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Automotive painting processes - today and

tomorrow

Dr. Michael Hilt


Research Society for Pigments and Coatings
Department Coatings and Pigments
Dr. Michael Hilt, +49 711 970 3820, Automotive painting processes today and tomorrow 2011-08-22.ppt

Content
Introduction

Automotive painting - where does it come from?

Automotive painting today

Building blocks for future processes

Summary

Dr. Michael Hilt, +49 711 970 3820, Automotive painting processes today and tomorrow 2011-08-22.ppt

Introduction - Closed chain in painting technology due


to integration of FPL (research institute) into
FRAUNHOFER IPA

Raw
materials

Binders
Pigments
Additives
Thinners,
solvents

Paint

Painting technology

Coating

Painting material

Recipies
Dispersion
Rheology
Colouration

Finished surface

Adhesion
Corrosion

Substrate

pretreatment
Application
Drying, curing

protection
Durability
Functionality

Dr. Michael Hilt, +49 711 970 3820, Automotive painting processes today and tomorrow 2011-08-22.ppt

Introduction - Coating components


Solvents
Paint

Additives

Pigments

Dr. Michael Hilt, +49 711 970 3820, Automotive painting processes today and tomorrow 2011-08-22.ppt

Binders

Introduction - Topographical classification of coating


Top surface properties
properties

Light reflection
Hardness
Scratch resistance
Surface slip
Repellent properties
Erosion resistance

Film/Air Interface

Bulk film properties


Film
Interface
Substrate

Film/substrate
interface properties
Adhesion
Durability
Anticorrosion

Opacity
Flexibility
Diffusion
Chemical resistance
Water uptake
Weather resistance

Source: S. K. GOSH, Functional Coatings

Dr. Michael Hilt, +49 711 970 3820, Automotive painting processes today and tomorrow 2011-08-22.ppt

Automotive Painting - where does it come from?


Protection and decoration of wood and steel

Natural oil resins, alkyd resins


Protection and decoration of metals

Nitro cellulose resins


Nitro cellulose combination resins
Alkyd melamine resins
Acrylic melamine resins
Polymer dispersions
Epoxy resins
PU resins

Protection and decoration of plastics

See metals (last three)


Dr. Michael Hilt, +49 711 970 3820, Automotive painting processes today and tomorrow 2011-08-22.ppt

Automotive Painting - where does it come from? - External influences on a coated car surface
Physical influences

Chemical influences

Mechanics
Scratches
Stone chips
Car care materials
Abrasion

Fuel, brake fluid, washer fluid


Care care materials
Environmental chemicals
Tree sap
Sour" residues
Bird excrements
Other materials (metal dust,
carbon, ...)

Radiation (sun light)


Temperature change

Coating surface
FORSCHUNGSGESELLSCHAFT
FR PIGMENTE UND LACKE E.V.

Dr. Michael Hilt, Automotive OEM Coatings, Process and Materials 2011-05-16.ppt

Automotive painting today - Consumption data

Film build
in m

Material type

110
100

2K-Klarlack
80

60

WBL 2
WBL 1

Usage in kg

on car in kg

Relative cost in %

Clearcoat

2.1

1.0

25

Basecoat waterborne

4.0

0.5

25

Primer surfacer

2.5

0.8

15

Electrocoat

4.5

3.0

19

Seam sealing

6.0

6.0

13

Wax

1.0

1.0

Sum

20.1

12.3

100

WBL

40
Wasserfller

20

KTL
0

Dr. Michael Hilt, +49 711 970 3820, Automotive painting processes today and tomorrow 2011-08-22.ppt

Automotive painting today - Cost of car painting

Main focus

Improvement or keeping of product quality and performance


Reduction of process cost
Source:

Dr. Michael Hilt, +49 711 970 3820, Automotive painting processes today and tomorrow 2011-08-22.ppt

Automotive painting today - Classical painting process


Online
plastic
parts
Body
in
white

Inline
plastic
parts

Offline
plastic
parts

Body
washer

Pretreatment

Electrocoat

Baking
oven

Sanding

Seam
sealing

Baking
oven

Primer
surfacer

Baking
oven

Sanding

Basecoat

Drying
oven

Clearcoat

Baking
oven

Sanding,
polishing

Spot
repair

Body
repair

Dr. Michael Hilt, +49 711 970 3820, Automotive painting processes today and tomorrow 2011-08-22.ppt

