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NEW EDITION INT (8) Nis Student’s Boo with Pocke INTERNATIONAL EXPRESS INTERMEDIATE Student’s Book Keith Harding & Liz Taylor OAFORD OXFORD (Great Clarendon Ste’, Cxfordox2 601 Oxford University res sa department of he Universty of Oxon Tefurthes te Universi’ sobjectve of excencsin research, scholar, Ad elucation by publshing werléedein Oxford New Yor Auckland Cape Town Dares Slsam Hons Kong Rarach KeulsLumeur Maueid Melbourne Mence Czy uses [New Deihi Shanghai Taipei Trents ‘wrthottce ta ‘Asgeatina Austin riz! Chile Casch Republic France Greese GGustemla Hangary aly span Poland Portal Singapore South Korea Swazeland Taaland Tuskey Ukraine Vietnam oxronpand exon eeu ar reginered trade marie of (ford University fess is che UK adn certain tbe counties ‘© Dx University Press 2005, ‘The mon rghteofhe author hate heen aiserte Database righ Oxfrd University Fre maker} ‘rst poised 2005 3019/2008 2007 2600 2005 ‘No unauthorized photocopying: Allzights reserve No pat ofthis publication may de reproduced ‘Nore aretrievalsyvtem, oF raenied, inary form er by ay mesos, ‘without the prior perminsion ie wriengof Oxford Univer Pres ‘Oras exec persted by law. o under tae agen with the appropriate eproqraphic ght oganiarom Enquiries concerning seproducon utile tae scope othe above shouldbe vent to the ELT Highs Departs, Osfon University Fess, tte ress above ‘You rust so crcuat ths took ta anyother binding ar over joes his se ceo any aequser ‘Any websites referred‘o inthis pbliaton ave nthe pubic domaine theiracdrsee ae gevided hy for! 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Each unit has four main parts: Language focus, Wordpower, Skills focus, and Focus on functions. The unit begins with an ‘agenda’. This gives you the language contents of each unit. First, you learn new grammar, ot revise grammar you studied before. You listen toa dialogue or read a text which presents the grammar in a real-life situation. Then you study examples of the grammar to understand how to use it correctly. You think about how the grammar works and you complete the rules. Practice You use the grammar in different practice situations: sometimes in speaking activities, sometimes in writing exercises. The exercises help you to learn the new Janguage and use it with confidence, You do some of the practice activities with another student or in a group. In the second part of the unit you lean new vocabulary. You also leam ways to ‘organize and remember useful words and phrases. In the third part of each unit you improve your listening, speaking, and reading skills. You listen to interviews or read longer texts and you discuss topics in pairs or groups, You also practise writing In the last part of each unit you leam the phrases you need for socializing with people at work or outside work. You also learn the phrases you need for telephoning in English. Pronunciation These exercises help you with pronunciation problems. You listen to examples and practise the correct pronunciation. ‘There are three review units. You choose what to revise and complete the review exercises. You ean use the Pocket Book for the areas that you need to review again, In a pocket at the back of the International Express Student's Book there is a separate reference book with useful language from the Student's Bock. You can use the Pocket Book in your lessons and take it with you when you travel. It has a Grammar section, with grammar tables and summaries for each unit; a Focus on functions section, with a summary of all the phrases for socializing and telephoning; and other useful information and reference material. The scripts of all the listening material and the answers to the exercises are at the back of the Student’s Book. You can scudy these after the lesson. There is an International Express Workbook which has extra exercises on grammar, vocabulary, and social English. It has a Student's Cassette or CD with more pronunciation and social English exercises for further practice Good luck with leaming English, ‘We hope you enjoy using International Expresst Contents Language focus Wordpowor Skills focus Focus on functions Ean * Personal onal | “Introductions and greetings information file © Welcoming a visitor * Learning vocabulary © * Work file * Dictionary skills (1) appoinements * Pronunciations /s, i, 18/, J; saying dates * Giving opinions © Agreeing and disagreeing « Partciparing in a meeting or dieussion Pronunciation: sounding polite + Adjectives file * Personal attitudes and qualivies * Advice and suggestions © Pronunciation: /ff and AJ/ *» Leaving recorded messages = Using mobile phones Pronunciation: stressing important information activities file + Word combinations p58 « Past Simple, Past + Gerunds file = Gap years for = Requests and offers Continous, « Personal adults + Exchanging information Past Perfect management + Pronunciation: contrastive stress Language focus Wordpower Skills focus Focus on functions ~ * Giving talles and presentations * City descriptions file * British English and Amecican English *# Types of business communication # Tescing + Pronunciation: sentence Money and finance file Collocations Phrasal verbs file * Dictionary skills (2) * Pronunciation: stress in phrasal verbs © * Writing emails * Job descriptions file * Collocations + Word-building * Pronunciation: word stress + Describing 2 process # Interviewing techni * Culture file 5 * Confusing words * Dictionary skills (3) « Business correspondence * Politics and current * News and views + Social responses affairs file = Common expressions + Collocations + Saying goodbye + Pronunciation: showing, degrees of enthusiasm NIT1 — —- An international project a NETWORK MULTIMEDIA: PROBUCTIONS home steplin company hitery = af 2B. 6 @ units "> Personal information file, Leaming voeabulory » National branding » Introductions and greetings. Welcominga visitor @ _ Read the home page of the company website and the email. 1 What is NMP? 2. What services does NMP offer? 3 What project are Piet and Rosa working on now? 4 WhoisEric Canlin? NMP san independent matimiedia production compary which has wan several media awards Its owned and run by Pet van Elsand Rosa Lanson. NMP specializes inthe travel and cultural sector providing: Video = froin training a rrarketing videos to programmes for interasicna televison audiences ‘Web design, consultancy,and management — tohhelp your company get the mast out-of the internet i Media presentations everything you need lor succesful conference. serra or product laurch ‘Management training — videos 2nde-learring products.on avariety of subjects Sed Save Options ee ee Jan Philips, Vdeo Producer : 2224 International food and drink a vdeo project | | Hore are afew more deteils on the International Food and Drink project. [The project will consist of ten programmes, each focusing on the food and drink ofa different country. At the moment, we wanttto look at ‘Spain, italy, France, india, China, Japan, Lebanon, Thailand, Mexico, land the USA. The programmes willincluds interviews with well-known | chefs in each country. There will be information on the food and drinkin § | each country, and some typical recipes. ‘As you know the chef Eric Carlin has agreed to be ournew presenter and interviewer. Ho's vary intorestad in the food of different countries | and fortunately he loves travelling, because the project will involve a lot of travel I've arranged for Eric to meet us for lunch on Monday to discuss some preliminary ideas. | hope that's OK with you. Rosa @ > G@ 14 Eric Carlinis meeting Piet van Els for lunch. Listen to part of their conversation and answer the questions, When did Piet and Rosa set up the company? How long have they known each other? ‘What are their different responsibilities at NMP? What do the new managers do? Do Piet and Rosa’s jobs involve a lot of travelling? qawne Grammer quiz Read the follewine nectences toe the convecnatioatin @jAnewerliequestions below. Rosa and I set up the company fifteen years ago. ‘We've known each other since we were at university We've been NMP for two years. Paul, our new Financial Manages, deals with the financial aspects. We both travel a lot Arche moment Rosa's travelling even more than usual, In which sentenceis) isthe speaker talking about the past? + the present? a time from the past to the present? 2 Match the verbs with the tense: Present Simple, Present Continuous, Past ple, or Present Perfect Simple. Present Simple and Present Action and state verbs Contnges ‘Read the examples and complete the rules. Weite simple Match the sentences in A with the categoriesin B, of continuous. A : 1 We usvally meet at least once a day. Action verbs z 2. She's leaving the offce now. © Louise works on promotions. She's working on 1wo 3. You're meeting her this afternoon. big launches at the moment. 4 She knows the market very well. ‘+ Resaand Piet travel: Le heat tos is 5. She's working on rwo big launches Awavelling even more than usual. ieee! ’ * Piet often has business lunches. He's having lunch 6. He deals with all the financial aspects with Exicat the moment. : ofthe business. 2 4 anaction happening a¢ the moment of speaking bb a regularor habitual activity © & temporary activity happening around now, bur perhaps not at the moment of speaking 2 furure arrangement 2 long-term activity f along-term state QPP sar ‘© Rosa understands what she customers want, Rosa -enderstanding what the customers arewvamting. *® She knows the market very well. SheS-hewing the marker very well. *® Louise has a lot of work at the moment. Louise is shaving a lor of work at the moment. '* Verbs which express an action or activity, e.g. bring, arrive, manage, travel, work, are used in both simple and tenses. They are called action verbs. '* Verbs which express a state, e.g. understand, believe, know, want, be, like, are not normally used in tenses, They are called state verbs. *# Some verbs, eg, have,see, look, taste, think, are used inboth and ___ tenses. They express cither an action or a state, QYrectorke2 units @7 2 @ units Practice @ Complete the sentences. Use the Present Simple or Present Continuous form of the verb in brackets. at t0 work by train this week ~my cars broken down. (travel) 2 He's Swedish. He __ from a town just outside Stockholm. (come! 3 They German, but they —______ actually French. (lookytbe) 4 This wine aveful. Let's speak to the waiter. (taste) 5 Sorry, 1 a film on Friday. How about Saturday? (see) 6 1___ a word of Japanese - irsso embarrassing! (not understand) 7 She _ ofchanging cities because she happy here. (think)/(not be) 8 Why the sauce? Is ir 00 spiey? (you, taste) 9 He —__ eight weeks’ holiday a year. Lucky thing! (have) 101 his point, but don’t agree. (see) " for the newspaper? ___it'vin the kitchen. tyou, look)/(think) 1 abroad quite a lot. Almost every month, in fat. (travel) 13. Pm afraid they a meeting. Can Iakea message? (have) 4 __ lunch t0 work on Fridays too? (you, bring) @ Read the answers Eric Carlin gave in an interview with Louise, the Promotions ‘Manager for NMP, What questions do you think Louise asked? Example 1 Where were you born? 1 [was bom in Corawall, ina small seaside town, but my parents moved to London when Twas four. 2 Yes. grew up in London and went to school there, 3. went 0 college to study for a diploma in Cookery, Catering, and Hospitality Management. 'd been interested in cookery since I was fourteen. My mother ‘went out to work then and Thad to cook for my younger brother and sister, 4 Aer the course, | started working asachef in London. I worked at ewo restaurants, the Hilton and the Buckingham, where was Head Chef. 5 After the Buckingham, | went to France and thea to Italy. Partly to learn more about cooking and partly so learn the language. 6 speak English, French, and Italian. {really enjoy speaking other languages — although Pm.not so good at writing. 7 Ure had my own restaurant since 1999, I's hard work, but Lloveit. Apart from cookery, I eajoy playing rennis in the summer and skiing in winter. 9. Yes.I do. My ambition is 10 open my own cookery school. © B12 Listen ro the interviews, Write Lonise’ actual questions 1 Where were you born? @ Workin pairs. Interview your partner to find out about his/her background, studies, past and present work, interests, and future plans, Then tell the class about your partner. @ Workin groups. Re 1 Eric Carlin speaks three langu J the questions and discuss your ideas ges and enjoys learning other languazes. How Do you enjoy learning other languages? 2 What makes a good language learner? 3 How can you become a berter languaze learner? languages do you spe: unit: ® surfing subject flat fulltime exercise degree garden colleagues salary college holiday suburbs eveaingclass 10 @ unirs Personal information file. Leaming vocabulary Read the suggestions for learning vocabulary. Which suggestions do you agree with? Which methods do you already use? Which new suggestions would you like to try? ‘Which other methods of your own do you use? + When you read something ia English, don’t stop to look up every new word inthe dictionary, Try to guess the meaning of a new word before you look it up in a dictionary. + Don'clearn ever new word you meet. Learn the words that are most useful to you and your situation, With « problem word, ar word with no easy translation, write iin your notebook in an English sentence which shows the meaning, * Test yourself regulary by covering the cranlation of English words in your notebook. + Use both English-English and bilingual dictionaries. * Try to put words into topic groups when you write them down. For example, words connected with travel, entertainment, work, ete. * Carry your notebook round with you and try to learn 5-10 new words a day. (It helps ifthe notebook is small and porrable!) * Use a new word as soon as you can. Thisis always the final step in learning, vocabulary. ‘You have exo minutes. Learn the words in the box. Then cover the hox and write the words you remember ‘Work in pairs. Compare the words you managed to write down. Did your partner rememberany words which you forgor? Organizing vocabulary Divide the words in the box into four topic groups and give each group a heading. Add two more words to cach group. ‘Work in pairs. Choose six of che words and use them to give information about yourself to your partner. Complete the following groups with suitable words. Compare groups with a partner, ante broiet tomake | ¢7istake ena ‘manager home book frame wok | ace 2 a tant ee a © Combine the words in boxes A and B fo make compound nouns, More than one combination may be possible. | home college public 1V Example public transport working. gap dress family | @ Workin pairs. Ask each other questions using the compound nouns in @. health Example Doyou go to work by public ransport? B Recording vorsbulary lub pet programme hours | @ year code Example comrectspelling cooking friends, transport ‘Wharinformation isimportant to record when you learn 3 new word? @ Look at the ‘word frame’ for specialize. Which of these items are used? grammatical information, das . : ie e.g. preposition used with word (andsvess) (noun) = speciaty (the thing) 2 i 8 similar or related words, . beg specialist “ 2 (noun) = specalist(the person) L Grammar Verb + In + noun/gerund a a he specializes in giving financial advice, © Choose two of the words below, and write a similar word frame for each. Use a dictionary to help you. toapply Keen tomanage responsible | Reviewing vocabulary Answerthe questions and then exchange ideas with a parmner. 1 How importantis itor you to review vocabulary? 2. How often do you do it? 3. Which methods do you find work best? ‘Asking for help with vocabulary ©) Mocs the sinuasicosin.a with sn appeopsiste queiontaB, A b | 1 You don’rundettand the meaning ofa word. a Sorty,can you repeat that? 2. You didn’thear what the tsacher said. bb What’ the English for... 3. You want to translate a word in your language into English. ¢ Can you speak alittle slower? 4 You don’: know how to spell a word. 4 Whatdoes .. mean? 5 You want to borrow your partner's dictionary. © How do you spell it? 6 The teacher is speaking 100 quickly. £ Can [borrow yoardictionary? @ Write alternative questions for the situations in A above. @unira National branding Work in group: 1 Whatis 1d"? Can you think of any well-known bran atrie be brands? 2 Look atthe pictures. Which countries do you associate with them? Ts the ach country posit tive, or neutral 3. What adjectives would you use to describe each country in the pic its people? Germany Iealy Ireland Jamaice Tapar New Zealand land Singapore ‘Switzerland Compare your a pairs. Look at the list of countries, Which of the adjectiv nouns in B do you as ewers with othe antries have been suce 3. How did Scotland actually ‘sell itse traditional adventurous Guinness seylish the ourdoor life high-tech fashion-conscious reggae muse rational © engineering Piedad SIL5I!! }tpedson «2-22 nal bear heck your answers Ities can a country have as a result of national branding? ional branding? mote its brand? © Work in pairs or groups. Think of a countey —noryour own and not one mentioned in the article, Make sts of 1. che adjectives you associate with it, 2. the products and services you associate with it. @ _ Lic your lists to intorview other students and find out ifchey have the same image ofthe country. © Think aboutyour own country. What associations do people of other nationalities have about your country and its people? 1 Are they truc? Are they positive? 2 How would you “brand” your country? 3 How is the brand different from neighbouring countrie: © Workingroups 1 What problems and misunderstandings can you have when you meet or work with people from other countries and cultures? Examples language difficulties, different ways of greeting 2 What problems can you have the first rime you visit another country? Example not knowing the system of ordermg and paying in a bar or café 3. Suggest what you can do to avoid of overcome these kinds of problems. © Makes list of cultural tips for foreign visitors to your couatry. Inclade some of the topics below and add topics of your own. # Intcoductions and greetings * Queuing © Ordering and paying in cafés, bars, and restaurants ‘© Using public transport * Invitations Tipping + Fye contact and gestures le, Asia, trying to attract foreign professionals who usually ee make their home In HongKong, Japan, or South Korea. perhaps eepecially small countries - can benefit from selling themselves with thelr national brand. ee Cer eC Ls ‘all developed successful brands, not just for tourism bi for other products and exports as well. In every major city ee ee nea ao ‘who fs drinking Guinness in an trish pub, watching Real De aaa Introductions and greetings. Welcoming a visitor Introductions and greetings ©) G1 rc attives denumpto mee Pie, Lise othe casero 1 What does Piet say when he greets Eric? 2. How does Piet introduce Eric to Claire? 