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. .

2009

624.954
38.728
-23


.
( 4 24.11. 2008 .).

:
. ., ,
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. ., ,
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624.954
38.728

ISBN 978-966-2252-06-4

. . , 2009



...
1.
..
1.1. ...
1.1.1. .
1.1.2. ..
1.2. ...
1.2.1. -
1.2.2. ...
1.2.3. ..
1.3. .
1.3.1. , ...
1.3.2. , ..
1.3.3. ,
1.4.
.
2.
2.1.
2.2. .
2.2.1. ..
2.2.2. ...
2.3. ...
2.3.1. .
2.3.2. .
2.4. .
2.4.1.
2.4.2. .
2.4.3. .
2.5. .

7
11
15
17
17
18
28
28
30
33
40
42
50
51
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57
59
61
61
65
70
70
72
79
79
90
92
93
3

3.

3.1.
3.2. ...
3.3. .
4.

4.1.
4.2. .
4.2.1. ...
4.2.2.
4.3. ...
4.4.
4.4.1. .
4.4.2. .
4.4.3. .
4.4.4.
5.
5.1. .
5.2. ...
.
.

95
97
105
106
115
117
119
119
125
132
133
133
139
143
147
151
153
154
159
160

Contents
Preface .
Introduction
Section 1. Vertical steel capacities for granular materials .
1.1. Modern capacity structures ...
1.1.1. Spheres of usage .
1.1.2. Main types ..
1.2. Traditional ways for creation of capacity structures .
1.2.1. Norm and handbook base ...
1.2.2. Existing designing conception
1.2.3. Remarks as for classification ..
1.3. Refusals and crashes of capacity structures ..
1.3.1. Mistakes connected with designing
1.3.2. Mistakes connected with manufacturing and assembling .
1.3.3. Mistakes connected with exploitation
1.4. Authors conception of form-making for capacity structures
Section 2. Choosing of form and setting of inner sizes of capacity structure ..
2.1. Existing recommendations
2.2. Economicing of inner form ...
2.2.1. Efficacy of round shape in plan ..
2.2.2. Efficacy of low shape in height ..
2.3. Optimization model of geometrical sizes .
2.3.1. Geometrical model .
2.3.2. Mathematical model ...
2.4. Special cases of usage for obtained solution .
2.4.1. Case of capacity structure with two parts
2.4.2. Case of capacity structure with three parts..
2.4.3. Case of capacity structure with many parts in pairs ...
2.5. Spheres of usage of obtained solutions .

7
11
15
17
17
18
28
28
30
33
40
42
50
51
52
57
59
61
61
65
70
70
72
79
79
90
92
93
5

Section 3. Choosing of constructive solution of capacity


structure ..
3.1. Peculiarities of existing constructive solution ..
3.2. Suggested constructive solutions ..
3.3. Authors panel constructive scheme .
Section 4. Theoretical researches of working of capacity
structure ..
4.1. Existing analytical ways
4.2. Numerical researches
4.2.1. Working of single panel .
4.2.2. Working of capacity structure
4.3. Remarks as for working of knot connections
4.4. Special theoretical tasks
4.4.1. Determination of degree of joint work for wall with
rigid rib .
4.4.2. Optimization of shape of rigid rib ..
4.4.3. Determination of the most stressed zone of construction
4.4.4. Determination of dynamic characteristics ..
Section 5. Practical usage of shape-making theory of capacity structure ....
5.1. Essence of shape-making theory ...
5.2. Essence of engineer method of shape-making ..
Conclusion ...
List of used literature .

95
97
105
106
115
117
119
119
125
132
133
133
139
143
147
151
153
154
159
160



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15

Section 1
Vertical steel capacities
for granular materials

In this section information of general character about vertical steel capacities for granular materials are given. It precedes to the row of modern conceptions connected with designing and creating of that constructions. The questions of classification of that type structures, the questions of existing norm documents regulated these processes and the review with the systematization of existing data about crashes and refusals
of capacity structures are presented here.
On the base of analysis of the given aspects the row of problems are
pointed. Their solving would be able to increase of reliability and durability of the steel capacity structures, and also to improve their exploitational characteristics.

16

1.1.
1.1.1.
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18


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57

Section 2
Choosing of form and
setting of inner sizes of
capacity structure

One of the often meetings tasks on the initial stage of designing of any
building construction is a task of choice and setting of its geometrical
form and basic sizes. This stage in many cases is made on the basis of
the accumulated experience by creations and exploitations of similar
constructions, quite often with the usage here of different empirical dependences for correlations of sizes of single elements.
Considering, allowing largely to formalize this question both in general
case and on the examples of row of special solutions for the most widespread in project practice types of capacity structures for granular materials is presented in this section. The given solutions are the elements of
geometrical shape-making of the capacity structures.

