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:

.. , ..
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1.1
. . . . . . . . . . .
1.2

1.3
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.4
. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.5
. . . . . . . . . . .
1.6
. . . . .
1.7
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.8
. . . . . . . . . . . . . .

11
11
12
13
14
14
15
16
17

1 , . ..
2
. . . . . . . . . . . .
2.1
(1) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.2
(1) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.3
(1) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.4
(1) . . . . . .
2.5
(2) . . . . .
2.6
(2*) . . . . . . . . .
2.7
(2*) . . . . . . . . . .
3
. . . . . . . . . . . .
3.1
(2) . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.2
(3*). .. . . . . .
3.3
(2*) . . . . . . . . . . .
3.4
(3*) . . . . .
3.5
(3*) . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.6
(3*). .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

20
20
20
24
26
28
30
33
35
40
40
42
44
47
50

52

. . . . . . . . . . . 56
4.1
(1) . . 56
4.2
3- 4- (2) . . . . 58
4.3
(2) . . . . . . . . . 64
4.4
(3*). .. ,
.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
4.5
(3*) . . . . . . 69
4.6

(3*) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
4.7
(4*).
.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
4.8
(4*).
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
5.1
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
5.1.1
. . . . . . . . . . 82
5.1.2
: (1) . . . . . . . . . 83
5.1.3
: (2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
5.1.4
. . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
5.2
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
5.2.1
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
5.2.2
. . . . . . 90
5.2.3
(1) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
5.3
92
5.3.1
(2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
5.3.2
(2) . . . 93
5.3.3
(3) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
5.3.4
(4*) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
5.4
. . . . . 107


5.4.1
5.4.2

(1)108
(2*) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112
5.4.3
(3*) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114
5.4.4
(4*) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
5.4.5
(2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119
5.4.6
(3*) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124
5.4.7
(4*) . . 129
5.5
. 130
5.5.1
(2*) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131
5.5.2
(3*) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131
5.5.3
(3*) . . . . . . 133
5.5.4
(4*) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135
5.5.5

(4*) . . . . 140
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147
6.1
(2) . . . . 147
6.2
(2) . . . . . . 151
6.3
(3*). ..
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154
6.4
(3*) . . . . . . 161
. . . . . . . . . . . . . 166
7.1
(3) . . . . . . . . . 166
7.2
(3) . . . . . . . . . . . . 169
7.3
(4*) . . . . . . . . 171
7.4
? (4*) ..
, .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173
7.5
(4*) . . . . . . . . 175

7.6
(4*) . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.7
(3*) . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.1
(2) . . . . . .
8.2
(2) . . . .
8.3
(3*) . . . . . . . . . .
8.4
(4*). .. . . .
8.5
c (4*).
.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.6
(4*). .. .

5
179
182
186
186
189
191
195
196
199

2
205
9
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205
9.1
(1). . . , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 206
9.2
(2). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209
9.3
(2). . . . . . . . . 212
9.4
(2). . . . . . . . . 213
9.5
, (2). . . . . . . . . . . . 218
9.6
,
(3). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220
9.7
,
(2). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223
9.8
(2). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227
9.9
(2). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 235
9.10
(3). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 242
10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255
10.1 (1). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255
10.2 (1). . . , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 259
10.3 (2). . . . 264


10.4

11

12

13

14

(2). . . , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 266
10.5 (2). . . , . . . 268
10.6 (3). . . ,
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 269
. . . . . . . . . . . . . 277
11.1 . (1) .. . . . . 277
11.2 (2). .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 285
11.3 (3*).
.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 287
11.4 (1). .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 289
11.5 (2). .. . . 297
11.6 (1). .. . . . . . . . . . . . 304
11.7 (2). ..- . . . 304
11.8 (2). .. . . . . . . . . . . . 306
11.9 (3). .. . . . . . . . . . . 310
11.10 (2). .. . . . . . . . . . . 313
. . . . . . . . . . 320
12.1 (2). . . . . 320
12.2 (2). . . . . . . 323
12.3 (2). . . , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 328
(3). . . 336
13.1 . 336
13.2 .339

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 344
14.1 (1). . . 344
14.2 , (1). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 350
14.3 . (2). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 359


(2). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15.1 (2). . . . . . . . . . . .
15.2 (3). . . , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15.3 (4). . . , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15.4 (4).
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
16.1 (2). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
16.2 (2). . . . . . . . . . . . . .
16.3 (3). . . . . . . .
16.4
(3). . . . . . . . . . . .

14.4
15

16

363
370
370
372
376
386
390
390
396
405
415

3
422
17 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 423
17.1 . . . .
(1) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 423
17.2 . . . (2) . . . 425
17.3 . . .
(2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 427
17.4 . . . 1 435
18 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 441
18.1 (1). . . . . . . . . 441
18.2 (2). . . . . . . . . 445
18.3 I (2)2 . . . . . . . . . . . 447
18.4 II (2). . . . . . . . 450
18.5 (2). . . . . . 454
18.6 (3). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 460
19 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 464
19.1 (1). .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 464


19.2
19.3
20

21

22

23

(1). .. . . . . 467
(2). .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 470
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 474
20.1 3 (1). . . . . . . . . . 474
20.2 I (1). . . - . . . . . 488
20.3 II (1). . . . . . . . . 491
20.4 (1). . . -, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 501
20.5 4 (1). . . . . . . . 503
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 514
21.1 (1).
. . , . . , . . 514
21.2 (2). . . -528
21.3 , (2). . . 531
21.4 (2). . . . . . . . . . . . . 534
21.5 .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 539
21.5.1
(1) . . . . . . 539
21.5.2
(2*) . . . . . . . . . . . 541
21.6 .
. . , . . . . . . . . . . 544
21.6.1
(2) . . . . . . . . . . . 545
21.6.2
(3*) . . . . . 546
21.6.3
(4*) . . . . . 548
5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 558
22.1 (1). . . 558
22.2 (1). . . . 561
22.3 (1). . . 563
22.4 (3). . . . . . . . . . . . . 568
22.5 (3). . . . . . . . . . . . . 572
22.6 6 (3).
. . , . . , . . 575
22.7 (4*). . . . . . . . . . . . . 591
. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 596

24

25

23.1 , , (1) . . . . . . . . 596


23.2 (1) . . . . . . . . . . . 599
23.3 (2) . 600
23.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 605
23.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 606
. . , . . . . . . 608
24.1
, 608
24.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 610
24.2.1
(2) . . . . . . . . . 610
24.2.2
(2) . . . . . . . . . . . 611
24.2.3
(2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 614
24.2.4
(3) . . . . . . . 615
24.2.5
(4*) 617
24.3 : . . . . . 622
24.3.1
(2)622
24.3.2

(3*) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 623
24.3.3
(4*) . . 623
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 630
25.1 (2). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 630
25.2 (2). . . . . . . . . . . 637
25.3 (2). . . , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 640
25.4 (3). . . 656
25.5 7 (3). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 658
25.6 (3). . . - 665
25.7 (3). . . - 667
25.8 (3*). . . , . . , . . . . . . . . . . . . . 669
25.9 ?8 (3). . . , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 678

10

4
26 . .. . . . . . .
27 ? .. .
28 . .. . . . .
28.1 . . . . . . . . . . .
28.2 . . . . . . . . . .
28.3 ? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
28.3.1

[BKS] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
28.3.2
. . . . . . . . .
28.3.3
. . . . . . . . .
29
(. . , ..) . . . . . . . . . . .
29.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
29.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
29.3 . . . . . . .

692
692
695
699
699
701
702

702
704
707
714
714
714
716

1.

11

1.1

, . .
( , ). .
26 . , .
(, , ).
. ,
, .
,
. .. ( ), 1543
. , ,
, ,
,
, , ,
.
, . 9 ,
. - , .
, 9

,
(, 6-). , . 6- -,
., , [GIF].

12

. .
. . . 1.3 .

1.2

. , (, )
, . , ..
, . , . . 26
.
, . ,
, , .
, , .
. [Su]; . [Pl, . 26-33]. : [Ar, BS, GDI, KK, Pr07, 10, SC, Sk09, Va, Zv];
- , .
, , . , , .
, (
) . - ,
. ,
( )!
.
. (,
.) , .

1.

13

, , . .
.
(,
. .) , .
, ( ) .
. ,
. , . ( -
, .)
,
. . 28
.
,
. . [KK15].

1.3

.
( ) . ( ) .
, ( ).
.
, ,
, . ,
.

. : 1
, 4 . ( ) ; ,
. (-

14

) ;
, .
, . ,
.
, ,
. ,
, .

, . ,
.
.
, .
,
:
http://www.mccme.ru/circles/oim/materials/sturm.pdf

1.4

. ..

: ( ), . ( ) ;
.
,
. ., , . 1.2
.

1.5

, , .
[GKP], , , .

1.

15

, , - .
, . ,
, .
[ZPS], . [U].
. , , [GDI]. , . .
, (
) .
, - -
, .
-
. , http://kvant.ras.ru,
http://kvant.mccme.ru,
http://www.mccme.ru/free-books/matpros.html

1.6

. .. (11,16), .. (2, 3), .. (14), ..


(. 11.1), .. (21), .. (. 21.5),
.. ( 3), .. (12,15), .. (4, 8, 26, 27, 28), .. (5), .. (6,7),
.. (9,10) .. (13), . . . -
.. , , . ..
, [ZPS]. . ??? . .. . -

16

.

.
1, 2 3 .. , ..
.. , .
4, . , .
.. .. .
-. .. :
, 1543. .. : -
() , www.mccme.
ru/~skopenko. .. :
( )
, http://skopenkov.
ru.

1.7


. : 1
, 4 . ( ) ; ,
. ( ) ;
, .
.
, . ; , , . [VIN]. , , . *.
, .
.

1.

17

, .

1.8

[x] () x.
{x} x.
.
d | n, n .. d n d, .. d 6= 0 k, n = kd ( d
n).
Rn {1, 2, . . . , n}.
R, Q, Z ,
, .
Z2 {0, 1} 2
2.
Zm {0, 1, . . . , m 1} m
m. (,
Z/mZ,
Zm m-

m.)
n

k- n-
k
( : Cnk ).
|X| X.
A B = {x | x A x
/ B} A B.
A t B A B, .. A B A B.
A B A B. ( A B, A B
A B B.)
x = a x := a.
id , ().


[GDI] .. , .. , .. , .. , .. , .. , .. , , - ,
2016. http://www.mccme.ru/circles/oim/discrbook.pdf
[GIF] . . , . . . . ,
, , 1994.
[GKP] ., ., . .
.: , 1998.
[U] (2004-2009).
http://www.mccme.ru/circles/oim/mat.htm
[VIN] .., .., .., ..
, : , 2010.
[ZPS] . . . ,
. , . , . . . , , 2009.
http://www.mccme.ru/free-books/olymp/matprob.pdf
. 1.2.
[KK] . . , . . ,
.
18

19

[KK15] .., ..-. , . , 19 (2015).


[Pl] , , .: , , , . ,
, 1999.
[SC] .. , .. , .. , , , , 2001.
[Sk09] . . ,
, , , 2009.
http://arxiv.org/abs/0801.1568
[Su] . , -. . : i. 1992.
:
[Ar] .. , " 5 15"
[BS] .. .. , ., " ".
[Pr07] . . . : , 2007.
[PS] , . , .
[Va] .. " ".
[Zv] . " ".

,
. ..

. , -
. -
.


( 2.5.7 2.5.9),
(. 2.4 ) (
2.1.3 2.3.2).
. .. .

2.1

(1)

2.1.1. (a) p p 2, 4,
5, 10, 3, 9, 11.
(b) 11 . . . 1 1993 111111?
20

2.

21

() 1 . . . 1 2001 37.
2.1.2. a 2 4,
a .
2.1.3. a, b?
(a) 2|(a2 a). (b) 4|(a4 a). (c) 6|(a3 a). (d) 30|(a5 a).
(e) c|a c|b, c|(a + b).
(f) b|a, bc|ac c 6= 0.
(g) bc|ac c, b|a.
2.1.3.c
2.1.4.a. , ( 2.2.7.c)! ,
,
2.1.4.b.
2.1.4. (a) a 2 3, a 6.
(b) a 2, 3 5, a 30.
(c) a 17 19, a 323.
2.1.5. (a) k 2, 3, 5, k 4 1 240.
(b) a + b + c 6, a3 + b3 + c3 6.
(c) a + b + c 30, a5 + b5 + c5 30.
(d) n > 0, 202n + 162n 32n 1 323.

2.1.4. (a) 3a 2a = a, a 6.
,
2.1.1. (a)
n = (10m am + 10m1 am1 + + 10a1 + a0 )
0 6 ai 6 9.
2. 2
, 2.

22

. n a0 . , a0 . , . n . , n , a0 .
4. 4
, , ,
4.
. (n 10a1 a0 ) 4. , a0 +10a1 ,
, 4. n 4. ,
4|n, 4|(a0 + 10a1 ).
5. 5
, 5 0.
2.
10. 10
, 0.
2.
3. 3
, 3.
. n
:
n am am1 a1 a0 =
= (10m 1)am + (10m1 1)am1 + + (10 1)a1 + (1 1)a0 .

10k 1 = (10 1)(10k1 + 10k2 + + 10 + 1)


3. 3.
9. 9
, 9.
3.
11.
n, , .
n 11 ,
f (n) 11.

2.

23

. , m > 0
10m (1)m 11. m 10m + 1 = (10 +
1)(10m1 10m2 +10m3 10+1) 11.
m 10m 1 102 1 11.

f (n) = (10m +(1)m )am +(10m1 +(1)m1 )am1 + +(10+1)a1 +(11)a0 .


11,
11. .
2.1.3. : (a,c,d,e,f) , (b) .
(a) a2 a = a(a 1). .
a a 1 .
a2 a .
(b) 4 - (24 2) = 14.
(c) a3 a = a(a 1)(a + 1). a(a 1) 2.
(a 1)a(a + 1) 3. , a3 a 2
3. 2.1.4.a a3 a 6.
(d) a5 a = a(a 1)(a + 1)(a2 + 1). a(a 1)
2. (a 1)a(a + 1) 3.
a, a 1, a + 1 5, a 5
2 3. a2 + 1 5. , a5 a 2,
3 5. 2.1.4.b a5 a 30.
(e) a = kc b = mc, a + b = (k + m)c.
(f) a = kb, ac = k(bc).
(g) ac = kbc, c(a kb) = 0. bc 6= 0, c 6= 0.
a = kb.
2.1.4. (a) 6|3a 6|2a, 6|3a 2a = a.
(b) . 6a 5a = a.
. . (a) 6|a 5|a. 30|6a 30|5a.
, 30|6a 5a = a.
(c) . 19a 17a = 2a, 17a 8 2a = a.
. 17|a 19|a. 1719|17a 1917|19a.
, 17 19|(19a 17a) = 2a. 17 19|(17a 8 2a) = a.
2.1.5. (c) an bn = (ab)(an1 +an2 b+ +bn1 )
ab. 202n 1+162n 32n = (202n 32n )((162 )n (12 )n )

24

17. 202n 1+162n 32n = (202n 1)+((162 )n


(32 )n ) 19. 2.1.4.c 202n 32n + 162n 1
323.

2.2

(1)

p > 1 , , p 1. q ,
, q 1. (, 1 , .)
2.2.1. () . a > 1 p,

a, a .
(b) . p1 , . . . , pk
1 n. i = 1, . . . , k 1 n2
, pi . p p.
(c) 1 200.
2.2.2. (a) p, p, p + 2, p + 4 .
(b) 111 . . . 11 n , n .
(c) (b) .
2.2.3. (a) . .
(b) 4k + 3 .
. 3f . 3.3. ,
.
. a, b > 0 , 1, ak + b .
2.2.4. n-
pn .
(a) pn+1 6 p1 pn + 1.
(b) pn+1 6 p1 pn 1 n > 2.
(c)* p1 + + pn p1 + + pn+1 .
2.2.5. (a) , n n2 + n + 41 ?
(b) f n, |f (n)| .

2.

25

2.2.6. 1000 ,

(a) ; (b) .
2.2.7. () .
(b) 4k + 2 4l + 2, 4k + 2 2.
4k + 2 ? ( . 4.7.3.b.)
(c)* , .
(d)* .
.
() (b) (c) .
2.5. . 4.4.5.
,
2.2.2. (a) : p = 3.
p, p + 2, p + 4 3. ,
3. , ,
3. , p + 2 6=
3. p = 3. p = 3 : 3,5,7
.
(b) , , n = ab, a, b > 1. xb 1 = (x
1)(xb1 + xb2 + + x + 1). x = 10a , ,
10a 1
10n 1

.
11 . . . 1 =
9
9
(c) : 111 = 37 3.
2.2.6. (a) , 1000!+2, 1000!+3, . . . , 1000!+1001. (
. (b).)
(b) p1 , p2 , . . . , p2000 . 2.5.10.d n, n+i
p2i1 p2i i = 1, 2, . . . , 1000.
2.2.7. (a) .

26

n, . ,
, . n = ab a, b > 1.
n > a n > b. , n a b . n
. .
(d) . n,
:
n = pa11 pa22 . . . pamm = q1b1 q2b2 . . . qkbk .
n, pi q1 :

, .
, q1 pa11 pa22 . . . pamm . , 2.5.7.c q1 pi . pi ,
q1 = pi . .

2.3

(1)

a b ,
, 1.
a b, ,
, a, b. : (a, b) = gcd(a, b) =(a, b).
0.
() (n, 12); (b) (n, n + 1); (c) (n, n + 6);
(e) (n2 , n + 1).

(d) (2n + 3, 7n + 6);

1. . (a, b) = (a b, b).
2. (a) (a, b) = |b| , a b.
a
b
(b) (a,b)
(a,b)
.
(c)* (a, b) a b.
(d)* (ca, cb) = c(a, b) c > 0.
. 2.5.
3. (a) m, n, ,
(2m, 2n) = 2(m, n),

(2m + 1, 2n) = (2m + 1, n)

(2m + 1, 2n + 1) = (2m + 1, m n).

2.

27

(b) . (a),
.
4.*

a
b

> 0 ,

a+b
ab

a b, ,
, a
b. : [a, b] = lcm(a, b) =(a, b).
5. [192, 270].
6. (a) [a, b] = |a| , a b.
[a,b]
(b) [a,b]
a b .
(c)* a b [a, b].
(d)* [ca, cb] = c[a, b] c > 0.
,
0. : (a) 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 12. (b) 1. () 1, 2, 3, 6. (d) 1, 3, 9. (e)
1.
.
() (12, n) 12.
d|12. d , . , (12, d) = d. 12
.
(b) d|n, d|(n + 1) d > 0. d|(n + 1 n) = 1.
d = 1.
() (n, n + 6) = (6, n). (a)
(6, n) 6.
(d) 1
(2n + 3, 7n + 6) = (2n + 3, 5n + 3) = (2n + 3, 3n) =
= (2n + 3, n 3) = (n + 6, n 3) = (n + 6, 9) = (n + 6, 9).
9.
(e) d > 0 n2 n + 1.
d|(n + 1)(n 1) = n2 1 1. , d|(n2 (n2 1)) = 1.
d = 1.
1. , a b

28

a a b. . , d|a
d|b, d|(a b). , d|(a b) d|a, d|(a b a) = b.
2. (a) b|a. , (a, b) = |b|.
(a, b) = |b|. b|a .
a
b
(b) d > 0 (a,b)
(a,b)
, d(a, b)
a b. d > 1, .
(c) a > b > 0. 1 , a b a a b. ,
(a0 , b0 ) = (a, b) ( 2.5.9.b).
k- ak , bk . ak bk
ak bk bk . (, , )
. , d = gcd(a, b)
a b.
(d) c(a, b) ca cb.
, (ca, cb)|c(a, b), . , c|ca c|cb. , (c) c|(ca, cb).
(ca, cb) = ck k. , (ck)|(ca) (ck)|(cb). k|a k|b. , (c) k|(a, b). c:
(ca, cb)|c(a, b).

2.4

(1)

2.4.1. (a) a b 6= 0 q, q|b| 6 a <


(q + 1)|b|.
(b) . a
b 6= 0 q r, a = bq + r
0 6 r < |b|. (
a b.)
2.4.2. (a,b,c) 1996 17,
17 4 n2 + n + 1 n + 1 n.

2.

29

(d)
57.
2.4.3.
(a) 316 23.
1997
(b) 19971997 .
( ) . a b
m 6= 0, ab m (, , a b
m). : a b( mod m),
a b mod m, a b (m), a b.
m

2.4.4. . a, b m 6= 0
(a) . a b (m) b c (m) a c (m).
(b) . a b (m) c d (m) a + c b + d (m).
(c) . a b (m) c d (m) ac bd (m).
(d) . a b (m) ac bc (mc)
c 6= 0.
(e)* . ac bc (m) , (m, c) = 1 a b (m).
2.4.5. (a) mod 9 mod
3.
(b) 2, 4, 11.
2.4.6. an (n = 0, 1, . . . )
b 6= 0 , . (. .
-1.)

2.4.1. (a) a . 0 6
a < |b| . a > |b|, a
a b. a < 0,
a a + |b|.
(b) (a).
2.4.3. (a) 316 = (32 )8 = 98 = (92 )4 = 814 124 = (122 )2 62
13 mod 23.

30

2.5

(2)

2.5.1. (a) 6
10 ( ). ?
(b) 7 ,
31 . 365 .
13 ?
(c) , 12,
, 31. 670.
? !
(d) nx + (2n 1)y = 3, n
( ).
2.5.2. (a) , 23 , 5 7 .
(b)* m, ,
m, 12, 21 28 .
2.5.3. 45 .
, (2; 1),
, ,

() (12, 18)? (b) (13, 18)?
2.5.4. 19x + 17y = 1 .
2.5.5. a b c Z.
(a) . (x0 , y0 ) ax + by =
b
t, y0
c, { (x0 +
(a, b)
a
t) | t Z}.
(a, b)
(b) ax + by = c ,
(a b)u + bv = c .
(c) . ax + by = c
, c (a, b).
(d) ,
ax + by = c, , .

2.

31

2.5.6. a b, ,
M = {ax + by | x, y Z}.
(a) M M .
(b) M (a, b).
2.5.7. a b c Z.
(a) . x y,
ax + by = (a, b).
(b) . (b, c) = 1 c|ab, c|a;
(c) . p p|ab, p|a p|b.
(d) . (b, c) = 1, b|a c|a, bc|a.
k

2.5.8. (a) (291 1, 263 1). (b) (22 + 1, 22 + 1).


(c) a, b, n na + 1 nb 1?
2.5.9. (a) a b 6= 0 gcd(a, b) = gcd(b, r),
r a b.
(b) (a0 , b0 ) 6= (0, 0)
(ak , bk ) :
bk = 0, d := ak ;
bk 6= 0, ak+1 := bk bk+1
ak bk .
, (a0 , b0 ) 6= (0, 0)
d = gcd(a0 , b0 ).
2.5.10. (a,b,c)

x 1 (7)
x 15 (5)

x 6 (12)
x 8 (20)

x 7 (8)
x 18 (25)

6x 2 (7)

(d) .
m1 , . . . , ms , a1 , . . . , as x, x ai (mi ) i = 1, . . . , s.
(e) x.
,

32

2.5.1. () : , .
. ,
.
,
2n . 2n
6 n 10: 6(2n) 10n = 2n.
.
(b) 7 , .
. . ,
. 3
7. , i- k-
, (i + 1)- k + 3-
7. k- .
k, k + 3, k + 6, k + 2, k + 5, k + 1, k + 4
7. . ,
.
2.5.2. (a) n , 24 6 n < 29,
:
24 = 2 5 + 2 7,

25 = 5 5,

26 = 5 + 3 7,

27 = 4 5 + 7,

28 = 4 7.

n > 24
. n < 29 . n > 29, n 5
.
2.5.5. (c) , a > b > 0,
a + b.
2.5.7. (a) 2.5.5.c 2.5.6.b (
).
(b) (a).
(c) (b).
. p a > 0
b , p|ab b p.

2.

33

, p|ab, p|a(bp). ,
b, b < p.
p|ab, ab > p. b, 2b, . . . , (a 1) b, ab.
i, (i 1)b < p 6 ib.
p = ib, b = 1, p|ab = a.
p < ib. , 0 < ib p < b p|a(ib p).
b.
2.5.8. (a) , (na 1, nb 1) = n(a,b) 1.
2.5.9. (b) bk 6= 0,
. ,

. ,
(ak , 0). ak = gcd(ak , 0) = gcd(a0 , b0 ).
2.5.10. :

2.6

(a) x 10 (35),

(b) ,

(c) x 943 (1400).

(2*)

(
2.2.7.a) , n > 0
p1 , . . . , pm 1 , . . . , m > 0, n = p1 1 . . . pmm .

n. (
2.2.7.d).
1.

() 1995; (b) 17!; (c) 22


.
11
2. (a) . , p
P
n!,
[ pni ].
i=1

(b) n! 2n n > 1.
(c) 1000!.
3. n = p1 1 pnn .
(a) (n) n;
(b) s(n) n;
P
(c)
(d),
d|n

n.

34

4. (a) , (a, b) = 15, [a, b] = 840. a b.


(b) (a, b) [a, b] = ab.
(c) [a, b, c] a, b, c, (a, b), (b, c), (c, a), (a, b, c)
(d) (a, b, c) a, b, c, [a, b], [b, c], [c, a], [a, b, c].
(e)* , , n .
5. , , . , n ,
n = 2p1 (2p 1), p 2p 1 .
6. () (a, b) = 1 ab = m2 , k
l, a = k 2 , b = l2 .
(b) n > m > 100, 1 + 2 +
+ n = m2 .
(c) m > n > 1, 12 +22 + +n2 = m2 .
(d) n > 2, ab = cn (a, b) = 1, a = xn b = y n
x y.
(e) m(m+1)
m > 1.
7. (a) ab = cd, k, l, m, n,
a = kl, b = mn, c = km, d = ln.
(b) a, b, c, d, k, m, ab = cd, a+d = 2k ,
b + c = 2m .
8. n, n , 200, ,
.

2.6.1. * (a) p n < p < 2n. 2n
n p.
(b) 22pn+1 > p1 pn , pn n-
.
(c) . n > 1 n 2n
.
,
1. () 1995 = 5 399 = 5 3 133 = 5 3 7 19 (= 5 7 57).
(b)
17! = 1 2 3 . . . 17.

2.

35

2. 28 . 4, 24 .
22 21 .
. 28+4+2+1 = 215 .
,
17

17

17

17

17! = 215 3[ 3 ]+[ 9 ] 5[ 5 ] 7[ 7 ] 11 13 17 = 215 36 53 72 11 13 17.


(c) (b)
11

11

11

11

11

11

11! = 2[ 2 ]+[ 4 ]+[ 8 ] 3[ 3 ]+[ 9 ] 5[ 5 ] 7 11


22

22

22

22

22

22

22

22

22

22! = 2[ 2 ]+[ 4 ]+[ 8 ]+[ 16 ] 3[ 3 ]+[ 9 ] 5[ 5 ] 7[ 7 ] 11[ 11 ] 13 17 19.


22
22!
=
= 21916 398 544 732 131719 = 23 37131719.
11! 11!
11
3. n, n =
p , n = p1 p2 .
4. - .
a b c (a, b, c)
(c) : [a, b, c] =
.
(a, b) (b, c) (c, a)
2.6.1. [Ti94]. ,
, . . [AZ].

2.7

(2*)


f (n) =

n
X
[k],
k=1

.. y = x, . 2.7.3.abc, 2.7.1 2.7.2


.

36

2.7.1. (a) f2 (4).


(b) 6= , f (n) = f (n)
n?
2.7.2. f (n)
(a) ; (b) 2; (c) 3;
(d) = u/n u n;
(e) , lim fn(n)
.
2
n

(. 7.4.2; , , ,
).
2.7.3. (a) f (n) = f{} (n) + 12 []n(n + 1) , n.
(b) f (n) + f1/ ([n]) [n/q] = n[n], q , , ,
q = (.. [n/q] = 0), .
(c) f (n) , (a,b).
(d) (.. )
.
n
P
{k} (e)
k=1

. 2.7.3.b ( ) p < q, = p/q n = (q 1)/2 ( [n] =


(p1)/2) (. 3.4.5.d). .
2.7.3.e ( ,
) [Do].
,
n
n
P
P
2.7.2. (a)
[k] =
k = n(n+1)
.
2
k=1

k=1

(b) . . (a). (
)
1
n(n + 1) n + 1
1
[]+[2]+[3]+ +[n] = ( )+2+(3 )+ =
[
].
2
2
2
2

2.

37
2

+{} n +(1)
.
, , [] n(n+1)
2
2
() : . (a).
(
n(n+1)
[ n+1
n 6= 3k + 1
2
3 ]
f (n) =
.
n(n+1)
n
2 [ 3 ] {} n = 3k + 1
.
[] + [2] + [3] = + 2 + 3

1 2
= (1 + 2 + 3) 1.
3 3

(a,b,c,d)
.
(e) : /2.
2.7.3. (a)
f (n) =

n
X

[k] =

k=1

n
X
k=1

[]k +

n
X

[([]+{})k] =

k=1
n
X

n
X
[[]k+{}k] =
([]k+[{}k]) =

k=1

[{}k] = []

k=1

n
X

n
X

k + f{} (n) = []

k=1

k=1

n(n + 1)
+ f{} (n).
2

(b)
1 6 x 6 n, 1 6 y 6 [n]. 3.4.5.d.
(c) ,
f2/3 (n) = n[

n
2n
2n
] + [ ] f3/2 ([ ]);
3
3
3

1 2n 2n
2n
2n
]) = [ ]([ ] + 1) + f1/2 ([ ]);
3
2 3
3
3
2n
2n n
n
n
f1/2 ([ ]) = [ ][ ] + [ ] f2 ([ ]),
3
3 3
3
3

f3/2 ([

[[x]/n] = [x/n] n > 0 , , [


n
n n
f2 ([ ]) = [ ]([ ] + 1).
3
3 3

[ 2n
]
3
2 ]

= [ n3 ];


[Vi03] .. . .; :
, 2003.

[De71] ., (N8,1971)
[IP] ., ., . (N6,1984)
[NN] ., .,
(N5,1983, N6,1983)

[Ga87] ., . (N4,1987)

[VG] ., ., .
(N1,1985)
( )
[AZ] , . , .
[Ba71] ., (N5,1971)
[Ti94] .. , http://kvant.ras.ru/1994/06/teorema_
chebyshyova_o_rasprede.htm.
[Uf92] ., .
(N6,1992)

38

39

[Do04] .. , , , 5:2(10), 2004, 4248.

40


- ( 3.1.1 3.1.5)
( 3.5.6.b). , .
p ( ).

3.1

(2)

3.1.1. (a) Z97 = {0, 1, . . . , 96}. f : Z97 Z97 : f (a) 14a


97. f .
. ,
. .
97x + 14y = 1,
.
(b) (14 1) (14 2) (14 96) 96! mod 97.
(c) 1496 1 mod 97.
(d) . p , np n
p n.
Alio modo. p n p, np1 1
p.

(f) p kp p k =
1, 2, . . . , p 1. ( .)
3.1.2.
(a) 2100 101. (b) 3102 101. (c) 8900 29.
(d) 32000 43. (e) 760 143. (f) 260 + 650 143.
3.1.3. (a) p p > 2, 7p 5p 2 6p.
(b) 111 . . . 11 2002 2003.
(c) p q , pq + q p p q
pq.

3.

41

(d) 30239 + 23930 .


(e) p , 1/p p 1.
3.1.4. p a, p,
ord a = ordp a ( ) a p k > 0,
ak 1 (p):
ord a = ord p a := min{k > 1 | ak 1 (p)}.
(a) {m > 0 : am 1 (p)}
, ord a.
(b) am an (p), m n ord a.
(c) . p 1 ord a.
(d) ord x ord y , ord(xy) = ord x ord y.
(e) a, x, p , a ordp xa = ordp x?
,
. 3.1.4.ab .
3.1.5. p, q, p1 , . . . , pk .
(a) p 6= q n p, q, n(p1)(q1) 1
pq.

(b) n p, np (p1) 1 p+1 .


(c) . n m = p1 1 . . .pk k
(m) := (p1 1)p1 1 1 . . . (pk 1)pk k 1 , n(m) 1 m.
(d) (m) 1 m,
m.
3.1.6. () , n 3 47,
5. n
n7 mod50?
,

, .

42


,
3.1.1. (a) 14 7k k mod 97.
(b) (141)(142). . .(1496) f (1)f (2). . .f (96) = 96! mod 97.
(c) (b) 96!.
3.1.2. . (a) 1. (b) 9. (c) 7. (d) 15. (e) 1. (f) 24.
3.1.6. n (n7 )3 mod 50.

3.2

(3*). ..

3.2.1. 2m 1 , m .
n

3.2.2. (a) 22 + 1 d, d 1 2n+1 .


(b)* 641 = 54 + 24 = 1 + 5 27 , ,
5
22 + 1 .
3.2.3. (a) p > 2 . 2p 1 d, d 1
2p. , 2p 1
2kp + 1.
(b) p > 2 a p, a(p1)/2
1 mod p.
(c) n 1 2s a(n1)/2 + 1 n
a, n 2s k + 1.
(d) n = 2s k + 1, k 6 2s a(n1)/2 1 mod n a, n .
. , n = 2s k + 1 , , , a,
a(n1)/2 1 mod n, .
3.2.4.
.
(a) p > 5 , n = (22p 1)/3 ,
2n1 1 mod n.
(b)* n,
a (a, n) = 1 an1 1 mod n.

3.

43

3.2.5. . n = 2m 1 > 3
, m > 2 Mm1 n.
M1 = 4 Mk =
2
Mk1
2.
. 1,2,3,4 . 3.4
. . .
k

3.2.6.

p
>
5

x
=
(2
+
3)
k

(2 3)k ,

X + = {k : x+
k 0 mod p} X = {k : xk / 3 0 mod p}.

(a) k x+
k xk / 3 .
(b) z1 , z2 X + , z1 + z2 X .
(c) z1 , z2 X , z1 + z2 X .
(d) z1 X + z2 X , z1 + z2 X + .
(e) p + 1 X p 1 X .
(f) X + 6= z
X + , X + = {(2k + 1)z}, k
z < p.
(g) k , Mk = x+
.
2k1

3.2.4. (b) n = pqr, p, q, r


.
,
3.2.2. (a) d1 d2 1 mod 2n+1 , d1 d2 1 mod 2n+1 .
n+1
, d . 22
1
n
2
n+1
d, 2 1 . ordd 2 2
2n .
n+1
, ordd 2 = 2
. ordd 2 d 1.
3.2.3. (b) ,
an1 1 = (a

n1
2

)2 1 = (a

n1
2

1)(a

n1
2

+ 1)

44


n1

n . a 2
n1
1, a 2 + 1 n.
(c) p n. t > 0
l, ordp a = 2t l (.
3.1.4). 3.1.4.c p1 ordp a = 2t l.
, t > s.
3.1.4.c n 1 = 2s k ordp a = 2t l.
, k l. t < s, (n 1)/2 = 2s1 k
n1
n1
2t l. a 2 1 mod p, a 2 + 1
n.
(d) n , p 6

n. p > 2s + 1, n > (2s + 1)2 .


, n = 2s k + 1 6 (2s )2 + 1.
p1

3.2.4. (a) , 2p = 2 (22 ) 2 2 mod 3.


2p + 1
n = (2p 1)
.
3
2p
2
, 2 = 2 (2p1 )2 4 mod p. , 22p 4
2p. p > 3, n 1 = (22p 4)/3 2p.
n1

, 2n1 = (22p ) 2p 1 mod (22p 1). , 2n1 1


22p 1 = 3n.
(b) , n = 561 .
3.2.6. (a) ,
0
k k >

A
,
B
,

(2
+
3)
=
A
+
B
k
k
k
k 3

k
(2 3) = Ak Bk 3.
(e) (2 + 3)p , ,
Ap , Bp (a) Ap 1(modp) Bp 1(modp).

3.3

(2*)


x2 a (p) p.
p .
1. (a)
3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10?
(b) a2 + b2 3 ( 7), a b 3 ( 7).

3.

45

(c) 4k + 3 .
(d) ,
.
2. .
(a) : x21 + x22 + x23 + x24 + x25 = y 2 .
(b) 3x = 5y 2 + 4y 1. (c) x2 + y 2 = 3z 2 . (d) 2x + 1 = 3y 2 .
(e) x2 = 2003y 1. (f) x2 + 1 = py, p = 4k + 3.
3. (a) p = 4k + 3 a2 + b2 , p|a p|b.
(b) , 4k + 3 ,
( ).
(c)* x2 + 1 = py p =
4k + 1. ( p = 4k + 3.)
(d)* 4k +1
.
(e)* ,
4k + 3 ,
.
(f) 4k + 1 .
(d)
[Pr07].
4. () py = at2 + bt + c, a 6= 0,
x2 k (p).
a 6= 0 ( ) p, x2 a(p)
(). p .
5. (a) a p, a a
.
(b) a p, x2 a2 (p)
.
(c) . p1
2 .
6. (a) . a 6= 0 b,
ab 1(p).

46


: b = a1 .
(b) x x1 (p).
(c) . (p 1)! + 1 p.

7. (a) a 6= 0 , a1 .
(b) ,
1 .
8. . (a) .
(b) .
(c) .

3. (c) , .
(e) (d) .
,
1. () :
3: 0, 1.
4: 0, 1.
5: 0, 1, 4.
6: 0, 1, 3, 4.
7: 0, 1, 2, 4.
8: 0, 1, 4.
9: 0, 1, 4, 7.
10: 0, 1, 4, 5, 6, 9.
. . , 0
1 . , k 2 (k)2
n, k 2 2 6 k 6 n/2.
22 0 mod 4. 22 4 mod 5. 22 4, 32 3 mod 6.
22 4, 32 2 mod 7. 22 4, 32 1, 42 0 mod 8.
22 4, 32 0, 42 7 mod 9.
22 4, 32 9, 42 6, 52 5 mod 10.
(b-3) . ()
3 a2 b2 1. a2 + b2
3.
(b-7) . ()
7 a2 1, 2 4. ,

3.

47

b2 6, 5 3, .
(a).
() (a) 4 x2 0
1. , 4 0,
1 2.
2. (b) : {(3k 1, 15k 2 6k)} = {(3k + 2, 15k 2 + 24k + 9)}.
(e), (f): .
p1
5. ()
, a2 (a)2 (p).
2
p1
, 1 6 l < k 6
,
2
2
2
k l (p). k l k + l p.
0 < k l < k + l < p. ! ,
p1
p1
. ..
. , p1
=
2
2
p1
. .
2
8. (c) (a,b) .
(a,b) 5c.

3.4

(3*)


x2 a (p) p. . 3.3 .
1. p = 8k + 5 ,
(a) 24k+2 1 (p).
(b) x2 2 = py .
2. p = 8k + 1 ,
(a) 24k 1 (p).
(b) x2 2 = py .
3. (a) p = 8k 1 , 2(p1)/2 1 mod p.
(b) p = 8k 3 , 2(p1)/2 1 mod p.
(c) p
2
x 2 = py?
4. () p = 12k 1 , 3(p1)/2 1 mod p.
(b) p = 12k 5 , 3(p1)/2 1 mod p.

48

(c) p
x2 3 = py?
5. p

a
+1, a p
:=
1,
a p
p


2
ab
a
b
(p2 1)/8
,
= (1)
3
=

p
p
p
p
3.3.8.

p1
a
(a) .
a 2 (p).
p
(p1)/2

P
]
[ 2ax
a
p
x=1
(b) .
= (1)
.
p
(p1)/2

P
]
[ ax
a
p
x=1
(c)
= (1)
a.
p


p1 q1
q
p
2
2
= (1)
(d) .
p
q
p q.

a
(e)
p
( 2.7.3.d).
3.4.1. p n > 0, a , xn a (p) n . ( , . 4.3.5.f.)

,
1a, 2a, 5 . .
1. (a) p 2 1, 2 2, . . . , 2 (4k +
2) p a1 , a2 , . . . , a2k+1 ,
a2k+2 , a2k+3 . . . , a4k+2 ,
{a1 , a2 , . . . , a2k+1 , a2k+2 , a2k+3 . . . , a4k+2 } = {1, 2, . . . , 4k + 2}.
24k+2 (4k + 2)! (4k + 2)! (p).

3.

49

,
(8k + 4)!
24k+2 1 2 . . . (4k + 2) 1 3 . . . (8k + 3)24k+2 (4k + 2)!
(1)2k+1 (8k+51)(8k+53) . . . (8k+5(4k+1))(4k+3)(4k+5) . . . (8k+3)
24k+2 (1)(8k + 4)!

(mod p).

2a, 3ab, 4ab, 5b. 1a.


2. (a)
(8k)!
24k 1 2 . . . 4k 1 3 . . . . . . (8k 1)(1)24k (4k)!
(1)2k (8k+11)(8k+13) . . . (8k+1(4k1))(4k+1)(4k+3) . . . (8k1)
24k (1)2k (8k)! (mod p).
3. () : p = 8k 1.
4. () : p = 12k 1.

1a, 2a, 3ab. . (. . ) z = (1 +i) 2/2.


(z + 1/z)p (z p + 1/z p ) p(A + B 2),
A, B .

4ab. . (. . ) z = (1 +i 3)/2.
(z + 1/z)p (z p + 1/z p ) p(A + B 3), A, B
.
5. (a) R ( Q) () p. a
p1
, a 2 R Q (p). 3.3.7a R 1 (p).
p1
Q R (p). , a 2 1 (p).
(a) ( ) , , a p1
p1
a 2 1 (p). x 2 1 Zp
p1
3.4.1.
2 .
a+p !
p2 1
a
2
2
2
(c) ,
=

= (1) 8 .
p
p
p
p

50


p q

h px i

(q1)/2
P

h py i

y=1
p .
q p

:

(d) (c)

(q1)/2h

X
x=1

= (1)

x=1

(q1)/2
P

(q1)/2h
X py i (p 1)(q 1)
px i
+
=
.
q
p
4
y=1

1 6 x 6
p1
q1
,16y6
. y = qx/p 2
2
.
y [py/q],

(q1)/2
P h px i
. q
x=1
(q1)/2
P h py i

. p
y=1
(p 1)/2
(q 1)/2.
(e) .

3.5

(3*)

1. (2-7) ax b (m) a, b,
m {2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7}.
(
.)
2. (a) (a, 35) = 1, a12 1 (35).
(b) m
(a, m) = 1, a

(m)
2

1 (m).

(g, m) = 1. g
m, m g 1 , g 2 , . . . , g (m) 1
. ,

3.

51

2 5,
4 .
2b m , m.
3.
.
(a) 257; (b) 2l + 1; (c) 2k 3l + 1; (d) 151; (e) 2k 3l 5m + 1.
(a,b,c), (d,e).
(d,e) .
4. (a) g 97
, g 3 , g 32 1 97.
(b) C x3 1 (97) 3 .
(c) C x32 1 (97) 32 .
(d) C 97.
(e) 97 63.
5. (a) g 151
, g 2 , g 3 , g 25 1 151.
(b) C xk 1 (151) k k
{30, 50, 75}.
(
x30 1 (151)
(c)
x10 1 (151).
x50 1 (151)
(d) C 151.
(e) 151 40.
6. (a) p p1 d, xd 1 (p)
d .
(b) .
p g, p
g 1 , g 2 , g 3 , . . . , g p1 = 1 .
(c) p?
,
3. (b) , x2
p 1 = 2l > 2l1 .

l1

1 (p)

52

6. (a) , xp1 1 Zp p 1
xd 1. ,
a a b,
b b .
, , p = kd,
a y k a (p) k .
(c) : (p 1).

3.6

(3*). .. ..

1. n
(a) 2n 1 3100 ?
(c) 5n 1 2100 ?

(b) 2n + 1 3100 ?
(d) 3n + 1 2100 ?

2. (a) x 3 mod 4. x2 1 mod 2100 ?


(b)* n > 2
2n .
3. (a) 2 3n
n.
(b) 2 5n
n.
(c) 7n
n.
4. g p > 2,
(a) t u, (g+pt)p1 = 1+pu u
p.
(b) n pn .
(c) 2pn .
(d) p g
p3 , g pn
n.
5. . 2, 4, pn , 2pn .
6. . p , x 1 mod pn , x 6 1 mod pn+1 , p > 2 n > 1.

3.

53

(a) (a, p) = 1, xa 1 mod pn , xa 6 1 mod pn+1 .


(b) xp 1 mod pn+1 , , n > 1 p > 2, xp 6 1 mod pn+2 .
() a = pk q q p, xa 1 mod pn+k
a
x 6 1 mod pn+k+1 .
( .)
7.

() 1/3100 ; (b) 1/7100 .

8. (a)
1/7 = 0, (142857) 1/7, 2/7, 3/7, 4/7, 5/7, 6/7.
1/p, p 1.
(b) 10k
3100 .
(c) , 1/3100
20 .
9. n, 1000 2n
100 () ; (b)* .
10.* 9 5n .

1. (a) 22 = 1 + 3.

(c) 24 = 1 + 5 3.

,
1. (c) : 298 | n.
k
. , 52 , 1
2k+2 .
k
52 2k+2 + 1 mod 2k+3 . k.
k = 0 . k.
k
52 = t2k+2 + 1, t .
k+1

52

= (52 )2 = t2 22k+4 + t2k+3 + 1 t2k+3 + 1 2k+3 + 1 mod 2k+4 .


[Vi03] .. . .; :
, 2003.

[SS00] ., ., (N1,
N3, 2000)
[Ud] .
(N8, 1989)

[CP] R. Crandall, C. Pomerance, Prime numbers, A computational
perspective, Springer, 2001.