Wax

Assembly

Automotive painting today - Alternatives for preprocesses - Reasons

Development of alternative products for zinc phosphating


Goals

Lower environmental impact concerning Nickel and phosphate sludge


Lower process costs
To be used as multi metal pretreatment
Constant quality

Classification of Nickel containing products was further enforced


Trication phosphating is classified as being carcinogenic
Change of water relevance for phosphate concentrates from WGK2 to WGK3, for
phosphate bathes from WGK1 to WGK2
Recommendations of IHO for classification of nickel containing products
R22
Health risk at swallowing
R36/38
Irritant for eyes and skin
R40 (Cat. 3)
Irreversible damage possible (carcinogenic effect supposed)
R42/43
Sensitization due to respiration and skin contact possible
R50/53
Very poisonous for water organisms
Concerning the increase in WGK existing facilities do not needed not be changed. This
situation changes, if changes are made which must be approved by the authorities.

Dr. Michael Hilt, +49 711 970 3820, Automotive painting processes today and tomorrow 2011-08-22.ppt

Automotive painting today - Alternatives for preprocesses - Overview


CHEMETALL: Oxsilan process

Thin layers of silanes with intermediate metals

HENKEL: Bonderite NGC (Tec Talis)

Thin layers of polymers and zirconium oxides

PPG: Zircobond process

Inorganic system with zircon oxide and additives


All processes can be used for multi metal treatment

Dr. Michael Hilt, +49 711 970 3820, Automotive painting processes today and tomorrow 2011-08-22.ppt

Automotive painting today - Alternatives for preprocesses - New development Oxsilan (CHEMETALL) (I)
Spray or dip process

2 min process time

Solution in DI water

pH ca. 4

2 products

Tank control: pH, conductivity, material content

Room temperature

Silane treatment
(Greenfield)
Cleaning

Purge
DI purge

Silane

Purge
DI purge

Cleaning

Purge
DI purge

Cleaning

Purge Phosphatization
DI purge

Silan treatment
(Brownfield)
Silane

Purge
DI purge

Empty

Zink phosphating
as at today
Purge
Passivation
DI purge

Dr. Michael Hilt, +49 711 970 3820, Automotive painting processes today and tomorrow 2011-08-22.ppt

Automotive painting today - Alternatives for preprocesses - New development Bonderite NGC (HENKEL)
Zinc phosphating

Cleaning

Purge

Activation

Phosphatization

DI purge

Bonderite NGC process

Cleaning

Purge

Bonderite
NGC

DI purge

Dr. Michael Hilt, +49 711 970 3820, Automotive painting processes today and tomorrow 2011-08-22.ppt

DI purge

Passivation

DI purge

Automotive painting today - Alternatives for preprocesses - New development Zircobond (PPG)

Dr. Michael Hilt, +49 711 970 3820, Automotive painting processes today and tomorrow 2011-08-22.ppt

Automotive painting today - Electrocoats (I)


Basic requirements and competitive factors

Corrosion protection
Edge protection: Similar deposition on steel, galvanized steel,
Al etc
High throwing power for inner sections of the body and surface
smoothness at low film builds
Process reliability
Contaminant resistance
No entry markings
Low consumption in kg
High under bake tolerance
Dr. Michael Hilt, +49 711 970 3820, Automotive painting processes today and tomorrow 2011-08-22.ppt

Source:

Automotive painting today - Technology trends in


preprocesses - Autophoresis

Currentless deposition of the coating


Equal film build inside and outside
Very good edge coating
Overpaintable
Autophoreseis is in use worldwide in the
general industry for steel
Use for multi metal substrates in process
(Aquence - HENKEL)

Possible substitute for


pretreatment and
electrocoat, significant
process shortening

Process until now


Cleaning

Purge

Activation Phosph.

