)
= 0
(4')
,
' (. . ). , ^
&=1 < 0 , () 6 = , > 0 .

152

-* 1

[\. V

^ , (4)

(5)
1 _ _ 1.

6*
:
) . = 12< 0 ;
^ ,
,
' = - > 0

'2

- * = - ^ < 0 .

(6)

'2
.
* *

( 6 #)

) .

, 5.
5 ,
( * 1

, | ,,|< | 2;)
(7)

2= ~ >
'2

'2

2 ^4-
V* = 1
S ,
_

Ln

/ " f i i ; 1
(5)
X
*
*2 1
.
.
, - 0, :
,
f -

(7')
(3)

(8')

-0

6> 0

,
5 ^ ___

,
S

153

2. ( 1 2),
F (, ) - 6 = 0,
6^=0, 6 > 0 , 6 < 0 , = 0, =0, > 0 , < 0 ,
F* (*', '),
F (x, )
'''.
5 (
<p(x, )).
, ,
() ,
, ,
.
4. : 6=0
, ,
,
(10) 2,
F(x, ) - * - 2 + 2 + 2, + 2^ + = 0
(1)

F' (*', ') = ' +

2;*' + 2 ' + ^ = 0.

()

6 = ^1^,.
6 = 0,
.
- 0 , ^ . 5 = ^ + ^ = ^ (1 )

F '(x \ ') = 8''+2['+21'+<> = 0.

(1*)

(10) 2 X, = 0 ,
:

i*
tg a =
( 2)
da
-
(1*)
.

ai
ai

Ol%

%
'

\
'

a'i

a'a

____

f,

(3)

[ , = 0.

154

1 V

= 0, . . 4 = 0 , (1*)

S y' -f- 2'2' -f- 0 = 0.


(4)
V + W

(4)

+ e . = - $ ( / + ) * + < 4 = 0,

(5)

(5)
Sy* "j-^e= 0

(5')

!> ,

(5')
~ ' 1 ,
;

(5')
if

^S = 0U

(5')
* - 0
.

<1

155

: , . . \ .
F (%) 0 ' *
F (x \ ^ ) - 5 /+ 2 ^ + 2 * /+ .- 0 ,

(1*)

. . ( in 1, . 3).
.

* '= ! + *<>.
*/'= + */<>
(6) (I*),
F ( \ ) = Sr|*- f 2a ll + 2 (Sy0+ ^ ) + + 2 afo + / + = 0.
S = X2^=0, , ,

$ * = 0
yQ:
(?)

Syi ~h 2!04- 2^04 - \ 0, xQ:
Syl ~ 2<ii*o 4- 2oji/04 = 0,

(8)

*<>.
0' F (, ) 0
ST)l 4-2aU = 0
*

26.

(9)

, , 0'
, ,

. (9)

(10)
* = 21,
> 0,

(11)
( ) ?
'?, . . '.

156

( )

i_*
tg a =
21


=(0, 0), ,
.
VI, 9.
5.
,
, . .
:,
,
,
,
,
() ,
,
,
,
.
:
. (. . ,
. .) .
. i
.
,

*-\- = 1. ,

# _ _
%
* ~~


* - * = 1.
, ,
. ,

157

2-\-2 = I /,
.
.
, ,
. , ,

i f = 2px,

2 = 2.v,
,

* =
*,

*11 = - **/

. 1 ,
, ,
( )
'-- '*=0, .'in I, 22 -J- 22 ,
.

= \
by' ,
, ,
, , ,

2 2 = 0, 2+ 2 = 0.
,
,
2 - 2 -
j ,IX,
2 + 2=
. x = b x\ y ~ \ f

1 ( b = 0).
,
.
.
:
. :
,
,
,

158

[ V

; ,
, .
, ,
, .
, ,
,
.
. -

, .
.
:
, , .

,
( )
.
ABCD, , ,
, , ,
, ,
.
, , ,
. , ,
, ,
, , :":.
,
, .
, , ,
, .

, ,
.
.
, d,
d.
, ,
,
= .
d

+ + = 0.
(1)
* = , =
= (*1, */i) Afa =(**, 2), , M lt
, , M it

51

159

(1). , , xi = y], 2= \,

\ Byi ^ > 0
\ 4- 2 + <L ,
' + + yt
[ 2] ,
. 0,
//, y2i 2-\- -\-
:
1 + 0 + = 0.
(0, (/0), 0 = ], = ,
-\- + ~ 0 . .
qj
'\ , '
. d (
) .
d
d \ ,
(I, , d \
d,
,
d ; '
d'.
*
.