[Pr07] .. , , ,
2007.
[St91] .,
(N9, 1991)
[Ti91] ., -
(N10, 1991)

[Ba78] ., . (N8, 1978)
54

55

[Bo86] ., . (N8,1986)
[IK] ., ., .
(N7,1987)
[Kr85] ., ...
(N4,1985)
[Pa87] ., . (N7, 1987)
[SS02] ., ., (N3, N4,
N6, 2002)
[VK] ., ., (N1,1987)

56

( 4.3.4 4.3.5),
( 4.5.1) (
4.3.3).
. ,
.

4.1

(1)

,
, .
4.1.1.
?

(a) 2;
(b) n k, k q
> 2 n ;

p

7
3
3 + 2 6;
(c) 2 + 3; (d) 1 + 2 + 3; (e) 2+
p
p
p

2 3

3
3
(f) 3 + 2 2 2; (g)
5+2
5 2; (h) 2 + 3 2.

4.1.2. 2, 3, 5 ( ;
).
4.1.3. A(x) = an xn + an1 xn1 . . . + a1 x + a0
.
(a) . A(p) = 0 p 6= 0,
a0 p.
(b) . A(p/q) = 0
p/q 6= 0, a0 p an q.
(c) A(p/q) = 0 p/q,
k A(k) p kq.
4.1.4. ?
(a) cos 60 ; (b) sin 60 ; (c) cos 36 ; (d) cos 20 ;
(e) sin 10 ; (f) cos(2/7); (g)* arccos( 13 )/.

4.

57

4.1.5. (a) cos 3 = 4 cos3 3 cos .


:
cos( + ) = cos cos sin sin .
(b) cos 20 = cos(/9) 8x3
6x 1 = 0.
4.1.6. (a) n Tn
, Tn (cos x) = cos nx x.
(b) Tn .
(c) Tn .
4.1.7. m, n
(a) cos(2/n)?
(b) cos n ?
(c) cos(2m/n)?
,
4.1.1. : (abcdh) ; (efg)
. .
(a) : 2 = p/q, p/q .
q 2 . : 2q 2 = p2 . p q ,
, p . ,
p = 2r, r .
, 2q 2 = (2r)2 . 2,
q 2 = 2r2 . q r , q . , p q .
,
p/q .

2+ 3
( 2 + 3)( 2 + 3)
5+2 6
=

=
(e)
= 5 2 6.
1
( 2 3)( 2 + 3)
p2 3

(f) p3 + 2 2 p 2 = 1.

3
3
(g)
5+2
5 2 = 1, . 4.2.2.a.

(h) . r 2 = 3 2
.

2 + 3 2

3 .
((x 2) 2)((x+ 2)3 2) .
4.1.3.b .

58

5 3
.
4.1.2.
3 2
4.1.3. (a) , a0 ,
p.
(c) .
4.1.4. : (bcdefg) ; (a) . .
(a) cos 60 =
1/2.
(b) sin 60 = 3/2.
(c) cos 36 = ( 5 + 1)/4.
(d) cos 3 cos .
p/q 4(p/q)3 3(p/q) = 1/2, .. 8p3 6pq 2 q 3 = 0, 1
p 8 q. p/q 6 (1/2, 1). cos 20
(1/2, 1).
(e) (d). (d)
cos 20 = 1 2 sin2 10 .
(f) (d). cos(2/7) (1/2, 1)
4.1.6.ab.
(g) . 3d . ?
a (d), 4.1.6.ac.
4.1.5. (b) (a) 1/2 =
cos(2/3) = 4 cos3 (2/9) 3 cos(2/9).
4.1.7. (a) n 6= 5 4.1.4.f.
n 6= 8, 12 n/2
cos(2/n) = 2 cos2 (/n) 1.
(c) cos(2m/n) . , m n
. k, mk 1 mod n.
, cos(2mk/n) = cos(2/n) .
. cos Q {12, 1},
, cos 2, cos . ,
a, b > 0, 2a 2b n.

4.2

3- 4- (2)


, ( )

4.

59

, , . ,
.
4.2.1. (a) ax3 + bx2 + cx + d = 0
x3 + px + q = 0 .
(b) ax4 +bx3 +cx2 +dx+e = 0
4
x + px2 + qx + s = 0 .
p
p

3
3
4.2.2. (a) 2 + 5
5 2 = 1.

(b) x3 3 3 2x+3 = 0.
. .
(u + v)3 = u3 + v 3 + 3uv(u + v),
u + v x3 3uvx (u3 + v 3 ) = 0.

(c) x3 3 3 2x + 3 = 0.
4.2.3. (a) a3 + b3 + c3 3abc.
(b) a2 + b2 + c2 > ab + bc + ca. ?
(c) a3 + b3 + c3 > 3abc a, b, c > 0.
(d) a3 + b3 + c3 3abc .
.
, 4.5.1 .
4.2.4. (a) ,
x3 +px+q = 0 ,
(. 4.2.2).
p, q ,
?
(b) .


, .

60

. ,
[PS].
4.2.5. . (a) 4x3 3x = 12 .
(b) x3 3x 1 = 0.
(c) cos arccos,
x3 +px +q = 0 ,
. x3 + px + q = 0
?
4.2.6.
(a) (x2 + 2)2 = 9(x 1)2 .
(c) x4 + 2x2 8x 4 = 0.

(b) x4 + 4x 1 = 0.
(d) x4 12x2 24x 14 = 0.

4.2.6.b. . , b, c,
x4 + 4x 1 = (x2 + )2 (bx + c)2 .
, (x2 + )2 (x4 + 4x 1) x .
.

x4 + 4x 1.
4.2.7. * (a) ,
x4 + px2 + qx + s = 0.
.
(b) .
. x4 + ax3 + bx2 + cx + d = 0
, , A, B,

2
ax
x4 + ax3 + bx2 + cx + d = x2 +
+ (Ax + B)2 .
2
[ABG].

4.2.2. (a) , (u + v)3 = u3 +


3
v + 3uv(u + v).

4.

61

4.2.3. (a) a = bc .
a3 3abc + (b3 + c3 ) a + b + c .
4.2.4. (a) : ,
Dpq :=

p 3
3

q 2
2

> 0.

. p, q R. Dpq > 0, x3 + px + q =
0
r
r
q p
q p
3
+ Dpq 3 + Dpq .
2
2
Dpq =
0, p x3 +px+q = 0
p
3
2 q/2 3 q/2 ( q 6= 0).
4.2.5. (a) 4.1.5.a.
4.2.7. (. 4.2.6.b). !
,
b
4.2.1. y := x + 3a
(a)
b
y := x + 4a (b).
p

p
3
3
4.2.2. (a) x := 2 + 5
5 2. x3 = 43x.
x = 1.
.
p

5 2 = ( 5 1)/2.

(b) x3 3 3 2x + 3 =
x3 3bcx + (b3 + c3 ), b = 1, c = 3 2.

: x = 1 3 2.

(c) 4.2.3.a x3 3 3 2x + 3 = 0

3
(x + b + c)(x2 + b2 + c2 bc bx cx) = 0 b = 1 c = 2.

4.2.3.b x
( b 6= c). ,

3
x = b c =
1 2.
: x = 1 3 2.

62


4.2.3. (a,d) :

a3 + b3 + c3 3abc = (a + b + c)(a2 + b2 + c2 ab bc ca) =

1 + i 3
2
2
= (a + b + c)(a + b + c )(a + b + c) =
.
2
(b) 2(a2 + b2 + c2 ab bc ca) = (a b)2 + (b c)2 + (c a)2 > 0.
a = b = c.
4.2.4. (a) .
r
r
q p
q p
3
u :=
+ Dpq v := 3 + Dpq .
2
2
uv = p/3 u3 + v 3 = q. ,
4.2.3.a a = x, b = u, c = v u + v
x3 + px + q = x3 3uvx u3 v 3 .
4.2.3.b Dpq > 0 p
, Dpq = 0
u = v = 3 q/2.
(b)p. p, q C pq 6= 0.
Dpq Dp
pq ;
u 2q Dpq ;
p
vp:= 3u
. ( p 6= 0, (q/2)2 6= Dpq , u3 =
q
2 Dpq 6= 0.)
x3 +px+q = 0 u+v, u3 +v23 ,
u23 + v3 ( q 6= 0).
. uv = p/3 u3 + v 3 = q. ,
4.2.3.d a = x,
b = u, c = v.
4.2.5. (a) 4.1.5.b cos 9 , cos 7
9 ,
3 3y = 1 .
cos 13

4y
9
2
4.3.5.b.
13
: x {cos 9 , cos 7
9 , cos 9 }.
(b) (a) y = 2x.
13
: x {2 cos 9 , 2 cos 7
9 , 2 cos 9 }.
p
p

2 4 22
2 8 26
4.2.6. : (b)
; ()
;
2
2

(d) 2 ( 4 2 + 4 8).

4.

63

4.2.7. q = 0, .
, q 6= 0.
(a) . p, q, s R q 6= 0.
> p/2, q 2 = 4(2 p)(2 s).

A := 2 p.
x4 + px2 + qx + s = 0

,
2 + p > 2|q|/A;

2q

x := A 2 p + A /2, 2q/A < 2 + p 6 2q/A;

2q

y := A 2 p A /2,
2q/A < 2 + p 6 2q/A;

x , y ,
2 + p 6 2|q|/A.

. R(x) := 4(2x p)(x2 s) q 2 . R(p/2) = q 2 < 0. x R(x) > 0.


, > p/2, R() = 0.
p = 2 A2 , s = 2
2
q
q2
2
4(2p) = 4A2 .

q 2
q
x4 + px2 + qx + s = x2 Ax + +
x + Ax +
.
2A
2A
, 2 , .
(b) . p, q, s C q 6= 0.
q 2 = 4(2 p)(2 s). A
2 p.
x4 + px2 + qx + s = 0
!

r
r
2q
2q
/2
A + 2 p +
/2,
A + 2 p
A
A

y ,
y; q 2 = 4A2 (2 s) 6= 0, A 6= 0.
. (a).

64


.
p
p
p
21 p 22 p 23 p,

1 , 2 , 3 ,
, , q.

4.3

(2)

4.3.1. (a)
P (x) = 2x3 27x2 + 141x 256 x = 16
Q(x) = x4 +

x3 x2
3

+ 1 x = .
4
2
4

:
an xn + an1 xn1 + . . . + a1 x + a0 =
= (. . . ((an x + an1 )x + an2 )x + . . . + a1 )x + a0 .
.
(b) n ?
?

, ( ) .

(a0 , . . . , an , . . .) , .
.
(.. )
P = (a0 , . . . , an , . . .) P : R R, P (x) =
a0 + a1 x + . . . + an xn + . . . ( ). P =
(a0 , . . . , an , . . .) P (x) = a0 + a1 x + . . . +
an xn , .. , P . P P
, ( 4.3.5.c) , ( 4.3.5.f).

4.

65

4.3.2.
(a) .
(b) ,
, Zp .
deg P P
n, an 6= 0.
: , .
4.3.3. () (a)
.
(b) .
4.3.4. P a .
(a) . Q, P (x) =
(x a)Q(x) + P (a).
( , P P (a) x a.)
, deg Q < deg P .
(b) . P (a) = 0,
Q, P (x) = (x a)Q(x) deg Q < deg P .
(c) a x1000 + ax + 9 x + 1?
P x0 , P (x0 ) = 0.
4.3.5. (a) . P a1 , . . . , ak
,

Q,

P (x) = (x a1 ) . . . (x ak )Q(x).
(b) . n > 0 n .
(c) .
, . ( , P, P1
P (x) = P1 (x) x, P = P1 ).
(d) . n n + 1 , .
(e) (c)
, , Zp ?
(f) (d)
, , Zp ?

66

4.3.6. a, b, c, d, x
(a)

c(x a)(x b) a(x b)(x c) b(x c)(x a)


+
+
= x.
(c a)(c b)
(a b)(a c)
(b c)(b a)
(b)

d(x a)(x b)(x c) a(x b)(x c)(x d)


+
+
(d a)(d b)(d c)
(a b)(a c)(a d)

b(x d)(x c)(x a) c(x d)(x b)(x a)


+
= x.
(b d)(b c)(b a)
(c d)(c b)(c a)
,
4.3.4. (a) . P = xn . ,
P P 0 , bP P + P 0
( b).
4.3.5. (b) n
P . n = 0 :
, . , Q k,
n, k .
P n. , n + 1
. x0 , x1 , x2 , . . . , xn .
4.3.4.b P = (x x0 )Q Q n ( Q, , !). x = x1 , 0 = (x1 x0 )Q(x1 ). ,
Q(x1 ) = 0. x2 , x3 , . . . , xn Q.
, deg Q < n.
, , .
.
P n x0 , x1 . . . , xn .
P (x) = bn (xx1 ) . . . (xxn )+bn1 (xx1 ) . . . (xxn1 )+. . .+b1 (xx1 )+b0
( ). P (x) = 0 x1 , x2 . . . , xn , x0 , 0 = b0 = b1 = . . . = bn .
(e) . Zp ; xp x.

4.

4.4

67

(3*). .. ,
..

A B 6= 0 . A B, Q , A = BQ.
( B A.)
4.4.1. (a) A B 6= 0 , Q
A = BQ, Q .
(b) . (a) ?
(c) , Zp -.
4.4.2. (a) P Q , P , P Q P (n) Q(n)
n.
(b) P Q , P
, P
1 P (n) Q(n) n, P Q.
(c)* P Q , ,
gcd(P (n), Q(n)) .
4.4.3. (a) . A B 6= 0
Q R , A = BQ + R deg R < deg B. (
A B.)
(b)
, , Zp ?
()
, .
(d) 1 x 1 1
x + 1. x2 1?

68

4.4.4. () U, V ,
(2x2 + x + 2)U (x) + (x2 3x + 1)V (x) = 1.
(b)
1
, 2 3 + 1 = 0.
2
2 + + 2
1
(c)
,
+1
3 3 + 1 = 0.
, . 2.5.9.b.
4.4.5. F F ,
F .

(a) (b) (c) (d) Zp
?
4.4.6. P Q ,
n := max(deg P, deg Q), c1 > c2 > 0 c2 h()n < h(P ()/Q()) <
c1 h()n . h(p/q) p/q
max(|p|, |q|) p 6= 0; h(0) = 1.
4.4.7. * , .
.
,

1,

() 2? (b) (1 + 5)/2? (c) 3 2? (d) 2005?


(
. . [Ar].)

4.

69

4.4.3. (d) P (x) = (x2 1)Q(x) + ax + b a + b = 1, a + b = 1.


4.4.4. (a) .
(b) (a).
4.4.5. 4.7.2.
: (a), (c), (d) ; (b) . , , .

4.5

(3*)

(a, b) . a + bi.
(a + bi) + (a0 + b0 i) = (a + a0 ) + (b + b0 )i,
(a+bi)(a0 +b0 i) = (aa0 bb0 )+(ab0 +a0 b)i.
( , i2 = 1.)
4.5.1. (a) z 6= 0
u, zu = 1.
(b) .
z r > 0 , z = r(cos +
i sin ). r ?
(c) . (cos + i sin )(cos + i sin ) =
cos( + ) + i sin( + ).
(d) . (cos + i sin )n = cos n + i sin n.
(e) n > 0 z n = 1 z.
, , . 13.1 [Vi].
4.5.2.
:
(a) x4 + 4; (b) x4 + x3 + x2 + x + 1; (c) xn 1.
4.5.3. (a)* .

.
( , , .)

70

(b) n n .
( z0 P k, P
(z z0 )k (z z0 )k+1 .)
(c) z1 , . . . , zn P an , ,
, P (z) = an (z z1 ) . . . (z zn ).
4.5.4. a + bi := a bi.
(a) P P (z) = P (z).
(b) .
(c) P
P (x) > 0 x R, P = Q2 + R2 Q, R .
4.5.5. * , P (x2 + x + 1) P (x)P (x + 1).
4.5.6. () () cos n sin n cos sin .
n
(b) . cos n sin
sin cos .

xn+1 = 3xn 4yn ,

yn+1 = 3yn + 4xn


(b) x0 = 1, y0 = 2.

4.5.7. {xn } {yn },


(a) x0 = 1, y0 = 0;
4.5.8. : (a)

n
P

cos k;

k=0

(b)

n
P
k=0

2k sin k;

(c)

P
k=0

cos k
.
3k

4.5.9. (a) ctg2 x < x12 < ctg2 x + 1.


n

P
2n2j k = 0 k = 1, . . . , n.
(b)
(1)j 2n+1
2n+1
2j+1 ctg
(c)
(d)

j=0
n
P

k=1

P
k=1

ctg2
1
k2

k
2n+1

2
6 .

n(2n1)
.
3

4.
(e,f)*

P
k=1

1
k4

P
k=1

71

1
.
k6

. 7.5.

4.5.2. .
4.5.4. (b) (a) .
() .
4.5.7. zn = xn + iyn .
4.5.8. Re(a + bi) := a a b. , cos k = Re(cos + i sin )k .
4.5.9. (a) , sin x < x < tg x.
k
k 2n+1
(b) (cos 2n+1
+ i sin 2n+1
)
= (1)k .
,
n+1
n
sin
cos
2
2 .
4.5.8. . ()

sin
2
n+2
n+1
2
sin n 2
sin(n + 1) + 2 sin
(b)
.
5 4 cos

4.6

(c)

9 3 cos
.
10 6 cos

(3*)

4.6.1. (a) ,
x2 6x + 10 = 0.
(b) x3 + 4x2 y + 4xy 2 + y 3 x + y xy.
(c)
(
x3 y + xy 3 = 300
.
xy + x2 + y 2 = 37
4.6.2. (a,b,c)
x2 + y 2 + z 2 ,

x2 y + y 2 z + z 2 x + x2 z + z 2 y + y 2 x,

x3 + y 3 + z 3

72


1 := x + y + z,

2 := xy + yz + zx 3 := xyz.

(d) (x100 y +y 100 z +z 100 x)(x100 z +z 100 y +y 100 x)


1 , 2 , 3 ?
.
4.6.3. (a)
.
(b) f x, y , f (x, y) f (y, x) . ,
x, y x + y xy.
(c) f x, y, z , f (x, y, z), f (y, z, x) f (y, x, z) .
, x, y, z 1 , 2 3 .
(d) n .
4.6.4. x1 < x2 < < x7 , y1 < y2 < < y7 , x1 < y1
7
7
P
P
xki =
yik k {1, . . . , 6}. x7 < y7 .

i=1

i=1

4.6.2. : (a) 12 22 ;
(d) 4.6.3.c.

(b) 1 2 33 ;

(c) 13 31 2 +33 .

4.6.3. (b) ( ). f (k, l) (.. axk y l ), k > l,


f a(x + y)kl (xy)l .
,
4.6.1. (c) . [Vi, IX.2.6, 1].

4.

73

4.6.3. (c) ( ). f (k, `, m) (.. axk y ` z m ), k > 1, f a1k` 2`m 3m .


(d) .
.
.
( ) f (x1 , x2 , . . . , xn ). f = 0 .

u := axk11 xk22 . . . xknn () f.
ki 6 ki+1 i. u f k
i
axk11 . . . xi i+1 xki+1
. . . xknn , u. . k1 > k2 > > kn .
kn1 kn kn
. (a) g := a1k1 k2 2k2 k3 . . . n1
n
u. f g
f .
.

4.7

(4*). ..

. a, b.
, ,
. . 2.5.9.b.

. ( ) .
4.7.1. .
(a) x2 + 4 = y 3 . (b) x2 + 2 = y n . (c)* x3 + y 3 = z 3 .
, ! ,
.
.

74

x2 + 4 = y 3
: x2 + 4 = (x + 2i)(x 2i),
x , .
. ( x :
(1+i)3 .) ,
.
, , .. a+bi a b.
, . 2.2.7.b 4.7.3.b.
. ,
. ,
, . :
.
4.7.2. ,
, 1 i.
.
(a)
( 2.5.7.c).
. a, b p
ab, p a p b.
(b) (
2.5.7.a).
. a, b x, y,
xa + yb = GCD(a, b). ( GCD(a, b) a, b !)
(c) ( 2.4.1.b).
. b 6= 0 a k,
|a kb| < |b|.
4.7.3. (, , !)
Z[] a + b a, b,

4.

75

(a) 2? (b) 3? (c) (1


3)/2?
(d) (1 5)/2? (e) (1 7)/2?
4.7.4. (a) 4k1
.
(b) 4k + 1
, .
(b) , 1024 .
(. 3.3),
!
. [Po, 4]. . 4.4.7.
,
4.7.1. (a) (. ) . x = 2, y = 2 x = 11, y = 5.
(x + 2i)(x 2i) = y 3 .
,
3
b b. ,
1, i .
, a3 ,
a 1, i.
a b , a = b, 1, i.
. x + 2i x 2i .
.
1, i. d := GCD(x + 2i, x 2i). x + 2i (x 2i) = 4i = i(1 + i)4 d. 1 + i
, d 1 + i, , .
, x 2i x + 2i
.
1 + i = i(1 i), , 1 + i
x + 2i x 2i , .
k. y 3 1 + i
2k. 2k 3, k 3.

76

d (1 + i), , x + 2i
1 + i, (1 + i)3 .
x + 2i 1 + i, x + 2i x 2i .
(x + 2i)(x 2i) ,
x + 2i x 2i .
x + 2i = a(1 + i)3 a,
x 2i = b(1 + i)3 b. y 3 =
y
3
ab(1 + i)6 . ab = ( (1+i)
2 ) .
a b , . ,
x + 2i = a(1 + i)3 x 2i = b(1 + i)3 .
.
x + 2i = (c + di)3 = c3 + 3c2 di + 3cd2 i2 + d3 i3 = c3 3cd2 + (3c2 d d3 )i.
: 2 = 3c2 d d3 = d(3c2 d2 ). , d = 2 d = 1.
d = 1. 3c2 1 = 2, . . 3c2 = 1 3.
1 , c = 1, c + di = 1 + i
, x + 2i = 2 + 2i .
x = 2, y = 2.
d = 2. 3c2 2 = 1, . . 3c2 = 1 3. 1
, c = 1, c + di = 2 + i
, x + 2i = 11 + 2i . x = 11,
y = 5.
4.7.1. (b) 4.7.3.a.
(c) 4.7.3.c.
4.7.2. (b) p b, pm + bn = 1.
p ab, p nab + mpa, .. p a.
(b) a b : a = kb + a0 . a0 , b a, b. ma0 + nb a (, , b),
pa + qb.
pa + qb ma0 + nb. , (a, b)
(a0 , b), . (GCD(a, b), 0).
2.5.7.a.

4.

77

(c) (p + qi)b, b,
|b|. a . :

.
4.7.3. (a) : .
4.7.2.c.
: 2 1 1 .
(b) :
.

: 4 = 2 2 = (1 + 3)(1 3). (,
.)

4.8

(4*). . .

, n . 4.8.2
, 4.8.4 4.8.6

( ).
4.8.1. (a) ABC BC
A 80 .
M , M BC = 30 M CB = 10 . AM C = 70 .
(b) ABCD P ,
ABP . P CD = 15 .
(c) ABC AC
B 20 . BC AB D
E , DAC = 60 ECA = 50 .
ADE = 30 .
.
4.8.2. (a) A1 An+2 , A2n1 A3 A2n A5 2n .

78

(b) A1 A7 , A3 A11 , A4 A16 A5 A21 24 .


(c) 30- :
A1 A13 , A2 A17 , A3 A21 , A4 A24 , A5 A26 , A8 A29 , A10 A30 .
4.8.3. (a) ABC A = 50 , B = 60 ,
C = 70 . BA BC D E
, DCA = 50 EAC = 40 . AED = 30 .
(b) ABC A = 14 , B = 62 , C =

104 . AC AB D E ,
DBC = 50 ECB = 94 . CED = 34 .
4.8.4. p p p .
4.8.5. . [PR] n > 4 n-, , ,
2, n n = 6;
3, n 6;
4, n = 12;
5, n 6, n 30 n 6 {6, 12};
7, n 30.
4.8.6. (a) p S i

2p 1 e p ,
S(x) = a(1 + x2 + x4 + + x2p2 ) +

p1
X

aj (xj + xp+j )

j=0

a, a0 , a1 , . . . , ap1 Z.
P
(b) S(x) = kj=1 aj xj
k-,
2i
S(e k ) = 0 0 6 bj 6 aj ,
Pk
2ij
k
= 0 bj bj aj .
j=1 bj e

4.

79

, k- S p1 < p2 < < ps 6 k, m, l p1 p2 . . . ps - S1 ,


S(x) = xl S1 (xm ).
(c) k- S m, l, p1 , p2 , . . . , ps
S1 (b) ps . , p1 = 2 S(1) <
2ps . l, r < ps p1 p2 . . . ps1 -
T1 , T2 , . . . Tr ,
l

S(x) = x

r
X
j=1

Tjj (x)

r
X

Tj (1) = 2r + S(1) ps .

j=1

(d) 107 k- (
k > 0), 1 12.
,
4.8.1. . n-.
4.8.2. .
4.8.3. (a) .
4.8.4, 4.8.5. , .


n- P6
P6
ix
ix
j
j

+ j=1 e
= 0,
j=1 e
xj , j = 1, 2, . . . , 6,

( ) P
6j=1 xj = 1.


[Ol86] ., .
(N10,1986). ., . (N11,1986)
3- 4-
[ABG] Solving equations using one radical, presented by D.
Akhtyamov, I. Bogdanov, A. Glebov, A. Skopenkov, E. Streltsova
and A. Zykin, http://www.turgor.ru/lktg/2015/4/index.htm.
[Sh88] ., . (N6,1988)
[So86] ., . (N6,1986)

[Ar] .. ,

[Vi] . . . , 11
.

[KF] ., .,
. (N12,1984)
[Sk15] A. Skopenkov. A short elementary proof of the Ruffini-Abel
Theorem, http://arxiv.org/abs/1508.03317

80


[Go85]
(N12,1985)

81
.,

[Po] .. , : .
[SS99] ., .,
. (N3,1999)

[PR] B. Poonen, M. Rubinstein, The number of intersection points
made by the diagonals of a regular polygon, SIAM J. Disc. Math.
11 (1998), 133-156. http://arxiv.org/abs/math/9508209

[Ar87] .,
. (N12,1987)
[So87] ., .
(N7,1987)
[Va87] ., .
(N8,1987)

82


, ,
. . ; .
: , ,
. ,
.

5.1
5.1.1


( );
3- , (
);
5- , ( ).
, , . 5.1.2 . 5.1.3.
, [Gi, Gi1, Ma].
, (. 4.3

5.

83

4.4.3, 4.4.4), (
4.5.1) . ,
(. . 5.2.1 27).
(
, . . 5.2.1
5.2.2). , , . , , ,
(, , [Kh13, Ki05]),
, ,
.
,
. ( )
, , .
, , . . 5.2.1. 5.3.3 5.5 .
, . 5.1.4. , . 5.1, . 5.4,
.
.. -, .. , .. , .. , .. , .. , .. , .
, .. , , .. , .. , .. , .. , .. , .. , .. , .. , .. ..
.
5.1.2

: (1)

,
()

1
2
cos
= ,
3
2

2
cos
= 0,
4

2
cos
=
5

51
,
4

84


cos

2
1
= ,
6
2

cos

2
1
= .
8
2

( )?
.
.
1,

+,

n.


. 0 .

.
.
, , (.. 1
, , , ).
,
q
q
q
q

4
2=
2,
2 3,
2 + 3,
1 + 2, 1 + 3 2 2,

1
,
1+ 2

= cos 3 .
60
( . 5.3.1).
(*) :
n cos(2/n) ?
.
(*) cos

. cos(2/n) , n = 2 p1 . . . pl , p1 , . . . , pl
s
22 + 1.
. 5.3.1 5.3, . 5.5.2.

5.

85

.
. . 5.2.3; ,
.
cos(2/9) .
. , .
, , cos(/3) ,
cos (, = 2/3).
. (a) , , , s
22 + 1 .
, ,
cos(2/n).
(b) , . , 4 (.
. 4.2 [10]; ., , [Sk10]).

.
5.1.3

: (2)

.
. , . 1
1

: .

86

, , , .
( , 4.2.4, 8.1.5.d).
.
3- (, x3 3x + 1), .
. 5.5.3.
. . , , cos(/3)
, cos (, = 2/3).
. 4.1.5.a
cos(2/9), cos(8/9), cos(14/9) 8y 3 6y + 1 = 0. x = 2y
x3 3x + 1 = 0. ,
. QED
, .
.
, ,
n
.
, ,
.
, (, x3
3x + 1), ,
.
. . 2 , ,
2

: .

5.

87


,
.
,
.

( , 4.2.4
4.2.7).

.
. 5- (, x5 4x + 2),
. 3
,
n > 3 (n > 5) n- ,

() .

.
, . , . 5.3.3.
. .
. Q,
, .
. 5.5.4. (
, . 5.3.11).
n := cos(2/n) + i sin(2/n).
3
. - ..
. [Al, FT, Sk11], .

88

. (a) n ,
n ,
(n 1)- .
(b) n n , , ,
n.
.
.
Q ,
.
. 5.5.5.
.
5.1.4

. (
) .
, .
5.2 (..
. 5.1). . 5.2.3
( . 5.1.2).
.
/ 5.4.4
5.4.3
5.3.1
5.3.2
TT
v: O HHTH T T
v
v
TT
v
v
vv
v
HH T T

v
v
T
v
v
v
HH
TT
TT
vv
vv
v

HH
T T)
T T)
zvv
zv
vv
HH
HH
/
/ 5.4.2
5.5.1
5.4.1H
5.3.3 _ _ _/ 5.3.4
HH

O HHTTTTT 5.5.2

HH
H
H
HH
HH
HH TTTT T

HH
HH
HH
HH
HH
HH TTTTTT
T)
$
$
$
/ 5.5.5
/ 5.4.7 _ _ _/ 5.5.3 _ _ _/ 5.5.4
/ 5.4.6
5.4.5

,
, .

5.

89

. 5.3 5.4 . . 5.3.1, 5.3.3 5.5. ,


, (. 5.3 5.4).

5.2
5.2.1

, . (
,
, .)
. 5.2.2.
, , ( ). ,

[E2]. 27 28.
[Le, Sk15].

. , [Va] (, ,
).
,
( . 5.4.1, 5.4.5, 5.4.6).
( ). (, )
, ,
(. 5.4 5.5).

. ( ). ,
, -

90

(), (. . 28.2).
, . . 5.3.2 . 5.4.
. . 1.2. ,
(. 5.3.3 . 5.5).
, ,
.
.

[M]. ,
:
[Sa, Ak]. : 5.4.3, 5.4.5.c, 5.4.8, 5.4.10.h, 5.4.17.e,
5.4.19.b, 5.4.21.e, 5.4.25, 5.4.29.a (), 5.4.30.bc, 5.4.29.b ( , ). ,
, . [AB].
5.2.2

[E1,
24] ( 2,
. . 27). [KS08].
n = 17 , , [BK, Ch, Gi, P,
Po, 10, Ko], [Do, 37] ( ,

[Do, 37], [Sa], [BK]).
[Ga, Gi], .
[Ki] ,
.

[Do, Supplement to 35-37]. [KS08].
, , [Be, H, Vi, W].

5.

91

, .

[T] [Do, 25], [P, 8] (, , . . 5.5.4). . [Sa1] ( . , . ) -
[Al, FT, Sk11, Sk15].
5.2.3

(1)

a, b c,
a + b, a b, ab/c, ab.
1, .
. ,
.
.
a ,
1, a .
( 19- ) , cos(2/n) n- .

(, , )
,
.
[Ko, CR, Ma, P]. . . 14.3.

92

5.3

. 5.3.1 . 5.3.3 .
. 5.3.2 . 5.3.3 .
. 5.3.4 .
5.3.1


(2)

,
.
5.3.1. cos(2/n) n =3, 4, 5, 6, 8,
10, 15.
5.3.2. ( ).
(a) cos(2/n) , cos(/n) .
(b) cos(2/n) cos(2/m) m, n
, cos(2/mn) .
, cos(2/n)
s
n 22 + 1.
.
, , .
5.3.3. cos(2/n) ,
n := cos(2/n) + i sin(2/n) .
5.3.4. (a) . ,
.
(b)* e ,
e + i? ( , e
.)

5.

93

, , . 4 ,
.
5.3.2

(2)

5.3.5. (a) 5 .
(b) 7 ,
.
(b)*
7 ,
, ?
(c) 11
, .
(d) 17 .
(a), (b) (b) . (c,d) , . , 5.3.5.cd ( !)

,
.
5.3.6. (x, y, z, t , a, b, c, d
4

, Re Im.
, , z, z.
, .

. .

, p
3
3
( 9
1
, cos(2/9)
, . . 5.1.3).

94

1 + i 3
, 3 =
):
2

x+y+z+t=a

x + y z t = b
(a)
.

xy+zt=c

x y z + t = d

x+y+z+t=a

x + iy z it = b
(b)

xy+zt=c

x iy z + it = d

x + y + z = a
(c) x + 3 y + 23 z = b

x + 23 y + 3 z = c

5.3.6 . , .
. x, y, z a, b, c 5.3.6.c. (,
. 4.2 ).
a = a(x, y, z) . x y
b = b(x, y, z) 3 c, c = c(x, y, z) 23 b (!). , bc b3 + c3
. z y.
bc b3 + c3 , . . .

,
x, y, z . , , b3
c3 . b c.
4- . x, y, z, t 4- a, b, c, d 5.3.6.a.
a . x y
c2 d2 , b2
. x y z t x

5.

95

b2 d2 , c2 . , b2 , c2 , d2
. , ..
b2 + c2 + d2 ,

b2 c2 + b2 d2 + c2 d2 ,

b2 c2 d2 ,

. x, y, z
. ,
, b2 , c2 , d2 .
b, c, d.
, 5- !
5.3.7. (a) x1 , . . . , x5 f Q[x] 5- ,

Y
T (y) :=
(y x (1) 5 x (2) 25 x (3) 35 x (4) 45 x (5) ) Q[5 ][y].
S5

(b) T (y) = G(y 5 ) G Q[5 ][y].


G f .
(c)*
f (x) = x5 + 15x + 11.
5.3.8. *
x5 + ax + b = 0 (a, b) =
(a) (15, 11); (a) (5, 52); (c) (35, 36);
(15 20c, 44 8c)
, c Q, c > 0.
(d)
c2 + 1
( (a, b) [10].)
:= 5 .
:
T0 := + 2 + 4 + 8 = 1

T2 := 2 + 4 8 .

2 T2 T2 . , T22 . T22
, .., 4 8 = 3 .
, k T22 k .

96

T22 5 1.

T22 = a0 + a1 + a2 2 + a3 3 + a4 4

ak Z.

k T24 k ,
a1 = a2 = a3 = a4 . T22 = a0 a1 Z. , T2
.

T1 := + i2 4 i8

T3 := i2 4 + i8 .

T0 + T1 + T2 + T3 = 4. T1 , T2 , T3 .
2 T1 iT1 . , T14
. T14
, .., 4 8 = 3 .
, k T14 k .
T14 5 1.

T14 = a0 + a1 + a2 2 + a3 3 + a4 4

ak Z + iZ.

k T14 k ,
a1 = a2 = a3 = a4 . T14 = a0 a1 Z + iZ. ,
T1 . T2 T3 .
a1 = a2 =
a3 = a4 , 2 . ;
[E1, 24]. , ,
, ; [E1],
[10, 6.4]. , , ,

.
5.3.9. T1 (x) := x + ix2 x4 ix8 .

5.

97

(a) iT1 (x2 ) T1 (x) mod (x5 1). 5


(b) T14 (x2 ) T14 (x) mod (x5 1).
(c) T14 (xk ) T14 (x) mod (x5 1) k.
:= 5 . T1 (x) := x + ix2 x4 ix8 . T0 (x),
T2 (x) T3 (x) , .
, (T0 + T1 + T2 + T3 )() = 4.
Tr (), r = 1, 2, 3.
iT1 (x2 ) T1 (x)
x5 1

T14 (x2 ) T14 (x)


x5 1

T14 (xk ) T14 (x) k.


x5 1

a0 + a1 x + a2 x2 + a3 x3 + a4 x4
Z + iZ, T14 (x) x5 1.
a1 = a2 = a3 = a4 . T14 () = a0 a1 Z + iZ. 6
, T1 () . T2 () T3 () .
QED
5.3.10. (a)

1+i 3
T (x) := x+x3 + 2 x9 + 3 x27 + 4 x81 + 5 x243 .
:= 6 =
2
, T (x) T (x3 ) mod (x7 1).
(b)
:= 10

T (x) := x + x2 + 2 x4 + 3 x8 + 4 x16 + + 9 x512 .

, T (x) T (x2 ) mod (x11 1).


5

x5 1,
x5 1.
6
, . :
T14 () = a0 + a1 + a2 2 + a3 3 + a4 4 = a0 + a1 2 + a2 4 + a3 + a4 3 =
= a0 + a1 3 + a2 + a3 4 + a4 2 = a0 + a1 4 + a2 3 + a3 2 + a4 .
, 4T14 () = a0 a1 a2 a3 a4 Z + iZ.

98

,
5.3.3.
r
2
2
2
n + 1
n
n = cos + sin2
1, cos
=
n
n
n
2

sin

2
n 1
n
=
.
n
2

5.3.4.
5.3.4.
. a + bi = u + vi u, v a b
.
5.3.5. (b) 67 + 57 + + 7 + 1 = 0.
n- , k-
(n k)- ?
5.3.5.bcd, 5.3.10. 5 . . 5.3.3.
5.3.6. , 1 + + 2 = 0 1 + i + i2 + i3 = 0.
5.3.3

(3)

, (, )
, . ,
.
. (a) n , 2n .
(b) n m m, n , mn
.

2n n mn = xm yn ,
x y , nx + my = 1. QED
5.3.5.a 2, 22 , 23 , 24 5. 5.3.5.cd
5.3.10.a 2 11, 6
17, 3 7. .
. p
g, p
g 1 , g 2 , g 3 , . . . , g p1 .

5.

99

p = 2m +1 (
). ,
m1
x2
1 mod p p 1 = 2m > 2m1 .
.
, . . 3.5.
.
5.3.4
s
, n n = 22 + 1.
n 1 = 2m , := n1 .

Z[] := {a0 + a1 + a2 2 + + an2 n2 | a0 , . . . , an2 Z}.


g n. r =
0, 1, 2, . . . , n 2,
2

Tr (x) := x + r xg + 2r xg + + (n2)r xg

n2

Z[][x].

(T0 + T1 + + Tn2 )() = (n 1). T0 () = 1.


Tr (),
r = 1, 2, . . . , n 2.
r Tr (xg ) n Tr (x)
x 1

Trn1 (xg ) n Trn1 (x)


x 1

Trn1 (xk ) n Trn1 (x) k.


x 1

a0 + a1 x + a2 x2 + + an1 xn1 Z[], Trn1 (x) xn 1.


a1 = a2 = = an1 . Trn1 () = a0 a1 Z[]. ,
Tr () . QED
5.3.11. * .

5.3.11. (a)
.
(b) n.
n = ab 0 < a, b < n,

n = a b .
n , (a).

100
5.3.4


(4*)

5.3.11.a.
,
[BK, Sa]. . .

n = 5. := 5 ,
. ,
+ 2 + 3 + 4 = 1.
( + 4 )(2 + 3 ) = + 2 + 3 + 4 = 1.

T0 := + 4

T1 := 2 + 3 .

T0 T1
t2 + t 1 = 0. T0 ( T1 ). 4 =
1, 4
t2 T0 t + 1 = 0. ( 4 ).
5.3.11.a
. n 1 q1 q2 . . . qs .
n + 2n + . . . + n1
= 1
n
q1 T0 , T1 , . . . , Tq1 1 ,
( ,
1 + x + x2 + + xn1 = 0).
Tk q2 Tk,0 + Tk,1 + + Tk,q2 1 ,
. , T1, . . . , 1 = n .
| {z }
s

1, n , 2n , . . . , nn1
.

5.

101

5.3.12. (a) 7 , 27 , . . . , 67 2 3
.
(b) 11 , 211 , . . . , 10
11 2 5
.
5.3.13.
(a) 7 , (b) 11 ,
2, 3, 5. (.
5.3.5.c.)
5.3.14. * , 2 3.
9
10
(a) 13 + 413 + 313 + 12
13 + 13 + 13 .
3
9
(b) 13 + 13 + 13 .
(c) 13 .
, . 5.3.3, n n 1. , g,
k n 1 ()
g k n.
.
5.3.15. (a) () g 7 , 5.3.12.
6 ( k
k
g ).
(b) 5.3.12(b).
(c) 5.3.14.
, , n .

. 7 := n
7
. , , .

102

n , n 1 = 2m . g
n. , 5.3.15,
,
k k,
g, (..
n). :
X
X
b
b
g .
T0 :=
g , T1 :=
06b62m 1,
b1 mod 2

06b62m 1,
b0 mod 2

, T k k:
m 1
n1
2X
X
b
j
T :=
=
g .
j=1

b=0

, , T = 1.
, T0 T1 ( ,

). , T0 + T1 = T = 1.
, T0 T1 .
:
T0 T1 =

n1
X

N s s ,

k=0

Ns s n
k + l, k T0 , l T1 :
Ns = {(b0 , b1 ) Z2n1 | b0 0, b1 1 mod 2,

g b0 +g b1 s mod n}.

, Ns s .
, g b0 + g b1 s mod n
0
0
g, g b1 + g b0 gs mod n,
b00 = b1 + 1 0

mod 2,

b01 = b0 + 1 1

mod 2.

, Ngs = Ns s. g
, , Ns s 6= 0 .

5.

103

T0 T1
T0 T1 = N0 + N1 T = N0 N1 .
, :
T0 T00 T10 4,
.
.
:= n n ,
n 1 = 2m . aj Z2 = {0, 1} j {0, 1, 2, . . . , m
1}. j {0, 1, 2, . . . , m 1}
aj . . . a1 a0 := a0 + 2a1 + 22 a2 + . . . + aj 2j .
( .) , .
g n. A
Zk2
X
b
TA :=
g .
06b6n1, bA

mod 2k

k , k A Zk2
TA . k =
m T0 . . . 0 = , ..
| {z }
m
.
k = 0 T = 1. .
- k . A Zk2 .
TA = T0A + T1A . ,
T0A T1A =

n1
X
s=0

s ()

Ns = N0 +

j 1
2X

c=0

06b6n1,
bc mod 2j

Ngb g = N0 +

NgC TC .

CZk2

Ns ( A) s n k + l, k
T0A , l T1A :
Ns = {(b0 , b1 ) Z2n1 | b0 A,
2k+1

b1 2k + A,
2k+1

g b0 + g b1 s}.
n

104

g b0 + g b1 s g 2 (
n

T0 T1 ). g b1 + g b0 = g 2 s,
b01 = b0 + 2j 2k + A.

b00 = b1 + 2k A,
2k+1

2k+1

, Ns = Ng2k s . (*). 8 , T0A T1A


. QED
5.3.11.a.
n 1 = q1 q2 . . . qm (
).
ai {0, 1, 2, . . . , qi+1 1} i {0, 1, 2, . . . , m 1}.
am1 . . . a1 a0 := a0 +a1 q1 +a2 q1 q2 + +am1 q1 q2 . . . qm1 .
( .) , .
[k, l] := Zqk Zql
(k l + 1) ,
am1 . . . a1 a0 k- l- (a0 ).
8
,
5.3.11.a. T0A T1A

2
X
BlA

(T0A T1A )2 =
(1)l g
=
BlZmk
2
1,n1

l=0,s=0

l s ()

Ns,l (1) =

1
X
l=0

(1) N0,l +
l

NgC ,l TC .

CZk
2

Ns,l ( A)
(
l1 + l2 l mod 2
l1 , l2 Z2 , B1 , B2 Zmk1

2
g B1 l1 A + g B2 l2 A s mod n
, Ns,l = Ng2k s,l . (*).

5.

105

g n := n .
A [k, 1]
X
BA
TA :=
g .
B[m,k+1]

k , k A [1, k]
TA . k = m T0 . . . 0 = .
| {z }
m

k = 0 T = 1. . q := qk+1 := q . r = 0, 1, 2, . . . , q 1 A [k, 1]

(r)

TA := T0A + r T1A + 2r T2A + + (q1)r T(q1)A .

(0)

TA = TA

(0)

(1)

(q1)

qTlA = l TA + 2l TA + + (q1)l TA

r = 1, 2, . . . , q 1 A [k, 1]

q
q1,n1
X
X
()
(r) q
lr g BlA

(TA ) =

|s, l|s l =
=
l=0,s=0

Bl[m,k+1]

q1
X
X
()
|g C , l|TC .
=
l |0, l| +
l=0

C[k,1]

|s, l| ( A)
l1 , l2 , . . . , lq Zq , B1 , B2 , . . . , Bq [m, k +2]
(
r(l1 + l2 + + lq ) l mod q
.
g B1 l1 A + g B2 l2 A + + g Bq lq A s mod n
, |s, l| = |g q1 q2 ...qk s, l|. (*).
TlA . QED
,

106


5.3.12. (a) := 7 .
0

T0 = 3 + 3 + 3

T1 = 3 + 3 + 3 .

. T0 T1
7 (, x x7 1
). 3 T0 T1 . 3 T0 T1 . , s 3s . 3 7,
, , .
+ 2 + + 6 = 1 , T0 T1 .
T0 T1 .

P6
s
T0 T1 = s=0 N (s) , Ns (n, m) Z23
32n +32m+1 s mod 7. , N0 +N1 +N2 + +N6 =
9. , Ns = N3s . N1 = N2 = = N6 .
30 + 31 6 0 mod 7, N0 6= 9. , N0 = 3
N1 = 1.
, T0 T1 = 3 1 = 2.
1 7 1 + 7
{T0 , T1 } = {
,
}.
2
2
5.3.13. (a) := 7 . T0 T1 ,
.
:= 3

T01 := 3 + 3 + 2 3 .