58

2.1.

,
.
I . . . [109, 110] - . . , , , , , , . ,

.
[45]


, [31], . ,
.
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[59, 111, 112]. , , [59, . 306] ,
.
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,
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59

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[113, 114], [115]
,
[116].
.

.
[60, 117] . . [118].
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. . . .
,

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60

2.2.


(
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.
2.2.1.

,
( ).
61

n,
, . . .
. 2.1
R.

. 2.1.
P (2.1) (2.2), :
A = n R 2 tg ,

(2.1)

P = 2 n R tg .

(2.2)

, (2.1) R (2.2). P(n) (2.3):


62

P( n ) = 2 A n tg ( / n ) .

(2.3)



. , ( ) .
.
Pn ( ) (n ) P. (2.4):
Pn
n tg ( / n )
=
.

(2.4)

n
( n = 2 ) .
. 2.1.
2.1

( )

n
3
4
5
6
8
12
20

Pn / P

1,286
1,128
1,075
1,050
1,021
1,012
1,004

63

, n 6 5 %. (n = 4) 13 %
, .

. Ak Pk , a b k.
(2.5) (2.6), :
Ak = k b 2 ,

(2.5)

Pk = 2 (k + 1) b .

(2.6)

, , (2.5) b (2.6), (2.7):


Pk ( k ) = 2 A

1+ k
k

(2.7)

, k 1 Pk P4.
(2.8):
Pk
1+ k
=
.
P4 2 k

(2.8)

. 2.2
k.
, k 2
,
, .
64

2.2

k
1,0
1,2
1,5
2,0
3,0
5,0
10,0

Pk /P4
1,000
1,004
1,021
1,061
1,155
1,342
1,739

( ,
) 2:1 ,
, , 1,197.
,
20 % . ,
.
2.2.2.

- .
. 2.2.
V
V1 V2. ,
. 2.2 (2.9):
2

2 2 a h1
4 h12
2 h1

+
+
+
V = V1 + V2 = h1 a +
h
a

. (2.9)
2

tg

tg

tg
3

65

. 2.2.
-

M
, t1 t2, (2.10):
M=

4 h1
sin

a + 1 t1 + 4 h2
tg

2 h1

a +
t 2 .
tg

(2.10)


h1 h2.
.
.
(2.9) h2. (2.11):

66

2 2 a h1
4 h12

+
V h1 a +
2
tg

tg

h2 =
2
.
2 h1

a +

tg

(2.11)

(2.11) (2.10),
M(h1) (2.12):
2 2 a h1
4 h12

V h1 a +
+
2

tg

3
tg

4 h1
h
t

M ( h1 ) =
a + 1 t1 + 4
2 . (2.12)
2 h1
sin
tg
a+
tg

, ,
, (2.13):
t1
sin

2h
4h
2Vt 2 tg

+
a + 1 t 2 a + 1
2
tg
tg

(
)
atg
h
+

32h13

t 2 12ah12 + 4a 2 h1 tg +
tg

3
=0
+
2
(atg + 2h1 )

(2.13)

,
(2.14) , :
h13 + (1,5atg )h12 + (0,75atg )h1 +

3a 3 tg 3 (t1 t 2 sin ) 6Vt 2 tg 2 sin


.
+

=0
8(3t1 2t 2 sin )
8(3t1 2t 2 sin )

(2.14)

67


[119].
(2.15) (2.16):
p =0,
q=

a 3 t 2 tg 3 sin + 6 V t 2 tg 2 sin
.
8 (3 t1 + 2 t 2 sin )

(2.15)
(2.16)

Q ,

.
,
(2.17):
x1 = 3 | q | .

(2.17)

, (2.14)
(2.18):
a 3 t 2 tg 3 sin + 6 V t 2 tg 2 sin
h1 = 3
0,5 a tg .
8 (3 t1 2 t 2 sin )

(2.18)

, (2.18) (2.19):
y1opt = 3

4 a 03 t 2 tg 3 sin + 3 t 2 V tg 2 sin
0,5 a tg .
4 (3 t1 2 t 2 sin )

(2.19)

h2 (2.11). .
68

(2.11) (2.20):

y 2opt

2
a 0 y12
y13

V 4 a 0 y1 +
+
2
tg

3
tg

=
.
2
y1

4 a 0 +

tg

(2.20)

, , , (2.19) (2.20),
.
.
,
.
-, - , - .