.

VI


1|
,
^*
F (x, )((, / / ) 2 / (, //) + = 0,

(I)

, ,
(*. ) = * + 2alfxy -f atiy \
*, y)=*<hx+chy Oe,'ei F(x, )
F'(x', '),
(, ) F (, )
'(', ')
F ( \ ').
(1),
,
,

() = (, )

= {, pf.

Oeje\ ()
( ) - '(', '),

*, ' [,
. u={a, } : (1) ,
() sa * + 212 + 22 = 0.

(3)

,


, .

161

$ II

(3), ,
,
,
,
. , ,
12, 22 . ,
{aip}

(- ) + 2

-{- = 0,

(34)

: (I:
_

V \ an< h*

fli.

(4l)

, 0, (34) :{1

" I * '. , ( ) I " ( ) * = .

(3.)

_ ,2 . VaU <*

(4J

, ^ . ,
, = 0 , (3)
(211 + )=*0,

, (5=0, .
, ,, -wsl , ,, 0 (3)
21# = 0, = 0. ^ # ,
= 0, . .
.
(34) (3J
a]t = , , ,
__ | flll

I flu

lt\

, ,
, 6 < 0 , ..
\
, . . 6 > 0; ,
(6 = 0) ,
6

, ,

162

1. VI

,
( (4j) (4) 6 = 0):
_ _ ia _ _
(5)

tfu
a il *
.

2 + * + 2 0 ^ + 2 0 ^ + 0^ = 0 ,

.
( : (
a*-f-pa = 0 , ,
,
,

a : = rfc /.
(6)

.
,

!

*1

: = : /,
^ -f = 0 .
,

.
,
.
,
(. .
).

(7)


: a = : b : .
,
. .
.

I n

163

II ;
:
= z h ~ , . .
( 8)

(7), ,
(7)

, , (8),
(7) .
,
, . . {, :}.
{, )
X

-}- (it, \

9 & + W. )

(9)

(7) (9).
, (9) (7),
(9) ( /)
*
*

,
,
*

( 10 )

0 = 1
(9) . ,
~ . ,
(9)
{- ) = ( - 0),
(11)
(10) bx^ = ayQ,
(11)
,

, . . ~ ~ , (7),
{, b},

164

'

1 . V I

,
(7), {, 6},

v -------- .
.

- 2 = 0

(12)

<(, ) 2\
:
2 = 0;
,
= 0, . . .
=

, cj; ,

.
, , ,
. ,


F(x, )== = 0.
F(x, )- (, )

= 0 .
= 0 = 0 .
,
( ) .
,
, , ,
,

2 2= 0.
( ) <p(x, ) ~ 2,
2 = 0,

.

165

2.
.
, (
)
F (x, )*<{, ) + 21(, )+ = ,
( 1)

(, )== * + 21 + a2iy*,
/(*, )=*1+ & .
:
Fk (xt y) = aklx + a k2y + a b,

2.

(I)
( 2)

(3 )

= cp(a, ),

B = F x(x0t y0) a + Ft (x0, 0)$ ,

C = F (xQt 0).

(4)

,
= ( , )==0,
(3)
12. tt =* t%,
(2) (1)
:
.
M0 = (x0t 0) (2)
, (1), (2).
Toi
F (0, ) = 0
(3)
/( / + 2) = 0;

(3')
/ = 0. 0 = (0, 0)
(1) (2),
(3) .

B = P l (x0t y0) a + Fz (x0, yQ) = ,

ted

KWTBUX

|. VI

, (2) ,
0

-1
X

Ft (, )
(*. )

(*

y J ( x *Q) + F t ( X i 9 ) { ~ ) = 0 .

(5)

(5) Fx (x0, 0), F2(xQt t/0).


, F \0, 0) = 0,
(5)
(*+ - +

^,) + (aa *0+ 220 + 2) + atxQ+ a2yo+ ai) = 0.

(6)

.
( F! (0, )
(0, )
) (5)
, :
/ /

1 dF

F,{*. /) = ^

1 dF

) = -2^-

(5) ,

JL _ _
a
F2 (, )

2 2

() Af0 = (x0, 0)
,

2 + *

4 = (* )
*_*
6*

,
1

(6)

__.
*


- 2 = 0

1&7

(6) Af0 {*<>. )


- + - = 0,
, ,
= ( + 0).
3.
.