Purge

Purge

Purge

Oven

CDP

Purge

Oven

Possible new process


Cleaning

Purge

ACC

Reactive
purge

Dr. Michael Hilt, +49 711 970 3820, Automotive painting processes today and tomorrow 2011-08-22.ppt

Automotive painting today - Technology trends in


preprocesses - Centegra (PPG)
Substitution of phosphating and electrocoat by fusion of both layers
Simultaneous electrochemical deposition of an inorganic and an organic layer as corrosion

protection primer
Process simplification by reduction of single process steps in the preprocess
Useable for multi metal substrates
UV stable coating, therefore useable in primer-less paint structures
Intense research with combinations of intermediate metals and new polymers, in parallel

development of an optimized cleaner system


Inorganic layer

Organic layer
Barrier properties

against H2O diffusion


Levelling
Primer for top coat

C entegra
Substrate

Dr. Michael Hilt, +49 711 970 3820, Automotive painting processes today and tomorrow 2011-08-22.ppt

Metal reaction
Adhesion to substrate
Corrosion protection by

influence on corrosion
mechanism

Automotive painting today - Primer surfacers


Basic requirements and competitive factors

Smoothness (good levelling)


Stone chip resistance

Surface hardness for sanding purposes


Adhesion to CED and topcoat
UV-protection of CED
UV-durability
Process reliability
Contaminant resistance

Source:

Dr. Michael Hilt, +49 711 970 3820, Automotive painting processes today and tomorrow 2011-08-22.ppt

Automotive painting today - Waterborne basecoats

Main requirements and competitive factors for effect colours

Process reliability
Circulation pipe stability
Reproducible colour and effect
No mottling
High smoothness (good levelling)
High hiding power (low film build)
No colour fading (weather stability)
Repairability, inline and in field
Short flash off
Clearcoat compatibility

Source:

Dr. Michael Hilt, +49 711 970 3820, Automotive painting processes today and tomorrow 2011-08-22.ppt

Automotive painting today - Integrated waterborne


basecoats (I)

Rastatt
process
(since 1996)

Pretreatment

E-coat
+ oven

Seam
sealing
+ oven

Blower/
CR

Integrated
process 1
(IP 1)

WBBC 1

Intermediate
oven 1

WBBC 2

Integrated
process 2
(IP 2)

WBBC 1

WBBC 2

Intermediate
oven

WBBC1/2

Slurry
+ oven

A-, Bclass

Cavity
prot.

Intermediate
oven 2

A-, Bclass

Mini
Oxford,
BMW
Spartanb.

Dr. Michael Hilt, +49 711 970 3820, Automotive painting processes today and tomorrow 2011-08-22.ppt

Automotive painting today - Integrated waterborne


basecoats (II)
Integrated
process 1
(IP 1)

Integrated
process 2
(IP 2) Oxford

Integrated
process 2
ideal (IP 2)

WBBC 1

O
E

Intermediate
oven 1

WBBC 2

WBBC 2

I
P

O
E

WBBC 2

WBBC 1

WBBC 2

I
P

O
E

O
P

WBBC 1

WBBC 1

WBBC 2

WBBC 2

I
E

O
E

I
E

O
E

Intermediate
oven

Intermediate
oven 2

A-, Bclass
today

Slurry

Technically
implemented

2p-clearcoat

Intermediate
oven

2p-clearcoat

Ideal

WBBC 1

Material

I, O
E, P

Inside, Outside
Electrostatic, Pneumatic

Dr. Michael Hilt, +49 711 970 3820, Automotive painting processes today and tomorrow 2011-08-22.ppt

Automotive painting today - New colours and new


effects

Dr. Michael Hilt, +49 711 970 3820, Automotive painting processes today and tomorrow 2011-08-22.ppt

Automotive painting today - Clearcoats

Source:

Dr. Michael Hilt, +49 711 970 3820, Automotive painting processes today and tomorrow 2011-08-22.ppt

Building blocks for future processes - Technology trends


Issue

Performance

Cost

Environment

Ultrathin pretreatment

Ecoat Pb- and Sn-free


Ecoat low bake

Ecoat with reduced weight loss

Basecoat application 100% ESTA

Integrated (shorter) processes

Clearcoat scratch resistant

Clearcoat UV curable

Source:

Dr. Michael Hilt, +49 711 970 3820, Automotive painting processes today and tomorrow 2011-08-22.ppt

Building blocks for future processes - FRAUNHOFER


institute for manufacturing engineering in Stuttgart Fields of activity in paint and coating technology

Basics

Process
chain

Education
and training

Process chain for coating research and application


Basic research - Application oriented research - Analytics - Services

Coating
components

Coating
materials
(paint)

Coating
(process)
technology

Coating

University of Stuttgart
Institutes of physics - Chemistry - Manufacturing engineering Materials sciences

Dr. Michael Hilt, +49 711 970 3820, Automotive painting processes today and tomorrow 2011-08-22.ppt