3
. T01
Z[] 7.
2
3 . ,
3 T01
2
s
3 s . 3
7,
32n
3 32n+1 . T0 T1 , T01
Z[, T0 , T1 ].
T01 .

P7 P2
3 =
s l , |s, l| (l , l , l )
T01
|s,
l|
1 2 3
s=1
l=0

5.

107

Z33
(
l1 + l2 + l3 l mod 3
.
32l1 + 32l2 + 32l3 s mod 7
P7 P2
,
s=1
l=0 |s, l| = 27. , |s, l| =
|32 s, l|. |1, l| = |2, l| = |4, l| |3, l| = |5, l| = |6, l|. ,
3 = A + BT + CT A, B, C Z[].
T01
0
1
.
1
3
. T02 := 3 +3 +
T0 + T01 + T02
5
2 3 . =
.
3
5.3.14. (a) = 13 ,
A0 := + 4 + 3 + 12 + 9 + 10

A1 := 2 + 5 + 6 + 7 + 8 + 11 .

A0 + A1 = 1 A0 A1 = 3. ,

1 13 1 + 13
{A0 , A1 } = {
,
}.
2
2
13-
(

) ,
1 13
1 + 13
A1 < 0. , A1 =
A0 =
.
2
2

5.4

.
, ,
, ..
. , .
(. 5.5.2)
. 5.4.15.4.4. (.
5.5.3 5.5.4) . 5.4.1, 5.4.55.4.7.
, ,
. ; ,
, .

108


.
F F , F . v1 , . . . , vn C Q, 1 , . . . , n Q, ,
1 v1 + . . . + n vn = 0.

[ABG].
5.4.1

(1)

. 4.1.

5.4.1. a+ b, a, b Q?
p

1
;
(a) 3 + 2 2; (b)
7
+
5
2
p

3
(c) 7 + 5 2; (d) cos(2/5);
(e) 3 2; (f) 2 + 3 2;
p

(g) cos(2/9); (h)* 2 + 2; (i)* cos(2/7).


5.4.1 5.4.3
, , ,
5.4.1 (, ).
5.4.2. r R \ Q r2 Q.
(a) . x2 r2
Q.
(b) . a, b Q a+br = 0,
a = b = 0.
(c) r,
x2 r2 .
(d) . r,
r.
(e) . a, b Q a + br,
a br.
(f) . a, b Q
a + br, .

5.

109

5.4.3. .
Q, a b,
a, b Q.
5.4.4. . F {R, C}. ,
F - ,

, ,

a b, a, b Q , F = R, b > 0.
5.4.3 5.4.4 ,
Q,
,
, .
. ( ) .

5.4.2 . (a) x2 r2 Q,
. .
(b) b 6= 0, r = a/b Q, . b = 0,
a = 0.
(c) x2 r2 : 9
P (x) = (x2 r2 )Q(x) + mx + n.
x = r,
(b), .
(d) (c) , R2 = r2 , R .
. u 7 u

Q[ 2] := {a + b 2 : a, b Q} a br. , u + v = u + v u v = u v
a + br :=
u, v Q[ 2].
9

, x2 r2 .

110

(e) P G(t) := P (a+bt).


G(r) = 0. , (d) G(r) = 0.
(f) (e) .
5.4.4 . , ,
,
, .
,, : (1 + 2) + (1 + 3)
a b, a, b Q (!).
,
5.4.1 . :
(a,b,c,d)
, (e,f,g,h,i) .
p
p

3
(a,c) 3 + 2 2 = 7+ 5 2 = 1 + 2.

1
75 2
= 2
(a)
=
7
+
5
2.
7 2 52
7+5 2
(d) cos(2/5) = ( 5 1)/4.

3
3 +3ab)+(3a2 +b) b.
(e) .
2 = ( 3 2)
=
(a

3a2 + b 6= 0, b Q. , 3 2 Q .
(f,g)
5.4.3.
. .
1 = 1,

3
2 = a + b 2,

3
4 = a0 + b0 2
a, b, a0 , b0 . (1, 0), (a, b), (a0 , b0 )
, .. 0 , 1 , 2 , ,

0 (1, 0) + 1 (a, b) + 2 (a0 , b0 ) = 0. 0 + 1 3 2 + 2 3 4 = 0.

5.4.18.b.

3
(f) , , 2 + 2 =

a + b.
P (x) := ((x 2)3 2)((x + 2)3 2)
.
5.4.2.d r = b P (a + t) (

5.

111

5.4.2.e r = b P (t)). , P (a b) = 0.

P

. , b 6= 0 a b .


3
3
P

:
2
+
2

2
+

2.
a + b = 2 + 3 2 a b = 2 + 3 2. 3 2 = a Q.
.
(e) 5.4.5.b.
(g) . 4.1.5.b cos(2/9) 4x3 3x = 12 . 5.4.2.f
. .
5.4.3.
(h) .
P (x) := (x2 2)2 2
p

4 2 2, + . , P (x)
, P (x)
. , P (x) Q. 5.4.3 .
(i) ( . -) cos(2/7)+
cos(4/7) + cos(6/7) + . . . + cos(14/7) = 0 cos(2/7) +
cos(4/7) + cos(6/7) = 1/2. cos 2
cos 3 (. 4.1.5.a), , cos(2/7) 8t3 +4t2 4t1 = 0
.
u = 2t, u3 + u2 2u 1 = 0.
. , 8t3 + 4t2 4t 1 = 0
. 8t3 + 4t2 4t 1 = 0 Q.
5.4.2.f.

cos(2/7) , cos(4/7) cos(6/7)
. 4.1.4.f . Q.
. , 7 , 3 . . 5.4.10 5.4.11.d.
5.4.3
. , , P x0 =
a b. 5.4.2.e P

112

x1 = a b. b = 0 .
, b 6= 0. x0 6= x1 . P (x)
(x a)2 b. deg P > 2, P . .

5.4.4 . c , , c Q. ,

a + b c, a, b Q. , , , , .

, (a +b c)(a b c) =
a2 b2 c.
5.4.2

(2*)

. 5.4.1.

5.4.5. a+b 4 2+c 2+d 4 8,


a, b,c, d Q?

(a) 3 3; (b) 6 3; (c) 4 3.


5.4.6.

(a) a + b 4 2 + c 2 + d 4 8 = 0 a, b, c, d Q,
a = b = c = d =
0.

(b) a + b 4 2 + c 2 + d 4 8 = 0 a, b, c, d
Q[i] := {x + iy : x, y Q}, a = b = c = d = 0.
5.4.7.
(a) .

4
2,

4 2,

i 4 2, i 4 2.
(b)
.

a, b, c, d Q x0 :=
a + b 4 2 + c 2 + d 4 8,

4
4
x2 := a b 2 + c 2 d 8,

4
4
x1 := a c 2 + i 2(b d 2) x3 := a c 2 i 2(b d 2).
5.4.8. . , 1, 2
4, Q,
a + br + cr2 + dr3 , r C a, b, c, d, r4 Q.

5.

113

5.4.9. . F {R, C}. ,


F - ,
, ,
a + br + cr2 + dr3 , r F a, b, c, d, r4 Q.
,
5.4.5 . : .
(a) . . 5.4.7.b x3 3 x0 , x2 ,
.
, b = d = 0 . ,
5.4.6.a . .
. .
5.4.7.b x3 3 x1 , x2 , x3 , x4 ,
.
, b = c = d = 0 . ,
5.4.6.b . .
(b) . .
. (a) x6 3

4
4
6
4
4
6
a + b 2 + c 2 + d 8 = 3 a b 2 + c 2 d 8 = 3.


a = c = 0 b + d 2 = 6 3/ 42.
12 9/8. , b d 2 . b

6
d 2 = 3/ 4 2. b = 0.
d.
. . . (a) x6 3
x1 , x2 , x3 , x4 , 5.4.7.b. x6 3 (x x1 )(x x2 )(x x3 )(x x4 ).
(x x1 )(x x2 )(x x3 )(x x4 ) (; . 5.4.19.a
5.4.22.d). x6 3
Q.

114

. 5.4.1.e.
(c) (b).

5.4.6 . (a) .
(a + c 2) +

a+c 2
= A+B 2
(b+d 2) 4 2 = 0. b+d 2 6= 0, 4 2 =
b+d 2
A, B Q. , A2 +2B 2 = 0.
.
. x4 2, Q.
a+bx+cx2 +dx3
.
(b) .
5.4.7. (a) x4 2.
x = 4 2, 5.4.6.a,
. , R4 = 2, a + bR + cR2 + dR3
.
(b) x = a + bt + ct2 + dt3 .
(a).
5.4.8 . 5.4.5.
r2 Q.
5.4.9 . , , , .
(a + br + cr2 + dr3 )(a br + cr2 dr3 ) = (a + cr2 )2 r2 (b + dr2 )2
(A + Br2 )(A Br2 ) = A2 B 2 r4 .
5.4.3

(3*)

. 5.4.1 5.4.2.

5.

115

5.4.10.
a, b, c, d,

3
2=

a+ b
; (b) a + b + c;
(a)
c + pb

(c) a + b + c; (d) a + b + c + d?
5.4.11. :
(a) 3 2; (b) cos(2/9);
(c) y 3 +y+1 = 0; (d) cos(2/7).
5.4.12. (a) :,
.
, , .
(b) . F C, r C r2 F
F [r] := {a0 + a1 r | a0 , a1 F }.
x , r1 , . . . rs1 C,
Q = F1 F2 F3 . . . Fs1 Fs 3 x,
rk2 Fk , rk 6 Fk Fk+1 = Fk [rk ] k = 1, . . . , s 1.
(
. , -,
.)
(c) (, , )
,
.
(d)* (, , ) 4- , (
4.2.6.b) .
,
5.4.10 . : .
(a) .

116

(b) , 3 2 6= a + p b + q c + r bc,

a, b, c, p, q, r Q.
, 3 2 6= u + v c,

u v + b
, Q.
, + b ( b)
. .. , ,
. (, , .)
5.4.1.e. . 5.4.6.a.

5.4.11 . (a) , 3 2 .

3
2 Fs \ Fs1 .
Q = F1 F2 F3 . . . Fs1 Fs R,

3 2 6 Q, s > 2. ,

3
2 = + a, , , a Fs1 ,
a 6 Fs1 6= 0.

3
2 = ( 2)3 = (3 + 3 2 a) + (32 + 3 a) a = u + v a.
2 Q Fs1 , 2 u Fs1 .

v a = 2 u v Fs1 , 0 = v = 32 + 3 a.
32 + 2 a > 0, = 0 .
(a,b,c) 5.4.12.c.
(d) := 7 . 6= 1,
6- 6 + 5 + 4 + 3 + 2 + + 1 = 0.
3 .
f := +1 ,

2 +2 = f 2 2 3 +3 = f (2 +2 1).

f (f 2 3)+(f 2 2)+f +1 = 0,

f 3 +f 2 2f 1 = 0.

f = 1 . ,
(5.4.12.c) f = + 1 .
().

5.

117

5.4.12 . (a) (b).


(b) , .
.
(c) . ,
, .
z
Q = Q1 Q2 Q3 . . . Qs1 Qs ,

z1 Qs \Qs1 .

z = z1 l .
,
l > 2. ,

z1 = + a, , Ql1 ,
a 6 Ql1
6= 0.

z2 := z 1 = a
.

6= 0, a 6= + a, . . z2 6= z1 .
z3 (, z3 {z1 , z2 }).

z1 +z2 +z3 = (+ a)+( a)+z3 = 2+z3 Q, z3 Ql1 .


, z3 ,
z1 . .
5.4.4


(4*)

. 5.4.3.
5.4.13. Q ,

p
p

(a)
3; (b) 2+ 3+ 5; (c) 4 + 2 3; (d) 1 + 3;
q 2+
p

(e) 5 + 1 + 3.

118

5.4.14. (a)
Q[ 2] := {x + y 2 : x, y Q}
P a + b, a, b Q[ 2], deg P
{1, 2}.
(b)
Q P

a + b + c, a, b, c Q, deg P {1, 2, 4}.


(c)p Q P

a + b + c, a, b, c Q, deg P {1, 2, 4, 8}.


(d) Q P
, deg P .
5.4.15. Q ,

(5) 5 ; (7) 7 ; (9) 9 ; (11) 11 ; (13) 13 ; (25) 25 .
5.4.16. .

5.4.13 . :
2

(a) P (x) :=((x 3)


2)((x + 3)2 2) = (x2 + 1)2 12x2 ;
(b) P (x 5)P (x + 5); () (x2 3)2 1;
(d) (x2 1)2 3; (e) ((x2 5)2 1)2 3.
(a)

, 4 2 3

. ,

3 6 Q[ 2].


(b) (a). , 5 6 Q[ 2][ 3].
( 5.4.10)
, 2 5 a+b 3 a, b Q[ 2],

a b 3.
p

(c) 4 + 2 3 = 1 + 3.
(d) (a)
p

3] 1 + 3 ( 1)
Q[
x2 1 3. ,
P p

Q 1 + 3
x2 1 3.

P

Q Q[ 3] ,

x2 1 + 3. x2 2 3 x2 2 + 3
, P .
(e) (d).

5.

119

5.4.14 . 5.4.13.de. . . 5.5.2.


5.4.15 . : (5) x4 + x3 + x2 + x + 1; (7) x6 + x5 + + x + 1;
(9) x6 +x3 +1; (11) x10 +x9 + +x+1; (25) x20 +x15 +x10 +x5 +1.
(5) (x + 1) = ((x + 1)5 1)/x .
. 5.5.2.
5.4.16 . , . 5.5.2.
5.4.5

(2)

. 5.4.1 ( ,
. 5.4.25.4.4).

5.4.17. a + b 3 2 + c 3 4,
a, b, c Q?

(a) 3; (b)
; (c) cos(2/9); (d) 5 3; (e) 3 3.
3
3
1+5 2+ 4
(f) x3 4x + 2.
(g)* x3 6x 6.
(h)* x3 9x12.
, q := cos

2
2
+ i sin .
q
q

5.4.18. r R \ Q r3 Q.
(a) . x3 r3
Q.
(b) . a, b, c Q a + br +
cr2 = 0, a = b = c = 0.
(c) r,
x3 r3 .
(d) . r,
3 r 23 r.

120

(e) . a, b, c Q x0 :=
a + br + cr2 ,
x1 := a + b3 r + c23 r2

x2 := a + b23 r + c3 r2 .

(a0 ) . x3 r3
Q[3 ] := {u + v3 : u, v Q}.
(b0 ) . k, l, m
Q[3 ] k + lr + mr2 = 0, k = l = m = 0.
5.4.19. r R \ Q a, b, c, r3 Q.
(a) . a+br+cr2
3.
(b) . Q
a + br + cr2 6 Q, 3
.
5.4.20. . F {R, C}. , F - ,
, , a + br + cr2 , r F a, b, c, r3 Q.
,
5.4.17 . : (a,c,d,e,f,h)
, (b,g) .

r := 3 2.
(a) . .

3
3
3 = (a2 + 4bc) + (2ab + 2c2 ) 2 + (2ac + b2 ) 4.
x3 2 ,
Q. , 2ab + 2c2 = 2ac + b2 = 0 (.
5.4.18.b).
b3 = 2abc = 2c3 . b = c = 0,

3
2 = b/c. .
. . P (x) := x2 3.
5.4.18.e P
x0 , x1 , x2 , .

5.

121

, b = c = 0 . , 5.4.18.b0 .
.

(b) (1 + 5 3 2 + 3 4)(3 + 3 2 8 3 4) = 75. (



x3 2 x2 + 5x + 1,
. 5.4.26.b.)

1
1
1
8
3
3

=
2+
( 2)2 .
3
3
25 75
75
1+5 2+ 4
(c) . cos(2/9) 4x3 3x = 12 .
cos(8/9) cos(4/9).
. 5.4.18.e
8x3 6x 1 a + br + cr2 2 .
, . ,
brcr2 = 0. r 6 Q, b = c = 0.
8x3 6x 1.
. 5.4.18.e
8x3 6x 1 x0 , x1 , x2 ,
.
, b = c = 0 . ,
5.4.18.b0 .
3 = 23 , x2 = x1 . , x2 x1
. .
(d) . . 5.4.19.a a +
br + cr2 . x5 3
Q.

. .
R := 5 3.
Rk 3 2:

3
3
Rk = ak + bk 2 + ck 4,
0 6 k 6 3.
4 3 . , , . ,

122

4 r.
x5 3 Q.
(e) (a), (c) , x3 3 x0 , x1 , x2 , 5.4.18.e. (a+br+cr2 )s3 = a+br3 +cr2 23 s {1, 2}.

5.4.18.b0 a = 0 bc = 0. 3 3 = br, 3 3 = cr2 .


.
(f) (c).

(g) 3 2 + 3 4.

3
(h)

3+

3
9. , , . 5.4.18.e x0 , x1 , x2 ,
. 5.4.18.b0
. , .
, 4.2.4.b

3
3
3
3
3
3
y0 := 3 + 9, y1 := 33 + 923 , y2 := 323 + 93 .
, x0 = y0 x1 = y1 , x2 = y2 , , , x2 = y1 ,
x1 = y2 .

P (x) := 3 3x + 3 9x2 . S(x) := a + brx +


cr2 x2 S(x) := a + brx2 + cr2 x , . P (x) S(x) 3
1,
3 , 23 .
. P = S. ,

3
3 = br 3 3 = cr2 . .
5.4.18 . (a) x3 r3 Q,
. .
(b) . x3 r3 a + bx + cx2
. (a) . x3 r3
a + bx + cx2 x = r. ,
x = r.
. .

5.

123

(c) x3 r3 . x =
r, (b),
.
(d) (c) , R3 = r3 , R
.
(e) P G(t) := P (a +
bt + ct2 ). G(r) = 0. , (d) G(r3 ) = 0 = G(r23 ).
(a0 ) , Q[3 ].
r Q[3 ] R = Q. .
(b0 ).
(b0 ) .
(a0 ). x3 r3 Q[3 ], k + lx + mx2
r.
5.4.19 . (a) . a = 0. t = br + cr2 t3 = b3 r3 +
c3 r6 + 3bcr3 t.
( , 4.2.3.a
a + br + cr2 (x a)3 3bcr3 (x
a) b3 r3 c3 r6 .)
. x0 = a+br +cr2 .
xk0 k = 0, 1, 2, 3 r:
xk0 = ak + bk r + ck r2 .
, 0 , 1 , 2 , 3 Q,
, , 0 + 1 x0 + 2 x20 + 3 x30 =
0. ,

0 a0 + + 3 a3 = 0
0 b0 + + 3 b3 = 0 .

0 c0 + + 3 c3 = 0
, (.. ) ,

124

, , . , .
(, 3, 5.4.18.eb0 .)
5.4.22.d. , .
(b) 5.4.19.a
3 a + br + cr2 . Q P , deg P 6 3.
5.4.18.e P
x0 , x1 , x2 , .
P Q, , b = c = 0 . ,
5.4.18.b0 . , deg P = 3.
k3 = k
3 , x2 = x1 . , x2 x1
. , x2 , x1 C \ R. P
.
5.4.20 .
r. |r| Q, . |r| 6 Q,
x3 r3 Q.
1
, a+br+cr
2 = h(r) 3
3
h. x r a + br + cr2 ,
g h, h(x)(a + bx + cx2 ) +
g(x)(x3 r3 ) = 1. h .
5.4.6

(3*)

. 5.4.5.

7
5.4.21.
a0 +a1 7 2+a2 22 +
7 6
+ a6 2 , a0 , a1 , a2 , . . . , a6 Q?
(a) 3;
(b) cos 2
21 ;
(c) -
x7 4x + 2;

11
7
(d)
3;
(e) 3.

5.

125

5.4.22. q , r R \ Q rq Q.
(a) . xq rq
Q.
(b) . A q A(r) = 0, A = 0.
(c) . r,
rkq k = 1, 2, 3, . . . , q 1.
(d) . A ,
A(r)
q.

Q[q ] := {a0 + a1 q + a2 2q + + aq2 q2


| a0 , . . . , aq2 Q}.
q
5.4.23. q , r C \ Q[q ] rq Q[q ].
(a) xq rq Q[q ].
(b,c) (b,c)
Q[q ].
5.4.24. * q , r R \ Q rq Q.
(a) . xq rq Q[q ].
(b) . A q Q[q ] A(r) = 0,
A = 0.
5.4.25. (a) . Q
A(r) 6 Q A r R,
rq Q q,
q, , q 6= 2, .
(b) . (a) q
r2 , . . . , rq1 6 Q?
5.4.26. . K {R, C}. , K- , , A(r) r K,
q Z A Q[x], rq Q.

126

5.4.25.a 5.4.26 , Q
, ,
. .
. 5.5.5.

5.4.21 . : . 5.4.17. .
5.4.25 . (a) 5.4.3, 5.4.19.b
5.4.21.acd.
5.4.22.c, 5.4.22.d 5.4.24.b.
5.4.26 . 5.4.20 5.4.9.
,

5.4.21 . r := 7 2 A(x) := a0 + a1 x + a2 x2 + + a6 x6 .
(a) . 5.4.22.c
x2 3 A(rk7 ) k = 0, 1, 2, . . . , 6.
,
5.4.24.b .
.
(b) . (a) P
xk := A(rk7 ) k = 0, 1, 2, . . . , 6.
P (0) > 0, P (1) < 0 P (2) > 0, P
xk , x0 . k7 = k
7 . xk = xk =
x7k . .
(c) . P , cos 7x = P (cos x) (, !).
2(3k + 1)
2P (x)+1 yk := cos
21
k = 0, . . . , 6. , y2 = 1/2, .

5.

127

, y0 .

(, 221 2y0 21 + 1 = 0 21 = a + i b
a, b Q. 7 = 321
. 7 10
1 + x + + x6 , 5.4.3
a + i b.)
, y0 2P (x) + 1

6.
x y2
5.4.22.c 5.4.24.b
, .
(d) . 5.4.22.d
,

11 3. x11 3 Q.
(e) . . (a) , x7 3 A(rk7 ) k = 0, 1, 2, . . . , 6.
A(r)s7 = A(r7 ) s {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6}.
5.4.24.b

7
s
ak = 0 k 6= s. 3 = as r . .
5.4.22 . (a) xq rq r, rq , r2q , . . . , rq1
q .
Q. k , 0 < k < q. , rk Q.
q , kx + qy = 1 x, y.
r = rkx (rq )y Q. .
(b) . A(x) , .
xq rq A(x) R(x). deg R < deg A, R(r) = 0 ,
(a), R(x) . A.
(c) 5.4.2.cd, 5.4.18.d 5.4.7.a.
(b).
10
g(x) = 1 + x + + x6 , , g(x + 1). ,
, 1 2.

128


(d) .
(x A(x0 ))(x A(x1 )) . . . (x A(xq1 ))

x0 , x1 , . . . , xq1 . ,
x
x0 , x1 , . . . , xq1 . xk = rkq , k = 0, 1, . . . , q 1,
xq rq , .
.
5.4.19.a. 3 q
(, k = 0, 1, 2, . . . , q).
. , . .
. 5.5.4.
5.4.23 . (a) . C
Q[q ] rk m
q k
m. r Q[q ]. 5.4.22.a
r Q[q ]. .
(b) (c) (a)
5.4.22.
5.4.24 . (a) .
5.4.23.a ( Q[q ]) r Q[q ].
r2 , r3 , . . . , rq1 Q[q ].
, q r.
xq rq
Q.
rk q k = 0, 1, . . . , q 1:
rk = ak,0 + ak,1 q + . . . + ak,q2 q2
q .
0 , . . . , q1 Q,
,
0 a0,m + + q1 aq1,m = 0 m = 0, 1, . . . , q 2.

5.

129

, (.. ) ,
, , . , .
( , akl
q (q 1). , ,
.)
(b) (a).
5.4.25 . (a) .
P . q < deg P 5.4.22.d. q > deg P 5.4.22.c
5.4.24.b P
xk = A(rkq ) k = 0, 1, 2, . . . , q1.
q > deg P . q = deg P q 6= 2
.
xk = xqk 6= xk

(b) : . q = 6 r = 6 2. A(r) = r3
x2 2.
5.4.7

(4*)

. 5.4.6 5.4.3.
5.4.27. (a-d) 5.4.22 Q F R, , ,
( Q F ).
5.4.28. (a) cos(2/9)
,
, ?
(b) ,
,
,
.

130

,
. 5.5.
5.4.29. (a) (, , ) ,
, .
(b)* . , .
5.4.30. * n cos(2/n)

(a) a + b, a, b Q?
(b) ?

,
5.4.28 . (a) .
(b) f , . f (0) > 0
f (1) < 0. , x5 4x 2.

5.4.30 . (a) : n {1, 2, 3, 4}.

5.5

, (, ) , . ,
.
. 5.1.2 5.1.3 ( , .
5.5.2 5.3.4 ).
.

5.
5.5.1

131

(2*)

F C, r C rq F q,
F [r] := {a0 + a1 r + a2 r2 + + aq1 rq1 | a0 , . . . , aq1 F }.
. F {R, C}. x F
F - ,
r1 , . . . rs1 F q1 , . . . qs1 ,
Q = F1 F2 F3 . . . Fs1 Fs 3 x,
rkqk Fk , rk 6 Fk Fk+1 = Fk [rk ] k = 1, . . . , s 1.
.
( . 5.4).
C,
, , . : ( ).
,
.
F , q , r 6 F F = Q, q F ,
tq rq F (
. 5.5.3 5.5.4
5.4.22.a 5.4.27). F [r] .
2
2
+ i sin .
, n := cos
n
n
5.5.2

(3*)

n = knk , nk n . 5.3.4
, n
(A) n , 2m + 1,
(B) n = p2 .

132

. Q P
, deg P .
. .
. p . p, p,
p2 , Z.
.
Z, Q.
,
Zp ( P = P1 P2 P Q,
n1 n2 , n1 P1 , n2 P2 , , p n1 n2 ).
n . n
n
P (x) := xn1 + xn2 + + x + 1 (A)
P (x) := xp(p1) + xp(p2) + + xp + 1 (B).
P (x) Q
Z . P (x) Z P (x+
1) Z.
. P (x+1) (a+b)p
ap + bp mod p. QED
k = 1
.
.
Q = F1 F2 F3 . . . Fs1 Fs 3 ,
rk2 Fk , rk 6 Fk Fk+1 = Fk [rk ] k = 1, . . . , s 1,
k = 1, 2, . . . , s

5.

133

Fk Fk
.
. k . k = s .
. j {k, k + 1} Pj Fk Fk .
, deg Pk+1 . Fk+1 .
Pk () = 0, Pk Pk+1 .
.
. F C , r CF r2 F .
: F [r] F [r]
x + yr := x yr. , z + w =
z + w zw = z w.
F = Fk F [r] = Fk+1 . , Pk = Pk Pk+1 . D := GCD(Pk+1 , Pk+1 ).
Pk+1 Fk+1 D, D = 1,
Pk+1 = D.
D = D, Pk+1 = D Fk [x]. ,
Pk = Pk+1 .
Pk M := Pk+1 Pk+1 . M = M ,
M Fk [x]. Pk Fk , Pk = M . ,
deg Pk = 2 deg Pk+1 . QED
5.5.3

(3*)

( ). q , F R , r R F rq F .
(a) ( ) P (r) = 0
P F [q ][t] q, P = 0.
(b) () P F [q ][t] P (r) = 0, P (rkq ) = 0
k = 0, 1, . . . , q 1.
(a). P tq rq F [q ] r. ,
r k, 0 < k 6 deg P < q. tq rq r, rq , r2q , . . . , rq1
q .

134

k . rk F [q ].
q , kx + qy = 1 x, y.
r = (rk )x (rq )y F [q ]. 11
r2 , r3 , . . . , rq1 F [q ]. akl F q (q 1) rk q :
k

r =

q2
X

akl lq ,

0 6 k 6 q 1.

l=0

, F ,
.
, P1 q
F r. . P P1 F [q ] F . r F .
QED
(b). P (r) = 0, P (t) tq rq 0 r.
, (a) . (b). QED

. , , x0 x3 3x + 1 = 0 . F = R s, ,
Fs R x1
x3 3x + 1 = 0 (, x1 6= x0 ). F := Fs1 , q := qs1
r := rs1 . x1 = h(r) h F 0 q.
( ) (b) P (t) := h(t)3 3h(t) + 1. h(r)3 3h(r) + 1 = 0,
, h(rkq ) x3 3x + 1 = 0
11

:
dimF F [r] 6 dimF F [q ] 6 q 1.

5.

135

k = 0, 1, . . . , q 1. h(rkq ) = h(rlq ) 0 6 k < l 6 q 1, e ( ) (a) deg h = 0 . , h(rkq ),


0 6 k 6 q 1, x3 3x+1 = 0.
, q = 2 q = 3.
q = 2, x3
3x + 1 = 0 2h(0) F
s.
q = 3, h0 + h1 t + h2 F , h0 + h1 t +
2
h2 t = h(t).
h(r3 ) {2 cos(2/9), 2 cos(8/9), 2 cos(14/9)} R,

0 = Imh(r3 ) = 23 (h1 r h2 r2 ). r 6 F , h1 = h2 = 0.
deg h > 0. 12 QED
5.5.4

(4*)

(a,c)
. (b) (c).
. q , F C , r C F
F.
(a) ( ) P (r) = 0
P F [t] q, P = 0. 13
rq , q

12

q = 3. q = 3, 3 =
h(r3 ) = h(r23 ).
.
13
q F
q > 2, F = R r = q . , q F
[P, . 580-581]. . [P] q = p . 581 ( p = 2) :

f k, i, k[ q a]
2
a K q, q = 2. f (x) = x + x + 1,
q = 3, a = 1 k = Q[i]. [P] : () 1 . 572 , .. a = bq

b k ( q a 6 k).
23

136

, , F [r] a0 , a1 , . . . , aq1 F , = a0 + a1 r + a2 r2 +
+ aq1 rq1 .
(b) () P F [x, t] P (x, r) = 0 x, P (x, rkq ) = 0 x k =
0, 1, . . . , q 1.
(c) () g F F F [r],
g(x) = A(x x0 )(x x1 ) . . . (x xq1 )
A F x0 , x1 , . . . , xq1
F r, rq , . . . , rq1
q .
(a). ,
F [q ] F . QED
(b). (b) P
tq rq . , degt P < q.
(b) (a).
QED
(c). F [r] F [r] g. t = r h
F [x, t] t 0 q, x deg g, x 1 (
t). , h(x, r) F [r] g(x) = h(x, r)h1 (x, r)
h1 F [x, t]. := q .
(b) P (x, t) := g(x) h(x, t)h1 (x, t). ,
g(x) h(x, rk ) F [r] k = 0, 1, . . . , q
1.
h(x, rk ) F [r] k = 0, 1, . . . , q
1.
( (b) P , h(x, rk )
. , h(x, r)
F [r]. .)

5.

137

(a) h(x, rk ) k = 0, 1, . . . , q
1. , g .
(. ) , F . g F , g A F .
deg g = q degx h. deg g degx h < deg g, degx h = 1
( deg g = q). , h(0, r) F [r] g.
h(0, rk ) k = 0, 1, . . . , q 1. QED
. F C , q , r
C, rq F h F [x, t]. h(x, r)h(x, q r) . . . h(x, q1
q r) F [x].
. ( . .)
h(x, x0 )h(x, x1 ) . . . h(x, xq1 )
x0 , x1 , . . . , xq1 . , x x0 , x1 , . . . , xq1 . xk = rkq ,
k = 0, 1, . . . , q 1, xq rq , F . QED 14
. , F = C,
k = 1, 2, . . . , s 1 qk Fk rk R,
|rk |2 Fk .
. q ,

, qk Fk qk > q.
q = 1 , qk Fk
k = 1, 2, . . . , s 1. : q = maxk qk ;
.
14

. (a)

a0 (x) + a1 (x)r + + aq1 (x)rq1

ak F [x].

e r r (
(a)), (a) ak (x) = ak (x)k
F [x] k = 1, 2, . . . , q 1. ak (x) = 0 k = 1, 2, . . . , q
1. , a0 (x) F [x].

138

k, qk = q. Fk1 Fk q
q .
k , .
, qk Fk k = 1, 2, . . . , s 1. l ,
, k 6 s l
F k = Fk

rk R,

|rk |2 Fk .

l = 0 . : l = s1;
. . ( rk R,
, qk
2qk = r qk r qk F .
.) Fp
k
k = Fk rk Fk , |rk |
k k
qk
2
2q
k
Fk [|rk | ] = Fk [ |rk | ], .
Fk Fk+1 Fs
Fk Fk [|rk |2 ] Fk [rk , rk ] = Fk+1 [rk ] . . . Fs [rk ].
, .

. . QED
. , ,
g
.
. g
Q ,
s, g Fs Fs+1 . r := rs
q := qs . (c)
g(x) = A(x x0 )(x x1 ) . . . (x xq1 )
A Fs x0 , x1 , . . . , xq1 a0 +a1 t+ +aq1 tq1 Fs
rkq , k = 0, 1, . . . , q 1. xk
, xk = xk . , kq = k
q .

5.

139

r R, (a) k = 0, 1, . . . , q
1 xk = xk ,
as 2sk = as s = 0, 1, . . . , q 1.
, xk R , k.
r 6 R, |r|2 Fs . rs =
2s
|r|2s
|r| qs
r
,

Fs . , (a)
rq
rq
k {0, 1, . . . , q 1} xk = xk ,
|r|2q2s
a0 = a0 as = aqs
s = 1, 2, . . . , q 1.
rq
k. x0 , . . . , xq1
, .
. QED
.

: rq h .
, Fs1 Fs . (
s , Fs , Fs1 ; .)
(c) ( ). (),
(, , ) qk Fk .

, .
, [T].
2- . 14 [T] , R.
.

140

5.5.5

(4*)

. F C , q , r C, rq F . g F F F [r],
g(x) = A(x x0 )(x x1 ) . . . (x xq1 )
A F x0 , x1 , . . . , xq1
F [q ] r, rq , . . . , rq1
q
F R F = Q,
.
. g F F [q ],
q > deg g.
.
. (c). ,
, F F [q ]. .
g , deg g > q. , g F [q ].
, F F [q ]. QED
. .
, qk , F := Fs1 [q ],
(c)
r 6 R. QED
. 15
K L dimK L L K
s, s l1 , . . . , ls L, l L k1 , . . . , ks K,
l = k1 l1 + + ks ls .
15

( ,
) .

5.

141

5.5.1. (a) dimQ Q[ 5 3].


(b) F g,
dimF F [] = deg g.
(c) . K
L M dimK M = dimL M dimK L.
.
C g.
dimF [q ] F [, q ] dimF F [q ] = dimF [] F [, q ] dimF F [].
g F , dimF F [] = deg g. g F [q ], dimF [q ] F [, q ] < deg g. deg g ,
dimF F [q ] deg g. dimF F [q ] < q, q > deg g.
( , q 1 > deg g.) QED
5.5.2. (a) p Q[5 ]

5
5
5
5
5
Q[5 , 2] := {a0 +a1 2+a2 22 +a3 23 +a4 24 | a0 , . . . , a4 Q[5 ]},

p = 5 Q[5 , 5 2].
(b)
p Q
5
Q[ 2], p = 5 Q[5 , 5 2].
(c) a, q
p, Q Q[ q a],

Q[ q a]?
:
.
. F C , q , r C, rq F .
F F [r], F [q , r].
. , a C
F (a) := F [a]. -

142

, .
( ).
. F , g F , x1 , . . . , xn .
F (x1 , . . . , xn ),
F x1 x2 .
. F [x]/g F [x] g, . g ,
F [x]/g ( !).
: F (x1 ) F [x]/g F (x2 ),
x1 x2 . , F (x1 , . . . , xn ).
F (x1 ) g, F (x2 )
. F (x1 ) = F (x2 ) = F (x1 , . . . , xn )
.
1 g, F (x1 ).
- gb
g F (x1 ).
(b
g )
g F (x2 ). 2 (b
g ). (2 g; ,
2 = 1 , 2 6= x2 .)
F (x1 , 1 ) F (x1 )[x]/b
g F (x2 )[x]/(b
g ) F (x2 , 2 ).
,
. , . QED 16
. g =
g1 . . . gt g
16
. F C , g F [x]
, K -
F . g K .

5.

143

F (r, q ).
F (r, q , x1 , . . . , xn ), F x1 g1 x2
g2 . g F , (g) = g.
F (r, q ) xq rq F ,
(F (r, q )) = F (r, q ) (, F (r, q )). , (g1 ) F (r, q ).
(g1 )(x2 ) = 0 g1 , g2 (g1 ) = g2 . deg g1 = deg g2 . ,
g1 , . . . , gt . deg g = t deg g1
, deg g1 = 1. , g F (r, q ). QED
. p , C .
()

dimF [r] F [, r] dimF F [r] = dimF [] F [, r] dimF F [].

F , dimF F [] = p.
F [r], dimF [r] F [, r] < p. dimF F [r]
p. dimF F [r] = q .
, q = p.

dimF [q ] F [, q ] dimF F [q ] = dimF [] F [, q ] dimF F [].
q F , dimF F [] =
q. dimF F [q ] < q. q ,
dimF [q ] F [, q ] q. ,
q. F [q ].
F F [q ] , q F .
dimF [r] F [, r] < q = dimF F [r] = dimF F [], dimF [] F [, r] <
q. , xq rq F [].
rq = bq b F []. q F ,
r F []. , dimF [r] F [, r] = dimF [] F [, r] = 1.
F [r]. QED


[Al] .. , . : , 1976.
[Ak] . , , -2013, http://www.
mccme.ru/circles/oim/mmks/works2013/akhtyamov2.pdf
[AB] D. Akhtyamov, I. Bogdanov, Solvability of cubic and quartic
equations using one radical, http://arxiv.org/abs/1411.4990
[ABG] Solving equations using one radical, presented by D.
Akhtyamov, I. Bogdanov, A. Glebov, A. Skopenkov, E. Streltsova
and A. Zykin, http://www.turgor.ru/lktg/2015/4/index.htm.
[Be] J. Bergen, A Concrete Approach to Abstract Algebra: From the
Integers to the Insolvability of the Quintic, 2010.
[BK] ., .
, . , 17 (2013).
[Ch] . . , . 1. ., .: , 1934.
[CR] . , . , . .: ,
2004.
[Do] H. Dorrie, 100 Great Problems of Elementary Mathematics: Their
History and Solution, Dover Publ, New York, 1965.
[E1] H.M. Edwards, Galois Theory, Springer Verlag, 1984.
144

145

[E2] H.M. Edwards, The construction of solvable polynomials, Bull.


Amer. Math. Soc. 46 (2009), 397-411.
[FT] .., .., ,
.: , 2011.
[Ga] . . , .
. .: - , 1959. . 9580.
[Gi] . , , , 1972 N1, 211.
[Gi1] . , , , 1976 N9, 210.
[H] Ch.R. Hadlock, Field Theory and its Classical Problems, Carus
Mathematical Monographs 19, The Mathematical Association of
America, 1978.
[Ki] .. , , , , 1977 N7, 29 1994 N6, 1518.
[Ki05] ..
,

,
http://www.mccme.ru//dubna/2005/courses/kirichenko.html
[Ko] .. , , . : , 2001.
[Kh13] . . , .
, 17 (2013).
[KS08] . . , :
( ), . , 12
(2008), 127144, http://arxiv.org/abs/0804.4357 (v1)
[Le] L. Lerner, Galois Theory
http://arxiv.org/abs/1108.4593.

without

abstract

[M]
http://www.mccme.ru/mmks/index.htm.

algebra,

146

[Ma] . . , . .
. (). .
. , . . . . . .,
, 1963.
[Po] . . , . .: , 1963.
[P] .. , , . .:
, 2007. http://www.mccme.ru/prasolov
[PS] .. .. , . .: , 1997.
http://www.mccme.ru/prasolov
[Sa] .
,

,
http://www.mccme.ru/mmks/dec08/Safin.pdf
[Sa1] , http://www.cdoosh.ru/lmsh/archive.html,
2011, 10 .
[Sk10] . , 13- , . , 14 (2010), 143174.
http://arxiv.org/abs/1001.4011.
[Sk11] A. Skopenkov, , . , 15 (2011) 113-126, http://arxiv.org/abs/1102.2100.
[Sk15] A. Skopenkov. A short elementary proof of the Ruffini-Abel
Theorem, http://arxiv.org/abs/1508.03317
[T] .. , , , 2003, N1.
[Va] ., . , 1980, N2,
[Vi] . . , . .: , 1980.
[W] .. , , : , 1976.

6.

147

.
, .
, ,
. , , . xa a; , ,
2 2 .
, , ,
.
, , , .

6.1

(2)

.
.
6.1.1. - , 6 . x y,
,
. ( ).
,
() ,

(a) xy? (b) x2 + y 2 ? (c) x + y? (d) x1 + y1 ?


(e) sin x2 + sin y2 ? (f) x2 y?
I R .
f : I R ,

x+y
f (x) + f (y)
f
6
x, y I.
2
2
!

148

6.1.2. 6.1.1
f (x) + f (y), f ?
6.1.3. ?

(a) x; (b) x2 ; (c) x2 ; (d) (x 1)3 ; (e) x; (f) |x 3|.


6.1.4. n > 0 x1 + . . . + xn = 1.

(a) x1 . . . xn . (b) x21 + . . . + x2n . (c) x11 + . . . + x1n .
(d) x31 + . . . + x3n . (e)* x21 . . . x2n1 xn .
6.1.5. , .

n
n
min{x1 , . . . , xn } 6 1
x1 . . . xn 6
1 6
+
.
.
.
+
x1
xn
r
x1 + . . . + xn
x21 + . . . + x2n
6
6
6 max{x1 , . . . , xn }.
n
n
6.1.6. (b-e) 6.1.1.b-e ,
, ,
, . :
2f (x) + f (2y) x + y = 6

f (x) = x2 , x, x1 , sin x2 .
6.1.7. * (a) f ,
f (tx + (1 t)y) 6 tf (x) + (1 t)f (y) t [0, 1] x, y I.
(b) . f :
I R ,
f (t1 x1 + . . . + tn xn ) 6 t1 f (x1 ) + . . . + tn f (xn )
t1 , . . . , tn , 1, x1 , . . . , xn
I.
(c)* . f :
I R , f 00 (x) > 0 I.
(
. 8.2 .)

6.

149

6.1.8. * (a)
x1 . . . xn xi > n1 x21 + + x2n = 1.
(b) x1 x2 + x2 x3 + . . . + xn1 xn 6 (x1 + . . . + xn )2 /4.
6.1.9. * (a) x1 > . . . > xn I
y1 > . . . > yn I, x1 + . . . + xn = y1 + . . . + yn
x1 + . . . + xk > y1 + . . . + yk k.
. f : I R
x1 > . . . > xn I
y1 > . . . > yn I, f (x1 ) + . . . + f (xn ) > f (y1 ) + . . . + f (yn ).
(b)

a+bc+ b+ca+ c+ab6 a+ b+ c


a, b, c .
(c) C, x1 , . . . , x9 > 0

9
!4
X
X
xi xk (x2i + x2k ) 6 C
xi .
16i<k69

i=1

6.1.4. (a) , , .
, x1 . . . xn , ( n1 )n , x1 = x2 = = xn = n1 .
x1 , x2 , . . . , xn x1 + . . . + xn =
1, xi , xj ,
x +x x +x
x1 , . . . , xn i 2 j , i 2 j . 1, , xi xj <
x +x
( i 2 j )2 . x1 . . . xn
x1 = x2 = . . . = xn .
. , x1 , x2 , . . . , xn ,
x1 . . . xn , . , 8.5.2.a.
.

150

x1 , x2 , . . . , xn ,
1. n1 , xi < n1 xj > n1 .
x1 , . . . , xn xi , xj n1 , xi +xj n1 . ( ) , ( !).
, . ,
n , n1 , n1 , . . . , n1 . , ,
. x1 . . . xn 6 n1 . . . n1 = ( n1 )n .
,
6.1.1. () : x =
y = 3, , x = 0 y = 6.
. , xy
x > 0 y > 0.
2
2
2
xy = (x+y) (xy)
= 9 (xy)
, 4
4
xy x = y. , x = y = 3.
(b) : x = y = 3,
, x = 0 y = 6.
2
2
2
. x2 + y 2 = (x+y) +(xy)
= 18 + (xy)
.
2
2
(c) : x = y = 3,
, x = 0 y = 6.

. ( x + y)2 = x + y + 2 xy = 6 + 2 xy,

x + y () xy. (a) .
(d) : x = y = 3,
.
6
. x1 + y1 = x+y
xy = xy . , () x = y = 3.
11 + 61 1 > a a > 0,
a

1
x

+ y1 .
(e) : x = y = 3,
, x = 0 y = 6.
.
sin

y
x+y
xy
3
xy
x
+ sin = 2 sin
cos
= 2 sin cos
.
2
2
4
4
2
4

6.

151

32 < , sin 23 > 0. cos(x) 6 1,


x = y = 3.
cos(x) [0; 2 ] 6 32 < 2 . ,
[ 2 ; 0]. |xy|
4
x y = 6.
.
6.1.2. (a)
, .
6.1.6. . x2 1/x
x = 2y = 4, (x, y) = (0, 6)

, . x
x = 2y = 4,
(x, y) = (6, 0) , . sin x2
.
6.1.7.a.
6.1.4. .
(a) (1/n)n , 0.
(b) 1, 1/n.
() , n2 .
(d) 1, 1/n2 .
6.1.7. (a) - t. t .
(b) (a), n.
(c) , . 8.2.5.b 8.5.6.c.

6.2

(2)

6.2.1. (a) a > b x > y, ax + by > ay + bx.


(b) a, b, c, , , , a +
b + c > 3 (a + b + c).
(c) , , ,

sin sin sin


+
+

152

1
1
+

sin +

1
1
+

sin +

1
1
+

sin .