F(x, y ) = a n xi + 2al^,y + an yt -\r 2alx-\-2c^y + 0 , - 0

(1)


(2)

(1).
1.14, *1W
/4 = ( , P) = alla*-f'2on a P - f *= 0.
(3) ,
(2) (I),
21+ = 0.

(3 )

.
I. 0; (3) - (2) (1).
II. = 0, 0; (2), (I)
, .
III. 0; (3) 0 = 0,
(2) (1).
, (2).
, ,
,
, ,
.
, (
) , , ,
.

,
( )
, .
:

168

[. VI

1. F (, ) = 0 ,
, {: [ ,
(1).
{: },
Q. ,
(. .
) {:}
, , Q.
. 0, (I)

= Q+ at, y = y0+ f>t
(2)
{:}.
, (2),
(0, 0) (1),
, (1)
(0, )- (2)
(0, 0), , ,

B==F,(x, /) + f 1(*. ) 23
= ( + ) + { + 22) 0+

2 = 0.

(0, 0),
(1),
( +
* + ( + 2) +
+ 2) = 0.
(40)
a,,a-f-alsp + 2$ 0
; ,

fln + fli*P = 0,
fl2ia + ^22P=0.
,
* -f- 212 + 223 = 0,
, {. },
, . , (40)
0 0,
(, ) (1); ,

( + , 2?) + (1 -f ) + fa a + a,p) = 0.

(4)

,
, ,
;

169

(1), , ,
(4) ,
.
, 0 = (0, 0) (1),
, d ( : ) ; 1,
(1) 4,.
, , 6 i ' c k o { : )
, ,
(1), ,
, {: }
0
. 0 = (0, 0) ,
M t.
.

4.

ip

F(x, y) = an x1+ 2alix y + a i2y + 2alx + 2aty + a o= 0


(1)

x = x0-f /, \
(2)
= + )
; 1 = (1, )
2 (2, 2) (1) (2).
: ,
{: }, Af0 = (x0, 0) ?
, , ,

-\~

(3 )

!
*i = x0+ a tlt
#1=0 + *1
= * + a t2> * = + *21 (3),
,
<i+*t 0.
L ik (
(2)) , (3)

(4)
<!+<= 0.

170

': ,

[. V I

/2
At2 + 2Bt + C = 0\
on
, tx + tt = - (4) = 0
Z7! (. f t ) a + F t (xe, /) = 0.

(5)

, Af0 = (0, 0)
M tM 2t . . , (1)
(2).
. , ,
= (, ) = (0, 0).

'= ( ', *), ,


'. \ *
-\ '
V+ y'

0 = ^
^
1
( )
, , 1,
, , ,
(. 81).
.
:
2. 0 = (0, 0)
(1), ,
0, 0 (
* ):
F\ (*. ) 5= + 12 + = 0, \
^
F2 ( * y)^ a 2 iX -\-a 22y-\-a2 = 0. j
. . .
40 = ( ) (1),
Fl (x0, 0), F%(xe, y j .

*]

171

. (5)
.
: = (*. y )-Ft(x </).
,
,

5=5 ^1 ( >

) F ( * )-

(
, ) (5)
( (2) Kaef (1)
2 0
MYM2). ,
.
. . 0 =(0, 0)
(6).
40= (*. //,,), . .

| \
' + '
F (, ) = 0 F ( x \ y')= Q t

I (, y ) ^ F' (*'. < /')= (* + * ') + 2 (0 + ,)(0 + ) +


+ (-') -\- 2, (+ ') -)- 2, ( -f ') + =
= -^ + 2 a * y + , 3 + 2 ( 0 + 0 + ,) ' +
+

2 ( . +

a 22i / +

.,} ' + ; =

II
a'0 = F(x0, 0).
(6)
F

( * ) 2 2

- | - 2 (iJ4x

-\ -( . 1 2+ = 0 .

,
, , . . 10= (0, ^ ,
. .
, , . .

g = I 11 19
=7^0,
10ai
(1) Afe = (j^, ),
().

, ,
, .

172

( VI

, (6)
.
-
.

:

22 i t 2 = 0.
(7)
,

2 2 = 0,
(8)
( )
x * ita * -0 .

