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Annotated Bibliography

Primary Sources
Chris Smith, Special Representative on Human Trafficking Issues. OSCE Parliamentary
Assembly, 26 July 2016, www.youtube.com/watch?v=4tI-ZbFHqz8.
The OSCE is an organization of countries who agree on the proper treatment and labor of
humans. Women and children make up the highest percentage of victims of human
trafficking, because they are naturally the most vulnerable. Refugee flows from the
Middle East are are very large target opportunity for traffickers. I will use this to show
other information about human trafficking.
Congressman Chris Smith with Katie Couric on Sex Trafficking and the Super Bowl, director.
30 Jan. 2014, www.youtube.com/watch?v=0BBDDaHY_-k.
The superbowl is an attraction to many men, so it was found out that sex trafficking
skyrockets at areas around the stadium. The Florida comission against human trafficking
reported that there were tens of thousands of women that were being exploited as a direct
result of the Super Bowl. Many men were arrested at the superbowl for sexual
House Press Conference on Human Trafficking. 20 May 2014,
The International Megans Law is about a seven year old girl named Megan who was
lured into a pedafiles house (the pedafile lived across the street) then raped and killed.
Chris wants to get Megans Law into other countries as a law. Other countries will send
information about pedafiles who wish to travel to the US, so that the US can either deny a
visa, or watch those people very carfully. The three Ps of Human Trafficking:
Prosecution, Pretection, and Prevention. I will use this as a video on my website.
House Takes Up Trafficking Bills Targeting Modern Day Slavery. U.S. Congressman Chris
Smith Website, Jeff Sagnip, Washington D.C., 26 Jan. 2015,
On this day, two of Chriss Human Trafficking bills were taken up by the House and
passed. When the House voted on these bills, they were both unanimously voted for.
3,600 American children were rescued and 1,500 pimps and others who exploited
children were arrested at this time. I will use this as a photo on my website.
President Bush Signs Chris Smiths Trafficking Victims Protection Reauthorization Act of 2005
Picture. U.S. Embassy Archives, Jeffrey Thomas, Dwight D. Eisenhower Executive
Office Building , 11 Jan. 2006,
This picture was taken on Tuesday, January 10, 2006, and it shows President Bushs
signing of Chris Smiths Trafficking Victims Protection Reauthorization Act of 2005.
This took place in the Dwight D. Eisenhower Executive Office Building, and President
Bush gave a speech before signing the bill. I will use this to show Chris Smiths public
approval of his legislation.

Representative Chris Smith Adresses a Rally on Human Trafficking. 11 Jan. 2013,

Chris Smith says that thay need to continue to update human trafficking efforts to protect
victims and prosecute the perpetrators. Traffickers use airlines to move their victims,
hotels to exploit their victims, and unsespecting buyers to pay for goods that have been
made with raw materials by force and bonded labor. A trafficker can make 200,000
dollars or more off of one single trafficked person. I will use this to show the traffickers
part in human trafficking.
Smith Chairs Human Trafficking HearingTier-Ranking: Rating the World's Efforts to Fight
Human Trafficking. Chris Smith, 22 Apr. 2015,
The 2015 TIP report was discussed by witnesses Mark Lagon, President of Freedom
House and Former Ambassador-at-Large for Trafficking in Persons Office at the U.S.
Department of State at the hearing. Freedom House is an independent watchdog
organization dedicated to the expansion of freedom and democracy around the world.
Israel and South Korea were at one point on tier 3, but when they backed their plans up
with action, they got off tier 3. Matt Smith of Fortify Rights said the annual TIP Report
and tier-ranking system demonstrates how impactful legislation can contribute to the
realization of fundamental human rights worldwide. I will use this to show more
information about the TIP report.
Smith, Christopher H. International Megans Law to Prevent Child Exploitation and Other
Sexual Crimes Through Advanced Notification of Traveling Sex Offenders. 8 Feb. 2016.
This law creates an Angel Watch Center within homeland security that identifies sex
offender travelers traveling between countries so that police can investigate, and transmit
the information to the destination country. It also changes the federal criminal code to
make it a crime for a sex offender to knowingly fail to provide their purpose of
international travel. I will use this to show how Chris combatted human trafficking by
potentially catching more traffickers.
Smith, Christopher H. Trafficking Victims Protection Reauthorization Act of 2003 . 26 June
This act provides grants to non-governmental organizations that provided shelter and
suort at borders to trafficking victims. It also gives training to people like airline
employees and mass ansit employees who might encounter any trafficking in people on
the job. I will use this to show another law Chris authored to combat human trafficking.
Smith, Christopher H. Trafficking Victims Protection Reauthorization Act of 2005 . 17 Feb.
This act strengthens the United States leadership in the global fight against trafficking.
This law was passed on January 10, 2006. It provides 36 million dollars to combat human
trafficking in the two years after. This legislation was crucial for women globally and in
the U.S. because they are the primary group being victimized. I will use this to show how