(d) . x1 > . . . > xn , y1 > . . . > yn


{i1 , . . . , in } = {1, . . . , n},
x1 y1 + . . . + xn yn > x1 yi1 + . . . + xn yin > x1 yn + . . . + xn y1 .
(e) . x1 > . . . > xn y1 > . . . >
yn ,
x1 + . . . + xn y1 + . . . + yn
x 1 yn + . . . + x n y1
x1 y1 + . . . + xn yn
>

>
.
n
n
n
n
6.2.2. (a) a3 + b3 > a2 b + ab2 .
(b) ak + bk > akl bl + al bkl k > l > 0.
(c) a2 + b2 + c2 > ab + bc + ca.
(d) 2(a3 + b3 + c3 ) > a2 b + b2 a + b2 c + c2 b + c2 a + a2 c > 6abc.
(e) 2(a4 + b4 + c4 ) > a3 b + b3 a + b3 c + c3 b + c3 a + a3 c >
> 2(a2 b2 + b2 c2 + c2 a2 ) > 2abc(a + b + c).
6.2.3. () ,
(a) a5 + b5 + c5 abc(ab + bc + ca).
(b) ak + bk + ck aq bq cq M , k > q > 0 , x0 := 1
x {a, b, c}

n = 3q
1
M = a+b+c
n = 3q + 1 .

ab + bc + ca n = 3q + 2
(c) ak1 + ak2 + . . . + akn , k > 0 .
6.2.4. (a) at2 + 2bt + c > 0 t, b2 6 ac.
(b) .
(a1 b1 + . . . + an bn )2 6 (a21 + . . . + a2n )(b21 + . . . + b2n ).

6.

153

( , :
n-
. )
(c) (b)
a1 , a2 , . . . , an b1 , b2 , . . . , bn , .. , a1 /b1 =
a2 /b2 = . . . = an /bn .
x2
(x1 + x2 + . . . + xn )2
x2 x2
.
(d) 1 + 2 + . . . + n >
y1
y2
yn
y1 + y2 + . . . + yn
6.2.5. (a) x3 + 2y 3/2 > 3xy.

1 1
xp y q
+ = 1, xy 6
+ .
p q
p
q
(c) . k > l > 0
ak
kakl lbkl
>
. a = b.
bl
kl
1 1
(d) . + = 1,
p q
(b) .

x1 y1 + . . . + xn yn 6 (xp1 + . . . + xpn ) p (y1q + . . . + ynq ) q .


(e) . p > 1,

n
X
(xi + yi )p

!1

i=1

n
X

!1
xpi

i=1

n
X

!1
yip

i=1

.
6.2.3. (c) . a1 > . . . > an >
0 b1 > . . . > bn > 0 (.
6.1.9),
X a(1)
X b(1)
a
b
x1
. . . xn(n) >
x1 . . . xn(n)
Sn

Sn

x0s

x1 , . . . , xn .
:= 1.
, , [DY].
,
6.2.4. (b,d) n (a).

154

(d) (b)
x1 x2
xn

y1 , y2 , . . . , yn . (b)
, ,...,
y1
y2
yn
(d) .
6.2.5. (b) y(x) = xp1 . x
x [0, a].
x(y) = y q1 ( ). y y [0, b]. p
q
ap + bq ,. a b. .
.
f (x) = ln x, x > 0, p1 , 1q
ap , bq :
ap bq 1
1
+
> ln ap + ln bq = ln(ab).
ln
p
q
p
q
() (b).
(d) , xp1 +. . .+
xpn = y1q + . . . + ynq = 1.
.

Pn
P
Pn(e)
n
p1 .
p1 +
p =
y
(x
+
y
)
x
(x
+
y
)
(x
+
y
)
i
i
i
i
i
i
i
i
i=1
i=1
i=1

6.3

(3*). ..

. , . , . , . . , , .
6.3.1. a, b, c > 0
2
a+b+c

a + b2 + c2
a + b + c a+b+c
a b c
>a b c >
.
a+b+c
3
6.3.2. (a) . a1 > 0, . . . , an > 0
a1 + . . . + an = 1, a1 x1 + . . . + an xn > xa11 . . . xann . (
6.2.5.b.)

6.

155

(b)* m x1 , . . . , xn
a1 , . . . , an > 0, a1 + . . . + an = 1,
p
m
Sm := m a1 xm
m 6= 0, S0 := xa11 . . . xann ,
1 + . . . + an xn
S := min{x1 , . . . , xn } S+ := max{x1 , . . . , xn }.
, Sa 6 Sb a 6 b a, b R {, +}.
(c) Sa 6 Sb a 6 b
x1 , . . . , xn ,
ai ?
a2
a21 a22
+
+ . . . + n > a1 + a2 + . . . + an .
a2 a3
a1
a21
a22
a2n
1
(b)
+
+ ... +
> (a1 + a2 + . . . + an ).
a1 + a2 a2 + a3
an + a1
2

6.3.3. (a)

6.3.4.

b2
c2
d2
a2
+
+
+
> 2.
b(a + c) c(b + d) d(c + a) a(d + b)

6.3.5. (a) a3 b + b3 c + c3 a > abc(a + b + c).


(b) a3 b2 + b3 c2 + c3 a2 > abc(ab + bcc a).
a32
a3n
1
a31
+
+ ... +
> (a21 + a22 + . . . + a2n ).
a1 + a2 a2 + a3
an + a1
2
a
b
c
d
(b)
+
+
+
> 1.
b + 2c + d c + 2d + a d + 2a + b a + 2b + c
a
b
c
d
6.3.7. (a)
+
+
+
> 2.
b+c c+d d+a a+b
a+c b+d c+a d+b
(b)
+
+
+
> 4.
a+b b+c c+d d+a
6.3.8. ab + bc + cd + da = 1,
6.3.6. (a)

a3
b3
c3
d3
1
+
+
+
> .
b+c+d c+d+a d+b+a a+b+c
3
6.3.9. * P , S, 1 , . . . , n , n-,
4S

n
X
i=0

ctg

i
> P 2.
2

156

6.3.10. (a) A0 , B 0 C 0
ABC, I ,
1
AI BI CI
8
<
6 .
4
AA0 BB 0 CC 0
27
( 1994)
(b)* a4 +b4 +c4 +d4 +2abcd > a2 b2 +a2 c2 +a2 d2 +b2 c2 +b2 d2 +c2 d2 .
(c)* x6 y 6 + y 6 z 6 + z 6 x6 + 3x4 y 4 z 4 > 2(x3 + y 3 + z 3 )x3 y 3 z 3 .
6.3.11. * a, b, c , 1.
1
1
1
3
(a) 3
+ 3
+ 3
> . (
a (b + c) b (a + c) c (a + b)
2
1996)
(b) R,
a
b
c
3
+
+
> .
b+c a+c a+b
2

P (x1 , x2 , . . . , xn ) > 0 , P (x1 , x2 , . . . , xn ) x1 , x2 , . . . , xn . P (x1 , x2 , . . . , xn ) >


0 , P (x1 , x2 , . . . , xn )
( x1 x2 ,
x2 x3 , x3 x4 , ..., xn x1 ). 6.2.3.c,
-- 6.2.4.bd ( )
6.2.5.c.
6.2.4.d (, 6.3.3, 6.3.4, 6.3.6),
(. 6.3.6.b ;
). , 6.2.5.c.
,
6.3.1, 6.3.7 6.3.8 .
. . [Si67, 204].

6.

157

6.3.1. 6.1.5
(a
| +a+
{z. . . + a}) + (b| + b +{z. . . + }b) + (c| + c +{z. . . + }c)
a

a+b+c
a+b+c
>
1 1 1
1 1
+ + ... +
+ + ... +
+
a}
b {z
|a a {z
|b
a

>

1 1 1
+ + ... +
+
b}
c {z
|c

1
c}

a+b+c
.
3

a + b + c, .
6.3.2. (a) a1 , . . . , an 6.1.5 6.3.1.
.
.
.
(b) a1 = . . . = an . a b 6.1.4. a b .
a1 , . . . , an . a1 , . . . , an .
6.3.3. (a) .
,
6.2.4.d.
.
2
ab > 2a b ( 6.2.5.c).
6.2.1.d.
6.3.2.a
6.3.5.a.
(b) . ,

158

. 2
ab > 2a b.
a2

1
: a1 +a
> 2a1
2
(a1 +a2 ) . -, , 0 > a1 + a2 + . . . + an . -, ,
a1 = a2 = . . . = an
2
, ab > 2ab
a = b.
, , a1 = a2 = . . . = an
.
4:

4a21
4a22
4a2n
+
+ ... +
> 2(a1 + a2 + . . . + an ).
a1 + a2 a2 + a3
an + a1

(2a1 )2
a1 +a2 > 4a1 (a1 + a2 ).
, .
. ,
, 6.2.4.d.
6.3.5. (a) abc
6.3.3.a.
6.3.2.a.
, x, y, z , xa3 b + yb3 c + zc3 a > (x + y + z)a2 bc.
(a3 b)x (b3 c)y (c3 a)z = (a2 bc)x+y+z .
3x + z = 2(x + y + z),

3y + x = x + y + z,

3z + y = x + y + z.

, , x = 4, y = 2, z = 1.
4a3 b + 2b3 c + c3 a > 7a2 bc.
a3 b + 4b3 c + 2c3 a > 7ab2 c 2a3 b + b3 c + 4c3 a > 7abc2 .
, a3 b + b3 c + c3 a > a2 bc + ab2 c + abc2 .
(b) (a).
6.3.2.a , 4a3 b2 +2b3 c2 +c3 a2 > 7a2 b2 c.

6.

159

. 6.2.3 ,
a3 b + a3 c + b3 a + b3 c + c3 a + c3 b > 2a2 bc + 2ab2 c + 2abc2 .
6.3.5.a , :
a3 b+b3 c+c3 a > a2 bc+ab2 c+abc2

a3 c+c3 b+b3 c > a2 bc+ab2 c+abc2 .

, 6.3.5.b :
a3 b2 + a3 c2 + b3 a2 + b3 c2 + c3 a2 + c3 b2 > 2a2 b2 c + 2a2 bc2 + 2ab2 c2 .
6.3.6. (a) . ,
a3
3a2 b2

>
( b
2
6.2.5.c). , . , , a1 = a2 = . . . = an . 8,
a1 = a2 = . . . = an .
12a21 (a1 + a2 )2
(2a1 )3

>
.
a1 + a2
2
a21 + a22 + . . . + a2n >
a1 a2 + a2 a3 + . . . + an a1 .
(a1 a2 )2 + (a2 a3 )2 + . . . + (an a1 )2 > 0.
. :
a41
a42
a4n
+
+ ... +
>
a1 (a1 + a2 ) a2 (a2 + a3 )
an (an + a1 )
(a21 + a22 + . . . + a2n )2
1
> (a21 +a22 +. . .+a2n ).
a1 (a1 + a2 ) + a2 (a2 + a3 ) + . . . + an (an + a1 )
2
6.2.4.d,
a21 + a22 + . . . + a2n >
a1 a2 + a2 a3 + . . . + an a1 (. ).
(b)
>

a2
b2
c2
d2
+
+
+
>
a(b + 2c + d) b(c + 2d + a) c(d + 2a + b) d(a + 2b + c)

160
>


(a + b + c + d)2
> 1.
a(b + 2c + d) + b(c + 2d + a) + c(d + 2a + b) + d(a + 2b + c)

6.2.4.d,
a2 +b2 +c2 +d2 > 2ac+2bd.
.
6.2.4.d, 6.2.4.b

p
p
p
p
a(b + 2c + d), b(c + 2d + a), c(d + 2a + b), d(a + 2b + c)
r
r
r
r
a
b
c
d

,
,
,
.
b + 2c + d
c + 2d + a
d + 2a + b
a + 2b + c
6.3.7.
a
b
c
d
+
+
+
=
b+c c+d d+a a+b
()
a2
b2
c2
d2
=
+
+
+
>
a(b + c) b(c + d) (d + a) d(a + b)
(a + b + c + d)2
>
=
ab + ac + bc + bd + cd + ac + ad + bd
a2 + b2 + c2 + d2 + 2ab + 2ac + 2ad + 2bc + 2bd + 2cd ()
=
>
ab + bc + cd + da + 2ac + 2bd
2ac + 2bd + 2ab + 2ac + 2ad + 2bc + 2bd + 2cd
>
= 2.
ab + bc + cd + da + 2ac + 2bd
(a)

() 6.2.4.d, () 6.1.5.
a+c b+d c+a d+b
+
+
+
=
a+b b+c c+d d+a
()
(a + c)2
(b + d)2
(c + a)2
(d + b)2
=
+
+
+
>
(a + c)(a + b) (b + d)(b + c) (c + a)(c + d) (d + b)(d + a)
4(a + b + c + d)2
= 4.
>
(a + c)(a + b) + (b + d)(b + c) + (c + a)(c + d) + (d + b)(d + a)
(b)

() 6.2.4.d.

6.

161

6.3.8.
a3
b3
c3
d3
+
+
+
=
b+c+d c+d+a d+a+b a+b+c
()
a4
b4
c4
d4
=
+
+
+
>
a(b + c + d) b(c + d + a) c(d + a + b) d(a + b + c)
>

(a2 + b2 + c2 + d2 )2
S 2 () S () 1
=
>
> .
2(ab + ac + ad + bc + bd + cd)
2+k
2+k
3

S := a2 + b2 + c2 + d2 k := 2(ac + bd);
(*) 6.2.4.d;
(**) , S > ab + bc + cd + da = 1;
(***) , S > 1 S > 2ac +
2bd = k, 3S > 2 + k.
(***) S > 1 S > k.
S
1
1
S
k 6 1,
>
= . k > 1,
>
2+k
2+1
3
2+k
k
1
1
=
> .
2+k
3
2 + k1
6.3.11. (a) x = 1/a, y = 1/b, z = 1/c, S := x + y + z.
1
x3 yz
x2
S2
3
=
=
= x S +
.
a (b + c)
y+z
Sx
Sx
(b) : > 1 6 2.

6.4

(3*)

6.4.1. (a)
a + A = b + B = c + C = k,

aB + bC + cA 6 k 2 .

(b) x1 , x2 , x3 , x4 6 1,
x1 (1 x2 ) + x2 (1 x3 ) + x3 (1 x4 ) + x4 (1 x1 ) 6 2.
6.4.2. (a)
x
p

2
2
x + 1 + (x 1) + 4?
(b)
p
p
p
p
x2 + 1 + y 2 + 4 + z 2 + 9 + t2 + 16

162

x + y + z + t = 17.
(c) a, b, c > 0,
p
p
p
a2 ab + b2 + b2 bc + c2 > a2 + ac + c2 .

(d) = a2 + b2 , = a2 + c2 = b2 + c2 ,
p
p
( + + )( + )( + )( + ) = 2 a2 b2 + b2 c2 + a2 c2 .
p
p
4a2 + b2 + c2 + 4ab + 4ac 2bc+ 4b2 + a2 + c2 + 4ab + 4bc 2ac >
p
> 4c2 + a2 + b2 + 4ac + 4bc 2ab.
p
p
p
p
(f)
ab(a + b) + bc(b + c) + ca(c + a) > (a + b)(b + c)(c + a).

(e)

6.4.3.

x, y, z > 0

y2

x2 +xy+ =25

3
y2
.
+ z2 = 9

3
2
z +zx+x2 =16

xy + 2yz + 3zx.
r

1 + an1
6.4.4. (a) a0 = 1/3 an =
. : {an } 2
.
(b) ,
xy
06
6 1.
1 + xy

() x(8 1 x+ 1 + x) 6 11 1 + x16 1 x
x > 0.
(d)

ctg x ctg y 5 =

ctg y ctg z + 11 =

ctg z ctg x + 7 =

cos z
sin x sin y
cos x
sin y sin z
cos y
sin z sin x

6.

163
q

6.4.5. xn , xn+1 = xn

(a) x0 = 1, x1 = 1/2; (b) x0 = 1, x1 = 2.

xn +xn1
2xn1

6.4.6. ab = 4 c2 + 4d2 = 4,
(a) (a c)2 + (b d)2 > 1,6.

p
4

4 + 2

(b)* (a c)2 + (b d)2 >


> 0.
1 + 2
,
6.4.1. (a) P QR k. P Q, QR RP K, L M , , P K = A, QL = B
RM = C. , KQ = a, LR = b M P = c.

(aB + bC + cA) sin 60 = SKQL + SLRM + SM P K < SP QR = k 2 sin 60 .


, KQL, LRM
M P K P QR
. sin 60 , .
6.4.2. () a c,
sin 60 b.
(d) a, b, c, .
(e) , .
a + b, b + c, c + a.
r
1 + cos
6.4.4. (a) cos(/2) =
.
2
r
1+x
(c) 1 x u =
. 1x
(, ) x = cos 2t.
(d) ( ). ,
.


[AK91] ., .,
(N3,1991)
[Ko83] . . . ., , 1983.
[SA] . ., . . . . ., , 2002.
[Si67] . . . ., , 1967.
[So91] ., (N3,1991)

[IK00] ., .,
(N4,2000)

[KF] ., .,
(N4,1991)
[Kh06] . . , . : 2000 - 2002. .: ; -, 2006,
. 382423.

[DY] . , . , , , 1985, N 7, . 33-36.
164

165

[Go09] . . ... , .
2009. N 2. . 4145.
[Kh00] .. , , . , 7 (2003), 149-162.

[AK] ., ., .
(N5,1993)

.
[BB] ., . . ., , 1965.
[HLP] . ., . ., . . .,
, 1948.
[MO] ., . :
. . , 1983.

166

.
, .

7.1

(3)

{an }
n=1 bn = an := a1 + +an . cn = an := an+1 an .
, 2n = 2n 2n = 2n+1 2.
( .)
n ,
. , , 2k = 0.
7.1.1.
(a) nk k > 1.
7.1.2.
(a) sin n.

(b)

(b) cos n.

(c) (n2n ).

1
k > 0.
n(n + 1) . . . (n + k)

7.1.3.
an ?
(a) an = 0; (b) an = 1; (c) an = an ;
(d) an = an ; (e) an = an ; (f) an = an .

P
7.1.4. (a) nk=0 (1)k k 2 nk .
(b) . k- k- , (k + 1)- 0.
(c) () k an an , an+1 , . . . , an+k .
(d) . k an = 0 an n
k 1.
(e) (nl n ) = P (n)n P (n), l 6= 1 l 1 6= 1.
(f) . (an bn ) = an+1 bn + bn an .
(g)* l (an bn ).

7.

167

7.1.5. (a) nk k = 0, 1, 2, 3, 4.
(b) . k > 0
k + 1.
7.1.6. (a) (n 2n ).
(b) f R[x] R
g R[x] C R, n > 1
(
deg f (n)
6= 1
.
(f (n)n ) = g(n)n + C deg g(n) =
deg f (n) + 1 = 1
7.1.7. (
). , 7.1.4.f.
.
7.1.2. (b) k = 1, 2; .
7.1.4. (a) (b,c).
(b)
7.1.1.a.
P
(c) k an = kj=0 (1)j kj an+j .
(d) (b) (, ,
7.1.1.a). 7.1.1.a; .
7.1.5.a.
(e) l c 7.1.1.a
(f).

P
(g) l (an bn ) = lj=0 (1)j jl j an+j lj bn .
7.1.5. (a) nk+1 = (k + 1)nk + . . . , nk+1 = (k + 1)nk +
(. . . ).
(b) k c 7.1.1.a.
7.1.6. (a) 7.1.5.a. (n2 2n ) = n 2n + . . . ,
n2 2n = (n 2n ) + (. . . ).
(b) (a) 7.1.5.
7.1.7. . 7.5.6.b.
,

168

7.1.1. (a) k > 0



k k1
k k2
k
nk = (n + 1)k nk =
n
+
n
+ ... +
n + 1.
1
2
k1
1
k = 0 n0 = 0. k = 1 n1 = n(n+1)
.
1
1
(b) cos n = cos(n + 1) cos n = 2 sin 2 sin(n + 2 ).
(c) (n2n ) = (n + 1)2n+1 n2n = (n + 2)2n .
cos 21 cos(n + 12 )
7.1.2. () :
.
2 sin 12
. 7.1.1.b

cos n = 2 sin

1
1
sin(n+ ),
2
2

1
1
cos(n ) = 2 sin sin n.
2
2

.
cos(n + 12 ) cos 12 = (2 sin 12 sin n). .
1
1
1
(b) :
+

.
(k + 2)(k + 2)! (k + 1)! (k + 2)n(n + 1) . . . (n + k + 1)
. , k > 0

1
k+2
=
.
n(n + 1) . . . (n + (k + 1))
(n + 1)(n + 2) . . . (n + k + 1)

,
1
1

=
(n + 1)(n + 2) . . . (n + k + 2) (k + 2)!
= (k + 2)

1
.
(n + 1)(n + 2) . . . (n + k + 1)

, m-

1
(n + 1)(n + 2) . . . (n + k + 1)

(m + 1)-

1
1
+
.
(k + 1)!
n(n + 1) . . . (n + k)

7.

169

1
1

=
n(n + 1) . . . (n + k + 1) (k + 2)!
= (k + 2)(

1
1
+
).
(k + 1)!
n(n + 1) . . . (n + k)

k + 2, .

7.2

(3)

7.2.1. an+2 2an+1 + an = 0?


(a) an = 5n + 3;
(b) an = (2n + 1) 2n ;
(c) an = cos(2n).
, n, an cos(n + ).
7.2.2. {an }, a1 = 1, a2 =
3 n > 1
(a) an+2 = 3an+1 2an ; (b) an+2 = 5an+1 6an ;
(c) an+2 = 2an+1 an ; (d) an+2 = 4an+1 4an ;
(e)* an+3 = 6an+2 11an+1 + 6an .
7.2.3. , a1 = 5 an+1
2an =
(a) 0; (b) 1; (c) n; (d) 3n ; (e)* 2n ; f)* n 3n .
7.2.4. an+1 2an an+2 5an+1 + 6an .
7.2.5. (a) . l xk =
pk1 xk1 + +p0 , f R[x] l f (n)n (
) an+k = pk1 an+k1 + + p0 an .
(b)* () k-
an+k = pk1 an+k1 + + p0 an .
(c)* .

170

. 8.2 ,
, [Zo].
7.2.6. y : R R,
y(0) = 1 x y 0 (x) 2y(x) =
(a) 0; (b) 1; (c) x; (d) ex ; (e)* e2x ; (f)* xex .
7.2.7. y 0 (x) 2y(x) y 00 (x) 5y 0 (x) + 6y(x).
7.2.8. (a) . l xk =
pk1 xk1 +. . .+p0 , f R[x] l f (x)ex (
) y (k) = pk1 y (k1) + . . . + p0 y.
(b)* C
k- y (k) = pk1 y (k1) + . . . + p0 y.
(c)*
.

7.2.2. (a) cn := an+1 an cn+1 = 2cn .


(a-e) . (
) an = n bn = an /n , cn =
bn+1 bn .
(b) 2n 3n
( ). bn := an /2n ,
cn = bn+1 bn . cn+1 = 3cn .
7.2.3. , 7.2.2.
7.2.5. 7.2.2.
7.2.6. 7.2.2 y(x) = z(x)ex .
,
. .
7.2.2. .
(d) (n + 1)2n2 .

(a) 2n 1. (b) 3n1 . (c) 2n 1.


9a n
n
(e) a7
6 3 + 2 (2 1), a := a3 .

7.2.3. .

(a) 52n1 .

(b) 32n 1.

(c) 72n1 n1.

7.
(d) 2n + 3n .

(e) (n + 4)2n1 .

171

(f) (n 3)3n + 11 2n1 .

7.2.4. , a := a2 .
n1 +(14a)2n1 + 1 .
(a) (a10)3n1 +(15a)2n1 . (b) (a 19
2 )3
2
n1 + (13 a)2n1 + n + 3 .
(c) (a 37
)3
4
2
4
(d) (n + a 14)3n1 + (18 a)2n1 .
(e) (a 8)3n1 + (14 a n)2n1 .
2
(f) ( n 7n
+ a 1)3n1 + (9 a)2n1 .
2

7.3

(4*)

. ,
, , , , .

n x, ax ,
loga x, arcsin x etc. . (
, x, x2 = 2 ). : ,
. .
7.3.1. N , n > N
an > 109 , an =

(a) n;
(b) n2 3n + 5;
(c) 1, 02n ;
1 1 1
1
(d) 1 + + + + + .
2 3 4
n
7.3.2. . (1 + x)a > 1 + ax x > 1
a>1
(a) ;
(b) ;
(c) .
7.3.3. a N ,
n > N |an a| <r
108 , an =
r
n2 n + 28
1
1
(a)
(c) n( 3 1 + 1);
;
(b) n( 1 + 1);
2
n 2n
n
n

9 /2n ;
(d) 0, 99n ;
(e) n 2;
(f)
n

(g)* (1 + 1/n)n ;
(h)* n( n 2 1);

172


1
1
1
+ 2 + + 2;
2
1
2
n
1
1
1
(k)*
+ + + ;
0! 1!
n!
(i)

1
1
1
1
(j)* + + + + ;
n n
1 1 2 2 3 3
1 1 1
(1)n
(l)* 1 + + +
.
3 5 7
2n + 1

7.3.4. a > 0,
x (, ) |f (x) a| < 3 109 , f (x) =
sin x
(a) x3 . (b) 3x . (c) sin x. (d)
.
x

1 + x5
1 + sin x
(e)
. (f) 3
. (g) (1 + 1/x)x .
cos x 2
x 1
,
7.3.3. a .
(g) ,
(1 +

1 n
1 n+1
1 n+2
1
) < (1 +
)
< (1 +
)
< (1 + )n+1 .
n
n+1
n+1
n

1 n+1
1
1
1
4
)
(1 + )n = (1 + )n < .
n
n
n
n
n
(h) log2 . (
f (x) = 2x (d,e),
f (x) = 2x
f (x) = xn n (b,c).)
L := log2 (1 + n1 )
r
!

1 1/L
1 1/nL
1
n
n
n( 2 1) = n
(1 + )
1 = n (1 + )
1 6
.
n
n
nL

, (1 +


a < 1. (1+x)a > 1+ax+a(a1)x2 a < 1,
.
nL (g).
7.3.4. (e,f)
|f (x) a| < /2 x (1 , 1 )
|g(x) b| < /2 x (2 , 2 ),

7.

173

|f (x) + g(x) a b| < x ( min{1 , 2 }, min{1 , 2 }).


.

.

7.4

? (4*) .. , ..

,

(, ).
( ).
. : 720. 720 ,
. 720 729,
27, 720 27. 26 32 .
27. 53 32 . . 26 56 .
, 720 26 56 . [ ]
1
, 36-
, 720 36
. ,
[], 36-, 729
1
720 36
, , , 1
, 36
[Vy67].
.
x1 6= 0 a > 0

1
a
xn+1 =
xn +
.
2
xn
. gieron.jpeg.
7.4.1. , .. xn 6= 0 n.
7.4.2. ( , ,
.)

174

A {an },
> 0 N , n > N
|A an | < . : A = limn an .

:
. . . 7.5.
limn xn . ( a = 2, .)
7.4.3. (a) a = 2 x1 = 1. ( , ) N , |xn 2| < 105 .
(b,c,d,e) x1 = 10, 100, 1000, 10k .

(a,b) x1 = 1, 10 |xn 2| < 105 .

7.4.4. a > 0, |xn+1 a| 6 12 |xn a| n > 2. (..


, ,
.)
7.4.5. () :

a
1
a
1
yn + 2 , zn+1 =
2zn + 2 .
yn+1 =
2
yn
3
zn
(, a = 8), ..
7.4.4.
( zn
, . [Sg09].)
,

7.4.2. : a x0 > 0

a x0 < 0.
. x0 > 0. , {xn } ( ). , .

7.
, t +
:

a
t

175

a
a
a
t+ =t2 a+ +2 a=
t
+ 2 a > 2 a.
t
t
t

, xn > a n > 0.
, :

1 a x2n
1 a
xn =
6 0.
xn+1 xn =
2 xn
2
xn
, {xn } . m. ,

a
1
1
a
xn+1 = 2 xn + xn . m = 2 m + m
.

, m = a.
7.4.4.




a
a
a| = xn +
2 a = xn a +
a =
xn
xn





a
a

a xn = 1
xn a 6 1xn a .
= xn a +
xn
xn

a
, xn = 12 xn1 + xn1
>

a n > 2 (. 7.4.2).
2|xn+1

7.4.5. zn , xn . ,
7.4.4. yn .

7.5

(4*)

, , .
() .
.

176

n .
an > 0. A (=) {an },
(1) A > a1 + + an n,
(2) > 0 n, A < a1 + +
an + .
,
, an > 0. A
{an }, > 0 N ,
n > N |a1 + + an A| < .
: A =
n=1 an , A = an . , ,
. An := a1 + + an n-
{an }.
( , ,
[Zo]). () : {an } , a1 + + an , ..
A (1). ( , .)
, :
, .
7.5.1. an > 0 bn > 0,
P
P
P
(a)
n=1 an + n=1 bn ;
n=1 (an +bn ) =
(c)

n=1 an

= a1 + + ak +

(b)

n=1 an

n=1 ak+n .

7.5.2. . :
P
P
1
1
; (b)
;
(a)
n=1
n=1
n(n + 1)
n(n + 2)
P
P
1
1
(c)
; (d)*
;
n=1
n=1
(3n 1)(3n + 2)
n(n + 1)(n + 2)

n=1 an ;

7.

177

P
2n + 1
1
; (f)*
n=1
n(n + 1)(n + 2)
n(n + 1)(n + 2) . . . (n + k)
P 1
S
S =
= S
n=0 n 1 +
2
2
(, ).
(e)*

n=1

7.5.3. .
P
P
n
n2
(a)
(b)*
n=1 n .
n=1 n .
2
2
P n
n=1 n ,
2
1 1 1 1 1 1
1 1 1
1 1
1
+ + + + + + = ( + + +. . . )+( + +. . . )+( +. . . )+. . .
2 4 4 8 8 8
2 4 8
4 8
8
7.5.4. . (a) 1+2x+3x2 +
4x3 + . . . (, x ).
(b) an > 0 : {0, 1, 2, . . . } {0, 1,P
2, . . . }
P
(.. - ),
a(n) = an .
P
n
(c)
n=k n .
2
P
n

n=1 n ,
2
1 1
1 1
1
1
1
1
1
(1+ + +. . . )(1+ + +. . . ) = 11+
+
+
+
+
+. . .
2 4
2 4
12 21 41 22 14
P
n(n + 1)
7.5.5. . (a)
.
n=1
n
2
1
1
1
(1)n
1
1
1
(b) ( + +
+ . . . )( + + + + . . . ) = 1.
0! 1! 2!
n!
0! 1!
n!
1
1
1
1
20 21
2n
(c) ( + + + +
+ . . . )2 = ( +
+ +
+ . . . ).
0! 1! 2!
n!
0!
1!
n!
(d) an > 0 bn > 0,
(

an )(

n=0

n=0

bn ) =

(a0 bn + a1 bn1 + + an b0 ).

n=0

n
,
2n
1 1
1 1
1
1
1
1
1(1 )+2( )+3( )+ = 1+ (21)+ (32)+ (43)+. . . .
2
2 4
4 8
2
4
8

n=1

178

P
cos(n + 12 )
7.5.6. . (a)*
.
n=1
2n
Pm
Pm
(b) n=1 bn (an+1 an ) = am+1 bm+1 a1 b1 n=1 an+1 (bn+1 bn ).
( m = 1?)
(c) {bn } {an } ,

bn (an+1 an ) = a1 b1

n=1

an+1 (bn+1 bn ).

n=1

7.5.7.
P (.. ,
n=1 |an | ) .
1 1 1
7.5.8. 1 + +
2 3 4
1
n+1
+ (1)
+ . . . ,
n
(a) ; (b) 7.
7.5.9. (a) 7.5.5.d an , bn >
0?
(b) 7.5.5.d an , bn >
0 ?
7.5.10. . (a) z 3 + 3z 2 2z 1
y = z + 1.
(b) an , z |z| < 1 P
1
n
2
=
n=1 an z
z + 2z + 2
7.5.11. *
).

nk xn |x| < 1 k (

n=1

1
1
1
7.5.12. * 1 + + . . . 2
3
4
, Ox, x = 1 x = 2
y = 1/x.
( . . 1)

7.

179

Pk
Pmax{a(1) ,...,a(k) }
7.5.4.
an
P (b)
P n=1 a(n) 6P n=1
P
n,
a(n) 6 an .
a(n) > an .
7.5.7. 7.5.4.b an, := (an |an |)/2.
1
1
=

7.5.10. (b) 2
z + 2z + 2
(z + 1)2 + 1
z + 1 z.
,
7.5.2. . (a) 1; (b) 3/4; (c) 1/6; (d) 1/4;
. .
7.5.3. . (a) 2;

(e) 5/4.

(b) 6.

7.5.4. . (a) 1/(1 x)2 0 6 x < 1,


x > 1. (c) (k + 1)/2k1 .
(a)

P
P
(
xn )0 =
nxn1 .
n=1

n=1

7.5.5. (a) . 8.
cos 21 2 cos 32
.
4 cos 1 5
1 6
1 8
7.5.10. (b) . 12 12 z + 14 z 2 18 z 4 + 18 z 5 16
z + 32
z
1 9
1 10
1 12
1 13
z
+
z

z
+
z
+
.
.
.
32
64
128
128

P
P
7.5.11. (
nk xn )0 =
nk+1 xn1 .
7.5.6. (a) .

n=1

7.6

n=1

(4*)

7.6.1. ( s > 0, )?
1 2
n
1
1
1
(a) + + +
+. . .
(b) 1+ + + + n +. . .
2 3
n+1
n
2 3 3
1
1
1
1 2 3
n
(c)
+
+ + n
+. . . (d) + 2 + 3 + + n +. . .
2 1 22 1
2 1
2 2 2
2

P n + 1 n
1
1
1
(e)
(f) 1 + + + + + . . .
n n
2 2 3 3
n=1 2n 1

180

1
1
1
(g) 1 +
+
+ +
+ . . . , s .
s
s
nsn
2 2 3 3
1
1
1
(h) 1 + s + s + + s + . . .
2
3
n
1
1
1
(i)*
+
+ +
+ ...
s
s
2(log2 2)
3(log2 3)
n(log2 n)s
(2n 1)!!
P
(j)*
. a!! (2n)!!
n=1
1 a, , a.
, , . .
7.6.2. , an > 0 bn > 0.
(a) . an ,
> 0 N , n > N
an < .
(b) . an bn 6 an ,
bn .
(c) . > 0, N > 0 an+1 /an < 1
n > N , an .

(d) . > 0, N > 0 n an < 1


n > N , an .
1+
(e)* . > 0, N > 0 an+1
an < 1 n
n > N , an .
(f) () .
an
n
(g)* . > 0, N > 0 an+1
= 1 + n1 + nc1+
,
{cn }, an
.
7.6.3.
1
1
(1)n
1
+ +
+ ...
(a)
0! 1! 2!
n!
1 1 1
1
(b) 1 + + + (1)n+1 + . . .
2 3 4
n
1
1
1
(1)n+1
(c) 1 + + +
+ ...;
n
2
3 2

cos n
cos n
(1)[ n]
P
P
P
3
(d)
;
(e)*
; (f)*
.
n
n
n=1 n
n=1
n=1

7.

181

, , . .
7.6.4. (a)
1
1 1
1
1
(1 ) + ( ) + + (
) + ...
2
3 4
2k 1 2k

1 1
1 1
1
1
1 ( ) ( ) (
) ...
2 3
4 5
2k 2k + 1
.
(b) (a) . S.
(c) n > 1000
S 0.01 < 1

1 1 1
1
+ + + (1)n+1 < S + 0.01.
2 3 4
n

1 1 1
1
(d) 1 + + + (1)n+1 + . . .
2 3 4
n
S.
7.6.5. (a) .
{an } P
n a .
,
(1)
n
n=1
(b) .
{an } P
b
,

n
n=1
P
a
b
.
n=1 n n
7.6.6. z R

zn
zn
zn
P
P
P
P
(a)
n!z n . (b)
. (c)
.
.
(d)*
2
n=1
n=1 n!
n=1 n
n=1 n

p
P
(e)
an z n , limn n |an | = R ( lim
n=1

7.4.2; |z| 6= R).


7.6.7. z C ?
.
7.6.1. (a,b) () 7.6.2.a.
(c) () 7.6.2.b.
(d) () 7.6.2.c.
(e) () 7.6.2.d.

182


(f)
1
1
1

=p
.

n
n+1
n(n + 1)( n + n + 1)

1
(g)

s
n
1

.
s
n+1
(h) (g).
1
(i)

(log2 n)t
1
.
(log2 (n + 1))t
(j) 7.6.2.ef.
7.6.3. (b) . 7.6.4.
(c) 7.6.4.
(d,e) 7.6.5.b.
(f) 7.6.5.b .
7.6.5. (a) 7.6.4.
(b) 7.5.6.c.

7.7

(3*)

7.7.1. :

1
P
P
P
n
.
() :=
2n! .
() :=
22 .
(e) e :=
n=0
n=0
n=0 n!
( . 7.5.)
7.7.2. (e), (), () e, ,
.
7.7.3. p/q, f t ,
|f (p/q)| > q t .
x ,
at xt + at1 xt1 + + a1 x + a0 = 0
at 6= 0, at1 , . . . , a0 .

7.

183

7.7.4. (a) . .
(b) . t
C > 0, p, q p
| | > Cq t .
q
7.7.5. (a)
.

P
(b) q =
dn (q)2n , dn (q)
n=0

n q ( ):
dn (q) = |{(w1 , . . . , wq ) Zq | n = 2w1 + + 2wq w1 , . . . , wq > 0}|.
, d3 (2) = 2, 3 = 20 + 21 = 21 + 20 . d0 (0) = 1.
(c) dn (q) 6 (q!)2 .
(d) .
. [M]. (a,b,c)
.
, .
7.7.6.
n

P
n=0

an , an =

(a) 23 .
n
(b) dn 22 dn >
0 .
(c) 2fn , fn+2 = fn+1 + fn , f0 = f1 = 1
.
n
n
n
n
(d)* 2[1,1 ] . (e)* n22 . (f)* 2n2 . (g)* (1)n 22 .

7.7.1. (e) , ,
f (x) = bx + c b 6= 0 c ,

184

s 1
P
. , bx +
n=0 n!
c = 0 , f (es ) 6= 0.
s = 2|b|:

f (e) = 0. es =

1
2|b|
6 |f (es )| = |f (e) f (es )| = |b| (e es ) <
.
s!
(s + 1)!
(, ) (. . (e)) .
7.7.2. (e,) (.
7.7.1.e) .
() (.
7.7.1.e) . 2 .
7.7.4, 7.7.5. . [KS06].
7.7.6. (a,b,c) 7.7.5.d.


[Zo] . . , , I.
. ?
[Bo83] ., . (N3,1983)
[Sg09] ..
? . 2009. N 12.
[Vy67] .. . .:
, 1967. . 338-339.

[Vi89] ., .
(N10,1989)
.
[Fe83] .,
(N7,1983)
[KS06] . . ,
, . 10 (2006) 176184.
http://arxiv.org/abs/1204.5045
[Ya88] ., . (N6,1988)

185

186

.
, .
, , ,
.

8.1

(2)

,
.
8.1.1. (a) .
(b)
y = 2x3 6x2 + 4.
(c) , 4-
?
, ax2 + bx + c = 0
D > 0, D = 0
D < 0. D = b2 4ac. ( 8.1.5 ). ,

; , , , . .
8.1.7, 8.2.1 .
8.1.2. ()
(a) x3 + 2x + 7 = 0?
(b) x3 4x 1 = 0?
8.1.3. * .
P a < b, f (a) > 0 > f (b), c (a, b),
P (c) = 0.
.

8.

187

8.1.4. (a) x3 + x + q = 0
q.
(b) p, q x3 + px + q = 0
?
(c) p, q.
8.1.5. (a) f (x) = x3 6x + 2
.
(b) [0, 3].
(c) q x3 x + q = 0
?
(d) p q x3 + px + q = 0?
(e) ax3 + bx2 + cx + d = 0 a, b, c, d.
8.1.6. .
8.1.7. p, q
(a) x4 + x + q = 0? (b) x4 + px + q = 0? (c) xn + px + q = 0?
b0 , . . . , bk i {1, . . . , k}, bi1
bi .
, .
8.1.8. (a) ax2 +bx+c =
0 a, b, c.
(b) ax3 +bx2 +cx+d =
0 a, b, c, d.

8.1.1. (a) ax3 +cx, ax3 +cx+d.


f (x1 ) f (x2 )
8.1.5. (a)
.
x1 x2

188

(c) (a), (b). .


.
(d) (c) y = kx.
(e) (d) .
,
f (x1 ) f (x2 )
8.1.5. (a) (x1 , x2 ) :=
= x21 + x1 x2 + x22 6.
x1 x2
, , . x1 ,x2 .
(x, x) = 3x2 6

x
(, 2) ( 2, +) x ( 2, 2).

, (x1 , x2 ) > 0

x1 , x2 ( 2, +). , f(x) ( 2, +).

f (x) (, 2) ( 2, 2).
8.1.2. (a) : 1.
f (x) := x3 +2x+7. f (2) < 0 f (1) > 0,
.
.
(b) : 3.
f (x) := x3 4x 1. f (2) < 0, f (1) > 0,
f (0) < 0, f (3) > 0,
.
8.1.4. (a) x1 > x2 , x31 + x1 + q = 0 > x32 + x2 + q.
x3 + x + q = 0 .
( . , x3 + x + q = 0 x1 x2 .
x31 + x1 + q = 0 x32 + x2 + q = 0.
, x23 x31 + x2 x1 = 0. x1 6= x2 ,
x21 + x1 x2 + x22 + 1 = 0. ,
(x1 + 21 x2 )2 + 34 x22 + 1 = 0. .)
, x3 + x + q = 0
. q = 0, x = 0 .
, q 6= 0. f (x) := x3 + x + q. ,
f (q) = q 3 f (0) = q. [0; q]

8.

189

q > 0 [q; 0] q < 0 f


.
c , f (c) = 0.
q x3 + x + q = 0
.
8.1.5. (d) . p = q = 0, . p 3 q 2
D :=
+
. D > 0 , D = 0
3
2
, D < 0 .
8.1.7. (b) . p = q = 0, . p 4 q 3
D :=
+
. D > 0 , D = 0
4
3
, D < 0 .

8.2

(2)

8.2.1. (a) . pn xn + + p1 x + p0 = 0
p0 , . . . , pn .
(b)
?
(c)* [a, b]?
(d) . x1 , . . . , xn > 0
v P
u
xi1 . . . xik
u
k i <<i
t
1
k
n
.
Mk =
k

(, M1 Mn
.) M1 > > Mn .
.
f 0 f , f (y) f (x)
y = x
yx
x, y. (, .)

190

: f a y = f 0 (a)(x a) + f (a). (,
.)
8.2.2. , , .
(a) (f + g)0 = f 0 + g 0 . (b) (af )0 = af 0 . (c) (xn )0 = nxn1 .
(d) (pn xn + + p1 x + p0 )0 = npn xn1 + (n 1)pn1 xn2 + + p1
( 0 n = 0).
(e) . (f g)0 = f 0 g + f g 0 .
8.2.3. (a) . a
g, g(a) > 0, = (g, a),
g(x) > 0 x (a , a + ).
(b) . a
f , f 0 (a) = 0.
(c) ?
(d) f , f 0 .
(e) , f , f 0 ?
8.2.4. (a) , .
(b) ,
.
8.2.5. (a) . .
(b) . a 6=
f (a) f (b)
b f c [a, b], f 0 (c) =
.
ab
8.2.6. . (a) a 6= b f
c [a, b],
f (b) = f (a) +

f 00 (c)
f 0 (a)
(b a) +
(b a)2 .
1!
2!

8.

191

(b) a 6= b f n
c [a, b],
f (b) = f (a) +

f 0 (a)
f 00 (a)
f (n) (a)
(b a) +
(b a)2 + . . . + +
(b a)n .
1!
2!
n!

. 8.5.6 8.5.7.

8.2.1. (a) n 8.2.5.a.


(c) b = .
8.2.2. (d) (a), (b), (c).
8.2.2.e, 8.2.3.a. f (x) = xn . ,
f g, bf f + g
( b).
8.2.3. (b) , , f 0 (a) 6= 0. (a) , f (a + h) f (a)
,
f 0 (a)
h
h (, ).
(c) : f (x) = x3 , a = 0.
8.2.4. (b) 8.2.5.b.
;
.
8.2.5. (a) , . .
(b) (a).

8.3

(3*)

8.3.1. (a) . (. 8.2.5.a.)


(b) p
p0 (x)

.
p(x)

192

(c) p n- , n
. , p0 (x)

> 1 p(x)
. ( 1988.)
(d) p(x) = (x a1 ) . . . (x an ),
p0 (x)
1
1
=
+ ... +
.
p(x)
x a1
x an
8.3.2. * (
p, q)
(a) x4 x2 + px + q = 0. (b) x4 + x2 + px + q = 0.
(c) x4 + px2 + qx + r = 0. (d) px4 + qx3 + rx2 + sx + t = 0.
(c,d) ,
( ) 8.3.2.ab. ,
.

(. . ) pn xn + + p1 x + p0 = 0. 8.3.1.b , p0 /p,
p , .. .
x R f , > 0, f (t) < f (x) x < t < x f (t) > f (x)
x < t < x + .
x R f , > 0, f (t) > f (x) x < t < x f (t) < f (x)
x < t < x + .
, f (x) = x2 x = 1 ,
x = 1 , x = 0 ,
.
y f a(f, y) = u d, u d
y (.. x,
f (x) = y). a(f, y) , .

8.

193

, a(x2 , 1) = 1 1 = 0, a(x2 , 0) = 0 a(x2 , 1) = 0.