(9)

, (8),

- -{- -0 - = ,
0 - +1- + 0 = 0.
(
0),
(10) .
, (9),
(6)
1 x-J-O y-f 0 = 0, \
()
- + - + 0. J
- 0 ,
(9),
: (
).
5.
,
{ : );
0 (0, 0) ,

F(x, ) , + 21 +
+ 2,* + 2^ + = 0.
(1)
0 = (0, 0) ( 0, 0
!) ( 4, (5))
(*. y )a + F1(x, y)f> = 0,
(2)
. .

( *+1 + ,)-(- ( + + ) 0 = 0 ,

551

173

, - ,
( + ) + (*! + 22) 1/ + f a a + ,) = 0.
(2')
d,

(. 82). d (I),
{ : }.
( , ) (I), ,
(2), {: (,
(1).


( ,
). ,
| : |, {', '}, ' =
=

+ 02*), ' = + 12.

(1) . -
d ,
0 (0, 0) (I);
d
( - ) + ( - 0) = 0 ,
(3)
(0, ) , . .
(6) .
{ : }, d
,

"l"fliaP =

, + = .

| VI

(
6=^=0) (3)
( + 12) ( - 0) + ( -f 22) ( - 0) = 0,

(4)

(2').
, (4)
{ + 12) : + (^ + oP) =
= ( + 12) *0 + (21 + ^) 0.

(4')

, 0,0,
(4') -*, . . (4')
(2').
, d ,
()
, ,
( : }.
, (2') ,
( : [ . (2'),
(2), . ,
,
( ,
,
, ,
).

,
.
. ,
, ,
, .
6. ().

1.
. .
, { : },
{', '},
> -- ( + 22)
)
'- + < {, } {', '}

**' + a lt (Pf 4 -') + o*tpp' = 0,

(2)

, (1),
',

175

'. (2) ,
(, ; \ '),

(, )=*-|-2|2 + 1*.

. = | , | ' = (', '}
( . ( : } \ ' : '|
(, )
aux* + 2ai2xy + CLi2yt ,
if(u, ') ss \|>( , ; ', P 'J s a ^ a a '+ a ^ a p ' + p c O + a ^ p p ^ O .
:

(, ; ', ')
(, ; ', '), (, '),
(),
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,
F (, ) = 0,
.
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, turn (), ( ) (*, ).
, ' (
) ,

( -,
, ). '*>
, -
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.
,
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a '(o ua + auP) P'(a2ia + aP),
(? )

': ' = (au a -f-a ,aP ): ( + 22),
(2")
{a#, '}.
(a, } {', '}:
, ; = ( * + n iap/) :
4

176

'

VI

,
. , ,
- ( + ,) :(21 + ) = :,
1. .
2- f 2 - f 22* = 0.
,
, .

.
, , {:[,
) ': '|, .
{ ': '} .
, | ': '|
,

==0, \
a22P'=*0. j

{a', '} , (3)


,
6 = h l ,| = 0,
. . F (, ) = 0 .
: (3)
7, ' ,
c 1)a '4 2 < v / * T + o * 1p '' = 01
. . { ': '[ .
, (
)
.
,
ct'_
]* __
'

F (, ) = 0
an a f + 12$'
atla ' 4" G*2p =
. .
9 (a. ; a '. P/) ^ ( a n a '+ a i 2P ')a + (a2i a '* f ^ 2P' )P = 0
' {a:PJ,

61

177

,
, . . .

F (, ) 0 (2') 5:
(. + 14) * + ( + ^.) + (, + ,) = ,
. . , { : |.
^(:, ) = 0,
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{ ': '}, {: }. F (, )= 0
, , {':'},
{:}.

, .

, .
.
(, ) 0 ,
(
);
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= at2:a 22. (
).
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; ,
2- 2 ^ 0 .
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,
.
=
(5)
.
(2') 5, . . ,
: ,
= 0.
()
, (5),
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178

1. VI

0 : = : ,
.
,
.
7. ,


F(xt y)3=anx2+ 2altxy + an yz + 2alx + 2aiy + a <l=*0.
()
, ,
. ,
{:1,
(I& h <iiaP) -f- (</*,* + </) + (, $ ) = *
<2)
= 1, 0^=0 (. . {, )
), (2)
+ + ^ .
(2')
0, = 1,
+ - -f at -= 0.
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)
, , ,
(2'), ,
, (2").
, ,
.,
, .
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,
= 0.
,
*1 ^22 **2
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1,

, ,
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0,

2=0.

, (1)

a n X* -1- (2 +

+ = 0 .

(3 )

in

179

:
1 (1) .
2 (1) (
).
,
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,
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= 0.
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11 12* 1
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1, 0,
, . .
^ 0, = 0,
=0;
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,
() ,

(4)
(. 83).
v1

, (4) = 0 (, . ,
, ) (. 84).