3 What do Fric and Claire say when they are introduced? © Work in pairs. Write what you would say in the following situations. 1 Youate ata conference, Introduce yourself to the person siting next to you. 2 Youare meeting a visitor you have never met before in a hotel lobby. You see ou think might be your visitor. Speak to her. Introduce a person visting your organization to acol Youarriveat anew company. Introduce yourself tothe 16 Ineroduce two friends of yours ata party. © _ Read theintroductions below. Match them with the situations in @ above. & Signor Butani, I'd like to intcoduce you to a colleague of mine, Michelle Johns. Good morning, My nameis Giles Truro. [ have an appointment at 10.30. ¢ Can introduce myself? I'm Javier Corzon irom Global Auto, Madrid, Excuse me, Is your name Karen Miles? © Ldon’t think you know each other, do you? Julia, this is Claude, © Write F (formal), N (neutral), oF I (informal) next to each of the introductions in ©, © Matchthe pt irases in A with appropriate responses in B. How's work? sased to meer you, too. 1 2. How are you? b Nottoo bad thanks. A bie busy 3. Pleased to meet you, ¢ How doyoudo. 4 Thaven’r seen you for ages! 4. Yes, chat’ right 5. How are things going? © Very well, hanks. And you? 6 How do you do, It's good to see you again, too. 7. Nice to see you again! No, P’ve been away a loc recently. § Youmust be Marco. h Everything's going fine, thanks. What about you? © _Whichofthe phrases in © would you use 2 when you meet someone for the first time? b_ when you meet someone you already know? © Walkaround the class, Practise introducing yourself and others, and greeting people v4 @ units Welcoming a visitor Work in pairs. List four topics which people often talk about when they meet professionally for the first time. Write a question on each topic to aska visitor. jet van Els is welcoming Bob Wyatt, a visitor from Toronto, Canada, Read the conversation. 1 Whactopics do they alk about? 2. What questions do you think they asked? Piet So, did you have any problems finding us? MrW_ No, none at all. Iwalked kere. My hotel is only a few minutes away Piet Oh really? Which — 2 MrW_ Pm staying at the Garrick. I's in King Sereet. Do you know it? Piet know the name, What MeW_ Oh, it’s very pleasant. I always stay there when Icome to London. How often ? Mr W_ Four or five times a year What about you? ? Piet Yes, {do quite a lot of travelling ~ mostly in Europe, bur I go to Canada and the States as well ~about two or three times a year. MrW Canada? Piet No, I've never been to Toront Vancouver Island notlong ago. hhat’s interesting. bur [had a wonderful holiday on @ 14 Listen tothe conversadion. Write the questions Read later extracts from the conversation between Piet and Mr Wyatt. What questions do you think they asked? I Piet 2 ‘MrW__Justthree days, F'm flying back the day after tomorrow. Piet = MrW [I've been with Star TV for four years now, 3 MeW ? Pict Yes, its. Wedo get good weather in London sometimes! 4 Piet i MrW_ Iwent to New Zealand with my wife and our two daughters. Piet MrW Yes, I play ice-hockey in winter and I do some sailing in summer. G 18 Listen to the extracts from the conversation, Write the questions. and Me Wyatt. or both the host and t! Study conversations 1.4and 1.5 beween Pi 1 Who asks questions? The host (Piet) only 2. Dothey give ¥es or No answers only? How do they show interest in what the other person is saying? Role-play, Work in pairs. Student A Youare Piet van Els or Rosa Lanson, Student B You work for « multimedia first visit to NMP. company in your country. It’s your 1 Student A welcomes Student B to NMP. Speak for three minutes. 2. Change roles. How good were you at building a conversation? How coul QPreaertoory.7 youimprove? UNIT? @ 15 | UNIT2 cII™m= 0 oe @unitz New companies YAGENDA Past Simple and Present Perfect simple review used to + infinitive subject and objectquestions Workfile, Dictionary sie (1) Company and job profile Answering the phone, Making and changing appointments How do you use dhe Internet? Have you ever bought anything online? Which websites did you use? What name do we give to companies that do business over che Internet? Read about ebookers, a successful dot com company. How is it different from more traditional teavel agencies? Find a word or phras text that means: 1 holidays where everything (travel, accommodation, etc) is included in the price 2. reductions in price 3 the possibility for something to happen 4 to talk to someone in order to decide or agree about something written legal agreements 6 the people who work foran organization © Look atthe information about a ‘Whar service do you think the ther dot com company, Friends Reunited npany offers? Friends Reunited ya grrrre ere BAS Welcome to Friends Reunited eee [sco @ | Bt | The website to nd old fiends, get back in touch, and organize reunions. Ce Free to search a SE Friend reunited lets you find ol¢ frends and read what people you've losttouch with are doing now. t's free to search and see entries forthe 11 million members, rrererrrsenn © _@ 24 Listen to part of an interview with Julie Pankhurst, one of the founders of Friends Reunited, and tick T (true) ot F (false) 1 Julie Pankhurst got the idea for Friends Reunited when she was on leave from work. Julie and her husband did nor have any internet skills. The Friends Reunited service is free to online members. ‘The business has developed very quickly the UK. ides workplaces as well as schools Friends Reunited only operates nue The service no) Oooo + Oo Oooo = Oo © Grammar quiz 1. Match the sentences in A with the categories in B. A B 1. Heand his wife opened a travel agency in 1980. a apaststate 2 He has signed special contracts with 120 airlines. 3 Wedide'ewaneto make it diffeult used to + infinitive 5 Match the sentencesin A with the categories in B. 1. Read the examples and complete the rule. A ‘© His wile used to be a flight artendaat. 1 Tusually drive to work. '* Atschool we used to play games and have 2 used to drive to work. fan, 3 Lamused to driving to work. © Useusedto+ ____ to describe past habi ch sates th e as OTe, Se me Shak EAE a. anactivity which I do regularly, and which sno finished. longer new or difficult 2. Find another example of weed 10 inthe bb a presenchabit or routine ebookers.com article, © apast habit or routine 3. Whatis the negative form of used to? 4. What is the question form? PQprensiar.16 = uniT2 @ 17 Subject and object questions 1. Read the examples. What is the difference in the verb formin subject and object questions? Subject questions ‘Object questions. © Somebody built up good contacts with airlines. Dinesh built up good contacts with somebody. ‘Who built up good contacts with airlines? ‘Who did Dinesh build up good contacts with? ‘© Something opened in 1996, ‘© Customers buy tickers from somewhere. What opened in 1996? ‘Wheredo customers bay tickets from? 2. Match the questions in A with the answers ia B. A B 1. Which company brings old school friends into 4 Julie, Stephen, and Jason did. contact with each other? Friends Reunited does. 2. Who set up Friends Reunited in 1999? © Friends Reunited has. 3. What did they launch in 2002? d Sites in Australia, 4 Which company has recently opened sites in ‘What kind of verb do we often use in the short European countries? answer toa subject question? Preserve. 16 Practice @ Look at2.1 on p. 132. Write short answers to the questions about Friends Reunited using an auxiliary verb. 1. Who first got the idea for Friends Reunited? Julie Pankburst did. Who was on maternity leave? Who isa web designer? —__ ‘Who wanted to start a new company? ‘Who puts their details and messages on the site? —_ How many members were registered in 2002? __ Whar has been launched since 2002? How many workplaces have been added to the system? __ @ Write three sentences (two true and one false) about things you used to do when you were younger but no longer do, Read out your sentences. The other students rust ery to guess which sentence is false. Examples. [used to do karate. used to live in Paris. used to work from home © Make questions for these answers from the article about ebookers.com. 1 What i Ie sels discounted flights and provides travel products. 2 Who eo J Dinesh Dhamija did. What ___ oe His carly experience of the industry did. 4 When In 199%. How much —____ He negotiated discounts of up to 65% on standard prices and fares. 6 Where Iroperates in eleven European countries. 7 How many Atotal of 900 stall. & What Travels. 2 @ unitz © Work in Group A’or Groups Group Read St Luke's datale A and write eight quetions Group B Read Agora’s datafile B and write eight questions Datafile A Datafile B Sou head Headquarters in London, England ey Headquarters in Warsaw, Poland. 4 4 StLUKE’S {St oipeuiaes a ‘ _ daily newspaper), 14 magazines, and. 30 radio st rations. “+ Unde: cornrunism, the founders of Agora used be + Ie was foundedin 1996 fon St Luke's day] a areaul ofan Sig deipbihe Bustle cose Absteathe Acard = | = empioyee buy-out Michnik spentmote than Sx years ai rsupaonatte, + There were originally 35 employees {or co-owners). “Soldartyunionmevement, = = F There arenow 85. Each employee receives an equat thereare 4,000 enplogees. Neariy all of thembaveshares — financial sharein the company each yest ~ “inthecompany Each year-sommeofthe company’s '* Eachemployee has a mobilephone, a ocker, and a = journalists receive shares as a bonus... - shoulder bag. Everything else is common property The essis casual even thePresident ofthe compan. * There arene desks and no personal workspaces, You can work angwhere:in the staff caé.in an areaot soft seats onfirst-name terms. with newspapers Fut, and tea; in apatio area; orin a - The offices haveratural wooden floprsand glass roots. central open area cated Me Hub, There salsoa heath club with a sat * There ere special Brand Rooms for St Lukes clients, Each one eecoratedwith asutable theme and the de © qordensandvices. se I to work, tohold meetings, orto soclalize. “+ Agora runs soc raleampalgnstomake schools and hospitass + Eachmonth, there isa party tocelebratethe workthe better Each year ital aivesaprizeto Polish witers ‘employees have done together. = ympany’s mission bs to promote ‘rust, talerance, + inghe employees own words, ‘Profs lkehealth~ you fochurnan nights and solaritywth eles needitbut tisnot what youlive or. © fortunate’ © Read the other datafile. Answer the other group’s questions. © Give your opinion of ScLuke’s and Agora, Explain why you would oc woulda’t like to work for these companies. © Wriedown ‘= four things that you used to do atschool (but don’t do any more) Examples Tused to play the pianoshavie long hai ‘© four important events in your life. Examples I got marriediran a marathon. ‘four things that you have achieved since you left school. Examples Ihave passed university examsileamt to drive © _ Discuss your lists with other students. uniT2 @ Cis Work fil Dictionary skills (1) @ Work in groups. 1 What information about words can you find ina good dictionary? 2 Inadictionary, what do the following symbols and abbreviations mean? sb sth sing pl fu) Iq US (or AmE) Brit (or Br) @ Wwe the dictionary extracts to answer the questions. Work as quickly as possible. ; i i i 8 E # € e a Q & 8 } | | Company 1 Whats the abbreviation for company? 2 Iscompany used with singular ora plural verb? 3 Mark the siressin company. 4 Complete the sentences: 2 Ike being with her, she's b Do you wan me to __ company. you company? ‘remploy_ aul ter8 M4 eptoysbfilon ‘emsempioy sb ah tsa ah ter or orien try arin Tey rina icennconecompr oe Uioxstenempieyes seelaye aan mn yn whe ey Thefts ha soto lye nn {a2 pemon or employment vlan mum 1) 4 the state tang 8 ald Jb: 10 espeyment agency non (C18 company ‘Tat Bae pete fn wank doe ‘comparestafint workers | Employ 1 Which of these prefixes and suffixes can be used with employ: in, dis-, un, -er, ive, -2e, «ment, ful? 2 Where can you go to find work? 2. Mark the stress in employer. 4 Complete the sentences: He is employed acomputer operator. b Areyouemplayed the new project? seovor es: cer.) work as sth (oe 8b) "work (ven St) work 0 eo wih) wa ote ‘thie rests pie sentation ordor {Seormmoney at achive She working Feralanevm in Glasgoe oT kero werkase Pg ecient ‘AWORK wk’ noun 4 10) th jb that you de, “especialy in ore to earn moneys the pac Stier soudayur lob fgeery dealt nd Wort isthe cm 2 H's hon a fare ‘sib abr se months (= Work sanuncowaiate tous In somecontnts We mst tse ob: Fejeané work athe heal Ueegotaneotatinehoxptar workanolle/sccks Naik’ aur (C} a person ‘nhnlones werk and doestoomtet ott eed i i i i Work 1. Whatis the difference between the nouns workand job? 2 Which phrase means without 2 job? 3. Mark the stress in workaholic. 4 Complete the sentences: 2 Iwork a largo firm in London. b Whatare you working atthe moment? extracts based on Oxford Wordporer Dictionary 019 431 5169 © 2000) © Read the language areas that an English-Eaglish dictionary can help you with. Aegomamomen pena aaa 20 @ unit2 collocations (common word combinations) e.g. make an appointment Fi ‘Work in pairs. Check your answers in a dictionary. 1 Find four groups of three synonyms from the list. 2 Are there any differences of meaning between the three words in each group? 3. Use six of the new words in a phrase or sentence. customer buyer ‘establish salary ‘cient set up lay off make redundant income found fire ccarnings (Complete these sentences with the name ofa famous company and the product or service itis famous for. “Which word is more informal: a sack or dismiss? b benefits or perks? Give three examples of benefits thata company gives its employees. Use over with each of the following words to make compounds, (Itcan be used at the beginning or end of the words.) Use the new compound words in sentences. time take turn heads all 1. Which prefix (un, in-,im-, dis i-) isused with the adjectives below to make their opposites? honest flexible patient decisive interesting responsible —_ practical 2 What do the prefixes re- (e.g. relaunch) and co- (eg. co-operative) mean? Find the British English equivalents of these American English words. bill (noun) catalog cellphone eraser internship (noun) vacation welfare workstation UNIT2 @ 2) Company and job profile 1 headquarters reputation subsidiary 4 parent company 5 assembly line Company history: + e uNit2 e e a company that ow a company that belongs to and is controlled by another larger company system of machines and people ina factory that fi the parts of something together in a fixed order the place from where an organization is controlled the opinion that people in general have about something, e Miaserati A local company with international appeal Founded in Bologna in Moved to Moderie ia Flav company bough “0086 of share capital in 1997 by Farveri: Maseratibecar of Ferri. Installed Utra-modern in 1998, Output in'1998 = per year Output now = * cars per day lettin Leach appointed CED in tradition end s attertien fo research and Worle in pairs 1 Would you like to be the Chief Executive Officer (CEO) of a company? 2. What kind of product or service would your company offer? 3. Who would he interested in buying your p You are going to listen to an interview with Martin Leach, CEO of Maserati Before you listen, march the words in A with the definitions in B. 3 smaller companies of the same type @ 22 Listento th with Martin Leach. Fillin the missing word: first part of the interview loyalty @ G@ 23 Listen to Martin Leach talking about his background and career. Correct the information on the prest release Martin Leach: biodata = E ues hae Position: 2 | DNase ; 1996-1999 werkedinkoee vice Nationality: : ©4989-2002 vice-Prestent ot Markeung Developm an ibis ee Too © forEordEuroge fo 5 = + Bogan racing gods atthe age of sven Won Eurapenn : CipandoaresecordinWWoeaCharporshes. 202-2003 060 ot Fords + Surted nrkir Ford Car Company st 6 18 sient - Freelance consultant + Suuled merketng in Engr. TO! Seed inp wien teed aun eng nan eetea een ‘pplcl wack. Before you linen, pedi the answers to theve quedtons 1 Waihaaitasior Winkne Waa 2. Which ofthese activities do you think he dossin a typical week? * check emails © give a speech to suppliers + meering with the head of the have Ialian language classes racing deparsment * visit regional offices + arrange lights to Rome # evaluate a protorype of a new car + cour the factory con the test track + meeting with the Product * ‘take part in a video conference Marketing team ‘with international partners + moeting with the dieectors + fly to Rome for a ceremony with + meeting with the Fonorary the Italian President President of the Maserati «+ Tunch with the head of Fiat Members Club 3. What do you think is the part of his job that he enjoys most? 4 What do you think is his opinion on the most important skill to have? G 26 Listen to thethitd part ofthe interview: Check youranswers to @. @ 2a Listen again and complete these sentences. 1 Fin isiionaibte 2 It's important to n Modena. of our product, 3 Its my job to to the best of his or hee ability 4 You need tc and show people who youare and that you're interested in their work. 5. My jab involves alot of which Ilike 6 I spend alot of time 7 The part of my job that | enjoy m sow how to with relaxation — that’s answers, use te expresions in italic from @. Work in groups. Discuss these questions and issues. 1 AtMaserati, Martin Leach and his senior staff hold most of their meetings in English. Do you think thisisa good idea? 2. Martin Leach has beea able to combine one of his early interests ~ driving fast car3~ with his carcer. Have you, or anyone you know, been able to do the same thing? Does it help you do a bette job? 3. Maserati is a company that combines the traditional with the modern, Think ofa uraditional company you know, perhaps in your country or area, How could it be more modern? UNIT2 @ 23 ! GE 24 @ unit2 Answering the phone. Making and changing appointments ‘Work in pairs, Look ar standard telephone phrases 1-10. Write other phrases with the same meaning. Compare your phrases with those on p. 25-6 of the Pocket Book. 4. Claire Hallam speaking, 6 Thereason I'm phoningisto. 2 Tilike tospeak to Ms Lanson, please. 7 What time would suit you? 3. msorry; her line is engaged. 8 Could you make it next Tuesday? 