8.3.3. p a(p0 /p, y)
y.
8.3.4. a(f, y)
(a) f (x) = x3 3x + 1 y = 1; (b) f (x) = x3 3x + 1 y = 100;
() f (x) = x3 3x + 1 y = 0; (d) f (x) = x3 3x + 1 y = 100;
(e) f (x) = x4 + 2x3 x2 + 4x + 1 y = 100;
(f) f (x) = 1/x y = 5;
(g) f (x) = an xn + + a1 x + a0 , y .
(h) f (x) = an xn + + a1 x + a0 , y .
8.3.5. (a) p , , a p(x) = a .
(b) f = p/q -
(.. p q 6= 0), a
f (x) = a .
(c) a p,
k > 0 g, p = (x a)k g g(a) 6= 0.
8.3.6. p = pn xn + + p1 x + p0 q = qm xm + + q1 x + q0
, , pn qm 6=
0 f = p/q. n < m , y 6= 0,
n = m y 6= pn /qm . a(f, y)
y.
a(f ).
.
8.3.7. a(f ) f (x) =
1
1
1
; (c) f (x) = x + ;
(a) ; (b) 3
x
x 3x + 1
x
1
x3 x2 + 5
(d) f (x) = x2 + 4x + 1 +
; (e) f (x) =
;
x+2
x+2
x+2
(f) f (x) = 3
.
x x2 + 5

194

8.3.8. g, p q , deg p > deg q.


q
q
(a) a(q/p) = a(p/q).
(b) a(g + ) = a(g) + a( ).
p
p
8.3.9. , a(f + g) = a(f ) + a(g)
f, g ?
8.3.10. p
(a) . (b) . (c) .
(d) .
: ( ),
?

8.3.1. (a,c) (d).


(b) (d).
8.3.2. (c) (a,b).
(d) (c).
8.3.5. .
,
p0 (x)
k
g0
=
+ .
p(x)
xa
g
8.3.5. (a) , p(x) = a . q(x) = p(x)a
. q(x)
. , p(x) a ,
.
8.3.6. , - , ,
.
8.3.9. .
8.3.10. (a) . . p0
=
p q1 , . . . , qk ,
p
8.3.1. (b) 8.3.5.c

8.
1
q1 +

. g(x) = gn xn + + g1 x + g0 , gn 6= 0,

1
+

195

1
qk

0
a(g) = 1

n
n gn > 0 .
n gn < 0

N (p) p(x) = 0
a(q1 ) a(q2 ) + + (1)k+1 a(qk ).
( a(g) 8.3.6 8.3.4.h.)
(b) , p(0) 6= 0. N+ (p) xp0 (x2 )
N+ (p) = N (p(x2 ))/2 = a(
)/2,
p(x2 )
(c) [a, b] N+ (p(x a))
N+ (p(x b)).
(d) p n+1

N (p)+N (GCD(p, p0 ))+N (GCD(p, p0 , p00 ))+. . .+N (GCD(p, p0 , . . . , p(n) )).

8.4

(4*). ..


. 8.2 , , [Zo].
8.4.1. :
(a) e e .
(b)* 2 2 .
(c) log3 4 log4 5.
(d) logn1 n logn (n + 1), n > 2.
(e) log3 4 log3 6 . . . log3 80 2 log3 3 log3 5 . . . log3 79.
(f) log3 5 log4 6.
(g) 10 11 11 10 .

5 5
(h)* 6 7 7 6 .
(i) ctg

.
18
18

196

8.4.2. (a) x cos x < 0,62 0 < x < /2.


(b) sin(/18) > 0, 17.

sin x 3
(c)
> cos x 0 < x < /2.
x
1
1
4
(d)*
6 2 + 1 2 0 < x 6 /2.
2
x

sin 2x
2
4
4
(e) coscos x x > sinsin x x coscos x x < sinsin x x 0 < x < /4.
(f) 2| sinn xcosn x| 6 3| sinm xcosm x| 0 < x < /2
n > m > 0.
8.4.3. (a) : xy = y x .
(b) : xy = y x .
(c)* a > 0 xy y x = a
.
,
8.4.1. (a) , , ln / ln e/e. f (x) := ln x/x.
f 0 (x) = (1 ln x)/x2 , , (0, e] [e, +). , e
e

.
ln / < ln e/e,
p
p < e .
(e) log3 4 > log3 3 log3 5, . . . , log3 80 > log3 79 log3 81.
17
5
> .
(i)
18
20

x <x
x 6
.
8.4.2. (a) x sin
2
2
16
(b) , sin(/18).
1
sin x
(c,d) x <
, (x) = sin x cos 3 x
1
cos 3 x
2
x > 0. 0 (x) > 0 2t3 3t2 + 1 > 0, t = cos 3 x.
2t3 3t2 + 1 > 0 0 < t < 1.

8.5

c (4*). ..

,
(

8.

197

).
, , [Zo].
. [BE, BG, Ta87]
. 8.6, .
8.5.1.
(a) ; (b) ; (b)
.
8.5.2. (a) .
.
(b)
?
8.5.3. (a) 0 6 x, y, z 6 1, x + y + z = 1.
xyz .
(b) x = y ( y = z).
x1 + . . . + xn

(c) x1 , . . . , xn > 0, n x1 . . . xn 6
.
n
8.5.4. (a) P (z) c , |P (z)| |z| .
(b) |P (z)| ()
.
(c) P (z) .
(, , ,
, [To].)
8.5.5. . ( ,
P .) A1 A2 . . . j |Aj Aj+1 |.
( , , . ..

,
.)

198

(a) 5- .
(b) 5-
.
(c) n n- ,
, .
8.5.6. (a) . f : [a, b] R , (a, b) f (a) = f (b).
c (a, b) , f 0 (c) = 0.
(b) f : [a, b] R n
, k- f (k) n k .
(c) .
f : [a, b] R (a, b).
f (b) f (a)
.
c (a, b), f 0 (c) =
ba
8.5.7. . (a) f : [a, b] R (a, b). c (a, b),
f (b) = f (a) +

f 0 (a)
f 00 (c)
(b a) +
(b a)2 .
1!
2!

(b) f : [a, b] R n (a, b). c (a, b),

f (b) =
= f (a)+

f 00 (a)
f (n1) (a)
f (n) (c)
f 0 (a)
(ba)+
(ba)2 +. . .+
(b a)n1 +
(b a)n .
1!
2!
(n 1)!
n!

. 8.2.5 8.2.6.
P
k
8.5.8. (a) nk=0 xk! n .
Pn xk
(b) n
k=0 k!
, n .

8.

199

8.5.1. ., , [Zo].
8.5.3. 8.5.2.a. . . .
. 8.5.3
6.1.4.
6.1.4 8.2.1.d .
8.5.4. (b) (a) R, |P (z)| > |P (0)|
|z| > R. R
.
8.5.6, 8.5.7. ,
8.5.2.a.

8.6

(4*). ..

. , , ,
.
8.6.1. .
. 10 0001.
, .
8.6.2. . (a) ,
, . ,
.
(b) . ,
,
. ( 7 . .)
(c) ,
4 . , 4
. ( . ,
.)

200

(d) () . . , ?
8.6.3. M k v
: v
M , k ,
.
8.6.4. ,
, ,
.
8.6.5. , .
,
.
, ,
,
.
8.6.6. n,
P 0 1 ni=1 a1i , 0 < ai Z?
8.6.7. (a) , 0 1, :
. ,
0 1 , , .
(b) .
, 10 ,
, -
10 .
8.6.8. F : [0, 1] [0, 1] . , N > 0
N , , , 1/N 2 .

8.

201

8.6.9. . F .
(a) , F (x + n) 0 n x > 0.
F (x) 0 x ?
(b) , x > 0 F (nx)
. F ?
[AS, 5.2].
,
8.6.2. (a,b) (c).
(c) P S , S 0
S S 0 . P
, S 0 , P S S 0 .
P
S C , P 0 S 0 = S {C}, P . , 4 S 0 , P . ,
P .
. C1 , . . . , Cn , . . . .
, n n.
.
. . k ,
k .
(. ). .
1, 2, 3, 4. n

202

0,a1 a2 . . . an . . . , ai i- . n , {xn } [0, 1] , xn n .


.
X {xn }, .., . , X .
8.6.8. ,
, , , .


[BS] ., .,
(N7,1985)
[Go10] . . , . 2010. N 3. . 4447.
[Ta88] ., . (N10,1988)
[Zo] . . , , I.

[Po84] ., (N3,1984)
.
[Ga90] ., (N6,1990)
[Go05] . . , . 2005. N 3. . 4043.
[Ta90] ., , (N6,1990)
.
[Sh54] . , ( ), , , 1954.
[Ta89] ., ?
(N12,1989)
. c
203

204

[BE] . . , . . . .
.: , 1982.
[BG] . , . ""( )
[Ta87] . . , . 1987. N
9. . 4550.
[To] . , ,
.
[AS] ., . . .: , 2011.

,
.
, - ,
. , , ,
. ,
, , ,
, .

, ,
: ABC , Ai , Bi , Ci ,
i = 1, 2, . . . , BC, CA AB
( ,
); , I , r ;
, O , R ; G ( , ), H (). AI, BI, CI A0 , B 0 , C 0 . , A0 ,
B 0 , C 0 AB, BC, CA. 205

206

,
. , A BC,
h(A, BC).

9.1

(1). . . , . .

9.1.1. . A1 , B1 , C1 , ABC, ,
. , ,
C1 A2 C1 B 2 + A1 B 2 A1 C 2 + B1 C 2 B1 A2 = 0.
9.1.2.
A1 , B1 , C1 ,
, ABC.
9.1.3.
AB C1 . A1 B1 . , , A1 ,
B1 , C1 .
9.1.4. . , .
. ,
(. . ). , .
9.1.5. , .
9.1.6. , , , .

9.

207

9.1.7. ABC
ABB1 A1 , BCC2 B2 CAA2 C1 . , A1 A2 , B1 B2 C1 C2
.
9.1.8. A1 , B1 , C1 BC, AC, AB ABC . B2 B A1 C1 . A2 C2 . ,
h(C1 , A2 B2 ), h(B1 , A2 C2 ) h(A1 , B2 C2 ) .
9.1.9. , h(A, B1 C1 ), h(B, A1 C1 ) h(C, A1 B1 ) , h(A1 , BC),
h(B1 , AC) h(C1 , AB) .
9.1.10. ABC D,
AB, AC, BC. A1
BCD. B1
C1 . , h(A, B1 C1 ), h(B, A1 C1 ) h(C, A1 B1 )
.
9.1.11. , , ?
) A1 , B1 , C1 .
) A2 , B2 , C2 .
) A3 , B3 , C3 .
,
9.1.1 . , A1 B1 , M .
CM A1 , BM A1 , AM B1 CM B1 , ,
B1 A2 B1 C 2 = M A2 M C 2 . ( , ,
.)

208

, A1 , B1 , C1 , M . ,
, .
, A1 , B1 , C1 ,
C1 A2 C1 B 2 + A1 B 2 A1 C 2 + B1 C 2 B1 A2 = 0.
M , A1 B1 , M
M C 0 AB. , C 0 A2 C 0 B 2 +
A1 B 2 A1 C 2 + B1 C 2 B1 A2 = 0, , C 0 C1 ,
. . .
9.1.3 . a = BC, b = AC, c = AB, p = (a +b + c)/2 . BC1 = CB1 = p a, AC1 = CA1 = p b,
AB1 = BA1 = pc,
.
9.1.5 .
, , .
9.1.7 . , A, B,
C A1 A2 , B1 B2 , C1 C2 . , , C C1 C2
C , CC1 C2 , CC1 /CC2 .
, .
A1 A2 , B1 B2 C1 C2
A0 B 0 C 0 , , A, B C, A00 B 00 C 00 . , , A1 B1 C 0 ABC 00 , ,
B0 B1 B2 ,
B0 C 02 B0 A02 = A0 C 0 (B0 C 0 B0 A0 ) =
A0 C 0
= A0 C 0 (BC 00 BA00 ) = (C 00 B 2 A00 B 2 ) 00 00 ,
A C

9.

209

, A0 B 0 C 0
A00 B 00 C 00 , .

9.2

(2). . .

, ,
, , .
9.2.1. ABCD. , ABC, BCD, CDA, DAB
.
9.2.2. ABCD. , ABC CDA
BCD,
DAB.
9.2.3. M
, .
) , M ,
.
) M .
) x . , 2r
3 6
x 6 R3 . , , ?
) : R > 2r. ?
9.2.4.
,
.
) , , .
)
.

210

) .
9.2.5. ABC. A0 , B0 , C0 . BC A1 ,
A2 A1 A.
B2 C2 . , A0 A2 , B0 B2
C0 C2 .
9.2.6. AIB :
) C;
) ( + C)/2;
) 2C.
,
9.2.1 . , ABC
AIB = 90 + 12 ACB.
C C 0 ,
C 0 IA = C 0 AI = ( ABC)/2, , C 0 A = C 0 I = C 0 B.
Ia , Ib , Ic , Id BCD, CDA, DAB, ABC. A, B, Ic , Id , , BId Ic = BAIc =
BAD/2. BId Ia = BCD/2. , Ia Id Ic =
(BAD + BCD)/2 = /2.
9.2.3 . a) . I.
(.) ABC. Oa , Ob , Oc a, b
c, I O ABC. ABC. ( ) , , ( ). , Oa , Ob , Oc ,
. ABC Oa Ob Oc ,
ABC

9.

211

Oa Ob Oc . , AOa , BOb COc


I, ABC ( Oa , Ob Oc a, b c
A, B C). ,
I, ABC Oa Ob Oc . O Oa Ob Oc , M (
Oa M , Ob M , Oc M a, b c). , I, O M .
) (.) a) ,
M
Oa Ob Oc , Oa , Ob Oc a, b c. ,
Oa Ob Oc ,
M .
, ABC ( ABC.
ABC.
x
rx
.) ,
=
, x R
r
Oa Ob Oc , r R ABC. x
R
Rr
,
=
.
, x =
R+r
r
R+r
x, A1 , B1 (A1 B1 = R), C1
(A1 C1 = r) D (C1 D = R). , B1 D, B1 D.
C1 , A1 F . A1 F
x.
,
x . -

212

Oa Ob Oc . , Oa Ob Oc M .
) ,
23 , .
, x , 2r
3 . ,
x
x
2
1
= rx
, R
r = 1 r 6 1 3 = 3.

9.3

(2). . .


, , , , .
9.3.1. O, G H ( ), GH = 2 GO.
9.3.2. , AB , tg A tg B = 3.
9.3.3. . , ,
120 .
9.3.4. A = 120 . , OH = AB + AC.
9.3.5. , , , , , ,
, , .
9.3.6. ABC 120 , T
(. . , AT B =
BT C = CT A = 120 ).
) , AT B CT .

9.

213

. 9.3.2.
) , AT B, BT C
CT A .
9.3.7. . , , , .
9.3.8.
. ?
) 90 ; ) 120 ; ) 60 ; ) .
,
9.3.2 . C ,
O H AB.
O AB R cos C, C,
AC sin A = 2R sin A sin B,
AB 3 cos C = 2 sin A sin B. ,
cos C = cos(A + B) = sin A sin B cos A cos B, .
9.3.5 . , O
R2 . , AA0 BB 0 , ABA0 B 0 , , HA
HA0 = HB HB 0 . H
, . . OH .

9.4

(2). . .

( , , 17531823) ,
, . . OM1 +OM2 +OM3 =

214

R + r, M1 , M2 , M3 BC, CA, AB .
. .
,
.
9.4.1. A , ABC, W , D
W . ,
) M1 W = (ra r)/2.
) M1 D = (rb + rc )/2, r, ra , rb , rc
.
9.4.2. .

. , , , .
9.4.3. ,

.
9.4.4. , ABC :
) AH + BH + CH 6 3R.
) 3OH > R 2r.
9.4.5. ) , ma + mb + mc 6 92 R, ma , mb mc
.
) ABC A, B C W1 , W2 W3 . , AW1 + BW2 + CW3 6 6, 5R r.
9.4.6. ) , :
3r
3
6 cos A + cos B + cos C 6 .
R
2
) AH1 , BH2 CH3 ABC. , AH2 H3 , BH1 H3 CH1 H2 R r.

9.

215

9.4.7. R ,
,
, .
, .
9.4.8. ) , ABC
a(OM2 + OM3 ) + b(OM1 + OM3 ) + c(OM1 + OM2 ) = 2pR.
) ( ) ha ABC. , ha > R + r.
9.4.9. )
.
) ABCD . r1 r2 , ABC ADC, r3
r4 , ABD
CBD. , r1 + r2 = r3 + r4 .
9.4.10. d, d1 , d2 d3 O ,
, . ,
R2 =

d2 + d21 + d22 + d23


.
12

9.4.11. ) , , , .
) , , , . ,
R + r.
,

216

9.4.1 . ) I Ia
, BC,
K P BC, L Ia P , I BC,
Q IL. W IIa (
, . 3 . , ) W M1 k IK k LIa , W Q
ILIa , M1 W Q. , W Q =
Ia L/2 = (ra + r)/2, M1 W = W Q r = (ra r)/2.
) Ib , Ic , B0 , C0
BC, , DM1 Ib B0 C0 Ic .
9.4.2 . , ra + rb + rc = r + 4R.

OM1 + OM2 + OM3 = 3R (W1 M1 + W2 M2 + W3 M3 ) = R + r.


9.4.3 . , , O H.
9.4.4 . ) AH + BH + CH = 2R + 2r 6 3R, R > 2r.
) AOH AH + OH > R. ,
BH + OH > R CH + OH > R. , AH + BH + CH +
3OH > 3R, 2R + 2r + 3OH > 3R.
9.4.5 . ) AOM1 ma 6 OM1 + R. , mb 6 OM2 + R mc 6 OM3 + R. , ma + mb + mc 6
OM1 + OM2 + OM3 + 3R = 4R + r 6 92 R, R > 2r.
) AW1 M1 AW1 6 AM1 + W1 M1 . , BW 6 BM2 + W2 M2 CW3 6 AM3 + W3 M3 . ,
AW1 + BW2 + CW3 6 ma + mb + mc + W1 M1 + W2 M2 + W3 M3 =
= ma + mb + mc + 2R r 6 4, 5R + 2R r = 6, 5R r.

9.

217

9.4.6 . ) , cos A + cos B + cos C =


1 + Rr , R > 2r
.
) AH,
BH CH, , . )
9.4.3.
9.4.7 . . 2R.
, , .
9.4.8 . ) a(OM2 +OM3 )+b(OM1 +OM3 )+c(OM1 +OM2 ) = (a+b+
c)(OM1 +OM2 +OM3 )aOM1 bOM2 cOM3 = 2pR+2S2S = 2pR.
) 2S > a(R +
r). a , a(R + r) =
(OM1 + OM2 + OM3 ) 6 aOM1 + bOM2 + cOM3 = 2S, .
9.4.9 . ) O ,
.
) , O , .
ABCD ,
,
, . , , B > 90 , D 6
90 , O ADC
ABC. M1 , M2 , M3 M4 AB, BC, CD
DA , M5 AC.
ADC ABC OM3 + OM4 + OM5 = R + r2
OM1 + OM2 OM5 = R + r1 . , r1 + r2 = OM1 +
OM2 + OM3 + OM4 2R.
ABD
CBD, :
r3 + r4 = OM1 + OM2 + OM3 + OM4 2R.

218

9.4.10 . : OI 2 = R2 2Rr
OIi2 = R2 + 2Rri (i = a, b, c).
9.4.11 . ) ,
. , .
) OM2 = OM1 + OM3 . BH = 2(OM1 + OM3 ) =
OM1 + OM2 + OM3 = R + r.
. , R = rb .

9.5

, (2). . .


, , ,
.
9.5.1. ABC M , M AB + M BC + M CA =
90 .
9.5.2. a, b, c ,
u, v, w .
, avw + bwu + cuv = abc.
9.5.3. . , . . , : ,
.
9.5.4. A1 B1 C1 ABC, A2 ,
B2 , C2 A, B, C B1 C1 , C1 A1 , A1 B1
. , , A2 ,
B2 , C2 BC, CA, AB , .
. .

9.

219

9.5.5. , , , .
9.5.6. , ,
, ,
( ).
R2 ,
OH.
9.5.7.
. , . ,
R?
9.5.8. . ABC , A1 B1 C1
. ,
AB1 C1 , BC1 A1 CB1 A1 ,
ABC.
9.5.9. ABCD. ,
ABC, BCD, CDA, DAB
.
9.5.10. . . , ,
, .
9.5.11. .
, :

( ).
9.5.12. AA0 , BB 0 , CC 0 ABC.
H
) ;
) ;

220

) ;
)
A0 B 0 C 0 ?
,
9.5.2 . AHB = ACB, AHB R. R BHC CHA. , SABC = SAHB + SBHC + SCHA
S = abc
4R .
9.5.5 . H1 , H2 H
AB AB. , AHB, AH1 B BH2 A, . H1 , H2 ABH,
ABC.
9.5.6 . 9.5.5 12 .
9.5.8 . CB1 A1 CAB
C
C. AB1 C1 BC1 A1 C. ,
, , HA HB. ,
C , , .
.

9.6

,
(3). . .

9.6.1. ) ,
?
) , , .

9.

221

9.6.2. ABC A0 , B 0 , C 0 . , SAC 0 BA0 CB 0 >


2SABC .
9.6.3. , .
B A, , , B C. ,
M , AB AC P Q . SP AQ < SBM C .
47 a, b, c , x, y, z M
, u, v, w
.
9.6.4. , M ,
, :
) u > ab y + ac z;
) u > ac y + ab z.
9.6.5. , M , ) 9.6.4 ( ) . ?
).
9.6.6. , M ,
, u + v + w > 2(x + y + z) ( ).
M ?
9.6.7. , M ,
,
1 1
1 1 1 1
+ +
2
6 + + .
u v w
x y z
9.6.8. ABC M . , M AB, M BC, M CA
30 . .

222

9.6.1 . ) . .
: A0 , B 0 , C 0
BC, CA, AB AA0 , BB 0 , CC 0
,
SABC
SA0 B 0 C 0 6
.
4
, A0 , B 0 , C 0 ,
ABC,
SA0 B 0 C 0 =

AB 0 BC 0 CA0 + BA0 CB 0 AC 0
.
4R

, AC 0 /AB = , CA0 /CA = , BA0 /BC =


, , SA0 B 0 C = (1 )SABC . ,
SA0 B 0 C 0 = SABC SA0 B 0 C SA0 BC 0 SAB 0 C 0 =
= SABC ( + (1 )(1 )(1 )).
SABC abc
4R , .
AA0 , BB 0 , CC 0 ,
AB 0 BC 0 CA0 = BA0 CB 0 AC 0
AB 0 BC 0 CA0 + BA0 CB 0 AC 0 =
p
AB BC CA
= 2 (AB 0 B 0 C) (BC 0 C 0 A) (CA0 A0 B) 6
,
4
.
9.6.3 . , BM C QIP , I P AQ.
, SQIP /SP AQ = P Q/p, p P AQ. , p = 2AB.
9.6.4 . ) b, c, w, v.
) , M .

9.

223

9.6.6 . 6 9.6.4
t + 1t > 2, t > 0.

9.7

, (2).
. .

.
, , , .
9.7.1. , AB 0 C 0 IB 0 C 0
B 0 C 0 (
CA0 B 0 , IA0 B 0 BC 0 A0 , IC 0 A0 ).
9.7.2. , AA0 , BB 0 , CC 0 A0 B 0 C 0 .
9.7.3. . , A0 I = A0 B = A0 C ( B 0 I = B 0 C = B 0 A, C 0 I = C 0 A = C 0 B).
9.7.4. ) ,
ABC A0 B 0 C 0 I ABC.
) c C 0 , AB.
b . , , I BC,
b c . . , 1999 .
9.7.5. ,
1982. N 10.

S(ABC)
S(A0 B 0 C 0 )

2r
R.

. .

I 2 A0 B 0 C 0 Ia Ib Ic .
9.7.6. , Ia , Ib , Ic ABC.
A00 , B 00 , C 00 BAC, CBA, ACB
.

224

9.7.7. , A00 , B 00 , C 00 Ib Ic , Ic Ia ,
Ia Ib .
BC, CA, AB A1 , B1 , C1 .
9.7.8. ,
:
) A1 A0 , B1 B 0 , C1 C 0 ;
) A1 A00 , B1 B 00 , C1 C 00 . . , 1998
.
9.7.9. , IO A1 B1 C1 .
,
9.7.1 . (. . 2.1) AB 0 C 0 = ACC 0 = BCC 0 = BB 0 C 0 ,
. . AB 0 C 0 = IB 0 C 0 . AC 0 B 0 = IC 0 B 0 .
9.7.2 . 9.7.1 , A I B 0 C 0 . AI B 0 C 0 .
,
( ABC) ( A0 B 0 C 0 ). A0 B 0 C 0 ( ABC?). A I B 0 C 0 :
,
, (. 9.5.5
. , ").
9.7.3 . 9.7.1 , B 0 A = B 0 I. B 0 C =
B 0 I.
9.7.4 . ) (. . 2.2) K = AB A0 C 0 , L = BC A0 C 0 ,
T = BI KL. BI KL, K L T . B I T (

9.
A
A
A

225
A
A
A

00
B
B000

00
C
C000

00
B
B000

00
C
C000

O
O
O
II
B
B
B

II

K
K
C
C

B
B
B

O
O
O

TT

C
C

L
L

A00000
A

. 2.1:

A00000
A

. 2.2:

1), KBLI KI k BC. LI k AB. ( ABCDEF : ACE BDF


.)
) BK IK A0 C 0 .
BK c , IK .
9.7.5 . S AB 0 CA0 BC 0
. ,
S = S(AB 0 IC 0 ) + S(BC 0 IA0 ) + S(CA0 IB 0 ) =
= 2(S(B 0 IC 0 ) + S(C 0 IA0 ) + S(A0 IB 0 )) = 2S(A0 B 0 C 0 ).
,
S = S(OAB 0 C) + S(OBC 0 A) + S(OCA0 B) =
1
R(AC + BA + CB)
R S(ABC)
= (OB 0 AC+OC 0 BA+OA0 CB) =
=
.
2
2
r
, .
9.7.6 . Ib Ic k B 0 C 0 (. . 2.3), Ib Ic
AA0 . A I

226

B 0 C 0 , Ib Ic A, , Ib Ic
ABC. Ia Ib Ic Ia .
IIbbbbb
A0000000000
A

A
A

B
B
B00000

IIIccccc
00
C
C000

II

O
O
O
C
C0000000000

B
B

C
C
B0000000000
B
B
B

A00000
A

IIaaaaa

. 2.3:
. , Ia AI ( ,
), A0 Ia = A0 I.
9.7.7 . A00 A0 , A0 AA00 = 90 , A00
Ib Ic BAC. AA00 k B 0 C 0 , A00 B 0 = AC 0 .
AC 0 = C 0 I ( 9.7.3), , A00 B 0 = C 0 I.
A00 C 0 = B 0 I, A00 B 0 IC 0 . , A00 I
B 0 C 0 , ( I),
Ib Ic .
. , Ia Ib Ic ( A, B, C,

9.

227

A0 , B 0 , C 0 , A00 , B 00 , C 00 ), ABC
( : ).
A
A0000000000
A
A

00
B
B00

B11111
B
C00000
C
C
C

C
C
C11111

II

O
O
C0000000000
C

B
B

C
C

A
A11111
B0000000000
B
A00000
A

. 2.4:
9.7.8 . A0 B 0 C 0 A00 B 00 C 00 O (. . 2.4). A0 B 0 C 0 ,
A00 B 00 C 00 A1 B1 C1 ( AA0 , BB 0 , CC 0 ABC). , A0 B 0 C 0 , A00 B 00 C 00 A1 B1 C1 .
9.7.9 . A0 B 0 C 0 A1 B1 C1 ,
(, ) . IO A0 B 0 C 0 , I A1 B1 C1 , , .

9.8

(2). . .

A0 A00 BC ,
A; B 0 B 00 , C 0

228

C 00 .
SA ( ), AB, AC ( ).
:
-, , I;
-
A00 I.

-1
.
9.8.1. AI,
I, AB AC K L .
BKI, CLI T .
9.8.2. T , I, A00 .
9.8.3. T , K, C 0 .
9.8.4. K, L T SA
AB, AC .
9.8.5. ) CC 0 T BKI;
) T ,
BKI ILC.

-2
9.8.6. AT , .
9.8.7. A1 A2
BC .
) AA0 T AA2 ;
) BT A1 = ABC. [8], 4.7.7.
9.8.8. AT KL Z. BZK = CZL.
4.7.5 [8].

9.

229

9.8.9. . . KL, T A0 BC
.
9.8.10. YA YB ,
YC , , .

-1
9.8.11. P BA0 C.
) Pb = BB 0 P C 0 , Pc = CC 0 P B 0 .
P Pb Pc T ; [Za09], 8.8, 2013 .
) Jb Jc P AB P AC. P Jb Jc T ; [8],
4.7.9.
) P BC
U1 U2 . P U1 U2 T ; [8],
4.7.10.
) , I
AP BC BC
V1 V2 P V1 V2 T . .
4.7.18 [8].

-2
, . . , .
9.8.12. D AC ABC, S1
, R, BD AD M N .
,
) B, M , I, R ;
) . M N I ABC.
9.8.13. D AC ABC; S1
, BD AD,
; S2 , BD
CD, .

230

) . ,
S1 S2 I.
) , S1 S2
, D = B2 .
9.8.14. ,
.
,

. 2.5:
9.8.1 . : X 0 , Y 0 , Z 0 Y Z, ZX, XY ,
XY 0 Z 0 , Y Z 0 X 0 , ZX 0 Y 0 .
B, C, I , AKL, , BKI, CLI
ABC .
9.8.2 . T BKI, T CLI (. . 2.5): BT I =
AKI = ALI = CT I. , T I
BT C, T I A00 .
9.8.3 . T BKI : BT K = BIK = BIA

0
0
KIA = (90 + C
2 ) 90 = BCC = BT C .

9.

231

9.8.4 . KL k B 0 C 0 , T KL T C 0 B 0 , T KL T . , AB
, AB C 0 ,
, C 0 . ,
AB T KL K.
9.8.5 . ) KBI = KIC 0 .
) T ,
T BKI T CLI, B I, K L, I C.
9.8.6 . , T KL T C 0 B 0 , , T A P , B 0 C 0 . , , A
P.
, , SA ,
SA , , 1 .

9.8.7 . ) A AB AC,
BAC. B C , BC
(. . 2.6), SA ,
T A2 .
. ,
: , , .
) AA2 X (. . 2.6).
) , BX CT . BC X A2
T A1 , T A1
, A
BC.
1

, ,

232

. 2.6:
9.8.8 . BKZ CLZ (. . 2.5).
( 9.8.5) BK/KT = IL/LT , IK/KT =
CL/LT . IK = IL BK/CL = KT 2 /LT 2 .
T A 2 T KL, ZK/ZL = KT 2 /LT 2 .
BKZ = CLZ, .
9.8.9 . , YA (
) , IBC IT A0 ( , KL).
, W A0 T A00 A. A0 A00 W I , W I k BC. ,
A0 , A I, W I
BC.
. ,
, B
C (. [3]).
9.8.10 . YA , IBC I ( I
). 2

9.

233

YA I.
YB YC .
9.8.11 . ), ) ,
9.8.5 Pb Jb Pc
Jc .
) ) , , [2].
9.8.12 . RN RB 0 S1 ( R), ARB 0 = ACB 0 = CAB 0 (.
. 2.7). B 0 AR B 0 N A , B 0 N B 0 R =
B 0 A2 . B 0 I = B 0 A ( ), B 0 N B 0 R = B 0 I 2
B 0 IR B 0 N I , , RN I =
RIB.
B
B

M
M00000
II

R
R
A
A

N
N

D
D

C
C

00
B
B000

. 2.7:
M 0 N I S1 . RN RB 0 S1 ,
RM 0 N = RBB 0 . , B, M 0 ,
I, R , RIB = RM 0 B.
, RN M 0 = RM 0 B, , BM 0 S1 , . . M 0 =
M.

234

9.8.13 . ) I1 , I2 S1 , S2 ; S1 BD AD M1 N1 , S2 BD CD
M2 N2 (. . 2.8). I = M1 N1 M2 N2 .
N1 , N2 , D , I1 , I2 , I ,
I1 N1 k I2 N2 ( AC), I1 D k IN2 , I2 D k IN1
(I1 D I2 D ADB CDB).
, I1 , I2 , I . (.
9.9.2, . .)
B
B

M
M11111
II11111

III

II22222
M
M22222

A
A

N11111 B
B11111
N

D
D
DN
N22222

C
C

. 2.8:
) ( .) S1 S2 . AN1 = CN2 , I1 N1 = IB1 = I2 N2 .
IN1 B1 I2 DN2 , N1 B1 = DN2 .
, B1 D AC, , D = B2 .

9.8.14 . . , , ,
. ,
, ,
, . , ,
.

9.

9.9

235

(2). . .

, , , .
13.1.7, . .
.
, .
,
.


9.9.1. , ,
, .
9.9.2. ABCD ABE CDF , AE k CF BE k DF . ,
E CD, F AB.
9.9.3. .. 1997 . ) A B. A , C, D ( , C D
A). M N BC BD,
A, K CD. ,
M KN .
) AB
A .
B D. , , BD,
. . [ZK92]
9.9.4. A ABC l1
l2 , A. ,

236

B C l1 l2 , BC , A,
.
9.9.5. ABCD E, K M AB CD,
L N E BC AD. , KM LN .
9.9.6. , P Q,
P A B: ,
. , A B . , . ., . [ZK79]
9.9.7. ., . ABC
K AC. AB BC
ABM BCN , AM = BM , AM B = AKB BN = CN ,
BN C = BKC. , , M N K, AC [ZK15].
9.9.8. . . ABC
A1 , B1 , C1 , AA1 , BB1 CC1
. A1 , B1 , C1 BC,
CA, AB A2 , B2 , C2 . ,
A1 B1 C1 A2 B2 C2 [?].

(~a, ~b) ~a 6= ~0
~b 6= ~0, .
2k, k Z. , (~a, ~b) 0 (mod 2) , (~a, ~b) = 2k
k Z.

9.

237

9.9.9. .
ABC ( ) BCA1 , CAB1 , ABC1 , :



1) (A1 B, A1 C) + (B1 C, B1 A) + (C1 A, C1 B) 0 (mod 2);
2) AB1 BC1 CA1 = BA1 CB1 AC1 .
A1 B1 C1 :



(A1 C1 , A1 B1 ) (BC1 , BA) + (CA, CB1 )



(B1 A1 , B1 C1 ) (CA1 , CB) + (AB, AC1 )



(C1 B1 , C1 A1 ) (AB1 , AC) + (BC, BA1 )

(mod 2);
(mod 2);
(mod 2).

. , A1 B,
C, B1 , C1 . . , , - BCA1 , CAB1 , ABC1 A1 B1 C1 .
,
, ( 2) 0,
0 .
, ,
1) 2) A1 B1 C1
, ABC,
ABC. (. [1]):
M, N, P, T ABC
ABC1 , BCA1 , CAB1 , M N T , N P T , P M T . , 1) 2) . , ABC1 , BCA1 ,
CAB1 , M N T
N P T ABC1 BCA1 ,
P M T CAB1 .
,
, : ABC1 , BCA1 , CAB1 A1 B1 C1 ( ,
ABC1 , BCA1 , CAB1 A1 B1 C1 ).
, (

238

A1 B = A1 C, B1 C = B1 A, C1 A = C1 B) 1990-
. . .



(A1 B, A1 C) = (B1 C, B1 A) = (C1 A, C1 B) = 2/3
A1 B = A1 C, B1 C = B1 A, C1 A = C1 B, .



(A1 B, A1 C), (B1 C, B1 A), (C1 A, C1 B) ( 2)
0 ,
.

, ,
,
.
.
,
9.9.1 . K, L, M , N , AB BC, CD, DA ABCD;
O .
ABK, BCL, CAO, ABC,
, KOL
O. LOM , M ON , N OK
O.
, , KAN KBL
,
90 .
0

AF
AD EC
9.9.2 . F 0 AB, BF
0 = ED BC .
0
ABF , BEC, EAD,
ABE. : F 0 CD = AED F 0 DC = BEC,
F 0 C k AE F 0 D k BE, . . F 0 = F .
. O = AB CD, F1 =
OC
OA
OE
AB CF . BC k AD, F1 C k AE OB
OA = OD , OF1 = OC .

9.

239

OB
OE
, OF
= OD
, F1 D k BE, . .
1
F1 = F .
. : X =
BC AD, Y = F C AE, Z = F D BE
, A = EY DX, B = EZ CX,
F = CY DZ .

9.9.3 . ) BCD BM C BN D , BM C+BN D = 180 ,


CKD.
.
) ) BC = BD.
9.9.4 . K L B C l1 l2 ; M
BC, AH . ABK
ACL ,
BAK, ACL, CBM , ABC.

(M K, M L) (CA, CL) + (BK, BA)

(mod 2).

, A, B, K, H ,
A, C, L, H , ,
(HK, HL) = (HK, HA) + (HA, HL)
(BK, BA) + (CA, CL) (mod 2).
, (M L, M K) (HL, HK) (mod 2), . . K,
L, M , H .
9.9.5 . EAN =
EBL. AN E BLE , AN E, BLE, ABK,
ABE.




(LK, LN ) (EA, EN ) (EL, EB) (N L, N K) (mod 2),

240

, KLN (KL = KN ). M L = M N . , KLM N


KM .

9.9.6 . A, B ,
A0 , B0 , , P A0 , P B0 . P A0 B0 P A0 A, P B0 B A0 M B0 , M A0 B0 . , , M A =
M B.

9.9.7 . M AKB, KM AKB, CKM = CKB/2. ABC


ABM , BCN AKC.
, ,
M N K = ABM = (180 AM B)/2 = (180 AKB)/2 =
CKB/2 = CKM . M N K =
CKM .
. . AKB M AKB . AK BK AX BY , X, Y, K, M
(., , [Po12]). BK Y , BY = AK = CK, X = K,
BC.

9.9.8 . , ABC1 , BCA1 , CAB1 , ABC ( 2)


AC1 BA1 CB1 ). , -

9.

241

ABC2 , BCA2 , CAB2 . ,





(A2 C2 , A2 B2 ) (BC2 , BA) + (CA, CB2 )



(BA, BC1 ) + (CB1 , CA) (A1 B1 , A1 C1 ) (mod 2).

(B2 A2 , B2 C2 ) (B1 C1 , B1 A1 ),
(C2 B2 , C2 A2 ) (C1 A1 , C1 B1 ) (mod 2).
, A1 B1 C1 A2 B2 C2 ( ).
9.9.9 . Ha c A1 , B C, Hb c B1 , C A, Hc c C1 ,
A B. Ha ~a
A1 C
(A1 B, A1 C) A
. 1B
Hb Hc .
, Hc Hb Ha ~a


(A1 B, A1 C) + (B1 C, B1 A) + (C1 A, C1 B) 0
(mod 2) (. . ),
B1 A
C1 B
A1 C
A1 B B1 C C1 A = 1 (. . ). ,
Hc (Hb (Ha (B))) = Hc (Hb (C)) = Hc (A) = B (. . Hc Hb Ha B), ,
Hc Hb Ha .
Hb (A1 ) = A0 .
Hc (A0 ) = Hc (Hb (A1 )) = Hc (Hb (Ha (A1 ))) = A1 .
B1 XHb (X)
X 6= B1 , B1 A1 A0 B1 CA


, (A1 A0 , A1 B1 ) (CA, CB1 )
(mod 2). C1 A1 A0 C1 BA

, (A1 C1 , A1 A0 ) = (BC1 , BA) (mod 2).

242


B
B
C
C11111

A
A11111

A
A
A

C
C
B11111
B

A
A00000

. 2.9:
,



(A1 C1 , A1 B1 ) = (A1 C1 , A1 A0 ) + (A1 A0 , A1 B1 )


(BC1 , BA) + (CA, CB1 )

(mod 2).

.
. , , .

9.10

(3).
. .


, ,
, , , .
. P ABC. ()
P ABC ,
P ABC

9.

243

. () P ABC.
9.10.1. ? ,
) ;
) ;
) ;
) .
9.10.2. ABC A0 , B 0 , C 0 .
A0 B 0 C 0 ?
) .
) .
) , .
) .
9.10.3. ?
) 0; ) 1; ) 2; ) 4.
9.10.4. , P
ABC
, P
ABC.

P ABC.
9.10.5. P ABC . B 0
, P B 0 AC. ,
BB 0 ( B B = B 0 )
P .

244

9.10.6. , P ,
P A.
9.10.7. , P ABC P H (
H ABC).
. - P ABC ,
AP ,
BP , CP ABC ( - AP , BP , CP ,
ABC).
9.10.8. , - P ABC .
ABC. P , , AP , BP
CP .
9.10.9.
.
. P 0 , . P 0 P ABC, , , , , .
9.10.10. P . , ,

9.

245

, , , P . (, , .)
.
9.10.11. P ,
, P 0 ,
P 0 P .
.
9.10.12. , ,
, , , .
9.10.13. P ABC, , AP , BP , CP , P ABC.
9.10.14. , , , , ,
.
9.10.15.
.
. 9.10.14, 9.10.15 ,
( . . ).
9.10.16. ABC B C A1 . ,
AA1 , BC,
A.
9.10.17. . A, B, C, D, E F
. AB DE X,
BC EF Y , AF CD Z. ,
X, Y Z .

246

, ,
. .
,
9.10.4 . Pa , Pb Pc P BC, CA
AB . .
, . 2.10.
P CPb Pa , P Pb Pa = P CPa .
P Pb Pc = P APc . Pa , Pb , Pc
, P Pb Pc = P Pb Pa .
, P APc = P CPa . , P
ABC.
.
. 2.10. P
ABC, P AB = P CPa = P Pb Pa
( , P , C, Pa , Pb
). P AB = P Pb Pc . ,
Pa ,Pb Pc .

. 2.10:

. 2.11:

9.10.5 . , . 2.11.
P AB AC Pc Pb -

9.

247

(. . 2.11). ABB 0 = AP B 0 , AB 0 . APc Pb P (AP , , P A, B, C), 180 ,


AP B 0 = AP Pb = 180 APc Pb = BPc Pb . , Pb Pc BB 0 .
9.10.6 . .
9.10.7 . , . 2.12. , AHC = 180 ABC, , H 0 ,
H AC, ABC (. . 2.12). P B 0 BH 0
AC, P B 0 BH 0 ( ,
P 6= H 0 , ),
, . , , P H 0 AC (. . ,
), BB 0 . , P 0 H
BB 0 , , 9.10.4 P ( P 0 P AC).
Pb ( P BC) P P 0 ,
HP P 0 , , P H .
9.10.8 . , . 2.13.
.
Pa , Pb , Pc , A0 , B 0 , C 0 -, AA0 C 0 = ACC 0 =
Pb Pa P . ,
P Pa CPb . , AA0 B 0 = Pc Pa P .
, C 0 A0 B 0 = Pb Pa Pc . A0 B 0 C 0 = Pa Pb Pc
A0 C 0 B 0 = Pa Pc Pb . , A0 B 0 C 0
Pa Pb Pc .

248

. 2.12:
9.10.9 . P A0 B 0 C 0 , P 0 Pa Pb Pc .
P Pa Pb Pc .
9.10.10 . , . 2.14. Pa
P BC, Pb Pc (. . 2.14). P 0
Pa Pb Pc . C Pa Pb , , CP 0 Pa Pb . , Pa CP 0 = 21 Pa CPb = C.
BCP 0 = Pa CP 0 BCPa = C BCP = ACP.
, ABP 0 = CBP BAP 0 = CAP .
, P 0 P ABC.
9.10.13 . , . 2.15, . P Pb Pc P AC
AB . P a, AP A, -

9.

249

. 2.13:
X. AP Pb Pc , ,
APc Pb = 180 AP Pb = 180 (90 P APb ) =
= 90 + P APb = 90 + XAPc .
, AXPc = 90 . , , P B P C
, Pc Pb .
9.10.14 . , P P 0 , P P 0 P 0 Pa /2 = P Pa0 /2, Pa Pa0 ,
P P 0 BC.
. P Q ,
, , P 0 , P . Q
P , P 0 . , Q ,

250

. 2.14:

. 2.15:

.
9.10.15 . ) ABC.
H , O ABC. BAH = 90 B, AOC = 2B, , OAC = 21 (180 2B) = 90 B. ,
BAH = OAC, , AH A AO.
.

9.

251

9.10.16 . A0 , A Ma , ,
AMa (. . 2.16). ,
BA0 CA0 . , A0 A1 .

. 2.16:

9.10.17 .
(. . 2.17).
A, B, C, D, E F . AB DE X, BC EF
Y , AF CD Z. , X, Y Z
.
BAF BCF , .
CDE CF E. ,
AZD CZF . , AZD CZF .
X X 0 , Y CZF ( ).
, AZX = CZX 0 = F ZY , ,
X, Z Y .
.

252

. 2.17:
(. . ).


[EM] ., . // .
1990. N 3 , . 5659.
[Sh89] . // . 1989. N 9, . 5257.
[Ku] . // .
N 7. 1992, .4650.

.
[1] [ Ak11] . . . ., 2011.
[2] [ DLC] ., ., . 555 (
. . ). , 2015 ( ).
[3] . . // . . 3. 2012. . 16. . 165171.
[4] [ Pra07] . . . : ,
2007.
[5] [ Pro92] . . // .
1992. N 9, . 5158.
[6] [ Pro08] . . :
// . 2008. N 4. .1015.
[7] [ Sh07] . . 910. .: , 2007.
[Gi] .
. 1990. N 11, . 4648.
253

254

[Za14] .. . ... 20102014.


.: , 2014.

.
[Be10] . . // . . 3. . 14. 2010.
[Po12] . // . 2012. N 2.
[ZK92] . 1992. N 2.
[Za09] .. . ... .:
"" , 2009.
[ZK79] . 1979. N 12.
[ZK15] . 2015. N 2.