Chris combatted human trafficking by strengthening the U.S.s involvement globally in

the fight against trafficking.
Smith, Christopher H. Victims of Trafficking and Violence Protection Act of 2000 . 8 Nov.
This act strengthens the services provided to trafficked victims. It was passed on October
28, 2000. The main purpose of the Victims of Trafficking and Violence Protection Act of
2000 was to amend the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 to better protect victims. I will
use this to show the actual law that Chris Smith wrote.
Subcommittee Chairman Smith Opening Statement at Hearing on Human Trafficking. House
Foreign Affairs Committee, 22 Apr. 2015, www.youtube.com/watch?v=RES2ljH6ry8.
Chris said that each of the 20 plus million persons in slavery is a human being, with their
own God-given dignity. Josef Stalin says, The death of one man is a tragedy; the death
of millions is a statistic, which is very true in modern society. The Landmark
Trafficking Victims Act of 2000 ensures that countries making anti-trafficking a priority
are praised and supported. Over the last 14 years, more than 100 countries have enacted
anti-trafficking laws to signifigantly raise their TIP report rankings. I will use this to
show a few positives of The Landmark Trafficking Victims Act of 2000.
Subcommittee Chairman Smith Opening Statement in Hearing on Human Trafficking. House
Foreign Affairs Committee, 18 Apr. 2013,
Chris Smiths human trafficking law passed in 2000 created the office to monitor and
combat trafficking in people. The law requires an annual report of countries human
trafficking. The report is being used in 186 countries. This hearing was being held to take
a close look at the records of countries who arent making a good effort to reduce
trafficking in their country. Chris was worried about Chinas record because they have
been on the tier 2 watchlist for 8 consecutive years, and should be downgraded to tier 3. I
will use this to show the tier watchlist concerns and more about this law.
2016 Trafficking in Persons Report. Department of State, June 2016.
TIP stands for Trafficking in Persons. The definition of human trafficking is: the
recruitment, harboring, transportation, provision, or obtaining of a person for labor or
services, through the use of force, fraud, or coercion for the purpose of subjection to
involuntary servitude, peonage, debt bondage, or slavery. The human trafficking industry
is worth 150 billion dollars. In December of 2015, the president appointed 11 trafficking
survivors to the first-ever US Advisory Council on Human Traffcking. Businesses and
consumers have a key role to play in helping ensure forced labor is not used to produce
the goods and services they sell and purchase. I will use this to show the actual TIP

Secondary Sources
Alman, Ashley. Lawmakers Press Obama Administration On Human Trafficking. The
Huffington Post, TheHuffingtonPost.com, 29 Apr. 2014,