(2.21) (2.22), (2.19)
(2.20), :
y

opt
1

a 03 t 2 tg 3 sin + 3 t 2 V tg 2 sin
0,5 a tg . (2.21)
=
(3 t1 2 t 2 sin )

opt
2

V (a 02 y1 + a 0 y12 / tg + y13 / (3 tg 2 ))

(a 0 + y1 / tg )2

(2.22)

-,
,
. ,
(
, (2.9) , 69

,
(2.10) ), , . ,

.

2.3.

, .
2.3.1.

, k , (. 2.3).
,

n ,
, . , R(y),
.
Y.

: a , , , .;
i- Ri(yi), ; i-
ti, (,
,
70

). k ni. ,
, . ,
, . .

. 2.3.

71

V, .
, , , , ,
,
.
, ,

, (. . 2.3).
2.3.2.


yi .
, 2.4.

. 2.4.

72

, , , ,
, , R(y). ( . 2.4
) n-
(. 2.5).

. 2.5. i-

,
, C (y)= a0 +
R(y).
( . 3.3) A(y) = C2(y) tg (/n).
(2.23):

73

V1 = A( y ) dy = C 2 ( y ) tg ( / n) dy .

(2.23)

, n
(2.24):
y

V = n V1 = n C ( y ) tg ( / n )dy = n tg ( / n ) C 2 ( y )dy . (2.24)


2

, (2.25),
n (2.26):
2

dC ( y )
dC ( y )
S1 = B( y ) 1 +
dy , (2.25)
dy = 2 C ( y ) tg ( / n ) 1 +
dy
dy

0
0
2

dC ( y )
S = n S1 = 2 n tg ( / n ) C ( y ) 1 +
dy .
dy

(2.26)

, (2.26), t (2.27):
y

dC ( y )
Vm = S t = 2 t n tg ( / n ) C ( y ) 1 +
dy .
dy

(2.27)

, k ,
(2.28):
yi

dC ( y )
Vm = S t = 2 ti ni tg ( / ni ) Ci ( y i ) 1 + i i dy i . (2.28)
i =1
dy i
0
k

74

(2.28) ,
.
,
. (2.29), (2.30):
i

Ci ( yi ) = a0 + R j ( y j ) ,

(2.29)

C i ( y i ) = a 0i + Ri ( y i ) .

(2.30)

j =1

, , , , .
.
, , .. ,
,
. , ,
R(y).
, [120 122].
, .
, .
, .

75


[119,
123], . L (2.31):
n

L = F + i Oi ,

(2.31)

i =1

F ;
i ;
Oi , ,
0.
,
(2.31) .
(2.31)
(2.32),
F (2.28),
(2.24), ,
k :
k

i =1

i =1

Fm = S i t i = 2

yi

dC ( y )
t i n i tg ( / n i ) C i ( y i ) 1 + i i dy i
dy i
0

yi
k

+ n i tg ( / n i ) C i2 ( y i )dy i V
0
i =1

.(2.32)

, ,
,
.
,
, (
) . , . ,
76

.
,
(2.32) . , , , . .
(2.32) , tg ( / n) , .. (2.33):

/ ni = / 2 + N , N Z.

(2.33)

,
, i- ,
2/3, 2/5, 2/7 2/(2N + 1). , , , .
. Fm /yi = 0
Fm / = 0.
(2.27) , , (2.32). ,
i- yi
,
,
,
(2.34).

, ,
, , .
77

2
dR ( y )
F

i
i i +
m = 2 n tg( / n ) t (a +
R j ( y j )) 1+

i
i
i
0
y
dy
j =1
i

i
2
y

dR ( y ) k
m
dR ( y )
+ 2 i i n tg( / n )t 1+ m m dy +
m m
m
m
dy
dy

0
i m=i +1
m

dR2 ( y ) k
i
2
+ n tg( / n )(a + R ( y )) + i i n tg( / n ) y +
i
i 0
j j
m
m m
dy
j =1
i m=i +1
y
k
dR ( y ) k
m
i
i
+ 2
n tg( / n ) (a + R ( y ))dy = 0
.(2.34)
m
l l
0
m
m
dy
l
l
i
=
1
,

1
m
i
=
+
0
i

,
,
, , , .
, ,
, (2.35):
2

+
n
tg
(

/
n
)
a
R
(
y
)

i
i

0 j j dyi V = 0 .
i =1
j =1
0

yi

(2.35)

(2.34) (2.35) . ,
. ,
yi. ,
, .

yi, ,
, Ri(yi), (2.34) (2.35).
78

:
.
.
,
, [124 126].