.
[AZ11] . ., . .
. .: , 2011.
[AZ07] . ., . . // . . 3.
2007. . 10.

10.

10

255

10.1

(1). . .

10.1.1. a, b c
. , ?
) ;
) ;
) ;
) ;
) ;
) .
10.1.2.
. , ,
. (. [GT]3 .)
10.1.3. H. A, B C , H. , H
ABC. (. [Pra07].)
10.1.4. AB CD ABCD P , BC
AD Q. ,
AQB BP C . (. [Pra07].)
10.1.5. . , , P .
(. [6F].)
10.1.6. ABCD A = , B =
. C D
P . CP D.
3

256

10.1.7. R AB ABC .
ABC.
,
10.1.2 . AB,
. ABCD. . .
ABO (. .
,
) CBO (. . , . . 2.18).
, , ( ). ,
. ,
, ,
, , .
B
B
A
A
D
D

O
O

C
C

. 2.18:
,
, , .

10.

257

. ,
, .

10.1.3 . O1 , O2 O3 (. . 2.19).
BO1 HO2 , , BO2 k HO1 . AO1 HO3
, AO3 k HO1 . , BO2 k AO3 . , |BO2 | = |AO3 |, , ABO2 O3 , . . AB k O2 O3 . CH O2 O3 , CH AB.
, , AH BC, , H
ABC.
B
B

O
O11111

O22222
O
H
H

A
A

C
C
O
O33333

. 2.19:

10.1.4 . AQB BP C R; [P R) [BC] = N ; [P R) [AD] = F ; [QR) [AB] = M ;


[QR) [CD] = E (. . 2.20). :
BQM = ; BP N = ; P BC = . -

258

M BN R:
M RN = 360 (B + M + N ) =
= 360 (180 ) ( + ) ( + ) = 180 ( + + ).
++. ABCD:
A = + 2; C = + 2; A + C = 2 + 2 + 2 = 180 ,
. , + + = 90 ,
, M RN = 90 . , QR P R QN F P M E , , , ,
R M E N F . M N EF , . .
. , , . . M N EF .
P
P

B
B
Q
Q

M
M
A
A

. 2.20:

C
C

N
N
N
R
R

E
E

F
F

D
D

10.

259

10.1.5 . : P/2.
4ABC C;
A, B C . O , ACBO , A1 , B1 C1
O OA, OB, OC (. . 2.21). , O . x, y z, |OC1 | = |OC| + |CC1 | = y + z + x; |OA1 | =
|OA| + |AA1 | = x + z + y; |OB1 | = |OB| + |BB1 | = x + y + z.
, O A1 , B1 C1 , . . , . ,
, .. A1 , B1 C1
. : R = x + y + z = P/2.

A
A

B
B11111

O
O

yyy
xx
A
A
A11111

C
C

zz

B
B

C
C11111

. 2.21:

10.2

(1). . . , . .

10.2.1. ,
, ABCD
.

260


a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
f)

|AB| + |CD| = |BC| + |AD|;


BAD + BCD = 180 ;
ABCD ;
ABCD ;
BAC = BDC;
ABC D.

10.2.2. ABC a.
a A D.
BDC?
10.2.3. ABC |AB| > |BC|.
AB P , |BP | = |BC|. BM ABC N .
, AP M N . (. [GT].)
10.2.4. M ,
A, M P M Q
. A AK
P Q. , P AK = M AQ.
10.2.5. ABC AA1 BB1 . , CAA1 = CBB1 , |AC| =
|BC|. (. [Pra07].)
10.2.6. A, B, C, D ; A1 , B1 , C1 D1 AB, BC, CD DA . , A1 C1 B1 D1 .
10.2.7. 1 2 A. B1 B2 C1 C2 , B1
C1 1 , B2 C2 2 . ,
B1 C1 kB2 C2 .
10.2.8. O
ABC, BC. D
A, B O. , A, B, C D
. (. [GT].)

10.

261

10.2.9. O, ABC,
, AO, BO CO BCO, ACO ABO . , O , ABC. (. [Pra07].)
10.2.10. AP Q ABCD, P Q BC CD
. P 0 Q0 AP AQ. , BQ0 C CP 0 D .
10.2.11. A, B, C, D . M AB.
M C M D AB E F . , F ECD
.
10.2.12. S1 S2 A. A , S1 B, S2
C, B, A C .
C B , D. , BDC
, A.
10.2.13. AB S O
C. AOC
S D. , BC = CD.
10.2.14. ABCDE .
E AB, BC CD a, b c .
E AD.
10.2.15. ABC AA1 , BB1 CC1 .
B2 C2 BB1 CC1 . , A1 B2 C2 ABC .
10.2.16. n . , , M ,
) ;
) .

262

10.2.17. AC BC ABC ACA1 A2 BCB1 B2 . , A1 B, A2 B2 AB1 .


,
10.2.3 . AN B ACB
, (. . 2.22).
, BM P BM C ( ), , BP M = BCA. ,
AP M + AN M = 180 , . . AP M N , .
B
B

B
B

P
P
A
A

M
M
N
N

. 2.22:

A
A11111

C
C
A
A

B
B11111

C
C
C

. 2.23:

10.2.4 . [A1 B1 ] ABC, AB1 A1 B


. , 4ABB1 (.
. 2.23).
1) |AC| = |BC|, |AB1 | = |BA1 |, . . AB1 A1 B
, , A1 . , A1 AA1 = B1 BB1 , B1 A1 .
2) CAA1 = CBB1 , - A1
, , AB1 A1 B .
, |AB1 | = |BA1 |, . . |AC| = |BC|.

10.

263

. 1) , ,
4AA1 B1 = 4AA1 B ( ).
10.2.8 . O ABC, [AO) BAC; [BO)
B1 BC, B1 AB (. . 2.24).
, D, C, O AB. D A B, , AOB =
1
2 ADB. B1 BO 4ABO,
1
B1 BO = AOB + BAO = (ADB + BAC),
2
B1 BC = ADB + BAC.
, B1 BC 4ABC,
B1 BC = BCA + BAC. , ADB = BCA, . . A,
B, C D , .
B
B11111
B
B

O
O

A
A
A

C
C
C
D
D

. 2.24:

264

10.2.9 . P ,
4AOC (. . 2.25). OP C , OAC
,
B
B
B

O
O
A
A
A

C
C
P
P

. 2.25:
,
1
COP = (180 OP C) = 90 OAC.
2

BOC = 180 COP = 90 + OAC.


, , AOB, , BOC = 90 + OAB. ,
OAB = OAC, . . [AO) BAC. , , [CO) BCA.
, O ,
ABC, .
10.2.14 . : ac/b.

10.3

(2). . .

10.3.1.
ABCD 2 , 4
. , , B D, , ABCD .

10.

265

10.3.2. ABCD. A1 , A2 , B1 ,
B2 , C1 , C2 , D1 , D2 AB, BC, CD, DA . A1 C2 , A2 C1 , B1 D2 , B2 D1 ABCD 9 . , A, B, C, D . ,
ABCD .
10.3.3. B1 , B2 AC
ABC , A2 , C2 BC, BA. , CB1 =
AB2 = AC2 = AC+BCAB
.
2
10.3.4. ABCD , HC , HD ABD ABC. , CDHC HD
.
10.3.5. ABCD . ,
ABC, BCD, CDA
DAB .
10.3.6. ABC AC
. AB
BC K L. M
, . , BM AC.
10.3.7. ABCD AD
BC O.
AOD, AOB, BOC COD r1 , r2 , r3 , r4 . , r11 + r13 = r12 + r14 .
10.3.8. F1 F2 . A C
BF1 BF2 .
D F1 C F2 A. ,
ABCD .
,
10.3.1 . M , BKL.

266

10.4

(2). . . , .

10.4.1. S P . , P , A B.
, P A P B
(. [Pra07]).
. ,
P P , P S
(. [Pra07]).
10.4.2. , P , S,
S , (. [Pra07]).
10.4.3. , P
S d2 R2 , R S, d P
S (. [Pra07]).
10.4.4. (!)
S1 S2 . , ,
S1 S2 ,
(. [Pra07]).
S1 S2 .
10.4.5. , (. [Pra07]).
10.4.6. ,
.
. ,
(. [Pra07]).
.

10.

267

10.4.7. . .
, (. [Pra07]).
10.4.8. S1 S2 . , ,
, ,
( ) .
10.4.9. ) ,
.
) AB CD ( A, D , B, C ).
, AC .
10.4.10. BC AC ABC A1
B1 . l AA1 BB1 . , :
) l ( H ABC);
) l C,
AB1 : AC = BA1 : BC.
10.4.11. AB CD ABCD
F , BC AD
E. , AC, BD EF
, ABE, CDE, ADF BCF .
10.4.12. A1 A2 ,
B1 B2 , C1 C2 . , A1 B2 B1 C2 C1 A2 = A2 B1 B2 C1
C2 A1 .

268

10.5

(2). . . , .

15 ,
.
10.5.1. 2 1 D, AB C. E
AB, D. , C, D E
BE 2 = CE DE.
10.5.2. AB CD 1 P .
2 1 S P B P D. A0 C0 CD AB
( S). l m 1 A0 C0 . l m
Q. , S, P Q
.
10.5.3. . 1 , 2 3 ,
. O1
2 3 ; O2 1 3 ; O3 1 2 . , O1 , O2 O3
.
10.5.4. 1 2 O1 O2 .
AB CD, A D 1 , B C 2 . AD BC P . , P O1 O2 .
10.5.5.
A, B C. A AC AB
A0 .
B C , B 0 C 0 . ,
AA0 , BB 0 CC 0 .
10.5.6. , OP OQ,
OR. P OQ 1

10.

269

2 . A, B, C D OR 1 2 , OR .
A lA mA 2 . , 1
1 . D lD mD 1 . , 2 ,
2 . , 1 2 .

10.6

(3). . . ,
. .

1.
10.6.1. ) , A,
B, C, D
AB CD + AD BC > AC BD.

) . , , ABCD
.
10.6.2. ABC |BC| = a,
|AC| = b. |AB|, ,
4ABC, R.
10.6.3. A ABC W .
) AW/IW , I , ABC, .
) , AW > AB+AC
.
2
10.6.4. AB ABC
, O . |OC|,
a b .

270

10.6.5. ABC P .
) , P , .
) . , P ,
, P A, P B, P C .
10.6.6. X, ,
m. X
.
10.6.7. ( , 1999) M N AC BD ABCD. ,
ABD = M BC. , BCA = N CD.
10.6.8. ) A, B, C D
1
1
1
. , AB
= AC
+ AD
.
1
1
1
) , sin(/7) = sin(2/7) + sin(3/7) .
10.6.9. ABCDEF AB =
a
b
BC = a, CD = DE = b, EF = F A = c. , BE
+ AD
+
3
c
>
.
CF
2
10.6.10. a, b, c, d.
.
10.6.11. (. .
).

2.
10.6.12. .
) , , , , . , , , , ,
,
,
l l + l l = l l ,

10.

271

l ,
. .
) , .
10.6.13. ,
,
) ;
) ;
) - .
10.6.14. AC BC ABC
X, Y , XY k AB. , , X, Y
, A
B.
10.6.15. : , ,
.
10.6.16. , , ,
.
10.6.17. , . , , A A0 ,
B B 0 . , AB, AB 0 ,
A0 B, A0 B 0 , .
10.6.18. (. , III . . . )
a1 a2 .
b1 b2 a1
a2 , c1 c2
a1 a2 . , b1 , b2 c1 , c2 . ,
, b1 , b2 , c1 , c2 .

272

10.6.1 . A 11.10.2, 11.10.5. , , .

+b 4R a
10.6.2 . . a 4R b 2R
.
CD .
, .

10.6.3 . ) W , IBC, , ABW C,


AW
b+c
=
.
IW
a
) BW + CW > BC, BW = CW = IW > BC/2,
.
.
10.6.4 . . a+b
2
ABC = AOC = 90 , AOBC . , .

10.6.5 . .

10.6.6 . . m( 2 + 1).
ABCD a X , XA + XB = m.
(,
) XADB XBCA, XC + XD 6 m( 2 + 1),
, X
AB .

10.

273

10.6.7 . AB CD = AD BC.
10.6.8 . ) ABCDEF G
ACDE.
) .
10.6.9 . AC = x, CE = y, AE = z. ABCE, ACDE ACEF
a
b
c
, BE
+ AD
+ CF
>
y
x
z
+
+
.

y+z
x+z
x+y
, , , 32 . .
q
q
(ac+bd)(ad+bc)
10.6.10 . . (ac+bd)(ab+cd)

.
ad+bc
ab+cd

:
.
10.6.11 . M1 , M2 , M3 BC, CA, AB. OM1 CM2 ,
OM2 AM3 , OM3 BM1 ,
Rp = d1

b+c
c+a
a+b
+ d2
+ d3
,
2
2
2

p .
pr, .

ad1 +bd2 +cd3


2

= SABC =

10.6.12 . )
O, R , Oa , Ob , , ra , rb A, B, C,
D , , , . (, ) OOa Ob
OAB, Oa Ob2 = (R + ra )2 + (R + rb )2 2(R + ra )(R +

274

AB
rb ) cos AOB = (R + ra )2 + (R + rb )2 2(R + ra )(R + rb ) 2R 2R
.
2
,

q
AB p
Oa Ob2 (ra rb )2 =
(R + ra )(R + rb ).
R
ABCD ,
.
. , , , . , , , ,
0 , ,
, . 0
, , .
)
, l
.
10.6.13 . ) ,

() l d,
d ()
.
) ,
() l cos 2 ,
() .
) , l .
10.6.14 . ,
X, Y .
10.6.15 .
() .

10.

275

10.6.16 . .
10.6.17 . A . , . , A , B, 3 ,
A B .
10.6.18 . c1 c2
.


[BGG] . ., . ., . . . 2- . .: , 2007.
[VGR] . ., . ., . ., . . . .: ,
1987.
[GT] . ., . .
. .: , 1986.
[Go] . . :
. .: , 1996.
[To] . . . : ,
2010.
[Pra07] . . . : , 2007.
[Pro05] . . . .:
, 2005.
[Fo] . . - . .: , 1994.
[6F] (
). : , 1996.

276

11.

11

277

,
( )
, ,
( ) .
[Pra95] ( .. ; ,
).
,
.
., ,
[Za03] ( 1.2, 1.3, . 2, . 3, . 4,
6.1, 6.2), [Pra95] [24].

11.1

. (1) .. .

O , O O X X 0 , |OX| = OX 0 |
~ vecOX 0 .
OX

180 .
m
~ , X X 0 ,
~ 0 = m.
XX
~
l , X
X 0 , XX 0 l X, X 0
l .
11.1.1. . :
(a) , ;
(b) , ;
(c) ; (d) .

278

11.1.2. . :
(a) ; (b) ;
(c) ; (d) .
11.1.3. , 20 .
?
(a) 6; (b) 9; (c) 12; (d) 18.
11.1.4. : A(1; 0), B(1; 2). :
(a) B ;
(b) A B;
(c) A ,
B A;
(d) B A 90 .
11.1.5. ABC S, O
. ( )
:
(a) OC;
(b) O;
(c) , ;
(d) 120 O.
11.1.6. AC BC ABC K M , |AK| = |CM |. D AB.
KDM .
11.1.7. , ,

, . ([Pra95]4 )
11.1.8. AB M . CD
M 45 AB. ,
|CM |2 + |DM |2 M . ([Pra95])
4

, .

11.

279

11.1.9. BC CD ABCD,
a, M N , AM N
ABM ADN . M AN AM N , A. ([Go])
11.1.10. a b P Q, P K QH
. |KP | + |P Q| +
|QH|. ([VGR])
11.1.11. ABCD AD BC
E. , ,
AED . ([MS12])
11.1.12. ABCD BK BL;
|KL| = a, |BD| = b. B BKL. ([Pra95])
11.1.13. ABC . A B M
a b. CM . ([Pra95])
11.1.14. ABC CM
CH. , P
CA, CM CB,
CH A0 , M 0 B 0 . , |A0 M 0 | = |B 0 M 0 |. ([Pra95])
,
11.1.6 . : 90 .
90 D A C, C B. , K M .
11.1.7 . ABCD ,
O; E, F , G H (. . 1),
(OH)(AD). EF GH , M = (EG)
(F H) . O0 =

280

. 1
ZM (O) (.. , O M ),
F = ZM (H), , O0 F OH , (O0 F )(AD).
OG, OF OE ABCD
M , , O0 ,
.
11.1.8 . C 0 C (AB)
(. . 2). CM C 0 = 90 , , DM C 0 : |CM |2 + |DM |2 = |C 0 M |2 + |DM |2 =
|DC 0 |2 .

. 2
M C 0 D C 0 CD 45 , |DC 02
M . , |CM |2 + |DM |2 M , .
,
.

11.

281

. 3.
11.1.9 . : M AN = 45 ; a.
A 90 : N P , CB (. . 3).
, SM AN = SABM + SADN = SABM + SABP = SM AP .
M AN M AP AM
|AN | = |AP |, sin P AM = sin M AN .
, P AN =
90 , : M AN = P AM = 45 . , 4P AM = 4N AM
( ), : |AH| = |AB| = a.
2ab
11.1.10 . :
.
a2 + b2
ABC: C = 90 ; |BC| = a; |AC| = b;
P [BC], [P K][AB], K [AB] Q [AC], [QH][AB], H [AB]
(. . 4). (BC):
A K K 0 A0 . ,
(AC) B H B 0 H 0 . , AB 0 A0 B
|KP | + |P Q| + |QH| = |K 0 P | + |P Q| + |QH 0 |.
K 0 H 0 ,
[P K 0 ][A0 B] [QH 0 ][AB 0 ],
, K 0 , P , Q
H 0 (AB 0 ) (BA0 ).
, , .
ABC, . . a2ab
2 +b2

282

. 4.
11.1.11 . ABCD. BC BD [CK],
|BD| = |CK| AED = ACK (. . 5). AB
[CP ], , |AB| = |CP |.

. 5
[CM ] ACK. |AP | =
|BC| = |DK|, [CM ] P CD.
,
|CM | <

|AB| + |CD|
|AD| + |BC|
|AK|
|CP | + |CD|
=
=
=
,
2
2
2
2

.
AK. M
|CM | < |AK|
2 , , C ,
ACK , : AED , .

11.

283

, ,
AB CD
.
11.1.12 . :

b2 a2 .

. 6
H 4BKL (. . 6). (HL0 )(BK)
(KH)(BL), (HL) k (AD) (KH) k (CD), , LHKD
.
HL: K
D, B P , [BC]. (P D) k (BK), BP DK , , |P K| = |BD| = b. , (BH)(KL),
(P L)(KL), |P L| = |BH| ( ). p
, 4PKL , ,
|BH| = |P L| = |KP |2 |KL|2 = b2 a2 .
11.1.13 . : a + b, M AB, |a b|.

. 7.

284

M AB, C (.
. 7). B 60 ,
A C. M 0 M
, BM 0 C = BM A = 120 .
M BM 0 = 60 |BM 0 | = |BM | = b, 4M BM 0
, BM 0 M = 60 . , BM 0 C +
BM 0 M = 180 , M 0 [CM ], ,
|CM | = |CM 0 | + |M 0 M | = |AM | + |BM | = a + b.
, M AC, b = a + |CM |,
M BC, a = b + |CM |.
, b > a, b < a.
11.1.14 . P 90 (. . 8).
P A0 , P B 0 A0 B 0 , (CA), (CB) (AB) .
, RP90 (4P A0 B 0 ) = 4P A00 B 00 , . , 4P A00 B 00
4CAB, , [P M 00 ] P A00 B 00 ,
(P M 00 ) k (CM ), . (P M 00 ) =

RP90 (P M 0 ), M 0 [A0 B 0 ], .

. 8.

11.

285

,
P , .

11.2

(2). ..

.. .
11.2.1. l, m , ~a , ,
, Sl l, T~a

~a, RA
A .
(a) Sl Sl . (b) Sl Sm l k m, l 6= m.

.
() Sl Sm l m 6= . (d) Sl T~a . (e) Sl RA
. (f) RA
RB
11.2.2. , .
, .
( .
, .)

.
, . , ,
. [Pra95, 1518].
11.2.3.
(a) ; (b) ;
(c) (.. );
(d) ; (e) .
11.2.4. A, B, C ,
f g .
(a) f (A, B, C) = (A, B, C), f = id.
(b) f (A, B, C) = g(A, B, C), f = g.
11.2.5. (a)
, .

286

(b) , ,
, .
() .
, , .
, .
, , . : ( ) .
11.2.6.
(a) ? (b) ? (c)* ?
11.2.7. (a) .
(b) ( ) .
(c) .
11.2.8. (a) ,
.
(b) , .

11.2.1 . (d)
l : ~a = ~ak +~a .
~a T~a = Sl Sl0 .
= S 0 S , l0 k l.
(e) RA
m
l
= S S R = S S .
(f) RA
n
m
l
l
B
11.2.6 . () : . 11.2.8.a.

11.

287

11.2.8 . (a) . ( , ,

.)
. , .
11.2.1.f .
. 11.2.1.de .
. .

11.3

(3*). ..

.. .
11.3.1. 11.2.1 , , S .
:
(a) S S ; (b) S S k , 6= ;
(c) S S 6= ; (d) Sl S l .
l
Rl , X X 0 ,
. O X l (, O = X). O l. ,
l ( ).
X 0 , OX = OX 0 X 0 OX .

, (, , -

288

,
).
11.3.2. 11.2.1
:

(a) Rl Rm
l m 6= ; (b) Rl T~a ;
(c)* Sl Sm l m;
(d) , .
, .
11.3.3.
(a) ; (b) ;
(c)* ; (d) ; (e) ;
(f) ; (g) ; (h) ;
(i) .
,
.
11.3.4.
(a) ?
(b) ? ( co .)
(c) ? ( co
.)
11.3.5. , .
11.3.6. (a) .
.
(b) () (
, ) .
(c)* . , . . .

11.

289

11.3.7. (a) . .
(b)* . () ,
( , ).
. [So80].

11.3.6 . (a)
. : f (O) = O f (A) = A0
0
AO, f = RlA OA , O l AOA0 .
(c) , .

11.4

(1). ..

k O k
HO
(, ), ~ 0 = k OX.
~
X X 0 , OX

11.4.1. : A(1; 0), B(1; 2). :


(a) B A
k = 0,5;
(b) A , k = 2 2 45 .
11.4.2. (a) .
(b) X .
, X, .
(: .)
l
11.4.3. HAk HB

(a) ;

(b) .

290

11.4.4. 6 12 .
.
.
11.4.5. CD ABCD K ,
|CK| : |DK| = 1 : 2. KD
. , , .
11.4.6. , , , .
, 2 5.
11.4.7. ABC CD. ,
ADC BDC, r1 r2 . r
, ABC.
11.4.8. BD ABCD K.
AK BC CD L M . , |AK|2 = |LK| |KM |. ([Pra95]5 )
11.4.9. BC ABC M ,
, , M (AB) (AC), (BC). ([Pra95])
11.4.10.
M . AB
P . , M P AM B. ([Pra95])
11.4.11. ABCD AD BC A , E , F , E AB. CF E,
DF E = . ([BGG])
11.4.12. ABCD ADP Q AD.
, AB CD, AP DQ,
BP CQ . (19.25a)
5

, .

11.

291

11.4.13. ABC : 4A0 BC 4B 0 CA 4C 0 AB. , ABC A0 B 0 C 0 . ([Pra95])


11.4.14. ABCD E. ET ABE, K DT AE,
M CT BE. ,
KM , ABE.
([FKK])
11.4.15. ABC. P QRS ,
P Q AC, R S AB BC
. ([Pra95])
11.4.16. A B
, VA VB . , O,
|AO| : |BO| = VA : VB . (.
11.5.2 . ).
,
|AK|
|BK|
11.4.8 . 4ABK 4M DK ( ), |KM
| = |KD|
(. . 1). , 4ADK 4LBK ( ),
|AK|
|KD|
|KL| = |BK| . , 2

|AK|
, |KM
||KL| = 1
.

|AK|2 = |LK| |KM |, -

. 1.

292

11.4.9 . M ; (M K)(AB), K [AB] (M L)(AC),


L [AC] (. . 2).

. 2.
. A ,
K B. (KL) k (BC),
L C.
P = HA (M ), (P B)(AB), (P C)(AC).
, AB AC B C P
A. M = (AP ) (BC).
. B C
AB AC , P . ABP + ACP = 180 , BACP , , AP C = ABC = ; AP B =
ACB = . , BAP = 90 ; CAP = 90 .
,
AP . M = (AP ) (BC).
, P
BAC, , B C
.
11.4.10 . R r. k
HM
r
M k = R .
k (A) = A0 H k (B) = B 0 , H k ([AB]) = [A0 B 0 ], [A0 B 0 ]
HM
M
M
, [AB]. ,
, AM P = A0 B 0 P = B 0 P B = BM P .

11.

293

, M P AM B,
.

. 3.

11.4.11 . : .
. . ABC1 D1 , AB (. . 4). E1 =
[AC1 ] [BD1 ] E.

. E F BC AD , , |BC| : |AD| =
|C1 C| : |D1 D|, , F
D1 DCC1 . , CF E = D1 F E1 = DF E =
.

. 4.
. EBC EDA
E F BC AD
, |BC| : |AD| = |BF | : |AF |. , CBF DAF , , CF E = BCF = ADF =
DF E = .

294

11.4.13 . P , CB CA0
(. . 5). , P (BA) = BC 0 P (AC) = AB 0 .

. 5.
,
AA0 + BB 0 + CC 0 = AC + CA0 + BA + AB 0 + CB + BC 0 =

= AC + CB + BA + P (CB ) + P (AC) + P (BA) = 0.


M 4ABC, M A + M B + M C = 0.
,
0

M A0 + M B 0 + M C = M A + AA0 + M B + BB 0 + M C + CC 0 = 0 ,
, M 4A0 B 0 C 0 , .
11.4.14 . ET = h, a. AK
ADK ET K (. . 6 a) , EK
=
DK
a
T K = h . , BCM ET M a
AK
DK
BM
a
, BM
EM = h . EK = T K = EM = h ,
DT
BE
a+h
AE
KE = KT = M E = h . E
AE
BE
a+h
AEB KEM KE = M
E = h , 4AEB 4KEM .
AB
KM
= a+h
h BAE M KE. , KM AB
ah
(. . 6 b), KM = a+h
. KK1 M M1 AB (. . 6 c), KK1 M1 M ,

11.

295

ABE. DAT
DA
DT
ah
KK1 T , KK
= KT
, , KK1 = a+h
= KM. 1
, KK1 M1 M , .

. 6a.

. 6b.

. 6c.

11.4.15 . : ]OM [, O ,
B, M [AC] ( O M ).
O [BH]; M [AC]; D E
P Q RS (. . 7).
[RQ] k [BH] A = (BR) (HQ), c A, [RQ] [BH]. ,
D O, ,
D [OA]. , E [OC].

. 7.
N P QRS,
[DE].
O, [DE] [AC], N [OM ].
: OM
, , .

296

11.4.16 . . A B , A0 B 0 ,
t (. . 8). , O
|AO| : |BO| = |A0 O| : |B 0 O| = VA t : VB t = |AA0 | : |BB 0 |.
, AOA0 BOB 0 ,
, AOA0 = BOB 0 .

. 8.
, , [AA0 ] [BB 0 ], O .
P ,
. O A B, [AB] O
. , O , AP B. , [A0 B 0 ]
O , , O
, A0 P B 0 . ,
O .
, , P . P
.

11.

11.5

297

(2). .. .

: .
11.5.1. , P Q,
P
A B.
(a) , AB Q.
(b) , P AB
P O1 O2 , O1 O2 .
(c) ( ) AB;
P AB; P AB.
(d) . , A B
. ([VS])
11.5.2. (a) , O P , Q R, O
A, B C. , : ABC O1 O2 O3 ,
O1 , O2 O3 .
(b) ABC?
11.5.3. P Q ,
O.
(a) P Q.
(b) , , ( ) P Q (OP Q) .
(c) , O , (OP Q) , O.
11.5.4. ABC. BC,
CA, AB P , Q, R
(RP, P Q), (P Q, QR), (QR, RP ) .
(a) , (RAQ), (RBP ),
(P CQ) .

298

(b) P QR.


11.5.5. P , Q R . ,
P QR XY Z. ,
.
11.5.6. ABC
P QR (P BC, Q CA, R AB, P = A, Q = B, R = C).
(a) ,
ABC P QR.
SABC
(b)
.
SP QR
(c) ,
P QR
ABC.
11.5.7. ABC da , db , dc . d0a , d0b , d0c , da , db , dc BC, CA, AB , XY Z.
.
11.5.8. ABCD, BC AD
, . E F BC AD , BE = DF .
AC BD P , BD EF
Q, EF AC R. ,
E, F P QR
, P . (IMO 2005 .)
11.5.9. O I
ABC . D, E F
BC, CA AB , BD + BF = CA
CD + CE = AB. BDF

11.

299

CDE D P . , OP = OI.
(Shortlist IMO 2012 .)

.
11.5.10. c .
11.5.11. ABC, . (
) ,
, . AB
1 : 3, A, BC
2 : 1, B.
AC ? ( 1998 .)
11.5.12. M T . , ,
M T .
k,
k R .
HO
:= HO
O

11.5.13. (a) A B.
H A, . , X H(X) BX . (19.27)
(b) S1 , . . . , Sn O.
Xi Si Xi+1 Si+1 , Xi Xi+1
Si Si+1 . ,
n ( S1 S2 , . . . , Sn S1 )
. (19.28)
(c) AB CD , P
AB CD. , AB CD, ( P )
ACP BDP .
(19.41)
,

300

11.5.1 . (a) (P Q, QA) =


(P Q, QB).
(b) (BA, AP ) = (QA, AP ) (O2 O1 , O1 P ).
(c) M AB, (QM, M P ) ,
M , P Q.
N P AB ( ). (. 11.5.13) P , A N .
A ()
N .
(d) AB ,
Q (
AB )).
11.5.2 . (a) 11.5.2 .
(b) ABC O. N
ABC, O, A N , A () N . ,
O.
. 11.4.16
.
ABC,
P QR.
11.5.3 . (a) P Q . p~
~q ,
(~
p + ~q)/2.
(b) (c).
(c) P Q, P 0 Q0 , P 00 Q00
, Z (P OQ) (P 0 OQ0 ). ZP P 0 ZQQ0 . ZP P 00 ZQQ00 ,
(OP 00 , P 00 Z) = (OQ00 , Q00 Z) , P 00 OQ00 Z.

11.

301

. , Z )

, P P 0 QQ0 ,
11.4.13. , P P 0 , QQ0 , P Q, P 0 Q0 ,
P Q.
11.5.4 . (a) (RAQ), (RBP ), (P CQ) X. (P X, XQ) (QX, XR)
X P QR. (XP, P Q), (XQ, QR) ( ) . (XC, CA) = (XP, P Q)
(XA, AB) = (XQ, QR) ,
X .
. P QR, ABC. X.
P , Q R,
P XB, P XC.
(b) N P QR. X, P N . P () N .
11.5.5 . 11.5.3 (c).
, ,

P 00 Q00 P Q P 0 Q0 , P Q, P 0 Q0 , P 00
Q00 .
11.5.6 . (a) Z 11.5.3(c). , Z O P QR , P , Q, R BC,
CA, AB.
(b) SP QR XP 2 . XP , P QR X,
P , Q, R .
(c)) P = A0 , Q = B0 , R = C0 ,
W P QR O9 OH (

302

). OO9 W OA0 P ,
OO9 W = 90 , W
OH.
11.5.7 . . da , db , dc ,
, ,
.
, .
A0 , B 0 , C 0 , A, B, C . d0a , d0b , d0c
A0 , B 0 , C 0 . ,
da , db , dc , d0a , d0b , d0c
A0 , B 0 , C 0 . 11.5.1 (b) ( , A0 B 0 C 0 ).
11.5.8 . :
B C, D A ,
B D, C A. E F .
, BC DA ( Z
11.5.2 )(b).
11.5.9 . D, E, F BC, CA, AB
,
. BDF CDE
X Y BI CI (.
11.5.2 (b)). BIC D, X,
Y , , P
, X, I, Y .
, D, E, F , P = U , U I O; , BDF CDE
BU CU , U X BI,
U Y CI. , , IU , , OP = OI.

11.

303

11.5.10 . :

( ).
. 11.5.1 (b). 11.5.1 (b) ABC ,
, , OA , OA
(O , ).
, ,
ABC, X (. 11.5.3 (c)) .
11.5.11 . . 5 : 7, A.
P, Q, R BC, CA, AB , X (. 11.5.3 ) P QR .
, BC, CA, AB P, Q, R ,
( ABC)
. ,
( X), .
.
11.5.12 . M T ,
M . BC,
CA, AB P , Q, R .
, BC, CA, AB
P, Q, R , ( ABC) . M .
, M
.

304

11.6

(1). ..

f ,
: A 6= B A0 =
6 B 0 |f (A)f (B)|
|f (A0 )f (B 0 )|
6= 0.

=
|AB|
|A0 B 0 |
11.6.1. , .
11.6.2. (a) , . ,
,
.
(b) .
, (. .
).
11.6.3. (a) .
(b) , .
(c)* , . . .

11.7

(2). ..-

. l , k 6= 0. l k
, X Y ,
:
1. Y XH l (H l).
~ = k HX.
~
2. HY
k
, l .

11.

305

11.7.1. :
(a) .
(b) .
(c) , , .
(d) |k| .
(e)) , , .
11.7.2. (
, ).
11.7.3. .
.
. l1 ,
l2 . k1 k2 =
1/k1 .
11.7.4. (a) ,
, . . .
(b) , y = k/x .

, ,
. .
11.7.5. , , , .
11.7.6. A B, X Y . , AX = BY .
l (. ), l .

306

11.7.1 . (a) l,
, .
(b), (c) .
(d) , , .
(. .
).

11.8

(2). ..

1 2 , l , . 1 2 l
, A 1
lA , l
A, 2 .
11.8.1. (a)
.
(b)
.
11.8.2.
(a) ,
(b) ,
(c) ,
(d) .
11.8.3. (a) .
(b) , .
, 6-
. (. 29.12)

11.

307

11.8.4. (a) ,
.
(b)
,
.
(c)* 6- . , ,
.
11.8.5.

(a) ?
(b) ?
(c) ?
(d) ?
11.8.6.
(a) ?
(b) ?
(c) ?
(d) ?
11.8.7. (a)
.
(b)
3b .
11.8.8. (a) (
) .
(b)
.
(c) .
(d) - . A1 , B1 , C1 , D1 , SABCD, ABCD , 1
1
+
=
,
SA1 SC1
1
1
+
.
SB1 SD1

308

(e) ABCD AB1 C1 D1 ,


BB1 , CC1 DD1 .
11.8.9. (a) .
(b) , , .
11.8.10. F (
).
(a) F .
(b) F .
(c) F
.
11.8.11. , , ,
(a) ;
(b) .
,
11.8.4 . (a) ( . ) ABCD , AD BC , |AD| > |BC|, P
- , O
. 3a) ,
OAD ,
, AD . A, B, C,
D, O, P A0 , B 0 , C 0 , D0 , O0 , P 0 .
, O0 P 0 A0 B 0 C 0 D0 . , OP
ABCD .

11.
11.8.5 . . (a) .

(b) .

(c) .

309

(d) .

11.8.6 . . .
11.8.11 . (a) A, B, C A0 ,
B 0 , C 0 . ABC A0 B 0 C 0 ABCD A0 B 0 C 0 D0 . , , ,
D D0 . , ABCD, O A0 B 0 C 0 D0 O0 .
ABCD , ,
, . ,
A0 B 0 C 0 D0 . , ,
, ABCD,
, A0 B 0 C 0 D0 . , , ,
. .
,
. , . Q P R. P Q p q
p P P1 = P P2 , q QQ1 = QQ2 < P P1 .
K L
P1 P2 Q2 Q1 . R KL QQ1 /P P1 , R
. K L K 0 , L0 ,
R R0 K 0 L0 , P 0 Q0 . , P 0 Q0 R0 , , Q0
P 0 R0 . , . ,
,
.
. [Za09], [24].

310

11.9

(3). ..

1 2 , O , . 1 2 O , A1 1
OA1 2 .
11.9.1. (a) 1
2 O .
(b) 1 2 , 1 2 O - 1 l1 2 l2 ,
l1 l2 1 2 , O 1 2 .
l1 . (30.11)
(c) , , , ,
.
( ) ( )
. (30.12)
11.9.2. (a)
, .
(b) .
11.9.3. (a) O ABCD, AB CD E,
BC AD F . EO AD BC
M N , F O AB CD
P Q, . P N , M Q EF
. (30.25)
(b) . C C 0 AB A0 B 0 ,
, A, B, C, A0 , B 0 , C 0 .

11.

311

, AB 0 A0 B, BC 0 B 0 C, CA0 C 0 A ,
. (30.27)
(c) . a, b, c
O. A1 B1 C1 A2 B2 C2 A1 A2
a, B1 B2 b, C1 C2 c,
O. B1 C1
B2 C2 A, A1 C1 A2 C2 B, A1 B1
A2 B2 C. A, B C .
(30.26)
(d) . A1 B1 C1 A2 B2 C2
A1 A2 a, B1 B2 b, C1
C2 c, .
B1 C1 B2 C2 A, A1 C1 A2 C2 B,
A1 B1 A2 B2 C. A, B C .
a, b, c .
11.9.4. (a) A, B, C, D , , A0 , B 0 , C 0 , D0
A0 B 0
AB
0 0 =
. (30.14)
CD
CD
(b) ,
.
11.9.5. (a) . BC k A1 A, O = A1 B
AC, Bi = AB Ai C, Ai+1 = OBi A1 A (i = 1, 2, . . .). ,
1
An A = A1 A.
n
(b)
. (30.59)
. 4a 2 . . ".
11.9.6. () ,
.
~ BD)
~
(AC,
(
~ BC)
~
(AD,
) . (30.2)

11.9.7. (ABCD) :=

312

.
11.9.8. (a) (ABCX) = (ABCY ) , X = Y .
(30.3)
(b) , . (. 30.4)
(c) P
, P
- (. . a, b, c, d, P (x) =
ax + b
). (30.7)
cx + d
(d) , P (x, y) =
(1/x, y/x) . (30.22)
11.9.9. (a ) 1 2 , . (. ).
(b ) ,
,
. (30.16)
(c) ,
, , , . (30.16)
11.9.10. . 6- ABCDEF , AD, BE CF . (30.42)
. , . .
11.9.11. (a)
.
(b) ?
. [Za96]

11.

11.10

313

(2). ..

Do you believe, wrong is right,


When you turn the world upside down.
Accept and Deaffy.
S O R. S f : {O} {O},
A, O, A , OA
OA = R2 /OA O. S
O R2 ,
S .
11.10.1. , BOA
A OB . (28.1)
11.10.2. (a) , S? (b) , S?
(c) , O? (d)
?
(. 28.2, 28.3)
. .
A.
A. (,
A B, A
B.)
. .
11.10.3. (a) . (. 28.4)
(b) . . (28.22)
(c) a, S X S , XO a. ,

314

X, a S, A, B, C D.
, A, B, C, D .
(d) A B. K KA KB,
P Q. , P Q KM .
(e) AB.
C D. , CD
AB ( , )
.
(f)* S A B. C AB, D AB. S1 BD ( B1 ), CD S.
S2 AB B (
B2 ), S ( K) CD
D. , B1 KB2 .
11.10.4. (a) . (28.5)
(b) ABC
ABD ACD BCD.
(c) , , ,
A1 A2 , B1 B2 , C1 C2 ,
D1 D2 , . , A1 , B1 , C1 , D1
, A2 , B2 , C2 , D2
. (28.31)
AB R2
11.10.5. A B =
.
OA OB

(. . ).
11.10.6. . ,
(a) 2
;
(b) 2-
;
(c)* . (28.11)

11.

315

11.10.7. . ( )
(a) AB ; (28.18)
(b) A A ; (28.17)
(c) , .
(28.20)
. - . .
(28. 3).
11.10.8. (a) S1 S2 ( )
. (28.6)
(b) . R1
R2 .
S1 , S2 , . . ., Sn , (Sn Sn1 S1 ), R1 R2
, . ,
T1 , R1 R2 , n
T1 , T2 , . . . , Tn . (28.38)
(c)
R1 R2 , .
(d) a b. c d , ,
A. A.
11.10.9. ABC
SABC A, B C
SA, SB SC A1 , B1 C1 . , A1 , B1 C1 , O. , O ,
SA1 B1 C1 .
11.10.10.
E = (0, 0, 1). =
{z = 0}: A A N A ,
N (0, 0, 2) ,

316

. , ( )
.
11.10.11. (a) ,
. . { }R ,
?
(b) , 1.
: 9-11 .
11.10.12. , .


[Za03] . . ,
2003.
[Pra95] . 2. , 1995.
http://www.mccme.ru/prasolov
[Ya56] . , 1 2. , 1956.

. ,
[BGG] . ., . ., . . . 2- . .: , 2007. 360 .
[VGR] . ., . ., . .., . . . .: , , 1987.
[GT] . ., . .
. .: , 1986.
[Go] . . :
. .: , . .,
1996.
[MS12] . ., . . : . .: , 2012.
[FKK] . ., - . ., . ., . . 19932005 .
.: , 2008.
317

318

[MG]
http://olympiads.mccme.ru/ustn/

[Pro05] . . . .:
, 2005.
[6F] (
). .: , 1996.
[Fo] . . - . .: , 1994.

.
[So80] . . . . , , ( 7 )
.: , 1980.
http://www.mccme.ru/free-books/djvu/bib-kvant/groups.htm
[SS] ., . //
. 1985. N 8, . 917.

.
[VS] ., . . 1979. N 12.
[Sp] . // . 1998.
N 5, . 4144.
[IMO] .
http://imo-official.org/problems.aspx.

.
[Za09] . // . 2009. N 1, .
812.

.
[Za96] . // .
1996. N 1, . 1821.

319

[Fu] / . . // . 1984. N 2, . 3840.

[DS] ., .
// . 1989. N 9, .28, N 10, . 812.

[RS] . ., . . . .: , 1973.

[Ur] . // . 1984. N 5, . 2632.

[So90] . // . 1990. N 4, .2329.


http://plm.mccme.ru/ann/a53.htm

[Sh82] .. . . .: 1982.

320

12

. , , ,
. , . . ,

.
.
.
.

12.1

(2). . .

. (A, m),
A , m ( ).
(A1 , m1 ), . . . , (An , mn ) , m1 +
. . . + mn 6= 0. (A1 , m1 ), . . . , (An , mn )

O , m1 OA1 + . . . + mn OAn = 0 .
12.1.1.
.
(a) ,
O.
(b) , X

m1 XA1 + . . . + mn XAn
XO =
.
m1 + . . . + mn
12.1.2. . 2 (X1 , a1 ), . . . , (Xn , an ) (Y1 , b1 ), . . . , (Ym , bm ) a1 +. . .+

12.

321

an 6= 0, b1 +. . .+bn 6= 0. X Y . , m+n
: (X, a1 + . . . + an ) (Y, b1 + . . . + bm ).
12.1.3. . ABC A1 , B1 ,
C1 BC, AC, AB. ,
AA1 , BB1 , CC1
AC1 BA1 CB1
, AB
= 1.
1 CA1 BC1
12.1.4. T ( ). ,
BA1
BC1
TBT
B1 = A1 C + C1 A .
12.1.5. K, L, M , N
ABCD. , LN KM , , ABCD.
12.1.6. A1 , . . . , F1 AB, BC, . . . , F A ABCDEF . ,
A1 C1 E1 B1 D1 F1 .
12.1.7.
ABC , . ,
. ,
ABC.
12.1.8. n .
n 2 , , 2 . ,
.
12.1.9. ABC
. A1 , B1 , C1
ABC. , AA1 ,
BB1 , CC1 .
12.1.10. .
?
(a) ;

322


(b) ;
(c) ;
(d) .

12.1.11. ABC a, b, c.
A, B, C,
?
a) a, b, c; ) a2 , b2 , c2 ; ) b + c, c + a, a + b.
,
12.1.1 . (a) . , O1 , O2
.

m1 O1 A1 + . . . + mn O1 An = 0 ,

m1 O2 A1 + . . . + mn O2 An = 0 .
,

(m1 + . . . + mn )O1 O2 = 0 .
m1 + . . . + mn 6= 0, , O1 = O2 .
X O . (b).
(b)

m1 XA1 + . . . + mn XAn =

= m1 (OA1 + XO) + . . . + mn (XAn + XO) = (m1 + . . . + mn )XO,


. . .
12.1.2 . O (X, a1 + . . . + an ) (Y, b1 +
. . . + bm ).

(a1 + . . . + an )OX + (b1 + . . . + bm )OY = 0 .


,

a1 XA1 + . . . + an XAn = b1 Y B1 + . . . + bm Y Bm = 0 .
, .

12.

323

12.1.3 .
(A, x), (B, y), (C, z), x : y = BC1 : AC1 , y : z = CA1 : BA1 ,
z : x = AB1 : CB1 .
12.1.4 . 12.1.2
12.1.3.
12.1.5 .
.
12.1.6 . .
12.1.7 . , ,
.
12.1.8 . , OM ,
O , M ,
.

12.2

(2). . .

. A, B,
C D, A 6= D, B 6= C l
(A, B, C, D) =


(AC,BD)

.
(AD, BC)

, , .
, ,
.
12.2.1. a, b, c, d O. l1 , l2 ,
O, a, b, c, d A1 , B1 , C1 , D1
A2 , B2 , C2 , D2 . , (A1 , B1 , C1 , D1 ) =
(A2 , B2 , C2 , D2 ).