Building blocks for future processes - FRAUNHOFER


R&D activities - Drivers for new coating systems

New coating
properties

Novel approaches with organic and/or inorganic

(nanoscale) coatings and coating components


Novel corrosion protection coatings

Coating curing

UV curing clearcoats
Coatings with reduced curing temperature

New material- und


coating systems

Optimized multilayer coating systems


Bio-based coatings

Dr. Michael Hilt, +49 711 970 3820, Automotive painting processes today and tomorrow 2011-08-22.ppt

Building blocks for future processes - FRAUNHOFER


R&D activities - Novel approaches with organic and/or
inorganic (nanoscale) coatings
UV
Fraunhofer IPA (Stuttgart)

Self-cleaning coatings on the basis of


UV/IR-reflection (AiF project)
Self-healing coatings to cure mechanical
damages and improve corrosion
prevention (planned project)

Controlled
release

FORSCHUNGSGESELLSCHAFT
FR PIGMENTE UND LACKE E.V.

Fraunhofer ISC (Wrzburg)

Photocatalytic coatings for interiors or anti-fogging in headlamps


Printed coatings for instrument panels or displays
Thin corrosion protection coatings as Cr(VI) alternative
Acid resistant easy-to-clean coatings for metallic surfaces
Abrasion resistant and easy-to-clean coatings for leather

Dr. Michael Hilt, +49 711 970 3820, Automotive painting processes today and tomorrow 2011-08-22.ppt

Building blocks for future processes - FRAUNHOFER


R&D activities - Novel corrosion protection coatings
Fraunhofer IPA (Stuttgart)
Idea: Exploration of potential of nanoscale

corrosion protection pigments for use e.g.


in primer layers with improved corrosion
protection (AiF project)
Evaluation of self-healing properties and
adhesion of model coatings
FORSCHUNGSGESELLSCHAFT
FR PIGMENTE UND LACKE E.V.

Project supporting board

Nanoparticles fill the cavities of the


substrate surface

Dr. Michael Hilt, +49 711 970 3820, Automotive painting processes today and tomorrow 2011-08-22.ppt

Building blocks for future processes - FRAUNHOFER


R&D activities - Optimization of UV-clearcoats
Fraunhofer IPA (Stuttgart)

Idea: Concept development for UV-curing


clearcoats with optimized adhesion, high
weather resistance and optimized scratch
and chemical resistance
Improved understanding of UV-curing
process concerning kinetics
FORSCHUNGSGESELLSCHAFT
FR PIGMENTE UND LACKE E.V.

Consortium besides public funding

Dr. Michael Hilt, +49 711 970 3820, Automotive painting processes today and tomorrow 2011-08-22.ppt

Building blocks for future processes - FRAUNHOFER


R&D activities - Optimized multi layer coating systems
Fraunhofer IPA (Stuttgart)

Idea: Economic and energy efficient


coating systems for automotive and
industrial coatings with reduced number of
layers
Improved understanding of opportunities
and limits of those systems
FORSCHUNGSGESELLSCHAFT
FR PIGMENTE UND LACKE E.V.

CC
BC
PS
EC

Project supporting board

CC
BC
EC

Delamination
Corrosion

Dr. Michael Hilt, +49 711 970 3820, Automotive painting processes today and tomorrow 2011-08-22.ppt

Building blocks for future processes - FRAUNHOFER


R&D activities - Developments in coating process
technology
Spray coating,
dryer concepts,
modularisation

UV technology

Joint research project Energy efficient coating

of car bodies (innovation alliance green car


body technologies)

Coating of complex plastic parts (project

ENSIKOM)

Drying process with


circulating air

Numeric simulation of the paint drying process

Cleaning of parts

Automated pretreatment with CO2 snow

(project SiLat)

blasting

Dr. Michael Hilt, +49 711 970 3820, Automotive painting processes today and tomorrow 2011-08-22.ppt

Building blocks for future processes - FRAUNHOFER


R&D activities - Innovation alliance Green car body
technologies
Idea: Reducing energy consumption in

car body manufacturing


Initiative of German automotive

manufacturers and suppliers as well as


of FRAUNHOFER institutes
Paint shop

Body shop

Press shop

Tool shop

Semi-finished part: Sheet metal

Joint research project


Energy efficient coating of
car bodies

Dr. Michael Hilt, +49 711 970 3820, Automotive painting processes today and tomorrow 2011-08-22.ppt