2.4.
, .
, , .
2.4.1.

. , :
. , ,

.
()
.
(. 2.6) ,
, :
k = 2; n1 = n2 = 4; , , (2.36), :
79

R1 ( y1 ) = y1 / tg ,

R2 ( y 2 ) = 0 ,

(2.36)

-
, a0 .

. 2.6.
-

, a0,
t1 t2, V
.
(2.33)
,
(2.37) (2.38):
F
y
y
m = 8 (a + 1 ) t + 4 (a + 1 )2 = 0
,
0 tg 2
0 tg
y
2

F
y
8t
8t
m =
2 y +
1 (a + 1 ) +
0 tg
2
tg
sin
y
1
.
8a y
y
8 y y
2
0
2
1
2
1
(4 (a +
)=0
) +
+
0 tg
2
tg

tg

(2.37)

(2.38)

(2.35) (2.39):
80

F
a y3
y3
m = 4 (a 2 y + 0 1 +
1 ) +
0
1

tg
3 tg 2

.
2a y y
y2 y
0 1 2 + 1 2 ) V = 0
(4 a 2 y +
0 2
tg
tg 2

(2.39)

, (2.38) (2.39),
, , (2.40):
3 3
2
opt 3 4 a0 tg t2 sin + 3 t2 tg sin V
y
=
a tg .
1
0
4 (3 t 2 t sin )
1
2

(2.40)

,
(2.39) ,
,
(2.41):
3
opt 3 4 a 0 tg + 3 V
y
=
.
2
4 ( K tg + 3 K 2 )

(2.41)


(2.42):
K=

t 2 cos
.
t1 t 2 sin

(2.42)

, , (2.41) (2.43),
(2.20) .

81

(2.40) (2.41) , ,
.
. V = 120 3,

t1 = t2 = 6 , a0 = 0,3 , = 60.
Vm y1
y2 . 2.7 2.8, .
.
4,5
Vm, 3

4
3,5
3
2,5
2
1,5
1
0,5
0
0,00

2,00

4,00

6,00

8,00

10,00

y1,

. 2.7.

, ,
( (2.40) (2.41)) : y1opt = 5,17 , y2opt = 0,74 . , , . . ,
-
, (.
. 2.8).
82

2
1,8
1,6
1,4
1,2
1
0,8
0,6
0,4
0,2
0
-5

10

15

20

0,68
0,67
0,66
0,65
0,64
0,63
-0,2

0,3

0,8

1,3

1,8

. 2.8.

, a0 = 0, (2.40) (2.41)
, , (2.43) (2.44):

83

2 sin V

tg
3
opt 3
2
=
y
1
4 (3 t 2 t sin ) ,
1
2

opt
2

V 4 y13 /(3 tg 2 )
=
.
4 ( y1 / tg ) 2

(2.43)

(2.44)

, ,
(2.43) (2.44) , (2.40) (2.41), : y1opt = 5,69
( 5,70 (2.40)), y2opt =
0,88 ( 0,74 ). (2.43) (2.44)
.
. 2.7 2.8 ,
, . , ,
, , 10 , 2,30 . 0,65 3 ( )
0,92 3, 40 %. .
, .
. 2.9 2.10.
, ,
.
. 2.11 - = t1 / t2. = 2 , . 2.7
. 2.11, , = 0,5
84

. 2.11, . , .

. 2.9.

. 2.10.

85

4,5
4

Vm, 3

3,5
3
2,5
2
1,5
1
0,5
0
0,00

2,00

4,00
6,00
y1,

8,00

10,00

Vm, 3

8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0,00

2,00

4,00

6,00

8,00
10,00
y1,

)
. 2.11.
:
) = 2, ) = 0,5

86

,
, -
(. 2.12).

. 2.12.
-

( a0 = 0) (
(2.45) (2.46), ) .
,
.
2
opt 3 3 t 2 tg sin V
y
=
1
(3 t 2 t sin ) ,
1
2

(2.45)

V 4 y13 /(3 tg 2 )
=
.
( y1 / tg ) 2

(2.46)

opt
2

,

87

, (2.43), (2.44)
(2.45), (2.46) .
, , , (2.45) (2.46) : y1opt = 6,17 , y2opt = 1,17 .
, ,
- ,
-
, , (2.45) (2.46),
- .
- ,
, 90 - 0 < < 90 (.
2.13).