324

a, b, c
d, a 6= d, b 6= c, (a, b, c, d) =
(A, B, C, D), A, B, C, D a, b, c, d , .
a, b, c
d, a 6= d, b 6= c,
, .
. ,
, .
12.2.2. A m
n A : m B1 , C1 , D1 , n B2 ,
C2 , D2 . , B1 B2 , C1 C2 , D1 D2
, (A, B1 , C1 , D1 ) = (A, B2 , C2 , D2 ).
12.2.3. (A, B, C, D) = k.
A, B, C, D, .
12.2.4. ABCD AB CD
G, AD BC E. DB EG
H, AC EG F . , (E, G, F, H) =
1.
. p, q, r, s
(p, q, r, s) = 1 .
12.2.5. , (A, B, C, D) = (B, A, C, D)
, (A, B, C, D)2 = 1.
12.2.6. (a) MB AC ABC.
, (AB, BC, BMB , AC) = 1.
(b) BLB ABC,
BKB . (AB, BC, BLB , BKB ) = 1.
12.2.7. l1 , l2 , l3 , l4 , (l1 , l2 , l3 , l4 ) =
1. ,
(a) O l1 , l2 , l3 O
/ l4 , l1 , l2 , l3
l4 ;
(b) l1 l2 ,
l3 l4 .

12.

325

12.2.8. A, B, C, D, X ,
. , (XA, XB, XC, XD)
X.
. A, B, C
D
(A, B, C, D) = (XA, XB, XC, XD)
X,
A, B, C, D.
12.2.9. A, B, C, D .
X kX
, X.
(a) , CD, kA , kB
, (A, B, C, D) = 1.
(b) , CD, kA , kB
, AB, kC , kD .
12.2.10. A, B , X. c, d X C1 , C2 D1 , D2 . D1 C2 D2 C1
Y .
(a) , A, B, Y .
(b) M C1 C2 . , AM X = BM X.
12.2.11. AB, CD ,
M AB. CM K, P DK. , BP K = KP A.
12.2.12. ABC :
HB , AC;
KB AC;
LB , AC;
TB AC.
HA , KA , LA , TA . ,
(a) (TB , KB , LB , HB ) = 1;
(b) CTB = AKB = AC+ABBC
;
2

326

AB
(c) CHB = BC +AC
;
2AC
(d) (C, HB , TB , KB ) = (C, HA , TA , KA );
(e) TA TB , LA LB , KA KB , HA HB .

1315, ,
A, B, C, D .
12.2.13. (A, B, C, D) =
1?
a) A = B; ) C = D; ) A = B C = D; )
.
12.2.14. ?
(a) (A, B, C, D) = (B, A, C, D);
(b) (A, B, C, D) = (B, A, D, C);
(c) (A, B, C, D) = (A, C, B, D).
12.2.15. (A, B, C, D) = k. (B, A, C, D)?
1
) 1 k; ) k1 ; ) 1 k1 ; ) 1k
.
,
12.2.1 . (, ):
A1 C1
SOA1 C1
OA1 sin A1 OC1
=
.
=
B1 C1
SOB1 C1
OB1 sin B1 OC1
B1 D1 /A1 D1 ,
B2 D2 /A2 D2 , B2 C2 /A2 C2 , .
12.2.2 . B1 B2 , C1 C2 , D1 D2 O,
, OA, OB1 , OC1 , OD1 . ,
. (, ) B1 B2 C1 C2
O. OD1 B2 C2 D2 .
B1 B2 k C1 C2 .

12.

327

12.2.3 .
(A, B, C, D) = (B, A, D, C) = (C, D, A, B) = (D, C, B, A),
. . 24 6 4 . , (B, A, C, D) = 1/k.
, , A, B, C, D a, b, c, d.
k = (A, B, C, D) =

(a c)(b d)
,
(a d)(b c)

(A, C, B, D) =

(a b)(c d)
.
(a d)(c b)


(a b)(c d) = ((a c) + (c b))((b d) + (c b)) =
= (a c)(b d) + (c b)(a d).
, (A, C, B, D) = 1k. , , 1 1/k, 1/(1 k)
k/(k 1). 1 ,
.
12.2.4 . 1 ,
. ABCD (.
11.9.11).
12.2.5 . 2.
12.2.6 .
,
12.2.4.
12.2.7 . .
12.2.9 . , , AB CD
(. 11.9.9).

328

12.3

(2). . . , . .

. .
. O R
O.
. X 6= O OX X 0 , OX OX 0 = R2 . (, X 0 X
.) X 0
x, OX 0 . x
X, X x.
X x , O, , O.
.
, O, () ,
: A a, B b, C c, . . ..


.
1. . A b B a, . .
.
1. OAB 0 OBA0 ,
0
A B 0 , A B .
2*. m l,
A
/ , M1 , M2 L1 , L2 . M1 L1
M2 L2 a M1 L1 k M2 L2 k a.
2. , M1 , M2 ,
M , . . M m. L l, P
L1 M1 , Q L2 M2 . 1 , M L = a.

12.

329

, M LP M LQ ( ).
. 2. ,
A O ( A ),
( A ).
.
1. A , a ,
A.
1. .
2. A , a
, A.
2. AK AL (K L ),
0
A KL. ,
B3 2.
3. O, A, B , a b AB.
3. 1.
4. A, B, C ,
a, b, c .
4. 1.


12.3.1. l, .
X, l, XA, XB . , AB .
12.3.2. . (a) A
BC . X, Y , XAB =
Y AC. , XY
.
(b) A A0 , A0 . A0 XY . ,
AXY . . , . [Sh97].

330

12.3.3. . ABC, B
C, P . , AP (. .
, AM A).
12.3.4. . ABCD . , ,
A C, BD BD. , , B D, AC AC.
ABCD, P , AB
CD R, BC DA Q.
12.3.5. .
ABCD O. ,
O, P , Q, R (. . ).
12.3.6. .
ABCD ; K, L, M , N
AB, BC, CD, DA ;
KL M N S, LM N K
T.
(a) , Q, R, S, T .
(b) , KM LN P .
12.3.7. - . ABCD I O.
(a) , O, I, P .
(b) ABCD,
. , P , , QR .

12.

331

. ,
, , .


12.3.8. A AB AC . B C , M BC.
, A, D,
E BM . ,
(a) BM 2 = DM M E;
(b) DM E = 2DCE.
12.3.9. M N . AB , AM BN , l, AB. , l
. . , 1991 .
12.3.10. Q P . P
,
, . ,
, P .
12.3.11. ABC
AHa , BHb CHc , H. Ha Hc AC
D. , DH , B.
ABC, I A1 , B1 ,
C1 .
12.3.12. A1 C1 AC B2 . ,
B2 I BB1 .
12.3.13. , C ABC B1 C1 .

332

12.3.14. M AC M K. K , l , AC B. , B1 K, l A1 C1 .

12.3.15. AB. A B?
) ; ) ; ) .
12.3.16. C AB. C
) AB;
) AB;
) .
12.3.17.
) ;
) ;
) , .
, 1, 2 ( ).
,
12.3.1 . AB X, 1 ,
l.
12.3.2 . 2 m l AO ( , M1 M2 L1 L2
), , , A0 = M1 L1 M2 L2
AO ( ), a A. , A0 , A. ,
, 2.

12.

333

(a) BC.
(b) XY
AA0 X1 Y1 . XX1 Y Y1 .
12.3.3 . , M P . AM AP
, P M (
).
12.3.4 . BD AC, a, c BD ( 1).
. ,
, AB CD =
BC DA. ,
. .
12.3.5 . 2 , R P Q, P QR, Q RP (
, P QR ).
. ,
P QR R , A, B, A, B, C, D , R = AB CD,
Q = BC DA, P = AC BD.
12.3.6 . (a) P1 = KM LN . 12.3.5,
P1 ST . , Q LN 3 P1 R KM 3 P1 .
1 , P1 QR. , ST QR .
(b) (a) , P1 = P .
12.3.7 . 12.3.5 12.3.6 , RQ
P , .
OP RQ IP RQ.
, P 0 , P (
). O, I 6= O r
R , OP OP 0 = R2
IP IP 0 = r2 P P 0 ,
OI.

334

12.3.8 . (. 12.3.2, 12.3.3).


12.3.9 . ( 2), M N AB l.
1 , l M N .
12.3.10 . A, B, C, D , P = AC BD, Q = BC DA,
R = AB CD. , R l (
P , O ABCD P QR (. 12.3.6).
12.3.11 . A, C, Ha , Hc
M AC. 12.3.6, M, B, H, D .
12.3.12 . BB1 B2
.
12.3.13 . BI: A0 , B10 C 0 A, B1
C BI. AB, BC, AC, A0 C 0
, BI. 12.3.7 , X = C1 B1 A1 B10
CC 0 , X BI.
12.3.14 . , B A1 C1 , M B1 K . L
l; IK l k BC 1, L A1 C1 ,
L = IB1 A1 C1 . , BL M .
L , BC, BA BC X Y . I, C1 , L, X
IX, LXI = LC1 I.
LY I = LA1 I. LC1 I = LA1 I,
LXI = LY I, IX = IY . L XY (
IL XY ), , B, XBY
ABC, L M .


[1] *

.
[BB] . ., . . . .: ,
1987. 160 .

.
[Po91] . // . 1991.
N 10, . 4852.
[Kh] . //
. 1986. N 7, . 3234.
[Sh97] . . . .: , 1997.

335

336

13

(3). . .


.
(. . 4.5).
, ,
.

13.1

. z = x + yi Z (x, y). z Z
O, ~ .
Ox OZ.
Ox,
~
OZ.
Ox Oy .
13.1.1. (.) .
13.1.2. a)
iz z?
b) (.) ei := cos + i sin . ei ? rei , r
(.
. 4.5)?
c) w, z
z0 ( z, z0 ).
d) , ( ) .
e) , z1 , z2 , z3
, (z3 z1 )/(z2 z1 ) .

13. (3). . . 33
. 13.1.2b) . , : , , , , , ,
, .
13.1.3. z 7
2z + 2?
) 2.
) 2.
) 2.
13.1.4. , z
(a) az + b;
(b) az + b,
a, b , a 6= 0.
13.1.5. (a) a, z Hak, (z) z Hak, .
(b) , 13.1.4.
13.1.6. , z z 0 = az +b
z +c, a, b, c
, |a| 6= |b|.
13.1.7. - n-
() n-. , n-.
. n = 3 (. . ).
,
13.1.2 . a) . 90 .

338

b) . ,
r.
, z1 , z2
|az1 az2 | = |z1 z2 |, , ei .
z = 0, (. 11.2.5(c)) .
, , .
, rei
,
r.
c) .b) , w z0 = ei (z z0 ). ,
w = ei z + z0 (1 ei ).
d)
z.
. z 1,
, .
13.1.4 . a) 13.1.2b) ,
, z az , , |a|,
, arga. , ,
z z + b, . ,
, .. (.
11.6.3(b)). a 6= 1
, . . b/(1 a).
b)
Ox, , .
13.1.5 . (a) . Hak, (z) = a + k(cos + i sin )(z a).
(b) 0
1 z0 z1 .
0 1, az + b,
az + b, a = z1 z0 , b = z0 .

13. (3). . . 33
13.1.6 . , (. 11.8.11 . ). z1 , z2 ,
z3 ,
(z2 z1 )/(z3 z1 ) . .
, ,
. 0, 1 i z0 , z1 , z2 .

c = z0 , a = (z1 + z2 2z0 )/2, b = (z1 z2 )/2. , z0 , z1 , z2
, |a| 6= |b|.
2
2
n1 13.1.7 . = cos 2
n +i sin n . 1, , , . . . ,
n-.
, ak +bk , k = 0, 1, . . . , n1. zk k- n- ak+1 +bk1 zk =
(ak + bk zk ). , zk , . .
n-.

13.2

,
, . .
13.2.1. z1 , z2 , z3 , z4
1 z3 )(z2 z4 )
(z
(z1 z4 )(z2 z3 ) = 2.
, z1 , z2 , z3 , z4 ?
a) .
) .
) 0z1 z2
0z3 z4 ( 0 ).

340

13.2.2. , , f (z) = (az + b)/(cz + d) f (z) = (a


z+
b)/(c
z + d), ad bc 6= 0.
13.2.3. , A, B, C,
A0 , B 0 , C 0 , A A0 , B B 0 , C C 0 .
a, b, c, d,
(ac)(bd)
a 6= d, b 6= c, (a, b, c, d) = (ad)(bc)
.
13.2.4. , A, B,
C, D; A0 , B 0 , C 0 , D0 , A A0 ,
B B 0 , C C 0 , D D0 ,
(a, b, c, d) = (a0 , b0 , c0 , d0 )
(a, b, c, d) = (a0 , b0 , c0 , d0 ).
13.2.5. ABC A0 B 0 C 0 . , , ABC ,
A0 B 0 C 0 .
13.2.6. ABCD. ,
, ,
, , .
. 4c) . .


13.2.7. a) a, b, c ,
A, B, C; f (z) = (za)(zb)(zc).
, ,
f 0 (z), ABC.
b ) ABC
, . ,
f 0 (z).

13. (3). . . 34
13.2.8. a, b, c , A, B, C, |a| = |b| = |c| = 1. , Z1 ,
Z2 ABC
,
z1 + z2 + abcz1 z2 = a + b + c.
13.2.9. , O I

R, r : OI 2 = R2
2Rr (. 9.4.10 . ).
:
F1 , F2 l,
R2 l2 = (R2 OF12 )(R2 OF22 ).

13.2.10. (.) ABC P .


, P , ,
ABC.
,
13.2.2 . , z0 R
z 0 = R2 /(z z0 ) + z0 .
, , -
.
, z 0 =
(az+b)/(cz+d), adbc 6= 0, c 6= 0.
a/c ,
. . . ,
.
c = 0, , a 6= 0. , , .

342

13.2.3 . , - .
13.2.4 . . .
13.2.5 . , ABC.

, A, B, C A0 , B 0 , C 0 .
13.2.6 .
( ) , .
13.2.7 . a) Z1 , Z2 , f 0 (z).
AZ1 AZ2
A ,
z1 a z2 a
ba ca
. ,
1/3.
b) . , AB, , Z1 AB, Z2 .

[BB73] ., . //
. 1973. N 3, . 2231.

[Sk72] . // . 1972. N 4, . 3639.

343

344

14
14.1



(1). . .

14.1.1. : A(1; 0), B(1; 2).


:
(a) A B;
(b) A , |AB|.
14.1.2. :
(a) , 0,1;
(b) ;
(c) x , 1,5.
14.1.3.
,
AB 2 45 :
) 1, A B;
) AB;
) 1, A B;
) .
14.1.4. O R.

,
R 3:

) O R 2 3 ;
) ,
R
2;
) O R2 ;
) .
14.1.5. O R M
.
, M :
a) O R2 ;
) OM ;
) OM ;
) .

14. 345
14.1.6. O ABCD.
M , : |AM | >
|OM |, |BM | > |OM |, |CM | > |OM | |DM | > |OM |. (. [Pra07]6 )
14.1.7. O
ABC. M , :
, M , [AB],
[CO]. (. [Pra07].)
14.1.8.
A B. ,
B, X Y ,
A B. XY .
(. [Fo].)
14.1.9. ,
.
14.1.10. AB , .
ABC,
. : (a)
; (b) ABC. (. [Pra07].)
14.1.11. P 6= A, B
ABCD. AP BD Q, , Q AC, BP M . M . (. [Pra07].)
14.1.12. 2 A, B , ,
R. X, AX 2 +
BX 2 = .
14.1.13. A1 , . . . , An 1 , . . . , n , c
R. X ,
1 A1 X 2 + . . . + n An X 2 = c.
,
, :
6

, .

346

;
;
;
;
.

,
14.1.6 . : N KP L, [OA], [OB],
[OC] [OD] (. . 2.26).
M , , ,
O .
K
K
B
B
N

C
C
O

A
A

P
P
D
D

L
L

. 2.26:
14.1.7 . : OKCP , K P
O BC AC (. . 2.27).
M . OCP
OCK. M , , OCP ,
, [CO], [CP ] [P O]. , [AP ],
[BP ] ABP , , AB.

14. 347
B
B
K
K

O
O
A
A

P
P

C
C

. 2.27:
, , , [AB], [CO].
14.1.8 . : AB A ,
B .
A
A

YYY

B
B

M
M

X
X
X

YYY
A
A
M
M
M
X
X
B
B

. 2.28:
B, X

348

Y : B [XY ] (. . 2.28 ) X [BY ] (. . 2.28 ). B 4XAY , AXY = AY X.



. AXY = 180
AXB = AY X, AXB AY X
, .
, M [XY ] ,
AM B = 90 . , M
AB.
14.1.9 . : M KP L,
,
,
(. . 2.29 ).
ABCD , O. , ~ OD
~ (. . 2.29 ). E
OA
[AC], E (x; 0), x [1; 1], x 6= 0.
F [BD], F (0; y),
y [1; 1] y 6= 0. N [EF ], , N (0,5x; 0,5y), 0,5 6 0,5x 6 0,5; 0,5 6 0,5y 6 0,5.
O,
.
H ,
(. . 2.29 ). [OH)
G, |GH| = |OH|. G(x; y), x [1; 1]
y [1; 1]. G GE GF , H [EF ], |OE| 6 1 |OF | 6 1.
, H , .
14.1.10 . . (a) , AB, , , A B AB.
(b) , , AB 90 + 2 180 2 .

14. 349
AB 2.
C ( A
B) ACB
AB, ACB = (. . 2.30 , ) ACB = 180
(. . 2.30 , ).
) , H AB,
ABC (. 5 . , ). , AB.
, AB 2R| cos |,
R .
(. .
), CH = 2R| cos |, . . C
H (. . 2.30 , ). , ,
AB, ,
, A B AB, .
) AOB
BAC ABC :
AOB = 180 0,5 (BAC + ABC) = 90 + 0,5 ACB,
. . AOB = 90 + 2 AOB = 180 2 .
, , AB , . .
, A
B.
14.1.11 . : DC , D C.
O = AC BD M
(. . 2.31 ). BOC = 90 QM k AC,
M QD = 90 . DP B BD, DP M = DP B = 90 . , P Q DM . ,

350


K
K

B
B

C
C
P
P
y

A
A
A

L
L

D
D

D
D

G
G

D
D
F
F

C
C E
E

F
F
F

H
O

A
A

N
N
O

E
E

A
A

x
B
B

. 2.29:
QDM = 180 QP M = BP A = BCA = 45 . , M [DC). P , M , [DC) (.
. 2.31 ).
M DC, BM P ,
AP BD = Q (. . 2.31 , ). , M Q k AC.
BP A = BCA = 45 BP A = 135 , QP M = 135
(. . 2.31 ) QP M = 45 (. . 2.31 ).
P , M , D Q , QP M +
QDM = 180 QP M = QN M , DP M = DP B =
90 , [DM ] . , M QD = 90 , . . M Q k
AC. ,
D C.

14.2

, (1). . .


() , -

14. 351

C
C
A
A

B
B
B11111

B
B

H
H
B11111
B

C
C
C

A11111
A

A
A

H
H

A11111
A
B
B

C
C

O
O
A
A

A
A

B
B

O
O
C
C
C

B
B

. 2.30:
. .
14.2.1.
?
a) ;
b) ;
c) ;
d) ;
e) , ;
f) .
14.2.2.
. .
a) ;

352


B
B

P
P

B
B

C
C

M
M
O
O

C
C
A
A

Q
Q

D
D
P
P
P

Q
Q

O
O
A
A

D
D

M
M

. 2.31:
b)
c)
d)
e)
f)

, ;
, ;
;
;
.

14.2.3. AB. M , AM B S.
a) , AB;
b) , AB;
c) AB;
d) , AB;
e) , AB;
f) .
14.2.4. CD ABCD
K, AKB
. |AK| : |KB|.
) 1 : 2; ) 2 : 1; ) 1 : 1; ) 1 : 3; ) 3 : 1;
) .
14.2.5. , ,

q a b.
2
2
|ab|
2ab
) a +b
; ) ab; ) a+b
; ) a+b
2
2 ; )
2 ;

14. 353
) .
14.2.6. , ,
,
. (. [Go]7 .)
14.2.7. M ,
ABC, SACM + SBCM = SABM . (. [Go].)
14.2.8. (a) M , ABC, SACM = SBCM . (. [Go].)
(b) M ,
ABC, SACM = SBCM = SABM .
14.2.9. , ,
(a) ; (b) , . . (. [Pra07].)
14.2.10. (a) ABCD
- M , AM C
. (. [Go].)
(b) , . (. [Go].)
(c) ABC AC. , . (. [GT].)
14.2.11. ABCD P . Q , AP Q
. (. [Go].)
14.2.12. (a) ABCD c AD BC M , SADM + SBCM = SABCD /2.
(. [Go].)
(b) ABCD M , SABM + SCDM = SADM + SBCM .
,
7

, .

354

14.2.6 . . K AB ABC (. . 2.32). CM .


K M , CM .
C
C
N
N

A
A

K
K
KM
M

B
B

. 2.32:
K M , |AK| < |BK|,
|AK| > |BK|. , , |AK| < |BK|, SAKC < SBKC .
, K , AKC CKM .
KN , N [BC] . SKCN = SCKM
M N k CK. , , M (CK). |AK| > |BK|, ,
N [AC].
14.2.7 . . ABC,
AB .
M ABC,
, SABM = 0,5 SABC . , M AB C AB (.
. 2.33).
14.2.8 . (a) : ,
C: AB CD.
M ,
A B CM .

14. 355
C
C
M
E
E M

A
A

F
F

B
B

. 2.33:
M11111
M
M
E
E
M
M
M111111

C
C

A
A
A

D
D

A
A
M22222
M

M
M33333

C
C

M
M

D
D

F
F

B
B

B
B
M
M22222

. 2.34:

, (. . 2.34 ). , , .
(b) : ,
.
, (a) (. . 2.34 )
, , , -

356

. , .
14.2.9 . (a) ABC O r (. . 2.35). ,
P Q, ,
O (P [AC], Q [BC]). O
P Q. P OQ ABC ABQOP P CQO.
:
1
SABQOP = SAOB + SBOQ + SAOP = (|AB| + |AP | + |BQ|)r;
2
1
SP COQ = SCOQ + SCOP = (|CP | + |CQ|)r.
2
P Q ABC, |AB| + |AP | + |BQ| =
|CP |+|CQ|, , SABQOP = SP COQ . , SABQP =
SP CQ , SP OQ = 0, , O P Q, .
C
C
C
00
B
B000

P
P
A
A

O
O
C00000
C
C
C

A
A
A00000
Q
Q
B
B

. 2.35:
(b)
.
14.2.10 . (a) . , M BD.
M [BD], AM
ABD , CM BCD , M .

14. 357
, , AC M , ,
.
(b) . ABCD ; A . AC BD,
O . M [BD].
M O, AC .
O M , |BO| < |BM |,
|BO| > |BM |. , , |BO| < |BM |, SABC < SADC .
, A , ABC AM C.
AN , N [DC], . SCN A = SAM C
, M N k AC. , , M
AC. |BO| > |BM |, , N [BC] (.. ).
A
A
A
A

C
C
C
B
B

N
N

O
O

D
D

B
B
B
B

M
M
C
C
A
A

C
C
C

D
D

. 2.36:
(c) D AC A C (. . 2.36 ). ,
AD CD, , , .
, D
ABCD .

358

14.2.11 . . CP , AD
K (. . 2.37). A , CK, BC Q.
CP AB, Q [CD]; P
AC, Q = C. Q .
B
B

Q
Q

C
C

P
P
A
A

K
K

D
D

. 2.37:
. AKCQ , SAQP = 12 SAKCQ . 4ABQ = 4CDK, . , Q .
14.2.12 . (a) . , .
|AD| = a; |BC| = b. M ,
m n AD BC , , : 0,5am + 0,5bn = 0,25(a + b)(m + n) am + bn = an + bm
(a b)(m n) = 0. a 6= b, m = n, . . M
(.. 2.38).
(b) : ABCD , ; ABCD , ,
, .
.
P Q AC BD , (. . 2.38 ).
SABP + SCDP = SABQ + SCDQ = SABCD /2.
M ABCD P Q, SAP M = SCP M
( A C P M ) SBP M = SDP M (

14. 359
C
C
C
B
B
M
E M
E

bb

B
B

C
C
C
E
E

nn
F
F

Q
Q

P
P
P

m
m
A
A

aa

D
D

A
A

M
M

F
F
D
D

. 2.38:

B D P M ). , SABM +
SCDM = SABP + SCDP + SAP M + SBP M SCP M SDP M = SABP +
SCDP = SABCD /2 = SADM + SBCM .
M , , , , .

14.3

. (2). . .


.
14.3.1.
q x, y. p 3xy + y 4 xy 3 .
14.3.2. (a) ,
. .
(b) ,
. .
(c) ,
. n .
. 5 . ".

360

14.3.3. , AB X.
X AB, X

(a) , (b) .
14.3.4. X.
( ) X ,
X
(a) , (b) .
14.3.5.
X .
14.3.6. .
. (
, , , , , ,
,
.)
14.3.7. l OA, . l
OA O.
14.3.8. , 3 .
14.3.9. . ,
, .
:

;
A BC, A, B, C ;

14. 361

( ).
( , , , ). , ,
.
14.3.10.

.
, .
, ,
.
. , , , ,
1, a, b

a + b, a b, ab, a/b, a,
, , a b
(. 5.2.3).
14.3.11.

(). ,
, ( , , , . [Fu]).
14.3.12.

(). ,
, ,
(
, ,
. [Sm]).
.

362

14.3.13. - , , ?
) ; ) ; ) .

,
14.3.1 . , . ,
a, b,
a+b ,

a b,
ab.

z1 = xy, z2 = yz1 , z3 = 3x + z2 ,

z = yz3 .
14.3.2 . (a) AB . X , , C D XA XB , AB. Y
ABCD. XY
.
(b) .
(c) , , n .
14.3.3 . XA, XB
B 0 , A0 , AA0 BB 0 XAB.
14.3.4 . , X, A B, C D, , AC BD AD BC, X.

14. 363
14.3.5 . O . X XO A, B,
A, B AO, BO .
14.3.10 . , , .
14.3.11 . , , .
14.3.12 . ,
, .

14.4

(2). . .

14.4.1. , S
P PS .
14.4.2. ,
1. , 4.
14.4.3. ABC AD, BM CH . ,
BAC > 45 .
14.4.4. ,
,

2.
14.4.5. ABCD . ,
, ,
, ABCD .

364

14.4.6. ABCD AC BC, AD


BD. ,
AC BD , CD
AB .
14.4.7. ,
A, B, C, D. , E, AD, :
AE + ED + |AB CD| > BE + CE.
14.4.8.
{(x, y) : x > 1, y > 1}. ? (
,
.)
14.4.9. . . (. [Pra07].)
14.4.10. A B ,
M . K M B KP M A. ,
KP .
14.4.11. M AC ABC M H BC. P
M H. , AH BP .
14.4.12. ABC AC K. , ,
AC , BK
.
14.4.13. O ABCD. , ,
AOB COD, , BOC AOD.

14. 365
14.4.14. ABCD
M , ABM D . , CBM =
CDM , ACD = BCM .
14.4.15. (a) ABC
AH BM . , ABC
60 .
(b) ABC AH BM CD. ,
ABC .
,
14.4.1 .
PS . S, ,
.
.
S 6 P 2 / .
14.4.2 . .
, .
.
14.4.4 . (.).
.
. 2 : XY ZT .
2 l1 l2 , XY ZT l1
l2 , 2 .
AB CD
A. . l. ABCD

366

C AB CD l.


2 .
14.4.5 . ABC ABCD.
14.4.7 . AB > CD. E C AD E1 C1
. BE E1 C1 F.
F C1 < F B + BC1 , BC1 = |AB CD| :
BE + CE = BE + F C1 + E1 F < BE + F B + |AB CD| + E1 F =
= |AB CD| + E1 F + F E < |AB CD| + E1 A + AE.

14.4.8 . .
2 + 2 2. :

90 2 + 2.
14.4.9 . A, B C ABCD (. . 2.39), . . ABC .
D , ABC.
B
B
A
A

C
C
M
M
D
D

. 2.39:
, |AD| + |BC| = |AB| + |CD|. , |AB| 6 |BC|, |AD| 6 |CD|, ,

14. 367
M [CD], |M D| = |AD|. CAM : AC; |M C| = |CD| |AD| =
|BC| |AB|; AM C = 90 + ADC/2 = 90 + (180 ABC)/2 =
180 ABC/2. , ( ,
) , D [CM ).
, D
CM CAM ,
ABC.
14.4.10 . M AM .
14.4.11 . K A BC, AH BP
AKC BHM .
14.4.12 . B
.
14.4.13 . A C BD, B D
AC. , .
14.4.14 . , ABC, BM C,
CM D ADC, .
14.4.15 . (a) , M BC = 30 AB > BC.


[BGG] . ., . ., . . . 2-. . .: , 2007.
[VGR] . ., . ., . ., . . . .: ,
1987.
[GT] . ., . .
. .: , 1986.
[Go] . . :
. .: , 1996.
[MS12] . ., . . : . .: , 2012.
[FKK] . ., - . ., . ., . . 1993" 2005 .
.: , 2008.
[MG]
http://olympiads.mccme.ru/ustn/

[Pra07] . . . : , 2007.
[Pro05] . . . .:
, 2005.
[Fo] . . - . .: , 1994.
368

369

[6F] (
). : , 1996.

[Fu87] . // . 1987. N 6, .
3437.

[Sm] . . .
.: , 1956.

370

15

,
.
. .

15.1

(2). . .

15.1.1. 3 27 .
(a) (
);
(b) , ;
(c)* ,
.
15.1.2. ?
15.1.3. c
?
15.1.4. (a) A . . . D1 , /3 .
(b) ABCD , /2 , . .
, .
15.1.5. ,
.
, , .
15.1.6. (a) , , .
(b)
. ?

15.

371
B

C
E

15.1.7. , ( ). ?
) E F ABCD
?

,
)

15.1.1 .

15.1.3 . . 3, 4 6.
.

372

15.2

(3). . . , . .

1.
, .
,
.
:
, , ,
.
, .1, 2, 7 [ST]

15.

373

15.2.1. (a) , . . ,
. ( 1
8, , ,
.)
(b) .
15.2.2. ,
. ,
.
15.2.3. (a)
, .
(b) ,
.
15.2.4. (a) ABCD . ,
AEF BX CF EDY .
(b) AED = 108 .
(c) , ,
().
(d) 5 .
15.2.5. 5 .
15.2.6. 10 .
.
15.2.7. (a) 5
, (
). ,
.

374

(b)
.
15.2.8. .
, , . , , .
15.2.9.

2.
Werde der du bist.
J. W. Goethe.
15.2.10. ,

(a) 1 2.
(b) .
(c) .
(d) n-.
(. . ) M f , f (M ) = M .
15.2.11. (a) ( ) 6.
(b) - (. . )

3- . ,
.
15.2.12. (a) , .
(c) .
(d) .
(e) .

15.

375

15.2.13. (a) , , ,
, .
(b) ,
.
() .
(d) .
15.2.14. , ,
(a) ? (b) ?
15.2.15. (a) ,
.
(b) .
(c) .
15.2.16. A, B, C, D
, f g .
(a) f (A, B, C, D) = (A, B, C, D), f = id.
(b) f (A, B, C, D) = g(A, B, C, D), f = g.
15.2.17. (a) - (. . )
4- . ,
.
(b)*
.
15.2.18. .
15.2.19.
(a) ;
(b) ;
(c) n- ;
(d) ;
(e)* ;
(f)* .

376


( ), , ,
.
15.2.20. (abcde*f*) , ,
n- .
15.2.21. , ,
5 .
15.2.22. 2 , .

15.3

(4). . . , . .

.
.. ..-, . ..-.


,
(
, ).
(x1 , x2 ) . , (x1 , x2 , x3 ). ,
( ).
15.3.1. x1 , x2 , x3 :
(a) x1 = x2 = 2x3 ;

15.

377

(b) x1 + 2x2 + 3x3 = 0, 3x1 + 2x2 + x1 = 1;


(c) x21 + x23 2x3 = 1.
?
, , : , , (x1 , x2 , x3 , x4 )
.
[1, 1] =
{x : |x| 6 1} , 1;
[1, 1]2 = {(x1 , x2 ) : |x1 |, |x2 | 6 1} ,
1; [1, 1]3 =
{(x1 , x2 , x3 ) : |x1 |, |x2 |, |x3 | 6 1} ;
, . . . 1.
1 .
15.3.2. (a) .
(b) n- ?
(c) n- , ?
n + 1 , , n-
, 2n (x1 = = xi1 = xi+1 = = xn = 0, xi =
a), i = 1, . . . , n n- .
15.3.3. (a) n- ?
(b) ?
(c) k- , k 0 n?
(d) , ?
15.3.4. .
15.3.5. n- .
() x = p.
a1 x1 + a2 x2 = p,
a1 a2 .

378

a1 x1 + a2 x2 + a3 x3 = p,
a1 , a2 , a3 . 4

, . .; ( n- )
.
, x1 +x2 = 0, x1 +x2 +x3 = 0,
. .
( ), (), , . ., . ,
{x | x > 0} {x | x < 0}, 4 , . .;
n- , , 2n .
15.3.6. , x1 + . . . + xn = 0?
(a) .
(b) , .
(c) .
x1 +x2 = 0 , (). x1 +x2 +x3 =
0 .
15.3.7. ? .
, [1, 1]4
x1 + x2 + x3 + x4 = 0
; Q3 .
15.3.8. (a) Q3 .
(b) . ,
? Q3 ,
.
(c) Q3 .
, ?
Q3 .

15.

379

15.3.9. ,
, , .
15.3.10. , ,
, .
15.3.11. ?
, , .
v (), e () f () ,
v e, e f . Q
, (v1 , e1 , f1 )
(v2 , e2 , f2 ) , Q
, v1 7 v2 , e1 7 e2 , f1 7 f2 .
15.3.12. , v1 , v2 Q3 , Q3 v1 v2 .
15.3.13. (a) e1 , e2 Q3 ,
v = (1, 1, 1, 1). , , Q3 , v , e1 e2 .
(b) f1 , f2 Q3 ,
e = {(t, 1, t, 1) | 1 6 t 6 1}. ,
, Q3 ,
e v ( (a)) , f1 f2 .
15.3.14. 8, Q3 .
15.3.15. : , 8, 9 10,
7 .

380

15.3.16.
?
15.3.17. :
Q4 , [1, 1]5 x1 + x2 + x3 +
x4 + x5 = 0. ? ? ?
? Q4 ?
,
.
,
, ,
15.3.18. , n- (n+1)- , , n- . , Ln (a, b) = {(x1 , . . . , xn ) | xi
[0, 1], a 6 x1 +. . . xn 6 b}. , Ln+1 (k, k)
Ln (k 1, k). n = 3, k = 2.
P
15.3.19. () n1 ai xi = c, n > 2, ai > 0, ai
, ,
. ,
Pn
, , i=1 ai .
15.3.20. n , 1. n
, n
1. , 1, 2, 4, 8 , 3, 5, 6 .
15.3.21. , > 2 4k.
15.3.22. .
15.3.23. , 12 .

15.

381

15.3.24. , 20 .
: ,
4k ?

.
n- (. . ).
n- V , :
M1 M2 , V (M1 ) = V (M2 );
V (M1 M2 ) = V (M1 ) + V (M2 ) V (M1 M2 );
n 1- ;
a an .
, , . ,
n- V = n1 Sh, S
n 1- , h .
n- (. . n- ), .
15.3.25. 100- () 1 , 1 . ?
15.3.26. , , . . ,
.
15.3.27. - n , n-
R.

382

15.3.28. - n , n-
R.
15.3.29. - n , n-
n- R.
15.3.30. n- 2015
n ?
, n- R
Bn =

n/2
,
(n/2 + 1)

R
(z) = 0 y z ey dy, z > 0 -
. :
(k) = (k + 1)! k (z) = (z 1)z.
(z) Re(z) < 0. ,

(x)(1 x) = / sin(z), (1/2) = /2.


15.3.31. n- .
15.3.32. n- .
n- . ( n-
)
M n- sup{|XY |, X, Y M }, dist(X, Y ) X Y ..
15.3.33. n- .
n- .


x+ = max(x, 0) =

x x > 0,

0 x > 0.
, . , ,

15.

383

. , ax + by + c = 0
( ), ax+
by + c > 0 ax + by + c < 0.
n- .

, , .
15.3.34. S(a, b, d) K = {(x, y) : 0 6 x, y 6 1} ax+by 6
d, a, b > 0, a2 + b2 = 1. ,

1 2
S(a, b, d) =
d+ (d a)2+ (d b)2+ + (d a b)2+
2ab
15.3.35. V (a, b, c, d) K = {(x, y, z) : 0 6 x, y, z 6 1}
ax + by + cz 6 d, a, b, c > 0, a2 + b2 + c2 = 1. ,
1 3
d (d a)3+ (d b)3+ (d c)3+ +
6abc +

+ (d a b)3+ + (d b c)3+ + (d c a)3+ (d a b c)3+ .

V (a, b, c, d) =

15.3.36. V (~a, d), ~a = (a1 , . . . , an ) n- P


K = {(x1 , . . . , xn ) : 0 6 xi 6
1; i = 1,P
. . . , n}
ai xi 6 d, ai > 0, i =
1, . . . , n; a2i = 1. ,

X
X
1

(1)|I| (d
ai )n+
V (~a, d) = Qn
n! i=1 ai
I{1,...,n}

iI


. .
dist(A, B) A B :
D = dist(A, B) =

inf

XA,Y B

dist(X, Y ),

384

15.3.37. n Rn , Vn () n . ,
Vn () n = 1, 2, . . . ?
15.3.38. n Rn , Vn () n .
, Vn () n = 1, 2, . . . ?
1 2 .
1. n Rn , n = 1, 2, . . . , Vn () n . n Vn () ?
2. n Rn , n = 1, 2, . . . , Vnconv () n . n
Vnconv () ?
,
.
15.3.39. , 2 n ,
.
,
15.3.2 . (a) . . 2.
(b) (1, 1, . . . , 1), .
2 (1 1). n.
2 2 . . . 2 = 2n .
(c) ,
.
2 .

15.

385

15.3.3 . (a) . n2n1 .


n- n , , (, i-), 1
( ), i- 1 +1. , , -,
i, -, ,
(1 1) (n 1) . n , 2n1 .
n2n1 .
(b) . n(n 1)2n3 .
n ,
1 1, 1 ( ). , 2
Cn2 = n(n 1)/2 , 2n2 .
2n2 Cn2 .
(c) . 2nk Cnk .
.(b).
(d) : n ,
( ) 1,
1 1 ( , , ). ,
n : 1, 1,
. 3 3 . . . 3 = 3n .
n ( ) .
15.3.12 . . , i1 , i2 , i3 , i4 1, 2, 3, 4 :
(x1 , x2 , x3 , x4 ) 7 (xi1 , xi2 , xi3 , xi4 ). , , ( ) [1, 1]4 x1 + x2 + x3 + x4 = 0

386

(, , i1 , i2 , i3 , i4
1, 2, 3, 4 ). ,
Q3 .
8, ,
Q3
.
( ),
, Q3 :
(x1 , x2 , x3 , x4 ) 7 (x1 , x2 , x3 , x4 ).

15.4

(4). . .

. Rn
diam = sup |x y|,
x, y

|x y| ,
sup , .
,
, .
Rn f (),
, . f (n) max f ().

15.4.1. A = {x1 , . . . , xn } R2 . d =
diam A. , (xi , xj ), |xi
xj | = d}| n.
15.4.2. 1, f (A) 6 3.
15.4.3. B . , f (B) 6 4. ,
. n-
n + 1.

15.

387

Rn (Rn ) ,
, 1.
15.4.4. (R)?
) 1; ) 2; ) 3; ) 4;

15.4.5. f (n) (Rn )? , ?


15.4.6. , f (n) > n + 1, (Rn ) > n + 2 n > 2.

[Ra15-1][Ra15-3].
,


[DS93] ., . //
. 1993. N 1, . 6469.
[Ze85] . , // . 1985. N 9, . 1418.
[An70] . // . 1970.
N 8, . 29, 6264.
[Ma89] . // . 1989.
N 5, . 6365.
[Do88] . //
. 1988. N 5, . 614.
[MD] ., . // .
1988. N 9, . 66-71.
[Ma88] . // .
1983. N 7, .5255.
[1] ., .
// . 1988. N 2.

.
[Sh74] . // .
1974. N 10, . 3237.
388

389

[Fu84] / . . // . 1984. N 2, . 38
40.

.
[ST] ., .
// .
. 3. 2004. . 8.

.
[DR] ., . // . 1986. N 6,
. 37.
[Za10] . . n- //
. . 3. 2010. . 14.
[Ga15] .. . .: , 2015.

.
[Ra15-1] . . ( ).
.: , 2015.
[Ra15-2] . . - ( ). .: , 2015.
[BG65] . ., . . . .: , 1965.
[Ra15-3] . . ( ). .: , 2015.

390

16
16.1


(2). . .

16.1.1. A B
3 . A 50 , B 100
. ,
, , ?
a) A;
b) A;
c) ;
d) B;
e) B;
f) .
16.1.2. 6 12.
x ?
) 6 < x < 12;
) 6 6 x 6 12;
) 6 < x < 18;
) 6 6 x 6 18;
) 0 < x < 18;
) .
16.1.3. b c
?
) ;
) , ;
) , ;
) ,
;
) ,
;
) .
16.1.4.
?
a) , ;

16.

391

b) , ;
c) ;
d) .
16.1.5. , , , .
a) ( );
b) ;
c) ;
d) ;
e) ;
f) .
16.1.6.
(a) ;
(b)
.
16.1.7. , ,
.
16.1.8. P , ABC,
P A0 , P B 0 P C 0 BC, CA AB
. P , P A0 P B 0 P C 0 .
.
16.1.9. P , ABC, P A0 , P B 0 P C 0 BC, CA AB
. P ,
CA
AB
BC
P A0 + P B 0 + P C 0 .
16.1.10.
?
16.1.11. ,
.

392

16.1.12. P AOB. M N , P ,
OM + ON .
16.1.13. AB ABC
O. M N AC
BC ,
b a. OM +
ON , ACB .
,
16.1.6 . : , .
ABC, BAC = ; |BC| = a;
PABC = 2p.
(a)
BC A. a
R = 2 sin
, , BC, BC
(. . 2.40 ). SABC = 0,5aha ,
, . .
.
(b) A. O0 , a, ra =
|AK| tg 2 = p tg 2 , K AB (. . 2.40 ). SABC =
(p a)ra , a, . . BC
AO0 ( ). ,
ABC .
16.1.7 . : .
ABC, ~ = ~a, OB
~ = ~b OC
~ = ~c,
R O (. . 2.41). OA

16.

393
A
A

A
A

A11111
A
B
B
B000000
B
K
K

B
B

C
C

O
O

C
C00000
C
C
P
P

. 2.40:

AB 2 + BC 2 + CA2 = (~b ~a)2 + (~c ~b)2 + (~a ~c)2 =


= 2(a2 + b2 + c2 ) 2((~a, ~b) + (~b, ~c) + (~c, ~a)).
(~a + ~b + ~c)2 = a2 + b2 + c2 + 2(~a ~b + ~b ~c + ~c ~a),
AB 2 +BC 2 +CA2 = 3(a2 +b2 +c2 )(~a +~b+~c)2 6 3(a2 +b2 +c2 ) = 9R2 ,
, ~a +~b+~c =
~0, . . O .
, ABC .
: , ,
.
16.1.8 . : .
ABC P .
P A0 , P B 0 P C 0 P (. . 2.42).
P A0 P B 0 P C 0 =

2SBP C 2SCP A 2SAP B

.
a
b
c

394


B
B
B
B

bb

aa

O
O

C
C00000

cc

A
A

C
C
A
A
A

. 2.41:

P
P
B00000
B

00
A
A000

C
C

. 2.42:

, ,
.
P SABC ,
, SBP C = SCP A = SAP B , . .
P ABC.
16.1.9 . : , .
ABC P .
P A0 , P B 0 P C 0 ,
, P (. . 2.42
3). P A0 = x, P B 0 = y P C 0 = z, :
ax + by + cz = 2SABC .

b
c
b
c
+
+ +
2SABC =
ax + by + cz =
x y z
x y z
y z
z
x y
x
+
+
+
+ bc
+ ca
>
= a2 + b2 + c2 + +ab
y x
z y
x z
> a2 + b2 + c2 + 2ab + 2bc + 2ca = (a + b + c)2 ,
+

, x = y =
z. , P .

16.
B
B

395

C
C

A
A
D
D

. 2.43:
16.1.10 . : .
ABCD , (. . 2.43). . ABCD
. .
, , ,
(. [Pro05]).

16.1.11 . : 3 2.
,
1.
16.1.12 . . M N . P , .
OA OB K L . OM + ON = (OK + OL) + (KM + LN ),
, KM + LN .
KM P LP N , KM
= KP
LN ,
PL
.. KM LN = KP
P L. , KM +LN > 2 KM LN =
2 KP P L = 2 OK OL,
, KM = LN = OK OL.
, , OK OL OKP L ,
.

396

,
,

OM + ON = ( a + b)2 , a b OKP L.
. KM LN = KP P L . M N ,
AOB. Q , E F LP KP c M Q N Q ,
OKP L P EQF .

16.1.13 . : 1+2 2 (a + b).


ABDE , AB, [OM ]
4ADC, [ON ] 4BEC (. . 2.44).
AC BC
AKLC BT P C. [BK] [AT ], 4ABT = 4DBC
4BAK = 4EAC ( ). , |DC| , |AT |
, . . T (AC). |EC|
, |BK| , . . K (BC). , ACB =
135 .

1
1
1+ 2
(a+b).
|OM |+|ON | = (|DC|+|EC|) = (b+a 2+a+b 2) =
2
2
2
. ,
B A .