4 Would you like to leave amessage? 9 Pan afraid I'm not available then, 5. Would you mind spelling that, please? 10. Yes, Thursday suits me fine. Why do we often use would and could when we make requests or arrangements? @ 25 Listen to Rosa Lanson telephoning ric Carlin, 1 What does the message on Eric’s answerphone ask the caller to do? 2 Whyis Rosa calling Eric? @ 28 Listen again and complete the missing parts of Rosa's message. Rosa Pmealling .Coule Snext week? ‘Monday or Tuesday would be best if you then. Could “to arrange a time? Thanks. Goodbye, @ 26 Listen to Frie rewmning Rosa's call. 1 Whea isn't Eric available? 2. Why does Claire make the appointment provisional? @ 26 Complete the extract from she conversation. Claire Ah, yes, Rosa told me about it, "on Monday or Tuesday? Brie Well, on Monday or Tuesday morning, but Tuesday afternoon Claire Ice a ve ies Eric Yes 5 Read the conversation. Suggest suitable word for each gap. Eric Hello, Eric Carlin Claire Hello, Eric. Ie's Claire again. Pm weekend, I'm sorry, but Piet isn't about the meetingnext atthe time we arranged, he's gor another * But he's “later on, Woald four o’elock be —__ “for you? Eric So thar’s four o'clock —__ of two fifteen? Claire Yes. Is that time —___*for you? Eric Yes, that’s ‘ Claire Good. So, we look forward to seeing you next Tuesday, then. Goodbye, Eric. @ 27 Listen to the conversation. Check your answers, Work in pairs, Say what the underlined words and phrases mean. [Pm afraid I'm tied upall day on Thursday. sn you get hacke to me first thing tomorrow? Justa minute, PH put you throug We were cut off earlies Could you read that hack to me? The line’s busy. Will you bold? There's some interference, 'll hang up and call you again. The line’s very faint. Could you speak upa bit? Could you bear with me for a minuce? Could we pur off our meeting? Something important has come up. Pronunciation 1G 28 Lisien to the words and repeat them. 3 Say the dates sf 2 a 100 Tuesday 3 March six Tuesday this. think Saturday 12 August seventy Wednesday then thirteen Thursday 13 July Saturday hours there thirty Monday 16 April weeks miles mother Thursday Wednesday 24 February 5 eaRRetanee Sunday 26 September 2 6028) ‘Listen tothe word pairs Tick the word Tey sb pees 1 ‘stk y'thick 3'sink think 5: pase pai 4 @ 2.10 Listen to the dares and repeat them 2 singthing 4 mouse mouth 6 worse worth ® Workin pairs, Student A and Student B, Role-play the telephone call See pp.25-6 of the Pocket Book. Student A Situation 1 Situation 2 Phone Acorn Chemicals You work for Commercial Insurance Asko speak to these peoples Deal with incoming phone calls John Anderson Exteasion 531 sue Waite ina meeting Dr Rubin Research Department. Mrs Johnson at lunch Student B Sicuation 1 Situation 2 You work for Acorn Chemicals. Phone Commercial Insurance. Deal with incoming phone calls. Ask to speak to these people: Extension 531 engaged Sue Waite Customer Services Department Dr Rubin on holiday Mrs Johnson Marketing Department @ Role-play 1 Write your arrangements for next week in the diary below. Include a one-day business trip, two meetings, a business lunch, and two other appointments Then phone two colleagues to make an appointment with each of them. September Monday 18 Taursiay i Tuesday 16Friday 14 Wednesday 17 Saturday 18Sunday 2. Your programme has changed. Phone your two colleagues to change the appointments, UNIT2 @ 2 . World Languages AGENDA Comparative and superlative adjectives Relative clauses: Adjectives file. Personal attitudes and qualitios Past, present, and future languages Giving opinions. Agrosing and disagreeing Partcipetingin # meeting ordiseusion @ Look atthe table. Match the languages in the box with the countries where they are spoken. You can use one language more than once Country | Majorlanguages Number of speakers %of population China Mandarin 867m [67.0% — Wa (Shanghai) som 38% Vy 4sm | Bish ism | 7m Galician 3m 4” $50,000 Switzerland German 4.5m am | Aeatian © 540,000 | *| 42,600 0.6% (Basque Cantonese Catalan ‘French Romansch} @ _ Work in pairs. Say the numbers in the table in @, Dictate five more numbers to your partner, then check each other's answers. © G24 Read the information about Andrea Harris, Then listen to the interview and answer the questions. My name's Andrea Harris. T work for a large investment bank in the City, the Francia) district of Loreion. I'm part of « deparbwent Which arranges business trips for ether companies in Eurepa and Asia. These are conparies that Want to promote thentseives abroad. Z travel abroad quite a sit myself, which T ove. Z often have b dea) Lith cliente he don't speck English, Uhich meant T have t have ether languages besides English - my mother tongue. 1 How many languages does she speak? 2. What language did she study ar schoo 3 Which of these things does Andrea think is more difficult: learning a forcign language as an adultos learning a foreign language asa child? bb learning French or learning Spanish? Japanese or Spanish? © @ a1 Listento andrea again and complet the sentences, 1 ‘The first thing I realized is that learning a foreign language can be than you think. 2. Learning a language when you're young is much and when you're 3 Forme, Spanish was than French 4 Lncatly gave up. Burafter a whileitgot 5 Learning Spanish was one of the intecesting and useful Tveever done. 6 He's really one of the and teachers you could hope for! 7 Bur then, as said, Japanese is difficult than Spanish. 8 Certainly, my Japanese isnot __ sy Spanish, © Grammar quiz Work in pairs, Match the two halves of the sentences giving the rales for comparative and superlative adjective forms. ‘The opposites of more and most ‘The comparative and superlative forms of good and bad We use -er and -est ‘The comparative and supertarive endings of adjectives which end in -y Weuse as + adjective +as or not as + adjective + as To show a big difference before a comparative adjective “To show a small difference before a comparative adjective The expression one ofthe -est RINK RENED a8 the comparative and superlative form of one- and two-syllable adjectives aceless and least. are -ier and -iest ithe y disappears). swe use much or a lot. is followed by a plural noun. we use slightly or a little. are better, best, worse, worst. hh coshow somethingis or isnot the same or equal. vee tn in le units @ 27 Relative clauses Read the examples. The relative clauses ate underlined. Complete the rules and answer the ® There aren't many words in Japanese that are meee «© Tthink to achieve this | would have to go and live questions. where Spanish is spoken by everybody. Typed relative clauses a © Type relative clauses give you extra I get to travel abroad quite a lot, which love. information about che noun they refer to. They ‘© My teacher, ho was Japanese, was the best are called non-defining relative clauses. teacher Thave ever had, * Type relative clauses give you © He now lives in London, where we met. information that tells you which person, place, « My husband, whose Spanish is excellent, helped ‘or thing the speaker is talking about. They are ime practise, ‘Type B relative clauses © I'm part of a department which arranges business rips for other companies in Europe-and Asia. = * often have to deal with clieats who don’t speak Sold English. 22 @ UNITS Practice @ called defining relative clauses. | When ean that replace who or which? 2 When are where and whose used? Complete the sentences with that, which, where, who, or whose. Then decide ifthe relative clauses are defining (D) or non-defining (ND) and tick the correct column, D ND 1 Andrea works for a large investment bank sinLondon. [_] [_] 2. The head office of her company, islocatedinthecentreof [_] [_] the city, is only twenty minutes from her house. 3. She often travels to countries she can practise herlanguages. __] [_] 4 Her hushand, speaks excellent Spanish, helpedher learn. — [_] ] 5 She would prefer to improve her Spanish by living sean [] speak it ona daily basis. 6 The language she found most difficult was Japanese. oo 7 Andrea had a teacher was the best she had ever had, Oo 8 The teacher, first language was Japanese, was very patient. [_] 9 Arabicis the language she would like to learn next. Oo Work in pairs. Join the facts about China to make one sentence. Use that, which, where, who, or whose. Example The area of China is 9,596,960 square kilometres. Itisslightly smaller than the USA. ‘The area of China is 9,596,960 square kilometres, which is slightly smaller than the USA. 1 The population of China is 1.3 billion. It is the highest population in the world. 2 Beijing has a population of 13 million. Beijing is the eapital of China 3 The political leader of China lives in Beijing. His ritle is President, 4 Badaling isa popular tourist location, You can see part of the Great Wall in Radaling. 5S China manufactures electrical goods, textiles, and clothing. They are sold throughout the world. 6 Most Chinese people are descencled from the Han people. They came from Nocth East China. © Work in pairs. Write similar sentences about your own country, city, or town. Compare them with your partners @ 1 Complete the paragrapt using the information in the bar chart. Use the comparative or superlative form of a suitable adjective (e.g. easy, difficult, hard) and a lotlmuch,.alittlelslightly, and (ot) as... as wo show the degree of difference, How difficult are these languages for an American? ee ee [A group of students from the United States were asked which languages they found easy and difficult to lear. According to the survey, the "language to learn is Spanisn. Frenchis ' difficult. Russian is __* than Sparish. Chinese isthe ____*language, with Japanese and Arabic _‘ difficult. Hebrew is = eee Arabic. Not surprisinaly, the survey shows that for Americans, European languages are not difficulttateary * Asian languages. J J J ] 2. Use the information in the bar chart to make more sentences: * comparing Russian and Japanese er * comparing Spanish and German * comparing all the European languages @ Work in groups. Compare the advantages and disadvantages of the following, ‘Say which you prefer and why. 1 Learning a language in a small group or in one-to-one lessons. 2 Learning a language with an untrained native-speaker teacher ora trained teacher from your country. Using the phone or email to communicate with work colleagues. Driving to work or travelling on public transport. ‘Working in an open-plaa office or in individual office. ving with your parents or in your own accommodation (when you first start work). UNIT 3 @ 20 j [ Wordpower ] Adjectives file, Personal attitudes and qualities Lifferent ways in which people communicate with each other ne the adjectives that @ Read the article Understanding body language. Under 30 @ UNITS © Look at the list of adjectivesin the box and answer the questions, attentive bored — decisive distracted encouraging friendly interested iusive neutral rude supportive | 1 Find two pairs of opposite adjectives. 2. Find five adjectives whose opposites are formed by adding either son- Give the full word (e.g. uninterested), 3. The following words from the lise do not take sn or it-to form their ‘opposites. What are their opposites? You may need to use a dictionary. ine, encouraging neutral rude © Complete the sentences with a suitable adjective. FEEDBACK ON A NEGOTIATION gresste for mast of te meeting = not vor. t 1 Bigrce = arms —-Athcis kept staving oF tie speaker quite S10 = editing im an ~~~ Piatt ion. set 5 Walenting = cater — 8 Kati =a little —__? = seaming bbachustrds slighty. in_| ops © _ Replace the phrases in italics with adjectives from the box. | sane diplomatic flexible motivated responsible confident enthusiastic innovative punctual thorough Employee profile Anexcelientemployeewhoisable to be irusted _.Heis © abwayson time 3 andisclearly interested in his work ard works hard —_ Hisideasarenew______tandhe | ‘ssure about his aun abilty __'whenputtingthemforward, | ‘He isalso good at deaing with people in dificult situations. ‘and sable fo change to suit newsituations -Perhapshe needsto be alittle morelogicaland cientfic________‘abouthisapproach but hisreports are very celled Hisbest quality is thet heisexital and intersted ____ about everything! © Work in pairs. Ask and answer the questions. 1 Which three adjectives would your colleagues or other students use to deseribe you? 2. How important is bedy language in your culture? How would you show you are interested, bored, thoughtful, aggressive, and neutral? 3. Doyouuse different body language when you speak English? 4 In business, is whae you say more important than how yon say it? units @ 2 ° @ ke 1 5 4 5 é Inthe British Museum in London there is a black stone, called the Rosetta Stone, which measures 114 x 72 cm. itis ‘covered with carvings in three different scripts: hieroglyphic, demotic, and Greek. The stone is written in theee scripts because these were being used in Egypt at the time. {tis over 2,000 years old and was found in 1799 by French soldiers who were rebuilding a fort in the town of Rosetta in fgypt. ‘The structure of the bieroslyphic script Was very hard to work out — it was not successfully deciphered until 1822. Jean- Francois Champollion, a French expert int languages, discovered the text was ‘written by-a group of priesis in Egypt 10 o 2 units Past, present, and future languages Do you find English easier to speak or to write? What about your own language? Do you know which was the earliest form of written language: Chinese, bic, or Hieroglyphs? sad the article The Rosetta Stone and the new Rosetta Disk. ‘Why is the Roserta Stone in three different scripts? When was itmade? Who found it? Where does its name come from? ‘Who deciphered the hieroglyphs? Why was ies discovery important? ‘Whatis che purpose of the new Rosetta Disk: honour the Pharaoh. This discovery meant that the Rosetta Stone could be used a5 a kind of ‘dictionary’ to check the meaning of early written languages. Today a small group of engineers and scientists want to build a new Rosetta Stone’ or Disk, usingthe same islea of parallel texts. Many scientists predict that mostofthe words languages I disappear in the next hundred years. This new stone will preserve some basic knowledge of the woitd’s lariguages for future generations. 32 Listen to part ofa radio programme about the Rosetta Disk. 1 How many languages will be preserved on the disk? ‘Where is the new Rosetta Project based? How many volunteers are working on the project? © G 22 Liser again, Complete tis FATS (frequently asked questions) page! the Rosetta Project website. The Rosetta Project ‘What is the aim of the Rosetta Project? '* Tocreate apermanent physical archive of world’s languages. What form will the new Rosetta ‘Stone’ take? ‘+ Aspecial micro-¢tched *inside aspherical oan - = Aarchive. ‘* Asingle-volume reference ‘What will be on the disk? ‘+ A description of each language, includingits 7: system, + Awordlistof “core words. ‘+ A parallel text from the Bible, Genesis chapters, How will people be able to read it? = Witha "with smagnification of one thousand times, ‘Where will the disk be available? + There will be lots of disks distributed throughout the ‘What is the website where people can contribute their research? = www, , © Waking. 1 Why do you think languages disappear? 2 Do you think its important to preserve languages, even if they are only spoken by a small number of people? Think of arguments for and against. 3. Do you speak any dialects (regional language variations) from your country? 4 Do you havea strong accent! (way of pronouncing) when you speak your native language? GO Wokarpaie: Dicws thequation: ‘Which of these reasons for learning languages do you think are relevant to people who need languages for work? A language is part of a people's culture and it's important to respect cultuce. b Ifyou speak the language of an international parmer they will respect you € Iwill save money on translation and interpretation services, ad. Iegives you an advantage over your competitors if you can speak the language of your trading partners and they can’t. € Itallows you to dominate meetings with international partners. £ You can meet people from other countries and understand their way of life. g. Itgives you more job opportunities. hi Ie interesting and fun. UNIT] @ 3 Giving opinions. Agresing and disagreeing. Participating in a meeting or discussion © GQ 88 Listen tothe firs part ofa meetin 1 How many programmes will NMP fiance? 2. Which countries does Eric chink shonld bein the first three programmes? 3 Why does Piet disagree with Fric? between Rosa, Piet, and Eric. @ G33 Listen again. Write the phrases which Rosa, Pier, sieeting under the correct heading, below. nd Eric use in the Asking for opinions Giving opi ‘What are your views? In my opinion... From financial point of view Agreeing ervations © G34 Lives 1. Which wo groups of people must she pilot programme impress 2 Why does Rosa want to find a consultant for each programme? 3 What does their choice of Spain for the pilot programme depend on? ‘othe second part of the meeting, © G24 Listen again, Addother phrases the speakers use under the correct headings in @ above. © Workin pairs. 1 Which of the phrasecin @ would you useto give 2. Which of the phrases would you use to agree strongly 3 Wharother phrases could you use to disagree politely? Quen 24 @ units @ Some of the phrases used in the meeting are given helow. Complete the list with other phrases you remember from the meeting. Check with 33 and 2.4on p. 134. Participating in a meeting or discussion Opening Stating objectives The aim of the meeting isto... Beginning the discussion (Eric), would you like to start? Interrupting Justa minote, (Rosa), could I just ask something? Asks ‘Checking agreement 8 for clarification Moving on Concluding Well, I think that’s everything, Is there anything else you want to discuss? Summarizing Closing Good. Lets callita day, then, @ Work in pairs. Compare your list of phrases. See p. 22 of the Pocket Book. Pronunciation 1G 35 Listento the same sentence, spoken twice. Tick the one which sounds polite. a Could you explain that again? b Could yon explain that again? 2 G 36 Listen to five more sentences, spoken twice. Tick the one which sounds polite, Could you begin, James? b Could you begin, James? Fxcuse me. Could I come in here? b Excuse me, Could I come in here? Can we get back to the main point? b Can we get back to the main point? Would you mind repeating th: b Would you mind repeating that? Could you go over that again? b Could you go overthatagain? 