. 2.13.
-
(0 < < 90)


(2.47) (2.48)
:
88

y1opt = 3

y2opt

cos
1
3t tg 2 V
2
cos
3

tg
cos
+ 4 t
1
4t 1

1 tg
2 cos

=3

4 ( K tg tg + 3 K tg + 3 K tg +1)
2

(2.47)

tg tg 2
1
2
tg

tg

3V tg 2
2

(2.48)

(2.49):

K=

t 2 cos t1 cos
.
t1 sin t 2 sin

(2.49)

( 90) (2.43) (2.44), , .



(2.50) (2.51)
, :

y1opt = tg K y 2opt a 0
y2opt

=3

4 a 03 tg tg 2 + 3V tg 2
4 ( K tg tg + 3 K tg + 3 K tg +1)
2

(2.50)
.

(2.51)

, , 90, (2.47) (2.50) 4 .

89

2.4.2.

(. 2.14),

, , , (2.34),
(2.52 2.55):
F
t y
t y
m = 8 ( 1 1 + 2 2 + t3 y3 ) +
y
sin tg
sin tg
tg
1
, (2.52)
2 y y
y
2 y1 y 3 2 y 2 y 3
y 33
2
1
2
1
) +
+
+
+
)=0
4((
2
2

tg

tg

tg

tg

tg
tg

tg
2
F
m = 8 t 2 y1 + 4 y1 = 0
,
tg
y 2
tg 2

(2.53)

F
m = 8 ( t 3 y 1 + t 3 y 3 ) + 4( y 1 + y 3 ) 2 = 0
,
y 3
tg sin sin tg
tg tg

(2.54)

F
y3
y 2 y2 y 2 y
m = 4( 1 + 1
+ 12 3+

tg
3 tg tg 2
y1 y 32
y 33
+
+
) V = 0
tg tg 3 tg 2

(2.55)

, , . , = 60, = 45, V = 200 3, t1 = t2 = t3 = 1


, : y1opt = 6,17 ,
y2opt = 0,29 , y3opt = 1,48 .
90

. 2.14.

-


.

, 2.3 . , y2opt 0 - -0,29,
y2opt = 0 . ,
, : y1opt =
6,43 , y3opt = 1,22 . ,

.
, , , -
.

91

2.4.3.

, . 1.3
. k ,
. , . 2.13, 90 < < 180 (. 2.15).

. 2.15.
-
(90 < < 180)

(2.50) (2.51) ,
,
(2.56):
K =

1
.
tg

(2.56)

(2.51)
(2.57). ( )
(2.58):
92

y2opt

=3

4 a 03 tg tg 3 + 3V tg 3 ,
4 (tg tg )

y2opt

tg
.
3
=3
4 (tg tg )

(2.57)

(2.58)

, ,
, 90,
(2.46). , .

2.5.

, .
-,
, .
ti.
, ,
, ,
.
-, ti ( = 1), ,
. , .
93

-,
, . , , , , , , , .
2.16,
.

. 2.16.

, -, ,
,
, . ,
, .
94

,
, ,
. ,
, -.
.
, .

95

Section 3
Choosing of constructive solution of
capacity structure

The no less important, than in previous cases, direction is examined in


this section. It is connected with the improvement and modernization of
the existing constructive solution of steel capacities for granular materials. Similar questions were affected and continue to be affected both in
a number of engineers-designers, engaged in direct creation of capacity
structures and by leading domestic specialists-theorists. An analysis of
the such offered approaches is executed and their basic weak points are
specified.
Suggestions and recommendations of the author, being the basis of constructive shape-making of capacity structures, are separately considered.

96

3.1.

, ,
,
.

(. 1 ) . , , ,
, (. 3.1).

. 3.1.
:
1 , 2 ,
3 , 4 ,
5 , 6

97


. , ,
, [7, 36, 109, 110]. ,
.

.
, ,
(),
[42 47].
(4 - 16 ), ,
.

: ().

, ;

,
.
, .

, . .
(, ) (, ., , [60, 117]).
,
.

, ,
, 98

. ,
.
- , .

. , ,
[47].
, , ,
. , , . , .
1
,
[91, 127, 128], [60, 118], [2, 129 - 140], , .
, .
- . , .
, . , ,
, .
,
, .
99

,
.
. (
),
. ,
,
,
10 .
- , .
. , , (. 3.2), .
,
,


.
, ,
. , , , , . .