Building blocks for future processes - FRAUNHOFER


R&D activities - Innovation alliance Green car body
technologies - Energy efficient coating of car bodies
Involved FRAUNHOFER institutes

IWU Chemnitz (total coordination)


IPT Aachen
IPA Stuttgart (coordination of joint research project Energy efficient coating
of car bodies with three subprojects
Spray coating
Dryer concepts
Modularisation

Dr. Michael Hilt, +49 711 970 3820, Automotive painting processes today and tomorrow 2011-08-22.ppt

Building blocks for future processes - FRAUNHOFER


R&D activities - Innovation alliance Green car body
technologies - Paint loss free coating methods
Fraunhofer IPA (Stuttgart)

Idea: Development of overspray free


coating methods
Drastically reduce energy intensive
disposal activities in paint shops
Minimization of demand for conditioned
air supply in spray booths
Eventually use of modified coating
materials
Elimination of overspray is the most
effective prerequisite for reducing energy
and material consumption at spray coating

Source: Drr Systems

Subproject partners

Dr. Michael Hilt, +49 711 970 3820, Automotive painting processes today and tomorrow 2011-08-22.ppt

Building blocks for future processes - FRAUNHOFER


R&D activities - Innovation alliance Green car body
technologies - New dryer concepts for energy
efficient operation
Fraunhofer IPA (Stuttgart)

Idea: Plant specific and controllable energy


on demand and energy regeneration
measures for the optimization of curing areas
Energy savings up to 30%
Subproject partners
Source: Eisenmann

Dr. Michael Hilt, +49 711 970 3820, Automotive painting processes today and tomorrow 2011-08-22.ppt

Building blocks for future processes - FRAUNHOFER


R&D activities - Innovation alliance Green car body
technologies - Modular concept for product and
coating
Fraunhofer IPA (Stuttgart)

Idea: Component optimized concept for


product and painting process
Multi material substrates
Reduction of material and energy
consumption in paint shops
Assembly of finished parts at OEM
Source: Daimler AG

Subproject partners

Dr. Michael Hilt, +49 711 970 3820, Automotive painting processes today and tomorrow 2011-08-22.ppt

Building blocks for future processes - FRAUNHOFER


R&D activities - ENSIKOM
Fraunhofer IPA (Stuttgart) and IFAM (Bremen)

Idea: Implementation of UV technology for ecofriendly and economic coating of automotive plastic
parts
100% material transfer efficiency due to
overspray recycling
Low energy consumption due to UV curing of the
coating
Assistance by numeric simulation
UV curing of coating on three dimensional objects
Monitoring of molecular curing mechanism
Consortium partners (in total 13)

Daimler, other end-users, paint and facility manufacturers, institutes


Dr. Michael Hilt, +49 711 970 3820, Automotive painting processes today and tomorrow 2011-08-22.ppt

Building blocks for future processes - FRAUNHOFER


R&D activities - SiLat (simulation of the unsteady
drying of coatings at three dimensional objects)
Fraunhofer IPA (Stuttgart)

Idea: Creating a software to


simulate to forecast the drying of
coatings in continuous dryers
Prognosis of drying (curing)
kinetics
Elimination of coating defects by
product specific setting of oven
parameters
Consortium partners

Heating of the car body during the first 5 minutes

.
Paint and facility manufacturers, software houses, universities

Dr. Michael Hilt, +49 711 970 3820, Automotive painting processes today and tomorrow 2011-08-22.ppt

Building blocks for future processes - New ideas

Self cleaning surface


Colour change of car body on demand
New functionalities in coatings

Energy collection
Internal labelling
Super durability of coatings
Fully automated processes (no touch, no repair)

Dr. Michael Hilt, +49 711 970 3820, Automotive painting processes today and tomorrow 2011-08-22.ppt

Summary
Automotive painting materials and processes are continuously

changing
Actually dramatic change due to simultaneous change in
preprocesses and in primer/basecoats
New ideas will continuously change the appearance and optimize the

functionality of the coated products


Intelligent coating systems will offer new perspectives for coated
surfaces by implementation of smart functionalities
Coating processes will have to follow the needs according to the

megatrends and the changing substrates: Improvements in economy,


in ecology and sustainability and implementation of new functionalities
for improved customer satisfaction

Dr. Michael Hilt, +49 711 970 3820, Automotive painting processes today and tomorrow 2011-08-22.ppt