3 G 37 Listen to and repeat the polite versions of all the sentences in 2. © Work in groups. Each person chooses one of the topics below and starts a short discussion of that topic. Give your opinions and explain why you agree or disagree with your colleagues. 1 All young people should do twelve months’ military service or community service after finishing school. 2 Public transport should be state-owned, not privatized. A public transpose system can either make a profit or provide a good service. t cannot do both. 3. Universicy education should be free and the state should pay the cost of students’ accommodation, food, and books. 4 Allemployees should get share ofa company’s profits, not only senior management. ‘Unemployed people who ger payments from the state should do some kind of work in exchange for the money they receive. UNITS @ 35 UNIT 4 “} Consumer trends ex=m=D 0 Peres fat _CHAN eeeeeeeete ae rhe) £biae AGENDA Present and past tends: Present Continuous, PastSimple ‘Adjectives and aaverbs » Food fle. Word groups Ethicalconsumerism ‘Adviceand suggestions Work in pairs. 1 What are the opening hours of most shops in the city censre in your country? Were the opening hours different when you were younger? What do teenagers in your country spend most of their money on? What did you use co spend your money on when you were younger? 3 Doelderly people in your country spend or save their money? What will you Match the phrases in A with the definitions in B. A B 1 in line with a money spent by people in one house 2 retail out _ years that someone is likely to live 3. household expenditure © abies born during a particular period 4 single-person household d_ money rospend after paving taxes, ete 5 birth rate € child who needs financial support 6 lifeexpectancy f, be@esdih bie piesoa imag init 7 dependent child - g similarto “8 disposable income shop orstore- Read the article Changing consumer trends in japars. Answer the questions, 1 What changes does the article identify in the spending habits of these groups? * office workers + young single women * business people in their Ss # senior citizens | ‘Whar changes does the article identify in these areas? * shop opening hours ring and drinking habits * women ia the workforce * divorce rate + proportion of elderly pet pb spn tr Soe Se ao © 24-hour ae Consumer spending is becoming a 24-heurbusiness~ and businessisbeoming. For example, when one men’s clothing store started opening its doors round te clock ten years ago, sales immediately increased by 20%, Nowadays, one third of its annual sales are to customers who come in between 10 p.m, and 7am. ~ and ths isin ine with national figures. Many customers ae office work's on their way home. More retail coutiets are expancing ther nighttime opening hours because shoppe ae often more relaxed at night and spend mare maney. Te typeof goods people buys also changing, For example, fewer people ae eating raditionalfooe andthe consumption of westem. style meals is increasing, People arecinking 2 lt less sake and aot more red wine. hey are also drinking less whisky, but mare bee: oneness Find three examples of 1 examples of present tren Complete this tabte wit 1 | © and7am D increase in telephi 2 Proportion of women aged 20 to 38 in work in 1970 @_ Proportion of women aged 20 to 39in work now Proportion of pop Proportion of pop! B Proportion of pop. Fi How similar are the cha: Proportion of sales taken in amen' 55 Increase in divorce rate from 1980 to 2000 rends from the 1990s, Which tense is used? Find three ids. Which cense is used: information fromttiartel clothing store between 10 p.m. % ‘one bills from 1995 to 2000, ulation aged 65+ In 1960 ulation aged 65+In2000__% ulation aged 65+ in 2020 (estimated) ages and trends described in the article to changes and trends in your own country? Grammar quiz Match the sentences in A with the categories in B. A *m moving into my own apartment next week. 2 Look, he’ waving a us, He probably want to say hello. 3 The birth rate in most western countries is falling. ar Peacodkig bectobl Noye beanie paren ore Communications technology communications technology grew dramaticaly inthe 1990s ere was 2 particularly strong growth inthe sale anduse of mobile ghones.Telephonebillrose by nearly 10% from 1995 to 2000 even ugh overall household expenditure fell. lot more people are ssegemail and the Intemet ona daly basis Business people in their 5 for example are spending more on communications technology cause they do not want tobe left behind. Single women as a market force {sing numbers of women are entering the workforce. In 1970, 13% of women in their 20s and 30s worked. Now that figure is ver 60%. Fever young women are ettingmaried. the seoportion of single women in their 3(s is rising steadily. and they ‘earning and spending more money than they did ten years ago, the same time the divarce rate moe than doubled between 380 and 2000s there was an increase inthe numberof single person households. B a an activity happening at the moment of speaking b a temporary activity happening around now, ‘The silver market’ Atthe other end of the scale, senior citizens are becoming big spenders. Between 1950 and 2000, thore was adramaticfal inthe bitrate, and anincease in Ife expectancy These ends are continuing and there are more elderly people than ever before, In "1960, 5.7% ofthe population was aged 65 or moe. Frm 1960 to 2000, there wes anincrease of twelve percentage points 1 17.7%, © and by 2020 this figure is expected to be 26.8%, With no dependent © children, no education costs, and low housing costs, they have a large disposable income, For exemple they ae spending more and ‘more money on domestic and overseas travel. Present and past trends Read theexamples, © People aredrinking | a lotless sake. less whisky. more bees. = aloe more red wine. «Rewer young women are getting mattied. 3 = Fewer people are eating traditional food. 2 © More retail businesses are expanding their night-time opening hours. ‘© Allor more people are using email and the Internet on a daily bass. ™ © Sales increased grew by 28%. s rose f—____ declined from 20010250. ™ = 2 # Therewas an increase agrowth sales. = arise adectine | of 25%. 2 fall = Which preposition? Write by, from in, of, or #0. © Weuse alter a noun and before the amount, * Weuse after a noun and before the topic. © Weuse after a verb. © Weuse and after verb and before two amounts. Describe present trends in evening entertainment activities shown in the line graphs below. @ cinema b Tvivideo ¢ Theatre @ Bars and cafés @ Reading books Example People are going to the cinema alot more. or Alot more people are going to the cinema, @ Work in pairs. Describe the changes that are taking place in your country, Choose two from thelist below. Give possible reasons for the changes, ‘© evening entertainment activities ‘+ consumption of foods from other countries ‘+ smoking ar ownership ‘= expes of shop in city centres * usco! mobile phones # useof the Internet 24-hour shopping, domestic holidays (compared to forsiga holidays) 20 @ units © @ 441 Listen to adescription of the trends in TV viewing hours in the UK last year. As you listen draw the line graph. n it ft L n 1 fay Mar Apr May Jun ful» Aug = Sep Oct. Nov-Dec @ Complete the extract from the description you heard. Use suitable verbs from the box in the correct tense. decrease drop fall fluctuate go down/up. increase _keveloff reach In January last year the average umber of weetty viewing hours stood at 28.1, This figure —__ * steadily forthe next two months, reaching 27:2 in February ‘and 255 in March. The numberof viewing hours then * alittle: they » slightly to-26.' in April. They then ‘dramatically to 23.3in May The fcure then very slightly to 23.5 in June and then ‘more ot less ____*for the summer, whichis traitionally the time people watch the least television. The figure ' slightly back to 23.3 in July and Its lowest point in August at 23.2. Average viewing hours . ° sharply in Septemberto 25.3 and then * more {gradually forthe rest ofthe year to 26.1 in October, and 27.4 in November, The figure its highest point in December at 28.2 hours per week. Listen again and check your answers. ‘Work in pairs. Look atthe highlighted words in the extract in @. Ace they adjectives or adverbs? How do you know? What isthe general rale for forming adverbs? @ Write the adjectives from these adverbs. Then march the adjectives‘adverbs with the type of change they show. units @ © Work in pairs. Select information from one of the bar charts and prepare a presentation of past trends. Give your presentation to the class. Begin This bar chart shows ... 0 AS YOu can ste... {b) 45, Daily newspaper circulation i 1 dormark BB tiew Zeatand WH Stovaka Bovine | = —_ = 3 © Weil in groupe: Diseesthuee quenions wid relocencets the gropheabows 1 What were the main trends in cinema attendance, newspaper circulation, and the percentage oF wornen inthe week eres at tho end belt century? 2. Do you find any ofthe trends surprising? 4 How do you think they might compare with your country? 4. Whar do you thik are the enrenttrendein thee three areas? 40 @ univ CED Os Food file. Word groups @ March thenames of four of the food and drink outlets at an intemational airport with their descriptions. Trattoria Miestone self selection restaurant fe] tnepestotnaananaMedteranean cuisine Enjoy Seatooa sland relaxed but efcientcable service. There arethree course, News café two.course and.one-course options available, depending ‘on your sme - and your appeste! Starters Incude stuffed. [3] Aselection of sholitsh, smoked ish, andsushimakea trushioots, Greek salad frnatnated ietachecys, ONES <3 descous ight neal for eaveletsi a hur, Meals ace ‘and tomatoes}, and a selection of antipasti There are prepatedatthebarinfrontof thecustomerandserved ___-"aln cooked gently ina small amount of fiquid 3 deep-fried ¢ cooked inan oven in dry heat 4 grilled d filled with something 5 ground € cooked in an oven by heat from above 6 marinated F cooked in oil that covers the food complerely 7 poached g given asmoky flavour from a wood fire 8 sautéed ‘h made into small pieces or powder 9 smoked i_ putin a mixture of oil and spices 40 seuifed j_ made very cold (but not frozen} © 1 Think of other items of food that can be prepared using each of the methods Example baked cake 2 Think of other ways of preparing food to add te the list in @, What items of food can be prepared using these methods? Example boiled exe £.@ Work ingroups. Discuss the questions 1 Istherea good selection of international restaurants in your capital city? 2 Are there different types of restaurant (eg, fast-food, waiter serviee, self-service}? 3 Can you cook any dishes from other countries? 4 Where can you buy the best-quality food in your country: in street markets, sinall shops, or larger supermarkets? uNiTs @ 4 1 criteria 2 code of conduet 3 cosmetics 4 dominate 5 energy-effcien: 6 ethical 7 exploited 8 goowth markers | 9. market share 0 organic food | 11 sweatshop 12 two-way process v2 @ units Ethical consumerism © Work in groups: Look atthe pictures and discuss the questions 1 Do you buy any products, such as clothes and food, which are made in other 2 Do you know how they are produced? 3. What do you understand by the terms ‘globalization’, developed world’, and ‘developing world”? @ March the words and phrasesin A with the definitions in B. place where people work for low wages in poor conditions morally correct or acceptable the percentage of toul sales of product ina p standards or principles food produced naturally, without using artificial chemicals a process moving in two difierent directions set of moral rules of behaviour treated unfairly, not receiving much in return for work to control or have a lor of influence no waste of energy markets showing an increase in investment products you use on your face or body to make yourself more atractive ticular area achieved by one company © GB) 42 Read sentences 1-8 and listen toa discussion on a radio programme Decide if, according to the speakers, the sentences are true (1) or false (F) and ick the vorrect column, Pe 1 Consumers are incr 2 People ia the developing world want many of the things that f they seece singly tsing the same products. Ol ing from the developed world 3. The West is not very successful ar persuading people to buy its produces. 4 There are very few positive and responsible forms of trade [ between the developed andthe developing worl. Oo 5 There isa falling trend in imports from the developing world oO OoOOoe 6 Consumers in developed countries won’: accept that | products have to he made by badly-paid workers. Local consumers in developing countries just buy what the West tells them to buy 8 Fewer people in the West are becoming ethical consumers, Oo © G42 Listen again. What information do the speakers give about 1 present trends in global production of cigarestes? 2. past mends in robacco-related deaths in developed countries? 3 past trends in obacco-related deaths in developing countries? 4 present trends in the Hollywood film industry? 5 present rendsin the ‘Bollywood film ind © Look at these statements from the discussion, Do you agree with or disagree with them? Why? 1... globalization means some consumers can get the products they really want. 2... people enjoy their coffee more if they know it's been produced by workers who are not exploited. © Read the article The rise of the ethical cansumer. Match headings 1-4 with paragraphs ad. 1 Tehical Bnance 2 The ethical shopper Sh 3 The furare (i 4 Changin paticica o “Inthe 1990s there was abi “shoppers. 8y 2002, shoppers ‘on organic food products, and £1.47 billion on ‘green’ household -_ptoducts such as environmentally-friendly leaning products and energy-efficient appliances. A further £187 million was spent on. cosmetics not tested on animals, while £107 million went an responsible tourism. i | Manufacturers and shops had to [ears thd ledsdnlak en lel "was here to stay. in fact many realized that it was an opportunity for omotion and advertising. Seven of the largest supermarket chains in the UK adopted a ‘code of conduct’ to establish ethical policies. "Manufacturers of sports shoes, such as Nike, now also have codes of | conduct, particularly with regard to labour conditions. In carpet. manufacturing, where child labour was a big issue, there wasa_ successful campaign in india and Europe to introduce a ‘child-friendly’ labelliqgstheme called ‘Rusty Now thetrend is ovine beyonthe hop andthe factory nto the | finance and investment sector. Ordinary investors are demanding to know where their money is going, and successful investment | companies are opening up decision-making to theirinvestors. The Cis*, for example, recently invited all its members to vote on the most important ethical sues. and then invested accordingly. Turnover a profits for the (IS increased dramatically, 2 The popularity of ethical investment is nat slowing down. Figures from 2 the research firm, ERIS*, reveal that in 2003 over £4 | billion was rate of growth of 34% per annum at a time when t cals falling, The growth of ethical investment is increasingly becoming 15= Couperatweinsurance Service consumer-ted. It seems that for shoppers, manufacturers, and [= etbiea evestmen Renearch Serve investors alike, the future is definitely cleaner @ Read the article again, What do the following figures relate 10? 1 £4.77 billion 4 £107 million 2 £147 billion 5 Over £4 billion 3. £187 million 6 34% per annum 1 Are the trends identified in the article the same in your country? 2. How practical do you think itis to be an ‘ethical consumer’? 3 Do you know any companies in your country which have a ‘eode of conduct to establish ethical policies? UNITs @ «2 Advice and suggestions @ Maria Ferrando, a fiend of Erie Carlin, has agreed to act as a consult NMP’s programme on Spain, Read the extract from her book, A Taste of Spain Why does she say ‘tapas are more than food? What other examples ofthe anection between food or drink and national customscan you think of for Tapas (small portions can find an enormous variety of tapas in Spain: of food served in bars) ham, sausage, squid, prawns, meatballs, salt ee ee Southern Spain, where it was the custom inthe tapas aro more than food, they're a way of life. 19th century to serve customers with 2 glass in Spain you can spend a whole evening on @ of wine or shorry covered by a Hid (tapa) on tapeo, going from one tapas bar to the next which there was a free sce of ham. Today, you sampling the variety on offer in each one. @ 43 Listen to the first part of Maria’s conversation with Rosa and Eric. L Which three regions of Spain does Maria suggest for the programme? 2 What does she say about Basque cooking? 3 Whatis San Sebastian famous for © = @ 48 Lisen again. Write the phrases Marfa, Resa, and Erie use to ask for and give advice and suggestions under the correct headings below. Asking foradvice and suggestions | Giving advice and suggestions My advice woald be to | Accepting ideas Rejecting ideas Yes, that sounds like a good idea! What other phrases can you use to rejectadvice or suggestions politely? Compare your phrases with thase oa p. 17 of the Pocket Book @ 44 Listen to the second part ofthe conversation between Maria, 1 How does Maria describe the cuisine of Catalonia: ses she suggest Rosa and Frie go to the Penedés region of Catalonia? Maria s wgest they go to Valencia? @ 44 Listen again. Write other phrases the speakers use for advice and Two pheases for giving advice and suggestions are tentative. Write T next tothe tentative expressions. Workin pairs. Match the phrases in A with a suitable ending in B A B 1 My advice would be a filming the prepasation of paella? 2 Iflwere you Bb to includea visit to some cata vin 3 How about... ¢ explain what tapas are 4-Have you thought... d-Td.deseribe how sherry is made. ‘5 Why don't € thas) you include the Ba think you should ne of includ ngsimesyan as @ UNITS Pronunciation 1G 48 Listen to the pronunciation of the following pairs of words Repeat each pair. aw AS 1 sherry cherry 2 shoes choose 3 dish ditch 2 GP 46 Listen to the sentences. Tick the sentence you hear,a orb, a z id you say they were sheep’ 1 a Would youlikea sherry? 4a. Did you say they ? Would poulihewchery! b Did you say they were cheap? 