180

1 VI

(I) (
(3)) . an a2i = a\t\
(3) <|3 = 0, , 1^ =

22 0 = 0 .
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,
(,
, ),

^* 4" 2 0 0.
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(. 85), --0 , . .
0 0 fli
0 0
!* = 0.
\ 0
0, ^ , (5)

*/ + = 0,

= Y ~ ^ '

(6)


, , .
'
, . .
= ' + 0, = \
0 , * (0, 0)
(5), . .
1 0 4- 2axxQ+ a9 = 0.

181

8]

(5)

** + 2 , :' + (2 , 0 + ,) = ,

. .
'12 -(- 2,*' = 0.

<7)

.
(7) * '= 0 ; ^'2 = 0, . .


( '), , ,
(. 86).
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, (. 87).
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1. .
3.
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= 0,

(1)

bQ= 0

(t)

$ ( > ) = + 2b12xy + 2* + 2btx + 2 +


,
.

182

1. v r

. ,
, (I) (!'),
,
3 .
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| :| (1) ().
d { : | ,
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, (1), (I)
'''
F i x ' , ! /) ^ ' '1+ ' + 2[' + 4 = 0,
(2)
f i x , f / ) ^ b ' iiy ', + b'ux': + 2 b \x' + b ^ 0 .
(2)
0 ( ' 0),
{0, 1] \
'(*' ^ ) * * + / , (>,
, , .

' = 0 .
:
(. 88).
, - ( )

*8!

183

f(x ')sa a 'n x 'i + 2aix' - f a i = 0,


f(jO b n * '* + 2 x ' + f t J - 0
, . . - ( )
/(*') /(* ')
6J.
2
ij 0 (. 89).
,
f (,
f ( ') .
3 1, 2
.
(.
90), ( ,
)
(. 91),

I\'* + 2' -j

= 0,

(3)

+ 2 &;*'+;=.

()

. 90.

. (3) (3)
, =^=0
''3 -\-2b\x' -f-b'0 s (<|\! -2|^ -f-*)
, , = ---,
(*', ) s ; * // ' ( o J iJ t'4 2aW + ;) ,

F (.

y f) SB ^ + Ji(flux,e- 2\

1, .= .. '
' ~ \ ,
\\'* + 2'\' + '9=* 1,
\
F ( x l ^ ^ ' 4 ^ 0 ,
. .

184

1. VI

, (\, \) ; *
/'W ,
. . ~ ,

'(*, y') = k F ' ( '), ,

F(x, y) = k F{x, ).
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2
F ( x \ ) = ^ ' \ ', F (x't

'

' .

' ( \ ') = XF (x't ' ) -


.
, (2) (2)
F (*', ' ) ^ ^ ^
0, ;=^0,

*{) !> /+ =-0, ^ 0

S )

185

'= Y

&

y' = Y

^ -

, ,
,
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' = '9 ,= Qti .


3 .
2.
.

.
4.
,


/ (, ) 0
(4)
F'(x> ) = 0.

(4')

,
,
F (, ), F ' (, )
k
6, , 5.
. .
, ,
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.
6, , S F' (, ) (
) , F' (, )
G(x, ), ,
F(x, ),
G(x, y) = kF(x, ) k 0.
, F' ( , )
kF (, )
4 .
.
. F ' (, ) kF (, )
, , S, F ' (, ) = 0
kF (, ) . k F (, ) = 0,
, F (, ) = 0,
F' (, ) = 0 F (, ) = 0 .

186

:
6, , 5
,
.
9.

d
. :
A. , d,
.
B. , d,
.

. 92.

. -
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d ' ,
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:
d \ d \ d' d .
d d,
d, ,
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dm d,
.

O tM

187

(. 92), ,
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6 dJ d*.

! d (. 93);
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) :
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).
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188

[. VI

2
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5. , /
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5 91

189

(', '}. (2")


: =

( -f*#i-2P) ( 4& )

{, } {', 6'}
' + ' = 0, . . - ' : ' = : , . .
( + 12 ) : ( -f 22) = : .
,
11*+*!*(*=*. 1
21 + 22? = j

( ) 4-^12? = 0 1
4* (^22 ) = 0. /

<!')

: 6 ^ 0 .
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~ |2

<

0.

( 2)

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(),
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: = ( - ) : 1%= : ( - ,,).