Lawmakers like Chris called on the Obama administration to adress countries like
Thailand and Malaysia that do too little about their human trafficking issues. An annual
report was devised to monitor countries like these. Tier 1 countries are countries that
meet anti-trafficking standards. Tier 2 countries are countries who do not meet the
anti-trafficking standards, but they are making signifigant efforts to do so. Tier 3
countries are countries who do not meet anti-trafficking standards, and are not making
any efforts to meet the standards in the future. I will use this to show how Chris Smith is
making a difference in local and global human trafficking as well.
Chris Smith. Chris Smith RSS, Sept. 2016, chrissmith.house.gov/biography/.
Chris was first elected to the House of Representatives in 1980. He is currently in his
18th term as a representative. He represents New Jersey. I will use this to build
background knowledge of Chris Smith.
Chris Smith (New Jersey) - Ballotpedia. Ballotpedia,
Chris Smith is a Republican Representative for New Jersey. He has a salary of 174,000
dollars a year. He has been in his position for 35 years and his term ends on January 3,
2017. This helps me to build background knowlege about Chris Smith.
FreedomHouseDC. Trafficking Trends and Key Rankings: Say No to Grade Inflation.
House, Freedom House, 22 Apr. 2015,
TIP reports, as defined by the president of Freedom House, are seriously researched and
credible reports assessing the performance of governments in protecting the dignity of
those living and working in their borders. Mark Lagon, the President of Freedom House,
also says that instead of putting the stigma onto victims, it places constructive stigma on
the governments that arent doing enough to prevent their victimization. Lagon also
states,The Chinese governments egregious human rights practices over time and weak
rule of law have resulted in an environment where human trafficking thrives, meaning
that Chinas weak human trafficking laws make an environment where human trafficking
is everywhere. Chinas strict population control policies of only one child are one of
human traffickings driving factors, because families much greater prefer a boy child than
a girl child, so this creates demand for girls in this industry. I will use this to show how
other organizations such as Freedom House support Chris Smith.
FreedomHouseDC. U.S. Interests in Human Rights: Leveraging Prudent Policy Tools.
Freedom House, 16 July 2015,
Freedom in the world has decreased annually for nine years, and modern slavery exists in
over 165 countries globally. Human Trafficking thrives with weak legislation, a demand,
and corruption. The End Modern Slavery Initiative Act creates a grant-making foundation

to address global trafficking, if passed. I will use this to show additional information
about global slavery.
Maloney, Smith Target Slavery, Human Trafficking and Child Labor with Bipartisan Supply
Chain Transparency Bill. Chris Smith, 27 July 2015,
The Business Supply Chain Transparency on Trafficking and Slavery Act of 2015
requires public companies with over $100 million in global gross receipts to publicly
reveal any measures to prevent human trafficking, slavery and child labor in their supply
chains as part of their annual reports to the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC).
This helps to make sure that companies have no connections with any human trafficking
to produce their goods and services. Access to business human trafficking information
on websites like the Securities and Exchange Commission will help consumers to make
informed purchasing decisions. I will use this to show that steps are being taken to protect
consumers from businesses who might have forced labor behind their raw materials.
Molloy, Baylee. The Economics of Human Trafficking. Institute For Faith, Work &Amp;
Economics, 26 Apr. 2016, tifwe.org/the-economics-of-human-trafficking/.
The human trafficking industry is estimated to generate about 150 billion dollars
annually. One of the reasons why human trafficking still exists is because there are high
profits and a low risk. The risk is getting higher, though, due to new laws and
enforcements. Conviction rates show that the risks of human trafficking are lower than
the risks of trafficking illegal drugs or arms, meaning much human trafficking in the US
is not detected, even less so than illegal drugs. I will use this to show the economics of
human trafficking.
Spetalnick, Matt, and Jason Szep. Exclusive: New U.S. Bill Being Drafted to Reform Human
Trafficking Rankings. Reuters, Thomson Reuters, 4 Feb. 2016
Chris was working on a new law to change how the State Department ranks countries on
human trafficking. Smith is a member of the House of Foreign Affairs Commitee and
chair of its global human rights subcomittee. This new bill could face a hardship trying to
pass in the senate. I will use this to show another websites perspective of Chriss new
Trafficking in Persons Report. U.S. Department of State, U.S. Department of State, June 2016,
The Trafficking in Persons Report is the U.S. Governments principal diplomatic tool to
engage foreign governments on human trafficking. -U.S. Department of State. The TIP
report reflects the United States leadership and strive to eliminate human trafficking in
the world. The report exists mainly to free victims, prevent trafficking, and bring
traffickers to justice. If a government has acknowledged the existance of human
trafficking, made efforts to adress the problem, and complies with the minimum
standards, it would be considered a tier 1 country. While Tier 1 is the highest ranking, it
does not mean that there are not issuses of slavery in that country. I will use this to show