2 a Excuseme, This ismy share, Sa. Shall ashi? bb Excuse me.This is my chair. Shall L watch it? a unt me to cash it? 3 a Lean see any ships. @ a: Dapeieestenetoaih b Ican't see any chips. b. Do you want me to catch it? 3 GP 47 Listen wo the pairs of sentences in2 again, Repeat each sentence, the words below. . Oe S merchant 7 ditch 9 chops 2 shelf 4 shells 6 dish & shops 10 Czech id York in groups. Read the letter from NMP. Choose one of the NMP projects anc DINE Der Siror Madam ‘We are ding some market research forthe three NMP projects outined below ‘and would very rach like to hear your ideas and suggestions We would be fateful if you could tell us what information and topics you think we should include in the programmes and give us any other ideas youmay have. Allthe Programmes are designed for internatonal audiences. New project proposals ' A series often ffteen-minute tlesson programmes called improve your English, for intermeciate level adult learners 2 Five thirty minute television programmes about Britzin sponsored by Vise Britain, designed to promote tourism 3 A series of Sx thirty-minute prograrnmes for international comparies called Doing busines i other cultures, each programme about a different country In appreciation of your help, we would be happy to send you a copy of one of the NMP video programmes listed in the enclosed brochure, Please tellus which you would lke to receive, ‘Yours fathiuly Rosa, Lanson NMP Project Director ‘ UNITs @ 65 REVIEW ee UNIT A > ron sncen @-O > ety “This nic reviews all the main language points from Units 1-4. Complete the exercises. Use the Pocket Book for the areas that you nesd to review again. @ Present Simple, Present Continuous, Past Simple, Present Perfect Simple, Action and state verbs Complete the biographical information about Vanessa Ramirez, another consultant for the Intemational food and driak peoject. Use the correct tense and form of the verb in brackets. ® Subject and object que: ‘Work in pairs, Write six questions starting with Where, When, Who, What, or How ‘many about Vanessa's biographical information, Examples Where does Vanessa come from? Who owns two restaurants? © Comparative and superlative adjectives, Re! Aegentine Brazil Pera Population (millions) 319 756 285 Birth-rate (per 1.000 population) 19.0, 192 226 Costot living (USA = 100) 0 30 6s Tourist attractions Tangodancna Riocamival MachaPiechu Caribbean beaches ‘Main language spoken Capital city President 1 Work in groups. Do you know the missing information inthe chart? 2 Write as many sentences os possible about the four countries, using comparative and superlative adjectives, and relative clauses, Score a point for cach different ‘comparativelsuperlative adjective or structure, and for each relative pronoun that Examples The population of Peru is slightly larger than the population of Venezuela, hich has the smallest population of the four countries. (3 points Pore is motacexpensiticas Venecuctt, but is more expensive than Brazil which isthe cheapest place to live. (3 points only, because which was used in first example| One of the most famons places where tourists visit in Peru is Machu Picchu. (2 points) @ Present and past trends, Adjectives and adverbs 1 Whatchanges are taking place in your country? Describe present trends in a holiday destinations ¢ the crimerate © property prices b driving to work d national sports teams your ewn copie 46 @ REVIEW UNITA 1990-2000 1 Fast food 2 Cigarettes 3 Alcohol Fine 4 Fruit and vegetables ert 2. Look atthe graphs describing trends in the consumption of various items in the 1990s, Write sentences describing past trends. Use different verbs, and an adjective oradverb. Examples The consumption of fast food rose dramatically ix the 1990s. ‘There was a dramatic increase in the consumption of fast food from 1990 t0 2000. used to + infinitive ‘Work in pairs. Tell each other about your eating and drinking habits when you were younger, Ask questions if you wantto clarify anything, Example Tvsed 10 eata lot of sweets. Ididn't use to like fruit. Introductions and greetings, Welcoming a visitor, Advice and suggestions ‘A new employee or student from another country is starting at your place of work or study. What do you say in these situations? 1 Greet hinvher and introduce yours. 2. Welcome him/her by asking five questions about his/her country, journey, accommodation, interests, etc. 3. Introduce him/her to another colleague/seudent. 4 Give advice and suggestions on * how tosettle in tothe place of work or study how to settle in to the country ‘© whatcodo at lunch, in the evening,and atthe weekend ‘Now role-play the situations with a partner. Answering the phone, Making and changing appointments ‘What do you say in these situations? ‘Aaswer the phone 10 a friend, ‘Ansiver the phone in a work situation. Ask to speak ro someone when phoning another company. Ask someone to wait while you transfer the call. ‘Make an appointment to meeta friend, Make a business appointment. Change an appointment. Finisha business call, Giving opinions, Agreeing and disagreeing, Participating in a meeting or discussion In groups, havea workplace meeting to discuss these suggested changes. 1 We should write important company documents in our own language and English, 2 Everyone should work an extra hour a week unpaid for the next six months in order 10 improve performance and productivity. Vocabulary test ‘Work in two groups, A and B. Write a vocabulary test ro give to the other group. Choose ten of the words below. Write asentence or phrase to help the other group ‘guess the word. Example Word presenter Clue u person who introduces a TV or radio programme presenter negotiate commute practical fluctuate specialize brand discount ethical maternity leave out of work motivated flexible CEO subsidiary accent investment diplomatic _—_—retailoutlet responsible for birth rare consumer ——workforee chilled body language REVIEW UNITA @ “7 NITS u ANY aehiea ua Misién del Sol ‘Cuernavaca, Mexico Time for a break? ’ ~ Crowne Plaza YAGENDA Parsiver: Prosent Sr Present Perfect Simple, Past Simple, Wil Future Retowork Leaving recorded messages. Using mobile phones Look at the pictures of the Where do you think they ate located? Which of these facilities and features would might find some of them at more than one of the hotels. © conference facilities * © firness centre * year-round sunshine * © atellite TV . swimming pool Read the reviews of the three hotels. 1. Match each descriptior 2 Check your answers to ‘Coogee Beach, Sydney Australia Lelsure and faness activities Word combinations e special hotels from different parts of che world. health treatments air-conditioning moonlight camel rides with the correct picture. -Ourtravel correspondent, Leon Martignac, visits... resent Continuo, you expect to find at each hotel? You + high-speed Internet access «private entranceto each guest room Desert Resort ‘Mandawa, Rajasthan, India Have you ovor bean covered in volcanic mud ‘and ett ie on a cold stone? That's one of the unusval experiences that awaits ou atthe ‘Miciin del Sol, stuated 80 km south of Mexico ‘Ciy.As well asthe tietapeute Ueatments at the hhote'sheath spa, guests ae guaranteed vear- round surehine, and 2n opportunity to relax ‘completely. A new meditation cenve will also be opened next year The accommodation - wood and stone blldings surounded by tees and weter ~is certainly relaxing. Guests are quested to oar ony light-coloured clothes in natura fibres. Bedrooms are simply furnished and a telephone Ineach rooms te only modem comentence, As Jan Heaslp,a guest fom freland tld me, ‘Youwalkinto the resort and the stiess just iseppears.The whole time yout there, youTe ‘not being forced to do anything. I's a wonderful feolng’ 48 @ units _ Keonference at beachside het! justa few bilometes fro central Sydney doesnt sound ke hard work - especialy when you fird out that you wan't be expected to wear formal business suits, and tha a full programme of enterainment has been arranged by the hotel. The Crowne Plaza has a tly equipped business centre, which curently Deir, ‘extended. The Note:200 rooms are designed to mestthe needs of the international business traveler All rooms have air-conditoning, satelite TV, and high-speed Internet acness, ‘There's also & pool and a spa, and anew fitness centre has resenty boon opened, But’ the fabulous focation next 1a the ovezn that makes the hotel special, Conforonce delegates seem to agree that business anc pleasure are combined perfectly The feedback questionnaire asks, "ere you iooked after dusing your stay?” We weren't just tteated the guests wrote one delegate from the Netherianes, We were vested ike royaty. ‘twas the camel fide into the desert on my first evening that copvinced me 1d found ‘somewhere fantastic. he stress of modern life was soon foigatten as my fellow guests and were met by a group of guides and camels, and ‘were transported into a peaceful moonit world ‘Am {being taken back in time?"| thought. ‘The Desert Resort is situated in the heartof ‘the Rajasthan Desert. Facies are simple. The) hhotel was built as a tourist village with twenty: ‘one secluded cottages, each with its own priv entrance. The cottages have beer fitted with modern bathrooms, and there's a swimming ‘pool, but the resort hasn't been updated to Include any unnecessary fecilties. | hope this policy won'tbe changed. he ceser, the moonlight, and the camels are all you need, © @ 51 Listen to part of a welcoming speech by the business manager of the wne Plaza hotel, welcoming a group of delegates to a conference. What does he say about I another conference? 5 the air-conditioning? 2. cofiee, tea, and cold drinks? 6 the conference programme 3 lunch? 7 the temporary business cent 4 drinks this evening? 8 breakfast? © G54 Listemagain and complete the entracts 1 Another conference atthe hotel ar the same timeas this one 2. Coffee, tea, and cold drinks all day in the caié which = just inside the main entrance co the conference suit 3 Thisevening, you to join the management for drinks by the swimming pool 4 Tmafraid it’ a litvle warmer than usual in here because the airconditioning in the business centre ___.. However the work before lunchrime. 5. Some of the rooms The updated programme at the moment, 6 The business service centre that there is a temporary business centre, which in the seception area. Passives: Present Simple, Present Continuous, Present Perfect Simple, Past Simple, Will Future Read the sentences below. Answer the questions 1. Match the sentences with the correct tense Present Simple, Present Continuous, Present a This evening you are invited to join the eo ee management for drinks by the swimming pool. b The General Manager usually makes 2 short 2. Which sentences are passive and which are active? welcome speech. © Unfortunately, one of the main speakers has 3. When do we use the passive form? canceled her alk. 4 Find other examples of the passive in the horel 4. A-couple ofthe sessions have been cancelled or avicee rescheduled 5. How do we form questions and negatives in the € The updated programme is being printed at zhe : ae a esas tS Seance £ My colleague Anna is working on it, g Will we be shown show round the fitness centre? h The Fitness Centre Manager will come to the pre- dinner drinks party as well, i Mynewspaper wasn't delivered to my room this j Did you request ic at reception last night? uNiTs @ 49 50 @ units Practice @ Complew the sentences, Use the correct form of the verb in brackets. Decide whether the verb needs to be active or passive. 1 Themanager and staff __ (hope} you have a pleasant stay. 2 Reminder: guests __ (ask) to place al valuables in the safery deposit box. 3 Acomplimentary bus service take) guests to the city centre every day. 4 Currently the main meetingroom__ (redecorate). 5 We _ (install) another six computer terminals this week. 6 This way, madam. Breaklase ____(serve) on the terrace. 7 Recently the meeting rooms ___ (fr) with multimedia presentation equipment. 8 We apologize, but because of the bad weather we {cancel) the excursion to the mountains, 9 Your room (rot clean) yet. 10 There was a lot of building work going on, Every morning we (wake up) by the noise, 11 Thehotel __ (build) in the year 2000. 12 The hotel — (open) a fitness centre in 2002. 13. When get back next week,T__ ask} to writea report for my manages. 14 You __ (give) a complete invoice tomorrow whea you check out. 18. P'm sozry about that: in future the cleaning staft (disturb) you in the mornings. Complete questions 1-4 about Mision del Sol hotel, and questions 5-8 about Crowne Plaza hotel. Use the correct form of the verb in the passive. 1 Where/ hotel (locate)? ___ ———s 80km south of Mexico City. 2. What /open /next year? __ ‘A new medication centre, 3 What /guests/(request)/to wear? Light-coloured clothes in nacural fibres. 4 How / bedrooms / (furnish)? Ina simple way. $ What /entertainment (arrange)? ——__ A fall programme. 6 What /currently / (extend)? a x ‘The business centre. 7 What/recently (open)? A new fitness centre 8 How/one delegate j (treat)? Like royalty. ‘Workin pairs, Make similar questions for each other about the Desert Resort hotel. € @ Read the press release about the new Metropolitan Arts and Leisure Centre Complete the texs using the correct form of the verbs in brackets, riverside development. Te ‘and wil bring new life to a disused industrial area of monet, work (tll continue), but when it » (finish) in six months! time, the community ipovide) witn an art gallery exhibition space, 2 national museum, a multiplex cinema, and a modern sports and Fitness centre. A range of shops, bars, and calés (also plan). The Centre * (open) by the Mayor, 7 (host) a special Launch party © _ Make alist of the stages you think were involved in the MALC project. Examples Buy disused industrial area (Ask for government approval / Appoint the architects @ Workin pairs, Student A and SudenB StudontA 1 Read Datafile A below. 2 Wri the questions you need 10 ask Student B to complete the missing, information on the MALC project. 3. Ask your questions and answer Stadent Bis, Project update History buy disused industrial area Syearsago. receive government approval Ss appoint architects 4 yearsago construct rew buldings = start building new subwey station ‘ast yeor Recent developments (the last six months) finish buitcing subway station complete build multiplex cinema complete Drepate exnibition saace = ‘Work in progress (this month) install gym equipment es oigenize museum galeries install cinema seating no Future schedule next month prin promotional material next week iwite press for preview orgenize launch party next month 8. When was the area bought? e.g. Has te subway station boon but? @g Is the gym equipment being ‘installed? €4 When will the promotional material be printed? UNITS @ 6 Vv 7iiviva 52 @ UNITS Student B 1 Read Datafile B below. 2. Write the questions you need to ask Student A to complete the missing, information on the MALC project. 3. Aske your questions and answer Student A’. Work in groups. Choose one of these topics. Ps i + your place of work or study * yourhome * a town or city in your country “What changes have been made, ase being made, and will be made in the topic area you have chasen? Discuss them with other members ofthe group. Prepare a project report with headings like the one for the MALC project in @. Leisure and fitness activities file. Word combinations How do you like to spend your free time after working hard? Do you do any of these activities? Which ones do you think are the most interesting? Discuss with a partner. * Igo swimming in the evenings. I change out of my work clothes and then go for a eycle-ride. Pmtaking a part-time course in Japanese, so | do homework most weekends. Iplay for a local soccer team and we train once a week. Igo to the gym. Sometimes I doa workout and sometimes I do yoga ~T'm taking classes in yoga at the moment. + Trook up basketball year ago and now I play every Saturday, * Ljoined a cock-climbing club a few months ago, so on Sundays I0 to a special cencre with a climbing wall. Ido a bit of accing. P'm taking pare ina play at the local theatre at the momens. Match the verbs in A with the nounsin B. A B 0 +adud golor + amactvity (gerund form) 010 +atcam join + a hobby or interest play + anaction play for +a play or competition take +aplace ‘take partin sagame Match the activities in the box with the verbsand nouns in @. Example go + art activity (gerund form): dancing, joggtg, horse-riding, bowling dancing rugby anathletics competition aan netball thedrivingrange aichi a localsoftball team jogging hrorsecriding the spa portery classes.» awalk bowling acompucer course areadinggroup anew hobb) tennis Work in pairs. Discuss the questions. Which of che activitics in @ and © 1 have you never done? 2 have you done over the last week? 3 do-you think are the best for making you fit? 4 do you think are the best for relaxation? 5 exercise both body and mind? Work in pairs. Make a lst (using the correct verb + noun combinations) ofall the leisure and fitness activities you do each week/month, Ask questions to find out more about each other's list of activities. Discuss in groups. 1. What different leisure or fitness activities are popular in your country with young people? b with older people? © with men? with women? 2. Are there any which are not played or done in other countries? units @ 53 Skills focus 54 @ units Fit to work Work in groups. Discuss the questions 1 Do you socialize with people from your place of work or study? Do you do any sports or other acuvities with them? 2 Are there any organized leisure programmes or activities at your place of work or study? What things to encourage health and firness could you have or do in the workplace © inthecaféfrestaurant? * inside the building in general? © at your desk or workstation? * outside the building? in the staff room/lounge? Read the article The active workplace. Find out if the Ford Company encourage any of the things you listed in The active workplace ‘Whenthe dockstrikes twelve noon at the Ford Companys New Zealand head office, ‘small grcup of employees gathersinthe ‘main lobby. They're « misture of men and ‘women, old and young. office staffand shop-Hloor stafl. They're not waiting for an interdepartmental meeting oF a business ‘raining seminar. They're the ‘Lunchtime walking group’ andthey're about toga on fe thirty-minute walkin thelocal woods, ‘TheLunctnime walking group is just one ofthe inititives at tha Ford Company” designed to make the workplace moré active. Other artivitiesinclude yora courses nuh onsite ater work. A tennis courtand basketball court havebeea built forstaff and theirfamliost9 use at any ‘ime, including weekends and staff have interdapartmentsl challenges st lunentimes, ‘The corhpaty runs a'Worleife week every year, whetebmployessare shawn how tobalance workandlife.and where {nfotmation sossion# aro given on mene and worten shealth.o7 arcmatherany on Pai ch, and on maseago, Funds ofup to 1 come together in a group (verb) traditional, normal (ad}.) ready with full arcention iadj.) ‘5200 per person per yearare available for life eldils development such as coursesin cooking, yoda, kick-boxing: and pottery, os ‘wollas conventionalteam sports like netball and rugby, Sportsanaritness ars encouraged at all levels: from the regular’ Management versds the best-ofthe-rest' sports competition. io she arrangeméntstor staff discountsaf thelocal gym, Tears aiid individuels whocompete in national and local sports competiiions are given pad ime off work and flexible working hours and arrangomonts, lotibilityestends 1 the onsite cafeteria, where healthy meals am provided. and evpa made-to-order meals fob weight-warchers und alhletes in training, Meaaiwhile, the Lanchtime walking group has Sot off.I'they comebick towork alittle lafo,the managers wort ming too ‘mac, because they know that the employees will bomotealert and rested, ‘abd will probably work mors effectively in the affemoon:Ford fs Ore of many ‘eémpantes whonowrealize that active ‘workplaces Can create healthier and éppior environment in which to work. @ Find words or phrases in the article that mean: an action which is taken to solve a problem or improve a situation (noun) the use of natural ails for controlling pain or rubbing into the body (noun) specially created to suita particular person (ad) © Work in groups. Discuss the questions. 