, -.

100

. 3.2.


, , , .
,
- , - .
,
, .



.
101

, ,
, . ,
,
.

.

, , , .

. , ,
. , ,

,
,
. -, ,
.
, (., [141]).
, ,
.
,
, ,
. ,

. 102

. , ,
, .
, , , , . 3.3.

. 3.3.

. ,
[142 - 144]
(3.1) : n ,
n , n2 :
Fr Lr-2 = r = r,

Lr = wr,

(3.1)
103

Fr ,
Lr ,
r ,
r ,
wr .
,
,
,
.
,

.
, , ,


:
- ;
- ,

;
- ;
- .
, , .
.

104

3.2.

,
, .
, , . , , ,
. ,
, .
- :
- [145 - 162]. 300 ,
,
, ,
[163];
- , , [164 167] [168 - 171].
,
,

.
[172 - 174]. ,

.
105

,
. , [175 - 178]. , , .
, ,

. , . , , .
. V
. , - , .
, , ,
,
. ,
, -, - .

3.3.

. .
106

. 3.4. . . .

, , [179 - 181]. 2 3
, [182], 5 6
[183].
.
, .
,
, . , , (
)
. .
(.
3.5) , ,
.
, , , 3 - 4 . ,
.
. , ,
.
.
107

)
. 3.4. ()
():
1 , 2 ,
3 , 4

108

. 3.5.

,

.

.
,
10 , ,
() ,
[184 187]. , , . ,
(. 3.6).

109

. 3.6. :
1 , 2 ,
3


,
6 - 12 . , . ,
.
,
, ,
, . , , ( 3 - 3,5 ),
, , , ; ,
,
.
, ,
, . ,
.
,
.
110

. ,
.
, 3 - 4 . ,
,
,
. , ,
[188 191].


, ,

.
,
. 3.7.
, , (. 3.8).
, , ,
, ,
, :
- , ;
- ,
;
- ;
-
, ;
111

. 3.7.
:
1 , 2 ,
3 ,
4, 5

112

)
. 3.8. ()
() :
1 , 2 ,
3 , 4

113

-
, ;
-
, ;
- .
, , ,
, , , ,
.
, ,
, ,

.
[192 194]

, .

114

,
, , ,
, .

. , ,
, .
,
.

115

Section 4
Theoretical researches of working of
capacity structure

As is generally known, any new idea can be used in practical activity of


man, especially such responsible, as creation of building constructions,
only in that case if the consequences of its introduction can be forecasted. The authors conception of the panel constructive scheme of capacity structures presented in the preceding section also is not an exception. Thats why it this section the aggregate of theoretical considerations is presented. They allow not only to estimate character and features of work of the panel constructive scheme, but also to the capacity
structure in general as such.
In the section the solving of row of private theoretical tasks is also presented, which can appear useful during conducting of practical calculations of steel capacity structures.

116

4.1.

,

.
, ,
[37 47].


.
,
[175 178].
[42, 43].
[195],

.
, , [196], , ,
.
, ,

, .


. ,
[60, 117].
- 117

[197 - 201]. - .
() [202 210] .
, [211
222].
, ,
[223],
.
[140] .
, , , , .


. . [118, 173]. , , .
,
, . [224]
.

118

4.2.
, ,
, ,
,

.
,
.
, , SCAD for Windows [225, 226]. ,
, .
4.2.1.

, , .
- . , .
. ,
.
,
-
, .
.

4 6 .
119

,
. .
[129 140].
. 4.1 - () . , . . . 4.1
.
,
, , (6
).
. 4.2. ,
, (. . 4.1).
, ,
( )

. ,
.
, (.
4.3) ,
.
, ( ,
).
. 4.4.

(. 4.1) , ,
(. . 4.1).
120

1,57 111,95

222,33 332,71

111,95 222,33

332,71 443,09

NE4 /2 1

. 4.1. () ()

121

4,18 128,71

253,24 377,77

128,71 253,24

377,77 502,3

NE4 /2 1

. 4.2. () ()

122

-452,94 21,05

495,05 969,04

21,05 495,05

969,04 1443,03

S1 /2 1

. 4.3. () ()

123

-112,22 -28,6

55,03 138,65

-28,6 55,03

138,65 222,28

S1 /2 1

. 4.4. () ()


124

4.1



,
,

443

56

1625

502

97

1640

1443

30

1670

222

30

1730

,

. ,
, .. - , , 3 .
4.2.2.