how the U.S. Department of State explains what the TIP Report is about, and what it
The Voter's Self Defense System. Project Vote Smart,
Chris Smith has voted for many bills over his years as a representative. He voted for the
Regular Relief For Small Businesses, Schools, And Nonprofits Act because prior to being
elected to congress, he helped run a small business: his familys wholesale sporting goods
corporation. Chris also voted for the Justice Against Sponsors of Terrorism Act. He voted
nay on the Prohibits Use of Funds for Discrimination Based on Sexual Orientation or
Gender Identity Amendment. I will use this to show what Chris Smith does and does not
Walker, Cathryn. Legislators Prepare to Prevent Human Trafficking at the Super Bowl | Scripps
Howard Foundation Wire. Scripps Howard Foundation Wire | News, Politics,
Washington D.C., 28 Jan. 2014, www.shfwire.com/node8541/.
Human trafficking survivor Holly Smith says that education for sex trade prevention
should start in schools. She says she wants education programs that address media
literacy, healthy relationships and role models, coping skills, and social issues in the
community and abroad. She is now a spokeswoman for anti-trafficking organizations. It
would be a good idea to include this type of education in schools, considering 9.5 billion
dollars are generated annually from sex trafficking in the United States alone. Chris said,
Any country that competes to host the next major sporting event must be fully aware of
the human trafficking vulnerabilities associated with such events and the best practices
for protecting and rescuing the victims. I plan to use this to show that millennials should
be educated about how human trafficking is in places least expected, like the super bowl.

Audio/ Visual used on website

Hands Tied with Rope. One Europe, 24 Sept. 2014,

This picture shows two hands that are tied with rope. This is a close-up photo with a
black background. This was found on the One Europe website. I will use this photo for
design purposes on my website.
Human Trafficking Explained in 60 Seconds. 29 July 2015,
This video explains the basics of human trafficking in 60 seconds. It uses animations, and
shows good information. It explains that human trafficking currently has about 21 million
victims, and it takes place around the world. I am going to use this video to show the
basics of human trafficking on my website.
Portrait of Chris Smith . App.com, 16 Nov. 2015,

This photo is a portrait of Chris Smith. He has his hand raised, and he looks like he is
someone to do something. He is in an office. I will use this photo on my website for
Portrait of Chris Smith. Congressman Chris Smith, Jan. 2017,
This photo is a portrait of Chris Smith. It was found on U.S. Congressman Chris Smiths
Website, under his biography. I will use this photo for design purposes on my website.
Slavery Still Exsists. The Odyssey Online, 24 July 2016,
This photo shows hands that have painted words on them. The words read, slavery still
exsists. The photo is in black and white. I will use this photo for design purposes on my
Uzbekistani People in Forced Labor. The Korean Times, 23 June 2014,
This photo shows government-compelled forced labor in Uzbekistan. This took place
during the annual cotton harvest. The cotton is used to make Korean banknotes. I will use
this photo for design purposes on my website.
Women Carrying Bricks as Forced Labor. The London School of Economics and Political
Science, 10 June 2013,
This image shows women carrying bricks on their heads. Their clothing is dusty and dirty
from these bricks and they look like they have been working all day. This photo probably
was taken in South Asia. I will use this photo for design purposes on my website.
Young Indian Boy Is Rescued from Forced Labor. The Christian Science Monitor, 9 Sept.
This picture shows a young indian boy who is walked away after being rescued from
labor in a workers raid. This happend in New Delhi, India. It also happend because of
the Save the Childhood Movement. I am going to use this on my website for design