1 What do you think of the Ford Company’s policy on encouraging health and fitne: 2 What are the advantages 4 for theemployer b for the employee? 3. Can you think of any disadvantages? the information abour twa businesspeople. What differences do you think are between their lifestyles? How do you think they spend their lei Abib Cury isin his 90s and works in amarketing company in Sao Paolo. Brazil. He comes iromalarge family, butisa’l married and doesn't haveany children Gao Da Cheng is director ofalarge import company in the southern eity of Kaoshiung, Taiwan. He's 43, aad mamied with one so) Hie wifoiethe manager ofc local bakery. @© @ 82 Listento Abib Cury and Gao Da Cheung talking about their health and ‘Atness routines. Make notes about their lifestyles under the following headings (Incute detlivo hme they da whexsehay dais gl wen to), Abib Cury Gao Da Cheung moming activities breaklast lunch dinner © Work in pairs and discuss the questions. 1 Which of the two men do you think has the healthier lifestyle? Why? 2. How is your lifestyle similar or different? © Work ingroups 1 Does your company or place of work have a staff welfare policy and programme? What activities does it include? 2. Plan a new staff welfare policy and programme for your own oran imaginary company. 3 Present your ideas tathe other groups units @ 56 @ units Leaving recorded messages. Using mobile phones Leaving recorded messages @ 82 Listen to five pre-recorded answerphone messages (1-5). Match them with the following descriptions. a Bric Carlin’s answerphone message. = b Rosa's answerphone message (at home}. € An automated voice mail message. 4 The answerphone message from a cravel company. € Acomputer company helpline. @ 83 Listen to the messages again, Tick the sentence you hear. 1 We'll get ba as possible. 2 Theolfice is closed for a moment. | The office is closed at the moment, 3 Please talk after the tone. / Please speak after the tone. 4 The person you called is unavailable. / The person you called is not available. 5 All our operators are busy right now. / All our operators are busy just now. @ 54 Listen to four recorded messages. Decide which of the answerphone mmessagesin @D they are replying to. 4c 10 you as soon as possible. / We'll call you back as soon @ 84 Listen again and complete the messages. 1D thisisa * Maria Ferrando. This 's Rosa Lanson. i * thank yau forall the help and information you gave us. I'm going to rescarch a few things anu then we'll ‘another meeting. Thanks again 2. J) Hello, this is Rosa Larson on *.'m having trouble connecting Lp te the internet - my computer keeps crashing. Could you A soor, please? it's justafter___ Thanks. Hi€ric. Its Rosa. I've got “information from the Internet about the places Maria suggested, so we ought to have another meeting. Could you a * later this week? Thursday or Friday would be best if you could rake it then, Call me when you __* Bye! Hi, Rosa. It's Eric | —__tmafraid I a 4 make Thursday or Friday ‘morning, but Friday afternoon's OK, How does that sound? a any time from tuo.a'ciock. Bye. Pronunciation 1 GD 85 Listen to Rosa’s message to Eric again. 3 Look acthese notes made by Eric when listening to Notice how she stresses the words that earry the other messages on hisanswerphone. Write important information. messages | and 2 as complete sentences. “Hiri. 1's Rosa. I've gotsome more information Message 1 George meet - bar of Grand Hotel ~ from the Internet about the places Maria Wednesday ~6 p.m.? suggested, so we ought to have another meeting. Message 2 Peter can’t make ~ squash ~ Could you manage later this week? Thutsiay or tomorrow instead? Friday would be best if you could make itthen. Fe cet eee 4 In pais, practise the complete messages 1 and stressing the important words, 2 In pairs practise Rosa’s message, stressing the important words, © Workin pairs, 1 Take cums to leave each other recorded messages. The receiver should make notesabout the message, but obviously mustn't interrupt! Here are some ideas for message ‘Make changes to the agenda of a mecting, * Request information on new productservices. Ask about howa business trip went + Request a reference for a former employee. but you can also think of your own, 2. For each of the messages you receive send a return message to your partner's answerphone. Using mobile phones ‘Workin pairs. 1 Whatare the advantages and disadvantages of mobile phones compared to Jand-lines? What problems can you have when usinga mobile phone? 2. What other things can mobile phones be used for apart from just talking to another person? @ 58 Listen to these extracts from a conversation on a mobile phone. In each case, what problem does the speaker have? @ 56 Listen again and complete the sentences. 1 you. to alk at the moment. a battery’ Tmafraid 1 _ justthen. 3 4 5 __aallyou back? 6 — repeat that? 8 was thee? @ Choose one of he situations from @ above, Phone your parmer. Start the conversation normaly, but then introduce one of the problems identified in above, © Change roles and repeat the activity with a different situation and problem. UNITS @ 57 UNITS AGENDA Past Simple, Past Continuous, past Perfect “VHome and away 3. cqrind ie Pevona ana ro oO 52 @ UNITS © Gap years for adult Requests and offers. Exchanging information ‘Work in groups, Discuss the questions. 1 3 yved to another country to live and work? Do you know anyone who has. Did they have any problems? ‘What difficulties might someone have when they move to another country? How is living in another country different from just visiting a country fora short period? Look at the photographs and read the information. In pairs, discuss the questions, 1 is ‘What problems do you shink César Murillo and Chris Stewart had? What do you think they like about theic new lives? ( 6.1. Listen to an interview with César Murillo. Answer the questions. 1 4 6 ‘When did ne move to London? Whar did he do before coming to London? How is teaching in London different from teaching in Spain? ‘What problems did he find? What dees he like about London? Does he still enjoy his lifein London? © 6.2 Listen to an interview with Chris Stewart. lick T (true! or F (false), He was a guitarist with a band called ‘Genesis’. When he was at a party he was asked to write a travel guide to China. He worked asa grape-picker in Seville. He moved to Andalucia in 1988, He had no experience of farming. 00000 O- 00000 He still enjoys what he does. @ 6.1,62 Listen again and complete extracts 14, César ify to London in 1998. | * English Literature at @ university in the south of Spain when | “the chance to.come to the UK| “tomake anew start and London seemed like the ideal place, 2. | atthe beginning itwas difficult. t * completely different from what|____ before. The pupils came from so many different backgrounds and cultures, and a lot of them were from very poor families, There were also problems of discipline and classroom behavigur.|____‘ one day when a pupil ___‘and shouted, This s boring’, and walked out. That type of thing ____"in Spain. 3 PP I suppose it in 1973, when | ___®in France. * grapeson the vendange, when | an American woman, She tald me how wonderful Seville was, especially asa place to study the guitar. When the grape-picking _*, | immesiately hitened 10 Sevile, and fell in love with the place, 4 [ Avzara in England for many years when we here, so we knew about sheep and farming | Stoshear sheep at the age of 21, For example. But there was, and stil is, an awful lt to eer, They were very hard but happy days Past Simple, Past Continuous Read the examples and answer the questions. *» Iwas teaching one day when a pupil stood up and shouted, “This is boring',and walked out, + Las sittingathome when the phone rang, 1 Which verbs express completed actions in the past? 2 Which verbs express an incomplete activity hat was in progress overa period of time in the past? g 3 Which verbs are in the Past Continuous tense? 4 How isthe Past Continuous formed? Past Simple, Past Perfect Read the examples and answer the questions. + Before I went hack to university, I'd taught for five years in a Catholic school. * Ana and {had already farmed in England when we eame here. 1 Which of the two actions happened first - going back to university or teaching in the first example, jarmiing or coming here inthe second? 2 Which verbs are in che Past Perfect tense? 3. How isthe Past Perfect formed? Find other examples of these tense combinations in the two interviews. (Look at6.1 and 620 p. 136.) UNITs @ 59 Practice @_ Complete the sentences about César Murillo, Use the verb in brackets in either the Past Simple or Past Continuous. i teach) in Spain when I ____ (decide) to go back to university 2 When 1 study), meet) an English teacher from London, 31 sec) a poster advertising cheap flights to the UK while! (ovait) at the train station, 4 1 live) in Kent when f {have} an offer of ajob in London 5 When! arrive), schools in London {go through) a difficult ime. 61 really {enjoy} my first lesson when the bell ing) 7 When | (seast) my teaching ob, 1 (live) in temporary § Whilel (read) the newspaper, I (see) an advert for a flat-share. @ Look at the biographical information about Alison MacDonald, a Scottish neer who settled in Canada. Use the Past Simple and Past Perfect to write sentences about Alison's life Examples Where Alison was born, her parents had already b other children. Horfamily bad moved to Glasgow by the time sh ght up two rted school. ‘born Isle of Skye, Scotland (two older brothers, born 1956 and 1958) {family moved to Glasgow, Scotland started school fished school, passed all her Higher exams ‘worked on a farm inAusiraia for a year started Glasgow University: studied CWil Engineering t00k her Master's degree, Macquarie University, Canada srarried her boyfriend (Stewart); settled in Vancouver, Canada started work fora Canadian engineering company sonborn (Callum) returned to work promaced koa senior management position daughter born (Mora) yisited Scotland for a 3-month vacation with family © Workin puis. Write similar biographical information about yourself (or someone you know well). Make sentences about each other’ lives usin Simple and Past Perfect he Pas 60 @ UNITE Read the extrac: from Chis Seewart’s book about life on his farm in Andalucia, ‘Complete the sentences using the correct tense of the verb in brackess. ESSE Plena eirescrsis “one ater ‘ eam from aneighbour' farm, A few “hrf ‘Semin id sie anna. [Dongs vor nee Sa, oe pee spire A Fee tee * (getup), By 7 dock (have) breakfast. By 8 o'clock T — Bifecal) the chickens, By 10 o'elodk 1 oe ‘my’ usual morning tasks ~ so I was able o get everything ready to pas ne “start mynew ‘gareer. When Ana —__ " (come) back from the _ everything was sad); 1__® (prepare) pos pen, [paper.andT (sit) down, ready to write, f EES ewiewnoet greatness ait Bd Mareen advo euiated ala ~ sheep on the strawberry patch. It_—_ (escape) from the ficld, and ____" fenjoy)a feast of our fruit and vegetables. 1 ~ dropped my pen and mished out to drive the sheep away: By the time the ‘sheep was back in the field, Iwas exhansted and 1 * (lose) f the desire to write. So nnich for my first morningas a writer! ‘Work in groups. Take turns to think of ay many strange and amusin explanations for these events as you can. Use the Past Petfect to describe them, Example I missed the meeting because I had gone to the wrong compart. 1 Ididn't hear the phone ... 2. I missed the last bus home ... 3. Hismanager wanted to talk to him ... 4 Theconference was cancelled She was invited to meet the President ... 6 The airport was closed ... 7 My desk wasn't where it usually is... 8 The computer crashed ... ‘Work ia groups. Think of something you wore doing at a particular time last week. Tell the others in the group the time only. They have six questions to try to guess the activity. Examples Between 7 pm. and § p.m. last night. Were you cooking dinner? Were you working out at the gym? Think about an important decision that you have made in your life— for example, about education, work, or relationships. 1. Where were you and what were you doing when you made the decision? 2. How did your life change as a result ofthe decision? 3 What had your life been like before you made it? Describe your important decision to a partner. units @ «1 Gerunds file. Personal management @ 1 Personal Management Solutions isa company that helps people make positive changes in the way they manage their lives. Look at the advertisement. What main picee of advice does it give? Do you think it’s good advice? 2. Find examples of verb + gerund and verb + preposition + gerund. Write them in columns 1 and 2 of the rable opposite ‘Toomuch paperwork? + Isyour desk covered with documents? Itmayjustbe your That's just angsimple example. We can suggest doing personalmanagement many othérthinis lyiienot very goad a planning thatneedsimproving, how to manage your peesonaltime, or if you're just We recommend following interested in finding outabout ‘some hasic rules. personal management, then contact us. you don't veringsa few For example - write a ‘destruction date’ on every unimportant document. Maybe you're used to keeping every piece ofpaper you receive. But how much time do you spend looking for things because your desk is untidy and your filing cabinet is full? Here's a simple piece of advice: avoid filing a task you've finished workingon | without writing date when you can throw itaway Maybe the ‘destruction date’ is one week, one mosth, or one year in the future. When you next open your filin 1 cabinctandthedatehespased-yeucaneneythrevieg WOR't Oelayl useless paperwork away, You'll need a bigger office tyou Call Personal Management Solationson keep putting it off 0443 897676 your job, we can help you - and youcan look forward to living and working in a more positive environment, @ | Read another of Personal Management Solutions’ advertisements. What main idea does it give about positive change? Do you think the idea is helpful? 2 Find examples of vecb + infinitive or gerund. Write them in column 3 ofthe table opposit Positive chang Do youeverstop to shinkhow you could make a positive change? Ws amis how many people seem to complain about their situation. ‘They would like to be different - more interesting, exciting, or attractive - but they can'tfinda way to make it happen. Maybe it's hecause they remember being told by their parents or teachers that ‘you are who you are’, They remember toturn on the computer in the morning, but they don't remember to think creatively about themselves. fou can stop worrying. You don't need to put up with being the same forever. We have the solution, 1d we would love to help you. It's easy really, Forexam these que ‘would like to be a Mercedes? Do you like thinking of yourself as light blue bout feel you're actually dark grey? We can help you make a positive change by looking at how to take the steps in between, How many steps you can teke inthe rightdirection willbe up to you Call Personal Management Solutionson 0443 897676 le justanswer sions: Are you a Mini but 62 @ UNITE 3 Which column do you think these verbs go in prefer would prefer hate would hate Grammar quiz Complete the rules. Write gerund or infinitive. 1 When we use would with love, like, hate, and prefer, the form of the ver’ whicls follows is usually the 2 When we use love, like, hate, and prefer to refer toa general situation, the form of the verb which follows is usually the 3. With remember, when the remembering happens before the action itis followed by the —____ 4. When the remembering happens after the action itis followed by the 5. When stop means mot do ary longer itis followed by the ______. 6 When stop means interrupt one activity in order to do another, itis followed by the Ce Complete the sentences, Write the gerund or infinitive form of the verb in brackets 1. Do you remember ___ him when we were in Copenhagen? (see) 2. Will you remember __ and confirm the meeting for next Tuesday? (write) 3 After working on the new project all morning, he stopped —______ lunch. have) 4 I don’tplay foorball any more. I stopped five years ago. (play) ‘Work in groups. Discuss the questions. 1 What things do you remember doing when you were younger? 2. What activities did you do in the past, but have now stopped doing? ‘Work in pairs. Prepare eight questions about personal management using verbs from the table. Then change pairs and interview your partner. Examples Hote much time do you spend tidying your desk each week? What are you particularly good at doing in your job or study? How would you love to be different? UNIT6 @ 63 ean Gap years for adults . @ Work in pairs. Ask and answer the questions. 1 What did you do after school or university, and before starting wor 2. Whar isthe best rime of ife to cravel or spend time in another country? 