-
. ,
.
125

4
. , [47]: 66 ,
2 , 4,6 ,
60. .
.
:
- 1 () , .
6 ,
1401409 . - 9020 ;
- 2
. 6 ,
201 14-2-685-86.
- 9220 ;
- 3 , V- 2502504 .
6 . - 8920 ;
- 4 .
3 , 3
4501004 . - 9180 .
. 4.5 4.8
.
.
, .
.
126

)
-172,09 78,45

328,99 579,53

78,45 328,99

579,53 830,08

S1 / 2 1

)
. 4.5. ()
()
1
127

)
1,1 6 501,81

1002 ,45 1503,09

501,81 1002,45

1503 ,09 2003,73

N E4 / 2 1

)
. 4.6. ()
()
2
128

)
0,2 5 141,5 7

282,88 424,19

141,57 282,88

424,19 565,51

N E4 / 2 1

)
. 4.7. ()
()
3
129

)
0,25 6 5,3 8

130,52 195,65

65,38 130,52

195,65 260,79

N E4 / 2 1

)
. 4.8. ()
()
4
130

4- .
4- , .
, 5.
4.2
.
4.2

()

- - - - ,
-

1
205
360
105
145
32
2
135
470
270
245
45
3
65
155
80
135
20
4
40
75
12


.
-, 2, , . ,
, ,
.
.
131

-, 3,
V- , ,
, 25-30 %. ;
, -, - 4,
, 30 - 35 %,
.
3 .

. , , , ,
.
,

,
.

4.3.
. ,
,

.
132

.
[188
190].


.


,
[227 - 231].
,
, , .
.
, ,

.

4.4.
,

.
4.4.1.



, , ,
, 133

,
.
[232 - 237],
,
.

, 60 [59] 30 [42 - 47]. . ,
.
.
t,
( 4.9 ). , . ,
,
. k t, - .
k
. , OZ .
( . 4.9 )
. , c1 c2.
c1 (4.1):
0,5 k t 3 + h s (0,5 h + t ) + b d (0,5 d + h + t )
c1 =
,
k t2 + h s + bd

. 4.9.
134

(4.1)

. 4.9.


k (4.2):
k=

h s (0,5 h + t c1 ) + b d (0,5 d + h + t + c1 )
.
t 2 c1 0,5 t 3

(4.2)

c1. , , , - .
k .
, . , . -
,
(. 4.10).
- .

.
135

. 4.10. ,


, , , ,
. k . .
MA MB. (4.3) (4.4)
lin
M z (4.5):

136

2w
2w
M x = D ( 2 + 2 ) = M xlin + M zlin ,
x
y

(4.3)

2w
2w
M z = D ( 2 + 2 ) = M zlin + M xlin ,
y
x

(4.4)

M zlin =

Mz My
1 2

(4.5)

- .

, lin
lin
, M z M z .
, ,
,

(4.6) (4.7), :
lin
M Az
A =
c1 ,
I

(4.6)

lin
M Bz
B =
c2 ,
I

(4.7)

.
, c1 + c 2 = c , (4.6) (4.7)
c1 (4.8):

A M Bzlin
c1 =
c.
lin
lin
+ B M Az
A M Bz

(4.8)

c1 (4.2), k, ,

.
137



,
, k,
. 4.3.
4.3
k

0,4
0,6
0,8
1,0
1,2
1,4
1,6

,
80
120
150
21
41
55
40
68
90
58
95
123
76
121
154
90
145
183
110
166
212
122
190
238

, , .
k ,

.
, . 4.3 , [238] 109
119,
, .
,
k = 30,
, ,
.
, , .
138

4.4.2.

, ,
. .
.
t, ( 4.11
). .

, .

. 4.11.

139


,
, ,
. , , , , . ,
.
. Xc,
(4.9):
(l12 + l1 l 2 ) sin
Xc =
,
2 l1 + l 2

(4.9)

. 4.11.
, ,
(4.10):
I zc

2 A0 t l13 sin 2 3 t l14 sin 2


=
,
3 A0

(4.10)

A0 ,
A0 = A / t .
, l1
.
.
140


(4.11):
I zc
= 0.
l1

(4.11)


(4.12) (4.13):
A
,
2t
l2 = 0 .

l1 =

(4.12)
(4.13)

,
.
.


.

(4.14):

I zc
= 0.
(sin )

(4.14)

. (4.15) (4.16):
2 A
,
3 t
A
l2 =
.
3 t
l1 =

(4.15)
(4.16)

,
.
141

(4.17):

= 0.