(3)

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* 5 + 6 - 0

(2')

(, , 5 = -J-Oaa* = 22 *)-
(2) , , (3)
:
Pi :

(^1 ( h i )

(3j)

= ( flj,): = 21: ( 82);

()

=* (^1 ) 1 2 =

2:

.
,
, = S
1

V S - 46

S ( )* + 4 \

190

1 VX

(2). ,
12 = 0, . .
.
,

X,. 2 (2) , , = 0
(2), 6 = 0.
, (1')
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(3) , 12 = 0, = ,
= 2.2, . . (<12 = 0, , , = , 2).
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(3)
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22

6. (
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.
,

, i .
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6 - =0. (2) = , = 0.
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= 2 , ,2 = 0, S = 1-{-2 = 0, . . S = 2, 1 2 =
= 0 F(x, )
. = 0 ( )

&2La ~f*^22^ = 0

:

. Xj = S

p/ : a ' = ( S - - a n ) : a u = fl2 2 :afi 2 = fli 2 :fli!t


: (
a n ,
a ! a l t , '==, ' -f-P P '~ 0 )
.
/ = = ~

, -

01

191

, . .

~
(
(, }, = , = 12 = ,
= ).
,
{, },
) * + ( * ) = .
, > = 12,

(* . y) an + F t (, ) 12= 0,
I. .
(nJi + *2) + flja ( -j- 22) + awai +, 2^2 = 0.
1h n%*=n,in22
4

2)-

I
alxSx | tit2Stj-\ ! -I 12 = 0,
. .
ai,ait aaa - .
, = , = ,
0^+ 0^+ ^

-0 .

1^ 0 .
./,2 = 0 = 0 (, 0 ) ,
,> = 0 (, , 0) .
s
,
'
*+*1 0.
I ! ,
<>' ( ).
'
I /, - %
'), 0'
, 0'|
] = 2/>, > 0 .

0 '| (. V, 4),

192

[ . V t


' )2
2(
(. V, 1, (3)) a[ = al c o s a - f a2sina.

> 0, ,

tg a = , ,
, S co sa-f-a2 sin
.
0'
0'5 10.


.


'.
,
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/\

,
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,
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, .

' 7. /
,

/'.

:
8.

() ,
/.
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> '
.
, . . ,
' .

10]

193

^ , ,
\ ' '%

, . . ,
/('.
( ).
( )
(. 95),
1 2= 0 ,
( et, 9
).


,
,
,

O' ' '.

el, ] ( I).




O V , ,
1 = , * = 0/5, ;,

I),
el,
1, O V , .

, (
),

(\ '//,
: 1 6 :1 .
8 .
8
. &
(. .
)
kx k2.
kY kt .
, = (, [ - ' =
= {', '}
.
,
,
7

. .

194

( VT

kx
k2. , ,
, ^ 2.
' kta,

P'=&jp.

| U' | - ' ' * =

V ^ W 1 = A, | u |.

*21u!,
. e.
<*A
/1 2f

.
1 /<?~ ,
'

o f . :
,

, .

1). ^ ' />/>:\ ', .

VII




. IX ,

, . . .

.
1.
F (, , )
:
F (, , z)zzs(Alx Jr B iy-{-Cl 2 -\-Dl)(A tx -\-B iy-{-C 2Zm)-D 2)t
F (, , ) = 0
2: Aix + Bly + CjZ-f D\ = 0 A2x-f*^iI/4-C,jZ + DJ = 0.
,
, ,
,
,
,
(. ). < , 2
-By 0 By 0, F (, , z) = 0,
,
( By) ( ) = 0, . . 2 2= 0.
(1)
, ,
,
(1).

2,
2.
2
, eg
(. 97); 2
7*

fT T I. V I I

14, *

( 2)

,
04jr+ B y + C 2-f-D )-0


-{- By-\-Cz-\-D 0.
i*=0
, , ,

,

za = 0.

(3 )

( . IX), ,
(i) ,

*#+ *' = 0,
,
.

2!

197

2,




iz
i
F(x , f/) = 0,
(1)
F(x, )
. ,
(1)
,
()
.
, ,
,

(. 98),
, (. 99)
(. )) ,


(1).
(1) ,

(,

,
).

V II

3.
';
,

( 1)

,
, (. 10J).
,
- d, ,

i7
/.
I .

. 101.

, d
, , d,
(. 102). | 1
d jyj = ig a,
= 0, d Oz.

, 103.

, 104.

105,