3 What is the longest holiday you haveever taken from work? What did you do? @ Read the article What is a gap year for adults? and the three adverts, Work in pairsand answer the questions How is a gap year for adults different from a traditional gap year? Why do employers shink gap years area Would you like to take a gap year 2s an adult? do? Where would you like to go 4 Which, if any, ofthe three areas yourchoice. yes, what would you like to 1b, or e would you choose? Give reasons for A gapyyentter adults is constwetvetimeout—it [a : can be anyrer doing anyting and everyting. [EPROVB. "¥inatimeouttowork | ‘ou cous be traveling round the world, busing» inanothercounvyisn E School in Che, doing alternative work OUP JOB cewarcing experience. experienc, ing a beach in Fiji or simply fteanakobe a chanceto gon having na Wok at your ite SHINS) ovcuttctosandean | Tadiionalye gap yeorwesviewed ase student. _ "Willi whch liproveyuriot -ctiviy taking an extendec break before Lausekor eneracciconieied university tusuallyinvoive travel and, as a aes ea Seat ieee set éalisviod Sub Gandy bebe Na ooal others will benef rom your tnoviedgeand ski ‘families ableto pay forthe exoerience. Inthe UK, both Princes Willam and Harryotk gap years mesesboumnemanie: Save the planet! See the world However. 8 gap yearnaw offerssomathing for «There are thousands of conservation everyone:foryoung people, orforolderpeople projects runningglobally from close to | pu. td tickatSane flexible: reaching retienent for people whadon'twarta home to the deepest darkest comer of ene can be cheaper than you think, Decide the places you really want to vis then bui-your itinerary aronind the Ifyou inelude some work experience u go, you'll not only Seeshe sights¥ you'lilive thecutture. career, butjustwanttatake lfeonestageata _—‘the Amazon. YOU can volunteer and time, orfor people in steady carcérs. Many ‘op __help make adifference. ‘companies regard gortfolio careers ofthiskind Opportunities range from working on. 8 8 vory positive thing. f your CV has ary wildlife reserves in South Africa to interesting range factivitiesitcen oftenmeke conserving the coral teefsof Malaysia. ‘You more employabie. © G42 Listen to these interviews with three people who took a gap year. Make notes to complete the frst part ofthe table choose (a, b, orc from @)? Senet So Deena Dea Tid Pe ona Set Oe @ G68 Listen again and make notes co complete the second partof the table adventurous ambitious cautious hard-working, lazy optimistic pessimistic — reckless. relaxed unadventurous —_unambitious _uptight Now se questions, ives best describe Dean, Alicia, and Hortense? stives best describe you? 1 Which of the ad} 2. Which of the adj 3. Think of people you know who you could describe with each of the adjectives. Tell your partner about them p year for each other, Think about the @ Workin groups. Design the perfect g adjectives in @ and use che suggestions below + travel round the world (Which route? Which countries?) * yoluatary work in an developing country (Doing what exactly? Which country?) difierent skill (What skill? Where? vage in the host country (Which language? Which country?) © study a foreign lan Present your ideas to the rest of the class, UNITS @ 6 Can you. ‘Would you mind . (sing)? Do you think you Could you Pd like you to... Do you mind . | could (9 -ing)? 66 @ UNITE o Requests and offers. Exchanging information Workin pairs. Which of the phrases in the box would you use to make the requests below? Give reasons for your choice. Ask 1 acolleague to translate a letter for you 2. a friend to do-some supermarket shopping for you 3. your secretary to work three hours overtime this week. 4 acolleague togive yous lift to the train station. 5 yoursecretary to make some photocopies. 6 8 your son or daughter to tidy their bedroom. a colleague to help you move some office furniture. 4 friend to water your houseplants whileyou're on holiday, @ 64 Listen to a conversation heeween Rosa and Claire. Write the information Rosa asks Claire to get @ 64 Listen again. Write other phrases Rosa and Claire use under the correct beading below. Requests and offers Requesting | Anreeing Could you 2 Yes, of course. Offering | Accepting Declining Would youlike me 10 ..?) Yes, if you could. | Thanks, bur you needn't bather. What phrases cant you use to refuse a request? How do we begin a refusal and what do we add to sound polite? Work in pairs. You are colleagues. Practise making and responding to requests. Add two more requests each, Givea reason when you refuse a request. student Student B Ask Student 8 1 to help you translatea document Agree 2 to give yowa lfttothe airport Refuse ‘Student B ‘StudentA Ask Student A ro 1 explain a new computer system. Agree. 2. look after a visitor next week. Refuse. ‘Work in pairs. You ate preparing for a seminar. Practise making and responding to offers, Givea reason when you decline an offer. Add one more request each. Student A ‘Student B Offer 1 to setup the audio-visual equipment. Accept, 2 to check che number of participants. Decline. Student B Student A Offer 1 to open the windows. Decline. 2 tw get supplics of stationery Accept. © G@ 65 Listen to the phone call Claire makes to Executive Travel Services. Write the times of flights in her notebook. FLIGHTS Frm Te Oay/Onte Deparewre ——_Arrwal i Levin Balhae andy and : Pilbee vile Toeiday «th Savile Valencia Friday ath Valencia Paretlina —_Savwrday fh ‘nang sth © G@ 65 Listen again. Write the other phrases Claire and Jan use under the correct heading below. Exchanging information Asking a _ | Checking Ted like some information on .. That's ... is it? Confirming Correcting Showing understanding Yes, that’ right, Pronunciation 3 @ 68 Look atthe examples of correctionsand then listen, 1 65 Lisentothe corrections, Which word i 4 $0, travelling on the 7th... (Sth) emphasized? No, not the 7th, the Sth. 1 Noynot the 7th the 17th. . b So, de 1145... (11.35 2. No,not Malaga, Madrid. ieee 3 No, not 10.35, 10.25. aa a th 7 te G@ 77 Listen again. Make notes to help you remember what the presenter says about the Bive areas. Then compare notes with a partner. © Work in groups or individually. 1 Prepare atalk or presentation on topic of yourchoice. Use the information in this section to think about how you will organize your talle~e.g. how many sections, what visual aids, what visual information systems, how to deal with ‘questions, what signposting language to use 2 Give your talk or presentation tothe rest ofthe class, UNIT? @ 77 Present Conus, e going + On a global scale ininive, wil infinitive Money and finance ite Coiocations UN IT8 ‘a Hosting amsjor event Types of business communication. Texting © _ Wharproblem sitinsecared in the photograph below? Whar can be done to solve problems like this? How can companies and businesses help? @ March the words in A with the definitions in B. A B 1 sanieation 4 urgent request for something thats needed 2 hygiene b system for keeping places clean 3. suscainable keeping things free from disease 4 voluntary 4 removing human waste 5 appeal (noun) 6 sewage disposal © Look at the information on WaterAid. What are WaterAid’s general aims? Whoare they trying to help? What are their main sources of funds? ‘Which of the six aims for WaterAid Ethiopia do yox Which of the statistics in the Ethiopia factfile do you find most surprising? Vision and mission ‘WaterAid’ visors ofa world where everyone tas access o safe water and effecive sanitaton, Ourrmissionis + to provide safe domestic water, sanitation, arc tryplene edscation othe word's poorest peep ‘ tohelp loca organizations setup low-cost, ‘sustainable projects using approprits technology ‘that canbe managed by the commurty set. + toinflyeace the pokcies ofkey exganicaions such as governments. ‘WaterAid is independent and retesheavly on voluntary support. Over 708% of our funds come from individuals, businesses, appeals, and special events. Bees ators iia hink are most important? Water ild 72 @ unirs © G81 WaterAid is organizing a trip to Eshiopia for businesses which caise money for them, Listea to che firs part of a meeting between a representative of WaterAid and the business delegates. 1 Complete the flight dates and times. Date ime Arrive Addis Ababa Return London 2. March the following itinerary arrangements with the correct date: 4th, Sthy 6th, 7th, and 8th March, meet local community leaders b transfer rohhotel, check in, reception at Government offices © meet woreda and kebele leaders, meet women’s group d freeday € travel corrural village in the east @ G82 Listen to he second partol the meeting. Where ae the group visting on a. 9th March harvesting project b 10th March ___ scheme © VithMarch = building sewage disposal systems 412th March redevelopment project in — areas © GB 83 Listen again and complete the sentences 1 D2 Sorry, what time the flight getinto Addis Ababa? WAT at 15.00 on the 4th, then tothe hotel, checking-in, and getting ready for the reception at the Government offices. You can see that i's a tiring day. We're anything on the Sth, so there's time wo rest before the main itinerary, 2 Di Arewe any professional interpreters? My Human Resources department has a good contact if we need to take an interpreter, No, we're imcerpreters - I'm airaid its too expensive. We __ local interpreters from our volunteers already working out there. I thinke — _— them good enough Di That'sfine.I contact our HR people. 3. D2 Can just ask about publicity —arewe —___ a photographer for example? WA We're __a small TV crew and our own photographer for publicity and press coverage. D2 Idon'tknowif you'ee interested, but with my wife, who's a professional photographer, She's interested in doing the publicity shots i you want. WA Fantastic! In thacease __ leave our photographer behind ‘Are you sure i’s OK? D2 ___with her, butyeah I'm sure. UNIT® @ 79 0 @ unite Grammar quiz March these sentences from the listening in A with the descriptions in B. A 1 The flight gets in at 15.00. { _T'm going to send all the travel documents on to you. ink you'll find chem good enough, anpeesatepeechiig: gia Setees ware pers _Youcan see that ies goingto bea See Sis ieesvctss 4 Atimetabled regular event in the future. bb A definite arrangemencin the furure, Identify the tense or form in each case e.g, Present Simple, he going fo + infinitive). Arrangements and intentions: Present Continuous, be going to + infinitive, will + infinitive Look at these sentences from the listening. Complete the rules and answer the question. Present Continuous ‘© Pm coming with my wife, who's a professional photographer. * We're not doing anything on the Sth. © Unfortunately, the President of Eth coming. + When are we visiting one of the projects? isn't available so he isn’t be going to+ infinitive * Youcan see that it’s going to be a tiring day. © Are we going to take any interpreters? + No, we'te noc going to take any imerpreters, will + infinitive * Inthat case we'll leave our photographer behind. * Thar’s fine, I won't contact our HR people. + Weuse_ for a future intention when the decision has been made in the past + Weuse ____ fora definite arrangement (one thatis written ima diary for example). © Weuse fora spontaneous decision ahonta furure action. ‘+ The contracted form of willis © The negative (contracted) form of willis —____. '* How do we form questions for the Present Continuous and be going to forms? prsstertict ny. v6 Practice @ Choose the best verb form to complete the sentences. 1 A The flight leaveshiil leave at 10, 0 what time do you leavelare you leaving for the airport? B I'm booking/going to book a taxi to pick me upat 8 2A You have to cheek in two hours before the flight B I choughe it was one. In that case, I'l book/’m going to book the taxi for an hour eartier, 3A Canyou bring me back a souvenir? B U'm not havingl'mt not going to have much time for shopping, but OK, Fil tryl'm going totry. 4A Whar time does/will the return flight lan B Fight in the evening. Do you meetiAve you going to meet me? @ Complete these sentences with the correct form of the verbs in brackets. 1A Would you like to join the delegation to Ethiopia? B ('dloveto, butt (travell to New York on an importane businessteip. 2A Which airport (fly) to? B FKL {attend} a conference in a hotel near the airport, and che flight ___(ger in) atjustthe right time on the 4th 3 A Areyou (have) any time to relax? B Probably not. After the conference] ____ (meet) clients on the ] 7th, 8th, and 9th, | 4 A Did you know that our ex-boss be) in New York ar the | same time? He (say) ar the Plaza B No, digin’ know that. In that ease T (nor go) there for a ‘meal =I don’t want to run into him when I'm on business! © Make new plans as a result of discor these situations. m6 Example Thaven't been paid. I svon't go out for dinner tonight. The email isn't working, My phone bill is enormous. “My boss wants 10 see me now. I've lost my dictionary. All the tickets are booked for today’s New York flight. Icantt startmy car. Dobune © Workin pairs. Take turns to think of more examples for each question. Ask each other questions for more details 1. What regular timerabled events are there in your country in thentext year or two? Example The President opens Parliament in November 2 What definite arrangements have you made for next week? Example _[’nt flying to Paris om Friday. 3. What intentions and plans do you have for next year? Example _I'nt going to pass my English exam. UNITS @ 5 Hosting a major event 1. Has yourcity or country ever hosted a major event, eg, the Olympic Games, a political summit 2. What preparation is required to host such an event? 3, What changes or improvements to a city contin we after the event has finished? © _Usean English-Englsh dictionary to check the meaning ofthese words, Student A 1 Read about Barcelona, 2 Tell Student B about the effect of hosting the 1992 Olympic Games on Barcelona, Include information abour 2002 the recession Barcelona's airport ane © 12,00 new jobs eight years 5 S8ba h $2.4bn 3. Student B will tell you about Sydney. Ask questions if you don’t understand anything, 24 @ UNITS GDP solar-powered estimate infrascructure urban renewal © Workinpaiss, sudent A and SeadeneB Barcelona enjoyed hosting the 1992 Olympics somiuch that 49,000 people gathered in the Monge stadiumin 2002 to celebrate the tenth anniversary ol the Games. They had ot to celebrate: itwas not onlya sporting triumph, twas aso. lasting social and economic success. Despite a recession that sted until the mid-1990s, Barceiona was able to OW, building on its Olympic achievement. The city used the Games to introduce animaginstive urban renewal pln thet varsfonned ts decaying industrial tease the gorgeous seasidetty which oursis and vistors love. Barcelona's aiport handled 2.9 milion passengers in 1991; this figure has now risen environmentally friendly water conservation to.over 21 millon, Toursm, which accounted forless than 2% of the city'spre-Olympic GDP, snow worth 12.5%, The increase in hotel beds asa result ofthe Gomes has produced 112,500 new jobs. Barexlona estimated thatin eghl yearsithad builtinirasiwcture that would usually taketifty yeas, They invested $8 bition Inaring 02d, a new airport, a ‘elecoenmunicatons system. and an improved Sewage system, The flhyharbour and port ‘ee were transformed'bya'$2.4bilfon wotertront development, with the two tallest tewersin Span, one 3 luxrious hotel, the other an office bulking = eageeerr: Student Read abou Sydney Student A will tell you abou Barcelona. Ack questions if you don’t understand anything. Tell Student B abour the effect | ag the 2000 Olympic | Games on Sydney. Include ion about sf hos form: 2 11% the major beneficiaries Homebush Bay 137m Australian dollars e the athletes’ village the grcen and golden bell frog Stadium Austealia recycled water 50m 127m 403m 500m 100m 679m 430m — 810m 105m 436m @ 844 Listen wo part of a press conference given by a company of consoltants describing their estimate of the income and expenditure if London hosts the Olympic Games. Answer the questions, 1 Why have they not allocated much money for infrastructure improvements 2. How largeische new stadium going to be? 3. What isthe estimate for total expenditure? 4 Whar is the final estimated profit fi 5 What other benefits are mentions @ 84 Listen to the press conference again. Match the numbers in the box with the correct item on the income and expenditure account, Expendit Building of new facilities £ Income £ Ticket sales Buying ofland Se Security Improving the team Other direct revenue oct Sponsorship and advertising he event ‘Contribution from the Resale of land Unioreseen risks Total ioc ‘Tourism and tax from jobs _ Total L69bn 3.14bn reenatiotal Olyrpic Committe Work in groups. 1 Think of a city that you know well. Which ofthese events could be hosted there? ‘+ an international sporting event + a meeting of world leaders * acultural festival ‘+ anincemnational tourism convention + any otherevent Choose one of the events and plan what the city will need to do before, during, and after the event to make it successiul. Discuss your plans and opinions with another group. UNITe @ cs Types of business communication. Texting Types of business communication @ Workin pairs. 1. Which of these ways of communicating do you use at work? Do you use any | | | + facetorface + letter * fax other ways? + telephone + memo» textmessage + email 2. What different situations do you use them for? Give examples. 3. Which do you use most? @ > G@ BS Listen to Rosa giving Piet details of the research trip to Spain. Make a note ofthe activities they have arranged or planned. - Research trip te Spain 2-11 May Date Attivities ‘San Stbastn. — 2-4May = eee “Selle AT May isda ives ieee es 2h) 50Ge ae Barcelona 18-11 May © Oss : 1 Listen the conversation again. Complete the rable with the type of commonication used je.g, phone message, email, et). From | Te | Message ‘Type of communication Hotel Rosa confirm booking | Rosa Ghaire chock fight times | RosalMacia thelin San Sebastian | request forinterview chef in San Sebastian | Rosa/Maria 7 Rosa NMP team feedback on visits Piet | Eric invite for lunch Rosa ‘Maria | invite for lunch 2. Which eype of communication is nor ment the messages above? 1d? Couldiit be used for any of © G@ 85 Listen to the conversation again. Complete the missing parts of extracts 1. 1 wel, "in two weeks, on 2nd May. £3 J andion the stn “ospend tmeday visiting | __*to Son Sebastian first, so ‘vineyards in the Penedés area of Catalonia, talking to cava | flight to Bilbao on the 2nd. in San Sebastian. ‘5 producers, Then “on Tuesday. I'm | tw interview the chef of one of Spain's top restaurants. afull report on all the visits forthe editorial | ae nee asin and production team ~ “you in of course. Then on the 4th, __*to Sevilleand i a arr Lovetar 4p linahesiastes ot oft tee a meing non, wher te atom of oes tegen nd % herandtelnerwhee —____'. | convent where traditional Spanish confectionery ismatie. | ~ Ifwenaveerough time, “to Jerez dela Frontera and find out all about sherry production. From Seville ether “ straight to Barcelona or __'to Valencia. 