(4.17)


.
, .

.
, ,
,
(4.18) (4.19), :
A = 2 l1 t + l 2 t ,

(4.18)

P = 2 l1 + l 2

(4.19)

.
,
, .
,
, .
,
, .
, ,
, -
.
142

4.4.3.



, .
, , , .
,

.
(. 4.12).

. 4.12.

Mx lx (4.20):
143

M x = Px l x / R ,

(4.20)

R , 8
, 12
14 - ;
Px y,
(4.21):
Px = C y ,

(4.21)

, - .
y (4.22):
l x = l 0 2( h0 y ) ctg ,

(4.22)

. 4.12.
(4.21) (4.22) (4.20),
y ,
(4.23) (4.24):
y1 = h0 + 0,5 l 0 tg ,

(4.23)

y 2 = ( h0 + 0,5 l 0 tg ) / 3 .

(4.24)

,
, ,
.
, , . 4.13,. , y1 ,
. y2,
144

.
.
(4.25):
y 2 = ( h0 + 0,5 l 0 tg ) / 2 ,

(4.25)

,
.
Nx
. 4.13,.
,

, 1/3 1/2
( . 4.13 ). , , , 10 %
,
1/3 .
, . 6 6
, h0 = 0,6 0,4 .
,
= 60,
4,6 .
.
. 4.4. , , , .

145

)
. 4.13.
()
()

146

4.4

y,
0,6
1,0
1,4
1,8
2,2
2,6
3,0
3,4
3,8

x,

26,2
33,1
49,1
47,7
41,2
34,5
24,8
16,4
80,4

Nx,

36,5
58,9
64,8
69,2
75,9
76,7
70,9
58,9
42,2

36,4
256,7
375,4
366,9
325,9
270,4
203,4
133,8
69,2

,
, . , , .
4.4.4.


. [239 241].

.
-,
. , , 147

.

, .
, , , [242], (
) . , ,
,
. ,
, , , . ,
2 3
.

, , , [243]. ,
,
.


. 15 18 9
. 1000 3 .
, , . - . 4.14. ( , ),
.
148

. 4.14.

[2]. .

,
. :
- 1 ;
- 2 1,5 ;
- 3 .
. 4.5.

149

4.5

1
2
3

1- ,

9,83
9,48
9,66
7,17

2- ,

10,50
10,11
10,23
8,52

3- ,

15,02
15,02
14,39
12,11

, ,
. , , . , .
,
.

150

,
, .
.

151

Section 5
Practical usage of shape-making theory
of capacity structure
Material of the section is in certain sense key for the monograph, as the
integral unites everything about what talked in the previous sections. An
accent in exposition is done on the practical side of application of considered before theoretical models and got results in direct practical activity.

152

5.1.


. , , . , .
1.4 ,

. 2 4 , . , , , ,
.

.
,
-
.
,
.

. , .


, [94].
.
153

5.2.
.
, , . , .
.
[244], .
.
.

,
, ,
.

.
[42 - 47]. , , . .
.
154


( ) .
.

. , -, .
,
,
- .
, .
, , , 10

, , 20 .
, [94]
. , , .
, [94] .


, , , , .
3.3. , .
, , 90.
.

2
.
155


, ( = 1) .
- ,

.
, , , , ,
- . ,
, .
,
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. , , , . , ,
, .
.

.
,
,
, , .
. , . ,
, , [39 - 47].
2 - 3
156

[64, 76 - 85],
[94].
,

. , , . - .
.

,
, , . ,
, [42 - 47]. , ,
3 .
, ,
. -

, . .
,
, ,
V- .
.
.
-
()
, . 157

. , ,
[2].
,

. , , , .
, , . ,
,
,
[42 - 47]. , 4 .
, , , [245 - 247],

[188 190, 230, 231]. .

158


,

, ,
50 60 %, 90 %,
.

,
.
, , , . , , , , .
.
, ,
,
[248 146], .

159

1. . . / . . , . . , . . . : , 1989. 66 .
2. . . -
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5. . . / . .
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6. . . -
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7. . / . . .: , 1930. 121 .
8. . .
/ . . . .: ,
1953. 272 .
9. . .
/ . . , . . , . . . .:
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10. / . . . . .: ,
1962. 197 .
11. . .

/ . . . - .: , 1972. - 208 .
12. . . / . . . .:
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160

13. / .
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14. . . / . . , . . , . . . .:
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