36 @ UNITS Pronunciation 1G 86 Listen to the examples. Notice the words thar are sressed, 1 He wan't have tine to ede to the méecing. 2 Are you coming on the ext ‘sion with uson SSturday? 2 @ 87 Listen and mark the words that are stressed. 1 Are you planning to work abroad next year? 2 Pll meet you atthe cinema alter the 3. Isit true that you're going to change your job again? 4. We're going to Canada for our holiday next summer. 3 G 87 Listen again, Repeat each sentence twice quietly to yourselfto practise the sentence stress. Workin groups. Take turns to describe a future arrangement, plan, or intention which may or may not be true. The other students can ask a maximum of six questions t0 guess if what you say is trae or not. Example A. I’m goirig to buy a new car next month B Really? What make are you going to buy? Texting How often do you send or receive text messages? Have you ever sent any a inaworksituation? bin English? Look ar Rosa’s text message to Maria, and Maria's reply. Lunch w Piet + Eric? 1.30 bar lorca. R If they speak to each other, how will they say the same messages? ‘Look atthese abbreviations and symbols often used in informal text messages. ‘What do you think they stand for? 1 asap 6 tmrwi2moro 2b 7 Anite 3 culsr 8.) 4 grb! 9 5 rucoming? Convert these messages into text messages. Try to be as brief as possible. 1 Shall we mect for a coffee at he Grand Caféat 11 o'clock? 2 Can you bring your laptop computer to work tomorrow? 3. Areyou comingtto the seminar tonight? 4 Inced to talk ro you urgently. Can you call meas soon as possible? Write some messages of your ows either in full orasa text message. Get your partner 10 convert them, UNITS @ 27 REVIEW pantie UNIT B ee > Vocabulary ‘This unie reviews all the main language points from Units 5-8. Complete the ‘exercises. Use the Pocket Book for areas that you need to ceview again. Prosent Simplo, Presont Continuous, Present Perfect Past Simple, Wilf Future 1 Complete the description of the Social and welfare programme of Julie Voelckel’s ‘company. Use the correct tense and form of the verb in brackets. Be careful: five of the verb forms are active rather than passive 2. Write six questions about the programme based on the text, Use a range of tenses, some active and some passive. Example When was the programme introduced? @ Past Simple, Past Continuous, Past Perfect ‘Work in pairs. Complete the sentences. Use the Past Simple of the verb in brackers. Thea continue thesentence in two ways, using the Past Continuous and the Past Perfect. Example 1 felt (feel) embarrassed at the wedding reception because I was wearing jeans /T had forgotten to buy a present. 1 When (leave) home this moming 2 She _____ {choose} to work in another country because | 3 He ___. (write) a letter of apology to the client because .. 4 When! begin) this course... 5 The company (take over) one of it's competitors when ... 6 They _____ |want)to take a break because ... | © Modal verbs | ‘Complete the table below with verbs from the box. 1 Sy 1 Necessity/Obligation 2 Nonecessity/obligation 3 NecessityiObligation est niet fede something could have to. don’thave to needn't needtc fara biden Sea {slare required islcre prohibited can 4 Advice — 5 Possibility 6 Permission ie mustn't, ™ ) ™ should Sank right may ‘slare permitted ‘slare recommondod ilare allzwed 22 @ REVIEW UNIT be good at enjoy decide ike would love be used to don’t mind be interested remember manage stop look forward to © Arrangements and intentions: Present Continuous, be going to + infinitive, will + infinitive ‘Complete the sentences with the cozrect form of the verb in brackets. 1 Pm afraid Ican't come to the conference. T (fly) to Paris then, 2 According to the timetable, the train ___ (leave) at exactly 12.05, 3. I've decided Twanr to do that training course so (ask) the Human, Resources Manager to send me, 4 The email’snot working again! 1 ___ have to) fax this document instead. 5 Weean meet next Tuesday if you want. 1 (give) a presentation in the afternoon, but |___. {not do) anything in the morning. 6 Isee from the schedule thar you —. {take} your holiday in August: [a that case, 1____ (not take) mine until September. For each sentence, ask for clarification, Fxample 1 Serry? Where are yon flying to? @ Gerunds end infinitives 1 Write cight sentences about your personal attitude to work or study. Choose from the verbs in the box. Example I'm quite good at organising things. 2 Ask your partner questions to find out ifthey have a similar attitude to work or study Example Ave yot good at organizing things? @ Leaving recorded messages, Requests and offers, Exchanging information, Texting 1. Write recorded messages to leavean someone's answerphone + sworequeststo do something * nwooffersto do something + twoasking for information 2. Work i pairs. Say the messages to cach other: Make noces on the messages you receive. 3. Respond to the messages by leaving a return message. 4 Write a mobile text message for two of the messages. @ Types of business communication, Giving talks and presentations 1. How many different types of communication have you used in the last week in your place of work or study? 2. Tell your partner about the different types and explain why you used each one. 3. Prepare a presentation on the advantages and disadvantages of differene types of business communication. 4 Give the presentation to the other students, © Vocabulary test ‘Workin two groups, A and B. Write a vocabulary test to give to the other groap, Choose ten of the words below. Weite a sentence or phrase to help the other group ‘guess the word. Example Word ambitions Clue keen to achieve things and do well ambitions” —delegae = GDP inidative air-conditioning outsourcing allocate ——sfitmesscentre crash crash course cosmopolitan updated conservation stressful install itinerary direct debit uptight accessible early retirement infrastructure volunteer small tall fund-raising shopping mall REVIEW UNIT 8 @ co UNIT9 pict = ‘et and 2nd Conditionals Expressing probability Phrasal verbs fle. Dietionary skills (2) Urban ving Writing emalts © Workingroupe 1 How will the world be different in the yea 1030? Make predictions about energy supplies © there tionship between different generations of people he role of wornen in society Compare your predictions with oth per groups. How likely or unlikely do you think each other's p BD Red Wermtcle whey 02 seensnoanzosbancmeun 1 Areany of your predictions in @ mentioned in the article? 2. What other predictions are mad 3 How ly or unlikely do you taink the predictions are? ‘What if... ?? com G Sky-trains, space travelfor the masses, and food pills? Future preclesionshaven't always been acc ate. But now covemments and basinesses are increasingly using fom scenario planning to help them pian polices and make decisions 1 What if the power fails? Be te SCENARIO a 1h 2030, the UK will eve problems gene’ating enough energy and willbe dependent on imported sources of fuel Riseasyta __‘t would provideal the world’ elec © magineaterrorist attack ona major pipeline As coonas the | pipeline isaitacked, energy supplies willdrop by 40%. Emergency supplies witnot beenough The fagical consequence ‘s thatby theeveningrust-hour, whole sections of thecount If we coveredjust part of the Sahat eset with Solar panels, ity. The UK government has seta target of 30%6renewable Clearly state the purpose of the emai, > Make sure the subject line is undated each time you reply 2 > Copy inany relevant people 2 Are the guidelines the same in your country and your language? © Workin pairs, Weite the following emails. 1 The Travel agent to Rosa, confirming details ofa fight change and where to collect the tickevs at the airpor) 2 Rosa to Eric, arranging where to meet for the trip to the airport. 3. Rosa (in Spain) to her husband, Colin, tellingshim how the trips goine. @ Work in groups of four or five. Sit in a circle, You are going to write short emails. from Rosa Lanson to some of the following people or companies: + Piet van Bis * ErieCarlin 4 restaurant or food producer in another country 2 travel agent the production department of NMP a fiend of Rosa's the owner of a specialist food shop. 1 Choose one of the people anid start an email from Rosa related to the subject of “The food and drink project’. Only write the headings (From, To, Date, Ce, Subject). 2 Pass your email to the person on your left. Write the next stage ofthe email ‘you receive from the person on your right (greeting and social chat, if appropriate) 3 Continue passing the emails round, adding one stage at atime in the following ‘order: the purpose of the email, the main message (including bullet points), any questions you have, a quiek closing summary and final ‘signature’. 4 The last person to receive each email should check ig, and then put it up on the wall for other groups to read. UNITS @ UNIT 10 “\ Transitions cm= 0 ‘Russian revolution’ The ‘second Look at the photogeaphs. AGENDA resent Ferfec Simple and Present Perfect Continuous ‘Time phrases Job descriptions file Colocations Word:buiging Getting your Weal ob Describing a process. Interviewing techniques 1 What happened in Russia in 1991? 2 What do you know about economic and political developments ia Russia since 1991 © Marchineworasin'A wih che dehatnanein A B 1 co-operative a official document tharshows permission to do, own, of use something 2 entrepreneur b business owned and run by the staff 3 devaluation € supplies of coal, oil, wood, etc 4 market economy — d_reduction in value, e.g, when a currency’s exchange rate falls 5. bureaucracy € economic system based on the principle of buying and selling goods for profit 6 shopping mall £ (AmE) a group of shops under one roof, closed to traffic 7 natural resources ga complicated system of official rules and ways of doing things 8 licence ha person who makes money by starting 3 business Ina rocort curve of the Forty richest people aged under 40, five of the ten richest people came trom Russia. This may seem surprising fora country that spent mostof the -ontury urder communiet rule. But anyone who hes developments in Russia since the fall of communism in 1994 won't be too surprised. Even before 1991 itwas legal for paople to start private companies and cooperatives. Since then the values of apitalism anda market economy havebeen emerging. In the mid1990s, Russia's vast state oll and mining, companies were sold off and mary young entrepreneurs. took the opportunity to start successful businesses. These companies have now expanded into other amas of industry, such as banking, telecommunications, retal and the ats. At the same time, the number of smaller businesses has increased drarratecclly, Mere money has been coming into the economy. The devaluation of the rouble 100 @ UNIT 10 after the 1998 economic crisis actually heloed to Promote aminrboom. Real wages fel, which encouraged small enterprises to expand. Imports became too expensive for the average Russian, so local production increased. As 2 result, a new madale class has emerged With money to spend cn consumer goods. I's all part of the newmarket economy Invernational companies have also veen investing In Russia since the fall of communism. Companies like MeDonaid’s, Rolls Royce, Ferar, and IKEA have oponed bousinesses such as shops, showrooms, and factors, Russian entrepreneurs thernselves have made significant Investments outside Russia — for example Roman Abramovich, who has invested some of his fortune inthe London ‘octal club Chelsea. |As one observer put it: “The speed of what's been happening in Russia since 1994 Is remarkable —in many ways they've seen “second Russian revolution”, il © Readtheanticle The ‘second Rassias revolution’ and answer the questions. When did the communist system fall in Russia? When did private companies and co-operatives become legal? ‘What event in the mid-1990s helped young entrepreneurs 10 emerge? What effect did the devaluation of the rouble have in 1998? Which international companies have invested in Russia? Con you name one Russian entrepreneur who has invested outside Russia? Do you think the changes represent a “second Russian revolution’? © 101 Liseeno the first part of aninterview with Lennart Dahlgren, the ‘General Director of the Russian section of the Swedish furniture and home. furnishings company IKEA. Complete the factsheet. @ G44 Linenegsin and comple exacts 1-4, 1 Mr Dahlgren, IKEA in Russia for several years, and you arrived at the start. How long —_____ in Russia? 1___‘ since 1998. Thar's when IKEA operations in Russia. 2. How many stores 2 We "five stores so far, and we * several large shopping mails in the last few years. 3. Consumer demand * steadily since we "the first store, 4 We __*the percentage of our global supply that comes from Russia for a number of years. We ___® several factories throughout Russia — near St Petersburg, Moscow, and Karelia. © > @ 102 Listea to the second part of the interview. 1 What two problems has IKEA faced in Russia? 2. Who are IKEA's management training programmes designed to help? @ >= G@ 202 Listen again and complete extracts 1 and 2. 1. But bureaucratic problems fewer recently. For example, the Government — the number of licences that are needed for & new company to setup. 2. However, we a number of things in the rime we here. We management training programmes to help new Russian entrepreneurs. We to show how a modern company has to work to survive in the international marker. UNIT 10 @ 107 102 @ UNIT 0 © Grammar quiz Read these sentences from the article and the interview, and answer the questions below: 4 Young entrepreneurs took the opportunity to start suecessful businesses. b Imports became too expensive for the average Kussian, «¢ Consumer demand has been growing steadily 4d We've opened five stores so far ¢ Why do you think it's been successful? | Which sentences refer to a period of ime completely in the past? 2. Which sentences refer to a period of time from the pastto the present? 3. What are the full forms of We'sre opened and its been in sentences d and e? 4 Match the verbs in the sentences with the tenses: Past Simple, Present Perfect Simple, Present Perfect Continuous, Present Perfect Simple and Present Perfect Continuous Read the sentences and answer the questions. International companies have also been investing in Russia since the fall of commanism, b Companies like McDonald's, Rolls Royce, Fetrari, and IKEA, have opened businesses such as shops, showrooms, and factories. How long have you been living in Russia? {ve been living here since 1998. How many stores have you established? We've opened five stores so far, and we've also built several large shopping mallsin the last few years Bureaucratic problems have been getting fewer recently. ‘The government has reduced the numberof licences that are needed foe a ‘new company to set up. Which sentences focus on the result or completion of the action? 2 Which sentences focus on the activity itself? 3 Which sentences are in the Present Perfect Simple and which are in the Present Perfect Continuous? 4 Find other examples of the Present Perfect Simple and Present Perfect ‘Continuous in the article, and in 10.1 and 10.2 on p. 140. Why is the simple or the continuous form used? QP edevak 9.1245 Time phrases ‘Complete the gaps in the following: groups of time phrases with for, in, oF the fall of communism 1—— | 1998 ‘we opened the first score 2 several years anamber of years 3 | themid-1990s the last few years Find other time phrases in the text and interview extracts, rw s Practice @ Complete the sentences with either the Present Perfect Simple or the Present eriecr Continuous of the wer in brackers. 1 Howlong have you (work) in China? 21 (work) here for two years 3 Our company = (invest) in China for several years, 4 We open} ten shops in Beijing and Shanghai, but we ____ {not move) into southern China 5 You look tired, What have you 6 1____ write) a report all day. 7 Have you (nish) the report? 8 Notyet.I _____ (write) about rwo thirds, 9 He {study} accounts management for six months. 10 He (not learn} how to do spreadsheets. 1. Has the computer (crash) again? ke (do) thatall week. © Completeth following article. Use the most appropriate tense of he ver in brackets: Past Simple, Present Perfect Simple, oc Present Perfect Continuous. _ ete 1805, ‘s many asonemillion young Russians — —__\(go} abroad tolookior etter ‘opportunities, But in the new millennium, people like _ PavelDoshloy and Tatyana Leonova: {decide} tovetum tothe ‘new Russia | Tm backin Russia on holiday at (revel) abroad in -*(se6) a lototthe world. ______MlivelinCaina, England, and Hunacry.] * ror) in Budapest fr the last year: But (amrive)herecmonth ego, Fest cece 8 (make) « decision to move backto |) Russia. Somuch *(change) sincel lived hore before. It's exciting, erpa sand ther opportunity: : Tatyana, aged 29. isc sales manager or Nosil's Maesom (como back) two roars agen "inotregrepit. ‘(world for Nestlé for two years.I'm very hoppy with my job oud wrrepaidee ol iedeg 1 <= ches = = (have) three promotions and recently I “(qorelinto an apartment inthe centre sober iat (win) an award as Young © 1 Work ingroups. Prepare a questionnaire on work and jobs, or studies, Write six questions to find out about other student's experiences. Examples How many different jobs have you had? What books have you been studying recently? 2. Use the questionnaire to interview a student from another group. 3. Report back to the class UNIT 10 @ 103 Job descriptions file. Collocations. Word-building © Workin pais. Discuss the 1 Do you enjoy your job? What keeps you motivated: 2. How can employers motivate theirstaff? @ Read the article Morale boosting, Find ways in which staff can be motivated Example create a sociabl ‘Amotivated worklorce sa great business asset that can helo you get ahead ofthe competition. Consider what motivates your laf. Ths could be the opportunity for new challenges You may need to ceate& mare sociable envionment or encourage a feeling of satisfaction for a job well done and recognition by peers. Initially, some people may show resistance to change: But ths will disappear if you explain why you are changing things and you make itclear what your expectations are and the contributions you aelookingforfrom ‘your employees. ‘There are some particular ways you can do this People enjoy tying to reach 9 ‘goal or exceed a target. Howeves, coals and targets must be agreed withthe ‘employee, not imposed from above. There should also be a clear reward