16.2

(2). . .

16.2.1.

, 2 6 ,
12 2 .
16.2.2. 15 ,
4 , 13 . .

16.

397

L
L
L

K
K
K

P
P
P
C
C
N
N

M
M
A
A

TT

B
B

O
O

E
E

D
D

. 2.44:
16.2.3. ,
r.
16.2.4. , ,
p : q, . ?
16.2.5. 35 ; 29 8 . : (a)
; (b) .
16.2.6. 10 , , , 9 , 6 .
.
16.2.7. , .
16.2.8. O,
S, -

398

. .
16.2.9. ABCD E
CD, F AD, K AC BE. , BKF
ABC.
16.2.10. P Q M N A. C , B
, BC k P Q |BC| = |M A|. A
B AK BL CQ. ,
ACK BCL .
16.2.11.
. .
16.2.12. BD ABCD ABC. ABCD,
|BD| = 6 , ABC = 60 .
16.2.13. AD BC ABCD E; M N AB
CD; P Q AC BD. ,
(a) SP M QN = 12 |SABD SACD |;
(b) SP EQ = 41 SABCD .
16.2.14. ABCD S.
AB CD , AD
BC . :
|AB| |CD| + |AD| |BC|
|AB| |CD| sin + |AD| |BC| sin
6S6
.
2
2
,
16.2.7 . ABCDEF GH , S
.
. K, L D
AC GE , M , N

16.

399

K
K
C
C
C
B
B

D
D
L
L

A
A

O
O
O

M
M
H
H

E
E

F
F
G
G
G
N
N

. 2.45:
H (. . 2.45). S = SKLN M = |KL| |KM | =
|CE| |DH|, .
. 135 .
|CD| = |CE| = a, CDE:
q

|CE|2 = 2a2 2a2 cos 135 |CE| = a 2 + 2;


q

|AE| = |CE| 2 = a 2 2 + 2;

1
S = 8S4AOB = 4R2 sin 45 = 2R2 2 = |AE|2 2 = |AE| |CE|.
2
16.2.8 . : 2S.
ABCD ; E, F , G H ; E 0 , F 0 , G0 H 0 O
(. . 2.46).
[EF ] E 0 OF 0 , SE 0 OF 0 =
4SEOF . SF 0 OG0 = 4SF OG ; SG0 OH 0 = 4SGOH SH 0 OE 0 =
4SHOE . , SE 0 F 0 G0 H 0 = 4SEF GH .
SEF GH = SABCD /2, , SE 0 F 0 G0 H 0 = 2S.
16.2.9 . . EF S
ADC (. . 2.47 ). S4BKF
= |BK|
|BE| ,
4BEF

400

00
E
E000

F
F 00000

B
B
B
F
F

E
E
E

C
C

O
O

A
A
A

G
G

H
H
00
H
H000

D
D

G00000
G

. 2.46:
, F , .
, EF k AC, ,
B EF AC, |BE| : |BK|,
S4BEF
|EF | |BE|
1 |BE|
=
=
.
S4ABC
|AC| |BK|
2 |BK|
S

, : S4BKF
= 21 .
4ABC
. a, c, f d , BE A, C, F D (.
. 2.47 ). c = d; f = a+d
2 . ,
S4ABC = S4ABK + S4KBC =
1
1
= |BK| (a + c) = |BK| (a + d) = |BK| f = 2S4BKF ,
2
2
.
. BD EF (. . 2.47 ).
, S4BAF =
1
1
2 S4BAD S4ABF = 2 S4ABD . , EF
ADC, S4DEF = S4EF K = 41 S4ACD . ,
S4BKF = SABCD S4ABF S4BCE SDF KE =
1
1
= (S4ABD + S4BCD + S4ACD ) = S4ABC .
2
2

16.
B
B

401
B
B

C
C

K
K

K
K cc
aaa

E
E

C
C
E
E
E

ff
A
A

F
F

D
D

A
A

F
F

D
D

dd

B
B
K
K

C
C
E
E
E

A
A

F
F

D
D

. 2.47:
16.2.10 . , . 4,
. BCQ = P QC = . ,
P CQ = 90 , CP Q = 90 (. . 2.48).
AD k CQ , D [CP ]. , DCKA ,
, |AD| = |CK|.
1
1
SACK = |CK| |AK| = |AD| |AK| =
2
2
1
1

= |AP | sin(90 ) |AQ| sin = |AP | |AQ| sin cos =


2
2
1
1
1
= |AM |2 sin cos = |BC|2 sin cos = |CL| |BL| = SBCL .
2
2
2

16.2.11 . : 5+2 5 .
ABCDE , ACBD = P (. . 2.49).
SAED = SCED = 1, A C
DE, . . AC k DE. BD k AE, . . AP DE , , SAP DE = 2.

402


C
C
D
D

B
B
B

M
M

L
L
K
K

P
P

Q
Q

A
A

N
N

. 2.48:
B
B
B
P
P

A
A
A

E
E

C
C

D
D

. 2.49:
SABP = x, SABCDE = SAP DE +SABP +SBCD = 3+x.
|AP |
SADP
x
1
2
ABP
= |CP
SSCBP
| = SCDP , 1x = 1(1x) x + x 1 =

1 5
.
2

5+ 5
2 .

0 x =

51
2

, x > 0, : SABCDE = 3 +

16.2.12 . : 9 3 2 .
, ABCD |AD| = |DC|.
. BD (.
. 2.50 ). D ABC,
DK ABD
DK 0 BCD. AKD
CK 0 D ( ),
SABCD =

,
SBKDK 0 = 2S4BKD = |BK| |KD| = 3 3 3 = 9 3.
. D ADC
(. . 2.50 ).

16.

403

A
A

B
B
C
C

A
A

K
K

D
D

B
B
C
C

D
D

K00000
K

B00000
B

. 2.50:
A B C B 0 , . .
ABD CB 0 D.
ABCD , BCD + BAD =
180 , , B, C B 0 . , ABCD BDB 0 .
BDB 0 , |DB 0 | =
|DB| = 6 ; B 0 = B = 30 .

1
SABCD = S4BDB 0 = |BD| |B 0 D| sin 120 = 9 3.
2
16.2.13 . (a) P M QN ; = P M Q = CED, SP M QN = |M P | |M Q| sin =
1
4 |BC| |AD| sin .
, E = [CB)[DA) (. 2.51). SABD <
SACD .
ABD ACD,
B C, |BE| sin |CE| sin ,
SACD SABD = 12 (|CE| |BE|) |AD| sin = 12 |BC| |AD| sin .
E = [BC)[AD), SABD > SACD . ,
, SABD SACD = 12 |BC| |AD| sin .

404


C
C

P
P

B
B
M
M
E
E

N
N

Q
Q
A
A
A

D
D

. 2.51:
, SP M QN = 12 |SABD SACD |,
.
(b) . (a) , E = [CB) [DA).
P M k CE QM k DE, M P EQ (. . 2.51), SP EQ = SP M Q + SP M E + SQM E .
(a): SP M Q = 21 SP M QN = 14 (SACD SABD ).
P M EA , , SP M E =
SAM P = 41 SABC . SQM E = SBM Q = 14 SABD .
,
1
1
1
1
1
1
SP EQ = SACD SABD + SABC + SABD = (SACD +SABC ) = SABCD .
4
4
4
4
4
4
16.2.14 . , [BA)
[CD) = P , [BC) [AD) = Q. BP C = ; BQA = (.
. 2.52).
. ADC
ADCK, K ABCD.
,
1
S > SABCK = SABK + SBCK = |AB| |AK| sin +
2
1
1
+ |CB| |CK| sin = (|AB| |AD| sin + |CB| |AD| sin ).
2
2

16.

405
P
P

A
A
D
D
D

K
K
B
B

D00000
D
C
C

Q
Q

. 2.52:
. m [AC] D0 = Sm (D).
S = SABCD0 = SABD0 + SBCD0 6
1
1
1
6 |AB| |AD0 | + |CB| |CD0 | = (|AB| |CD| + |BC| |AD|),
2
2
2
.

16.3

(3). . .

.
. F1 F2 .
F1 F2 ,
F1 F2 , |F1 F2 |.
.
F1 F2 .
F1 F2 ,
F1 F2 , 0
|F1 F2 |.
, ( F1 F2 )
, . , ,
. .

406

F l. F l ,
F l.
,
, .
, .
, .
, .
16.3.1. (a) , ,
.
(b) , (a).
16.3.2. , . ,
(a) ( ) ;
(b) ,
.
16.3.3. (a) . l P . , l
F1 P F2 .
(b) .
(c) F1 F2 . ,

(. .
).
16.3.4. AB. A B P .
(a) , AB F1 , P F1 AB .

16.

407

(b) , F1 P A = F2 P B ( ,
).
(c) , AF1 P = P F1 B.
16.3.5. ,
, . .
.
16.3.6. , .
(a) ,
.
(b ) , , ,
( ).
16.3.7. , .
(a) , .
(b ) , , , ( ).
16.3.8. , ,
.
16.3.9. , . ,
, .
, ,
. ,
. , . ,

408

. .
16.3.10. . (a) . , b1 b2
F1 F2 . ,
F1 F2 ,
b1 b2 .
(b)
,
.
16.3.11. . ,
, ?
) ; ) ; ) ; ) .
,
16.3.1 . (a) F1 F2 , X. F1 X Y .
X . F2 X < XY + Y F2 , , F1 X + XF2 < F1 X + XY + Y F2 =
F1 Y + F2 Y (. 2.53).

. 2.53:
F1 Y + F2 Y . , X , : F2 Y <

16.

409

XY + XF2 . , F1 X + XF2 = F1 Y + Y X + XF2 >


F1 Y + F2 Y .
(b) , ,
, , , , , .

: F1 F2 d. ,
F1 , . , XF1 ,
XF2 XF1 d, , , .
16.3.2 . . (a) O1 , O2 |r1 r2 |.
(b) O1 , O2 |r1 + r2 |.
O r
, OO1 = r + r1 , OO2 = r + r2
, , OO1 OO2 = r1 r2 , . . O
O1 , O2 .
,
.
, , OO1 OO2 r1 +r2 , . . O
.

. 2.54:

16.3.3 . (a) X l, P .
X , XF1 + XF2 > P F1 + P F2 (
1), . . l P

410

F1 F2 . , , P ,
, , P F1 P F2 l, .
(b) : l P , P 0
P , l
F P P 0 .
: l P ,
l F1 P F2 , F1 F2 .
(c) F1 F2
P . F1 P F2 . , .
16.3.4 . (a) P A P B 4F2 AB. , P
.
( F10 ) F2 , . . F10 A + AF2 = F2 B + BF10 .
F1 , . ,
F10 F1 . , F1
, , P F1 AB .
(b) F10 , F20 , F1 F2
P A P B (. 2.55).

. 2.55:
P F10 = P F1 P F20 = P F2 . , F1 , B F20

16.

411

( ).
F2 , A F10 . F2 F10 = F2 A + AF1 =
F2 B + BF1 = F20 F1 . , P F2 F10 P F1 F20
( ). :
F2 P F1 + 2F1 P A = F2 P F10 = F1 P F20 = F1 P F2 + 2F2 P B.
, F1 P A = F2 P B, .
(c) P F2 F10 P F1 F20 ,
P F10 F2 P F1 F20 . :
P F1 A = P F10 F2 = P F1 F20 = P F1 B.
16.3.5 . F1 F2 . X Y P . F1 P X.
F10 . 4 ) , XP Y = F10 P F2 F10 F2 =
F1 X + F2 X, . . F10 F2 . F10 P F2 , F10 P 2 + F2 P 2 = F10 F22 ( ). , F1 P F2
, F1 P 2 + F2 P 2
.
, , P
. , F1
(x1 ; y1 ), F2 (x2 ; y2 ).
P
(x x1 )2 + (y y1 )2 + (x x2 )2 + (y y2 )2 = C,
C .
x2 y 2 ( 2) xy 0, , , . ,
F1 F2 , ,
, ,
a2 + b2 , a, b .

412

. 2.56:
16.3.6 . (a) ,
,
. , ,
. 1 . .
(b) 1 (.).
.
.
.
.
2. , . ,
, ,
, . .
16.3.7 . (a) 6 ) 4
.
(b) 16.3.6.
16.3.8 . . ABC
, H X, Y

16.

413

. A B , X, C H , Y . U V
, B 0 , B (. . 2.57).

. 2.57:
BB 0 CV AU B 0 H BC AH, AB 0 U = AHU , V B 0 C = V BC.
AHU = V BC, ,
, U , B 0 , V AXBHY C , . . ABCXY H.
16.3.9 . , (
1 ) . , X

414

. 2.58:

1
F1 XF2 .
XM XN . F1 XN = F2 XM ,
, N XM F1 XF2 . l.
Y l, Y L Y R , , XM
XN , . 2.58.
, Y X,
.
P XM Y L.
, Y N < Y R+ ^ RN , ^ LM < LP + P M (
, ). ,
l N XP , P X + XN <

16.

415

P Y + Y N . :
M X + XN + ^ N M < M X + XN + ^ N L + LP + P M =
= P X + XN + ^ N L + LP < P Y + Y N + ^ N L + LP =
= LY +Y N + ^ N L < LY +Y R+ ^ RN + ^ N L = LY +Y R+ ^ RL.
. , Y 1 .
Y l. , 1
l, . . .
, .
1 F1 F2
. , , , .
16.3.10 . , , .

16.4


(3). . .

. 1113.
,

. ,

(., , ).
.
.
. , a, b c,
, .
a, b c. .

416

.
4 ?
. , 120 .
16.4.1. , 4 90 (
).
16.4.2. 4 (. . ,
). , .
16.4.3. 4 ,
60 .
(a) , d,
a, b c.
(b) a, b c d .
(c) 4 , d.
16.4.4. 4 180 . , .
16.4.5. 4 180 .
(a) , a, b c,
, .
(b) ,
.

16.

417

(c) ,
(
).
,
.
16.4.6. , 180 .
16.4.7. ,
a.
a) ;
) a;
) , a;
) , a, a;
) .
16.4.8. ?
) , .
) , .
) , .
16.4.9. ?
) 1; ) 2; ) 3; ) .
16.4.10. 4 (. . ). ,
4? 1.

418

16.4.11. 4
180 , a, b c .
(a) , ,
a, b c, .
(b) , 4 .
16.4.12. , 180 .


16.4.13. ha , b c,
a.
hb hc . ( .) , , .
16.4.14. ha , hb hc a, b c Ha , Hb Hc .
, Ha , Hb Hc , 9 . Ma , Mb Mc
9 a, b c . ma , b c
Ma . mb mc . ,
, .
16.4.15. ,
a, b, c. Ga , Gb , Gc
a, b c . ga Ga b c. gb gc -

16.

419

. , ga , gb , gc
, .
16.4.16. , 9 (. 16.4.11)
(. 16.4.12)?
, ,
?
,
16.4.1 . . . 2.59.

. 2.59:
16.4.2 . , d a, b c. , ,
d, a, b c. ,
. d,
.
16.4.13 . . [Sk07, ].


[*] .
[Ga85] . // . 1985. N 10, . 1519.
[Ti83] . // . 1983.
N 1, . 2225.
[Tr] . , // . 1985. N 5, . 2227.
[Pro05] . . . .:
, 2005.
.
[Pra86] . ... // . 1986. N 5, .
1619.
[To84] . ? // .
1984. N 12, . 912.
.
[AZ11] . ., . .
. , 2011.
[Be] . // .
1986. N 8, . 57.
420

421

.
[VG88] ., .
// . 1988. N 2, . 5255.
[Sa84] . ? // . 1984.
Nfrm[o], . 1420.
[SU84] ., . // . 1984. N 6,
. 5-11.
[Bo91] . // .
1991. N 4, . 813.
[Ya69] . . . ( , . 11). .: , 1969. 304 .
[Sk07] . . //
. . 2007. . 11.
. 7989. http://www.mccme.ru/free-books/matprosa.html

422

17.

17

423

?. .
1 [1].

17.1

. . . .
(1)


.
17.1.1. (a) ,
. .
(b) ?
(c) ,
?
(d) : ,
, ?
17.1.2.
. , ?
17.1.3. (a) ,
1, . . . , 7.
(b) 1, 2, 3, . . . , 9 ,
. .
(c) ,
.
17.1.4. (a)
. ( ,
, ).
,
?

424


(b) , .

17.1.5. (a) 6- ,
4, 5, 5, 6, 6, 6.
(b) 10- ,
4, 5, 5, 6, 6, 6, 7, 7, 7, 7.
17.1.6. (a) 8
. , 3 .
?
(b) 5 ?
(c) ?
,
17.1.1 . : (b) 2500;

(c) 884 375;

(d) .

17.1.2 . : 450.
17.1.4 . (a) : . : .
(b) : . : .
. , .
, , 6431.
6432.
, , . ,
6432 6431 , . .
17.1.5 . (a) : 35555520.
. , .
6! = 720 . , 6!
= 60.
, . , 3!2!
. 60 , 10 .
120 , 20 . 180 , 30 .

425

410+520+630 = 320. 320+32010+320100+3201000+32010000+320100000 =


320 111111.
17.1.6 . (a) : 93. ,

0, 1, 2 3 . 80 +
8 8 8
1 + 2 + 3 = 93 .
8 (b)8:
8 219.
8
8 8 5
.
0 + 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 5 = 219

(c) : 256 (= 28 = 80 + 81 + 82 + 83 + 84 + 85 + 86 +
8 8
7 + 8 ).

17.2

. . . (2)

17.2.1. 9
10 33 .
, ?
17.2.2. 33 . ,
( ). , 0 10 .
?
17.2.3. (a) 100 ?
(b) n 2 ?
(c) n ?
17.2.4. 2007 , 40 . . , ?

426

17.2.5. , 100 , 101 .


, ?
17.2.6. ,
, . ,
k . 3k 2 ,
?
17.2.7. {1, 2, . . . , N }, . .
.
,
17.2.1 . : 7. m > 0 9
n > 0 10. 9m + 10n 33.
n , 9m +
10n = 33 .
9m + 10n = 66 m = 4, n = 3.
,
m + n = 7 2 . 9m + 10n > 99,
m + n > 99
10 > 7. 7.
17.2.2 . : .
17.2.3 . (a) : 299 . 2100 . : . 299 ,
. 299 , , .

427

(b) : 2n1 . .
,
, . ,
2n . :
, , , , ,
. , 2n1 .
n
(c) : 3 21 . .
:
, , . ,
3n . .
. ,
n
3 21 .
17.2.4 . : .
17.2.5 . : .
17.2.6 . : .
17.2.7 . : (N + 1)! 1.

17.3

. . .
(2)

.
?
.
. , - ,
. , . 17.1 .

428

17.3.1. 1 n,

(a) 1, 2 ?
(b) 1, 2 3 ?
(c) 1, 2 3 ?
(d) 1, 2, 3 4 ?
(n) , . .
1 n, n.
17.3.2. (a) 1 1001, 7, 11, 13.
(b) (1), (p), (p2 ), (p ), p , >
2.
(c) (n) = n(1 p11 ) . . . (1 p1s ), n = p1 1 . . .ps s
n.
17.3.3. (a) 24 2 ( ) 12 2 .
4 2 .
(b) ( ). .

.
(c)* , (b),
.
: U () Ak U , k =
1, . . . , n. , Ak (. . |A1 . . . An |), ,
Ak (. . |U \ (A1 . . . An )|).
(. 17.3.5.b).
,
(. 17.3.5.a).

429

17.3.4. A1 , A2 , A3 , A4 U .
(a) A1 A2 = (A1 \A2 ) t (A1 A2 ) t (A2 \A1 ).
(b) |A1 A2 | = |A1 | + |A2 | |A1 A2 |.
(c) |A1 A2 A3 | = |A1 | + |A2 | + |A3 | |A1 A2 | |A2 A3 |
|A1 A3 | + |A1 A2 A3 |.
(a) U ,
A1 , A2 , A3 ,
|U ||A1 ||A2 ||A3 |+|A1 A2 |+|A2 A3 |+|A1 A3 ||A1 A2 A3 |.
(b) k = 1, 2, 3, 4
X
Mk :=
|Ai1 Ai2 . . . Aik |.
16i1 <<ik 64

, A,
Ai , |U | M1 + M2 M3 + M4 .
() (b) , Ai , M1 2M2 + 3M3 4M4 .
17.3.5. .
T A1 , . . . , An U .
|
Aj | := U .
j
T
(a) |S| := |
Aj | |S|
jS

S Rn , .

n
X
n
(1)k+1
k ,
|A1 . . . An | =
k
k=1

n
X
k n
|U \ (A1 . . . An )| =
(1)
k .
k
k=0
P
T
(b) Mk :=
|
Aj |. , M0 := |U |.
S(Rkn ) jS

|A1 . . . An | = M1 M2 + M3 . . . + (1)n+1 Mn ,
|U \ (A1 . . . An )| = M0 M1 + M2 + . . . + (1)n Mn .

430


(c) . 0 6 s < n/2

M1 M2 +M3 . . .M2s 6 |A1 . . .An | 6 M1 M2 +M3 . . .+M2s+1 ,


M0 M1 + M2 . . . + M2s 6 |U \ (A1 . . . An )| 6
6 M0 M1 + M2 . . . M2s+1 .
(d) , r

n
X
kr k
A1 , . . . , An ,
(1)
Mk .
r
k=r

17.3.6. 10 .
(a) ,
?
(b) ,
4 , 50 000.
17.3.7 ,
( ).
17.3.7. (a) 20
5 , ?
(b) f : Rk Rn ?
17.3.8. 1, 2, . . . , n.
k , .
(b) n ,
.
17.3.9. 20 8000 ,
. , 20 , , 1 ( ). 10.
1 20 20, .
.
17.3.10. ,

431

(a) ?
?

(c)

17.3.11.

(b) ?

n! x1 x2 . . . xn = (x1 + x2 + . . . + xn )n
X

(xi1 + xi2 + . . . + xin1 )n +


16i1 <i2 <...<in1 6n

(xi1 + xi2 + . . . + xin2 )n . . . + (1)n1

n
X

xni .

i=1

16i1 <i2 <...<in2 6n

,
17.3.1 . (a) : n! 2(n 1)! + (n 2)!. .
n! . (n 1)! , 1 .
(n1)! , 2
. (n 2)! ,
1 2 , . ,
(n 2)! ,
1 . : n! 2(n 1)! + (n 2)!.
. 17.3.5, .

17.3.2 . (a) : 720.


. j, 1001, Aj 1 1001, j.
|Aj | =

1001
j

Ap1 . . . Apk = Ap1 ...pk

p1 , . . . , pk . ,

432


|{1, . . . , 1001} \ (A7 A11 A13 )| =
= 1001 |A7 | |A11 | |A13 | + |A7 A11 | + |A7 A13 | + |A11 A13 |
|A7 A11 A13 | =
= 1001 |A7 | |A11 | |A13 | + |A77 | + |A91 | + |A143 | |A1001 | =
= 1001 143 91 77 + 7 + 11 + 13 1 = 720.
. (1001) = (7)(11)(13).
(c) j | n Aj
Rn , , j. ,
|Aj | =

n
j

Ap1 . . . Apk = Ap1 ...pk

p1 , . . . , pk .

X
Mk :=
16j1 <<jk 6s

n
.
pj1 pj2 . . . pjk

(n) = |Rn \ (Ap1 . . . Aps )|,


(. 17.3.5.b) ,

1
1
(n) = M0 M1 + M2 . . . = n 1
... 1
.
p1
ps
17.3.3 . (a) Aj , j-
, |Aj | j- ( ).
, . . j, k |Aj Ak | < 4. ,
24 > |A1 A2 A3 | > |A1 |+|A2 |+|A3 ||A1 A2 ||A2 A3 ||A1 A3 | >
> 12 + 12 + 12 4 4 4 = 24,

(. 17.3.5.c).
.
(b, c) [2].

433

17.3.6 . (a) : 1334961 = round(10!/e), e := 1 + 1!1 + 2!1 +


1
1
3! + . . . + n! + . . . round(x)
x.
. n := 10, U , Aj ,
j- .
k-
T
S Rn .
Aj
jS

, j S . ,
|

Aj | = (n k)(n k 1) . . . 1 = (n k)!.

jS

17.3.5.a,

n
X
k n
|U \ (A1 . . . An )| =
(1)
(n k)! =
k
k=0

n! n! n!
n!
= n!
+

+ . . . + (1)n = round(n!/e).
1!
2!
3!
n!
(b) ,
4 10, ,
, .
(a)

6!
10
6! 6! 6!
6! + + . . . +
>
1! 2! 3!
6!
4
10 9 8 7 6! 6!

>
= 210 240 = 7 7200 > 50 000.
24
2
6

17.3.7 . (a) U , Aj
, j- .
, T

S , |
Aj | = (5 |S|)20 .
jS

434

17.3.5.a :

5
X
k n
|U \ (A1 . . . A5 )| =
(1)
(5 k)20 =
k
k=0




5 20
5 20
5 20
5 20
20
=5
4 +
3
2 +
1 .
1
2
3
4
(b) U = Rn Rk Rk Rn .
j = 1, . . . , n Aj = (Rn \ {j})Rk Rk Rn , j. T Rk Rn
U \ (A1 A2 . . . An ). |
Aj | = (n |S|)k .
jS

17.3.5.a, :
|U \ (A1 A2 . . . An )| =



n
n
n
k
k
k
=n
(n 1) +
(n 2) . . . +
1k .
1
2
n
n nk
.
nk k
(b) (a).

17.3.8 . (a) :

17.3.9 . : 333. .
17.3.5.a 400 3 20 + 3 1 10 = 333.
. [2, 98400]. K
.
361 ,
, 361.
S , , ( 361).
19 , .
( 19) S 19 , , K. 1 10 = 9. S = 19 (9) = 28.
: 361 28 = 333.

435

. . . 1

17.4

.
, ; , ,
, . .
.
,
.


, c0 , c1 , c2 , c3 . . . .
:
n
cn

0
1

1
1

2
2

3
5

4
14

5
42

6
132

7
429

8
1430

9
4862

10
16796

11
58786

12
208012

. .
1. n .
. , . ( ). ,
(, ) ,
.
n 6 3:
1

. , . . .

74

436

n=0

n=1

n=2

n=3

2. (n + 2)- (,
, )2 .
. n 6 3:

n=0

n=1

n=2

n=3

( n = 0
).
3. n .
3 , , . , . , ,
.
: . n = 0
, . :

()
n=0 n=1
2

(()) ()()
n=2

((())) (())() (()()) ()(()) ()()()


n = 3.

(n +
2)- c ( ).
3
, ;

437


.
c0 , c1 , c2 , . . . , cn , . . .
4. , 4

1 1 4x
= c0 + c1 x + c2 x2 + . . .
2x
.
5. ,
c0 = 1,
cn+1 = c0 cn + c1 cn1 + + cn1 c1 + cn c0
n = 0, 1, 2, 3, . . . .
6. ,
c0 = 1,
4n + 2
cn+1 =
cn
n+2
n = 0, 1, 2, 3, . . . .
.
7.
2n
cn =

n+1


17.4.1. 10 4- .
4

(
f (x) = f (0) +
P
n
(n)
(0) xn! (1 + t) = 1 + t + (1)
t2 +
n=1 f
2!
(1)(2) 3
1
t + . . . ), |x| < 4 .
3!

438

17.4.2. 10 6- .
17.4.3. ?
.
17.4.4. 5 n = 1, . . . , 6.

17.4.5.
, , ,
. ,
,
:
, ,
. , ,
, .
, (
) , .
17.4.6. . 16- ,
.
, .
17.4.7. ,
, .
.
17.4.8. 1 3.
U V .

U #V := (U )V.

439

17.4.9. ,
U V U #V = V #U ?
17.4.10.
.
17.4.11. 2 5.
. . .
17.4.12. 3 5.
. , ( ) .
17.4.13. 4 5.
17.4.14. 2 6.
. .
17.4.15. 6 7.

17.4.16. 17 ,
?
17.4.17. .
17.4.18. , .
, 1n , 2n , 3n , . . .
a1 , a2 , a3 , . . . , a > 1.
c100 , c2007 ?

( [5]), .


[1] . ., . ., . ., . .,
. ., . ., . .
. .: , 2015.
http://www.mccme.ru/circles/oim/discrbook.pdf.
. -
[2] . // . 1974. N 2.
[3] - http://problems.ru.
.
[4] . //
: . . 1 / . . . ; .
. . . .: , 2009.
[5] ., . // . 2011.
N 3. . 1722.

440

18.

18

441

6-7 ,
,
[5].
.

18.1

(1). . .

1- (1)
, :
18.1.1. ) . n n , , .
) . n N
, N/n .
) . n
N , N/n,
N/n.
,
.
.
18.1.2. - 10- 27 . , 3 ,
, 7 , . ( 5, 4, 3 2.)
18.1.3. 7 , 99% 100 . , 2 ,
, .
18.1.4. , 11 2, 10.
18.1.5. , 5 .

442

18.1.6. , ,
5.
18.1.7. 5 . , , ,
.
18.1.8. 21 200 . , .
18.1.9. , ,
1991.
18.1.10. 5 5 .
,
( ) . , -
2 .
18.1.11. , k +2 , k >
1, ,
(a) 2; (b) 2k + 1.
18.1.12. 12 . , /12.
18.1.13. 4 4 6 . , 2 2 ,
.
2- (2)
, .
18.1.14.
?
18.1.15. 2 , 2 : 3. ,
3 .

443

18.1.16. 45-.
0, 1, . . . , 9 ,
, ?
18.1.17. 60 40 ,
10 . ,
- .
18.1.18. , 2k+1 ,
2k 1, ,
.
.
18.1.19. {an } , {an }
, 1 . , {an } , .
18.1.20. 1000 1000
499 . ,
,
.
18.1.21. 50 .
,
, .
1 .
. 25.4 25.5
.

444

,
18.1.2 . -
0 10. 11 .
27,
27
11 .
5
27
11 = 2 11 > 2, ( ) . , ,
( )
27
1
4 = 6 4 > 6, 7.
18.1.5 . ,
0 4 ( 5 ).
4
0 , , .
, , . (0
4 ) 4
. 5 ,
.
18.1.9 . . [4].
18.1.13 . , ,
4 : ,
1
6
4 = 1 2 > 1, 2. 3 4, ,
. 4 ,
. 2 , 3 4 ,
, 2 .
4 .

445

. . 2
.

18.2

(2). . .

.
, ,
.
18.2.1. 100- ,
. , .
18.2.2. ,
( ). , .
18.2.3. 1, 2, . . . , 8. , ,
, .
18.2.4. , 10 5 .
18.2.5. 100
, . ,
. , ,
.
18.2.6. . ,
, .
18.2.7. , . . , ,
- .

446

18.2.8. . ,
, .
18.2.9. . , ,
,
.
18.2.10. ,
. ,
( ) ,
, 5.
18.2.11.
. , , ,
.
,
18.2.1 . .
.
. , . ,
50 , .
18.2.4 . 5 , .
. 20.5 , 20.5.8.
18.2.5 . ( )
[5].

447

18.2.7 . . . - ,
.
.
. , .

18.3

I (2)5 . . .

: ,
- , . , , .
18.3.1. 21000 .
a1 , a2 , . . . ( ), , ,
. : 1, 2, 3, 4, 1, 2, 3, 4, . . . .
. 1, 2, 3, 4, 1, 2, 3, 4, 1, 2, 3, 4 ( ).
.
, . : 2, 2, 1, 2, 3, 1, 2, 3, 1, 2, 3 . . .
2, 2 1, 2, 3.
5

[6].

448

18.3.2. ,
1990 7 ,
1990.
18.3.3. ,
.
4 , . ,
.
, , . .
.
18.3.4. {fn } :
f1 = f2 = 1, fn+1 = fn + fn1 . , , 1990.
18.3.5. .
u1 , u2 , . . . , k, a1 , . . . , ak n > k un = a1 un1 + a2 un2 + . . . + ak unk . , ai un .
) , un
l .
) .
) , .
) .
.
18.3.6. . ,
, .
18.3.7. 20 . 20 . ,
,

449

. , ,
.
18.3.8.
. ,
.
18.3.9. . ,
15 16 . , , :
... ...
.
18.3.10. .
,
, .
(
) ?
18.3.11. . ,
,
. , :
a) 2n ,
3 2n .
) , (
).
18.3.12. . 9
. ,
.

450

18.3.13. 7.
, . , .
,
18.3.118.3.4 18.3.6 [6].
18.3.1 . ( 20 , 21 , 22 , . . .). : 1, 2, 4, 8, 6, 2, 4, 8, 6, . . ..
. , (
) . , . 2, 4, 8, 6
. , 21000
6.
18.3.4 .
m: r1 = 1, r2 = 1, . . ..
, i 6= j ,
ri = rj ri+1 = rj+1 . ri ri+1
,
l := j i .
, rl+1 = rl+2 = 1, rl = 0.

18.4

II (2). . .

. (, , , ), .
18.4.1. x1 +

xn + x1 = 2 n = 9.

x2 = x2 + x3 = . . . =

II

451

18.4.2. . ,
, . , . ( . . 1988. N 1112.)
18.4.3. 20 . ,
10 ,
. ( . . 1986.)
18.4.4. 9, 6, 2, 4, . . . :
. 2, 0, 0, 7?
18.4.5. . 10 . 10
. ,
?
18.4.6. .
n . ,
, k 1 .

? : ) n = 15, k = 4; ) n = 15, k = 6;
) n k < n.
18.4.7. ( ,
). ,
. (, ,
.) ( ., .
. 1987.)
18.4.8. n .
v ( ).
,
, v. ,
,
.

452

,
18.4.1 . , x1 = x2 = . . . = xn = 1 .
x1 > 1. , x2 < 1, x3 > 1,
. . . , x9 > 1, x1 < 1 . , x1 < 1.
. x1 = x2 = . . . = xn = 1
n . ,
xi + xi+1 = 2 (i = 1, 2, . . . , n 1) ,
x1 6= 1 xk 1
k.
18.4.2 . A1 A2 . . . An O .

(n 2)
,
n
2
A1 OA2 = A2 OA3 = . . . = An OA1 =
n
, OA1 A2 = OA2 A3 = . . . = OAn A1 . OA1 A2 , OA2 A3 , . . . , OAn A1 , OA1 /OA2 = k,
OA2 /OA3 = k, . . . , OAn /OA1 = k, k .
, k = 1, OA1 = OA2 = . . . =
OAn .
A1 A2 A3 = A2 A3 A4 = . . . = An A1 A2 =

18.4.3 . . ,
(!).
( ). ,
.
18.4.4 . : .
, . , . , ,

II

453

. ,
9, 6, 2, 4 . , 9, 6, 2, 4 2, 0, 0, 7.
18.4.5 . : . ,
, , .
h i
n
, d = (n, k).
18.4.6 . ) : d 2d
, k1 .
: .
d = (n, k). d n/d.

i
h
n
, 2d .
18.4.7 . . ,
: .
18.4.8 . , d/v,
d , A B ( A = B).
, ,
, , ( ),
d/v , ,
.
, . d/v
. .
. ,
,
(. 2291 [7]).

454

18.5

(2). . .

18.5.1. d1 , d2 , . . .
) , , d11 + d12 +
. . . = 1.
) ), ?
( . . 1989.)
18.5.2. ,
.
) , ,
360 .
) ),
()?
18.5.3.
,
?
18.5.4. A B.
, A . , B ? ( . . 1990.
N 8.)
18.5.5. M ,
M ?
18.5.6. 2007
, , ( ) , ? (
, ,
.)

455

18.5.7. f : Q Q Q, , a Q
f (a, x) f (x, a) ?
18.5.8. , 7 ?
18.5.9. a1 , a2 , . . .
,
n a1 + . . . + an n?
,
18.5.1 . ) a1 , a2 , . . . , an . N A + 1, A + 2, . . . , A + N ,
A > max{a1 , a2 , . . . , an } N = d1 d2 . . . dn . ,
N i- N
di
N
N
( di ). N = d1 + d2 + . . . + dNn .
N , .
) : .
, d11 + d12 + . . . =
1
, k .
2k
di = 2i+k .
ai . a1 = 1.
a1 , . . . , an , an+1 ,
( ,
dn ). dn+1
d1 , d2 , . . . , dn , n + 1
(!).
18.5.2 . ) - ,
O. 360 . O,
. ,
( ), .

456


) : .

i =

X
i=1

i =

2i+k

1
.
2k

1, 2, . . . . ,
, . i
i, .
18.5.318.5.9 .
18.5.1 ), 18.5.2 ), , , . , n- Kn .
(n + 1)- Kn

S
Kn+1 Kn . K =
Ki .
i=1

, Ai A1 A2 . . . Ak (. .
(a1 , a2 , . . . , ak ), ai Ai ), .
18.5.3 . .
1, 2, 3, . . . , . 1 1.
n 1, 2, . . . , n k , .
n + 1 k, n + 1 .
n + 1 ,
.
k , .
18.5.4 . , ( ,
). A = {a1 , a2 , . . .}, a1 , a2 ,

457

. . . . a1
1. an , an+1
n + 1 ,
an+1 > 2an . , A B = N \ A .
18.5.5 . {a1 , a2 , . . .}.
k Ak
a1 < a2 < . . . < am ( m = m(k)) ,
aj ai 1 6 i < j 6 m
Rk 1, 2, . . . , k. Rk
k + 1, , . .
Ak+1 = Ak . am+1 am+2 = am+1 + k + 1
, am+1 > 10am . am+1 ai ,
i = 1, 2, . . . , m, , Rk
k + 1. am+2 aj ,
j = 1, 2, . . . , m. am+1 ai = am+2 aj
i, j {1, 2, . . . , m} , aj ai = k + 1
. , Ak Ak+1 .
18.5.6 . ,
. . , 2007 . i- (i > 2) i-
, ( , i- ), ,
i 1, .
,
, ,
.
18.5.7 . f . q1 , q2 , . . . f (q1 , y) =
f (x, q1 ) = 0 x, y Q. i- (i > 2) f (x, y) x = qi y = qi . i- f x = qi ( (qi , q1 ), (qi , q2 ), . . . ,

458

(qi , qi1 )). Pi (y) i,


Pi (qk ) = f (qi , qk ) k = 1, 2, . . . , i 1 ( ; , , ), f (qi , y) = Pi (y). ,
f (x, qi ) = hi (x), hi (x) i, hi (qk ) = f (qk , qi ) k = 1, 2, . . . , i. i-
.
f (x, y), , , f (x, qi ) (i = 1, 2, . . .) , .
18.5.1, 18.5.2
18.5.1 M .
qn = k(n)
n , k(n)
M 1, 2, . . . , n.
Q = lim qn , Q
n

M . : Q = (M ).
(,
, , , ,
. . , , .)
, (M ) , M .
:
(N) = 1,
0
d
1/d.
:
1) , ;
2) ;
3) .
, , . .
A B, A B ,
(A B) = (A) + (B).
18.5.1 ).

459

, -, . .
A1 , A2 , . . .
S
P

S
Ai

Ai =
(Ai ) ( ,
i=1

i=1

i=1

). , N ,
P
, 1 = (N) 6=
({i}) = 0.
i=1

18.5.1 ) - .
18.5.2. M . qR =
SR
, SR M CR CR R
R2
(
. 25.5 ).
Q = lim qR , Q R+

M . : Q = (M ).
(M )
, M .
:
1,
0,
/360.
:
1) , ;
2) ,
?
3) , CR , , , |x| + |y| 6 R?
18.5.1, ,
-. , 18.5.2 ).

460

18.6

(3). . .

18.6.1. a0 = 0, a1 , a2 , . . . , an ,
|a1 a0 | = 12 ,

|a2 a1 | = 22 ,

...,

|an an1 | = n2 .

) , k , k.
) n,
an = 2007.
18.6.2. n 2n1 ,
i 1, 2, . . . , 2i
1, . , r ,


n!
, nr (nr)!
.
18.6.3. 2005 .
1 2005. , a, b c, a = b+c,
a b, a = 2b.
18.6.4. . ,
.
18.6.5. n > 3 2n1 ,
2n 2n-.
, . 19.3 .
18.6.6. n , 3, 45 n. ,
, .

461

18.6.7.
5 . ,
2
, .
18.6.8.
.
, .
?
18.6.9. 25 .
23 , , 2 .
) , 38.
) .
18.6.10. n . n ,
. 2 , , (
).
( ), . .
,
18.6.1 . ,
m2 (m 1)2 (m 2)2 + (m 3)2 = 4.
18.6.2 . a(n, r)
. n
, .
(2n r)a(n 1, r 1),
a(n 1, r 1) , 2n r .
a(n 1, r). ,
a(n, r) = a(n 1, r) + (2n r)a(n 1, r 1).

462

18.6.3 .
.
18.6.4 . .
18.6.6 . .


[1] . ., . ., . . : . : , 1994.
[2] ., . . 1978.
N 1.
.
[3] . // . 1971. N 7.
[4] . // . 1997.
N 5.
.
[5] . // . 1988. N 9.
. I II
[6] - ., . ..., // . 1990. N 4.
[7] , N 1 2013 .

463

464

19

.
2,3 4 [GDI].

19.1

(1). .. ..


.
1. (a) ( )
() . , ( ) ?
(b) , 15 3 . ?
(c) , .
( ). 21 , 1 , 20 . (,
)?
2. ( ) , , .
, ?
3. ,
, ?
4.
, - . .

19.

465

, , , - . ,
.
5. (a) 450 ,
. , 150 ,
.
(b) . , , .
(c) ,
, ( ) ,
( ). ,
,
, . ,
,
.
6. , ,
. , , ,
. ,
.
7.
, . ,
.
,
. . . ,
, . 19.3
.
1. (a) : , .
,
, -.

466

n . (, .)
, . , , n1,
1. n 1 .
n, . ,
, ,
.
( 0),
.
.
. 18.1.5 . 18.1
.
(b) : .
, 15 3 .
15/2,
. . .
() : .
3. . , , - , .
, , ,
. 5 .

,
. , AB, AC,
AD .
.
BC, CD BD ,
ABC, ACD, ABD . BC, CD
BD , BCD .
, .

19.

467

6. , , .
,
. , . ,
,
.
,
.
, , . ,
. , ,
, .
7. A .
B1 , B2 , . . . , Bn . Bi Bj
A, Bi Bj . B1
Bi (i = 2, 3, . . . , n) Ci A.
Ci Cj i 6= j , Ci
A B1 , Bi Bj , .
, B1 n : A, C2 , C3 , . . . , Cn .
n, B1 n . ,
Bi , i = 2, 3, . . . , n, n , , ,
Bi n .
A, - Bi ,
n .

19.2

(1). ..

1. , 10
. , . , .
2. 10 . ,
, . , 1
, . -

468

, 2, 3, 4, . . . , 9
.
?
3. 2007 .
, , ,
.
4. n .
n+1 .
, ,
.
5. ( )
() . , , . 100
,
(a) , .
(b) , .
6. 50000 .
7. ( ).
, , , ,
. , . ,
97 , .
.
, , : -,
, , ..
, .

19.

469

1. , , , .
, .
10 , 9 .
n . n/10, n/9. , ,
.
2. : 8. , , A B, ,
A B, .. 8 .
9 . , A, (k), .
, ( A) k
A k + 1 . A
, .. k = 9, k.
5. (b) : . 3.
(, ). 2
, 2E.
3 , 2E . , E 3.
6. [2, 109930]. k ,
k .
7k ,
7k 6, 7k 36 . ,
, : ,
7 7k 36,
6 .
, (7k 36) 6/7 =

470

6k 36 . 50000 6 k +7k +42k +252k +216k = 518k,


, k > 97.

19.3

(2). .. ..

(,
), . 6
;
,
. , .
,
.
.
.
; ,
.
V E, .

.
0. . (a)
.
(b) 2E.
, . , .
() ( ), .
6

, , ,
[GDI]. ,
. .

19.

471

,
.
1. , k,
k > 2. ,
, k + 1.
2. 2 .
. ,
,
.
(
). .
.
3. d
2d + 1. , .
4. , .. , .
. , - - ,
. ,
.
5. (a) , , .
. ,
, . ,
, . ,
, .
(b)*
( ), . ,
,
.

472

6.* , . ( ), . , , (
). , ,
.
( , , .)
,
0. (a), (b) 19.1.1.ab.
2. . [3].


[1] .. , .. , .. , .. ,
.. , .. , .. ,
, - , 2015.
http://www.mccme.ru/circles/oim/discrbook.pdf.
[2] - http://problems.ru.
[3] . , ,
,
http://www.mccme.ru/circles/oim/mmks/works2013/
krutowski2.pdf

473

474

20

67 ,
, [4]
[5].

20.1

7 (1). . .

? ,
: ?. :
?. .
.
, .
, .
: , . , .
, . , , .
,
.
20.1.1. , , .
?
20.1.2. , , ?
20.1.3. 6 .
?
. 7
7

[5] [6].
http://www.ashap.info

475

, .
, .
, , ? ,
.
20.1.4. ,
,
. 100-
100- ?
20.1.5. 3, 4 5
. . - .
?
, ,
. : , ,
. , , 90 ,
120 .
. .
20.1.6. 6, 5, 4,
3, 2, 1, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 , ,
, ?
20.1.7. .
?
, . . , . , , , .

476

20.1.8. . , 90 %
, ?
20.1.9.
. , B,
A
B 0,5.
, , ?
( , : A B 36 ( A, B). , .
B, .)
. ,
, . , , . : ,
, .

. 3.1:
20.1.10. 9 , 10 3
(. . 3.1). , , . ,
.
, ,
?

477

20.1.11. -
4 ?
. ,
,
.
, ,
.
20.1.12. ,
- (
). ,
. N . , ,
1, 2, . . ., N . ?

. , , . , ,
. ? :
, .
1
20.1.13. 1, 12 , 13 , . . ., 10
, ,
0. ( .)

20.1.14. ,
, ?
20.1.15. -
: , ,
?
-.
.
. ,
.

478

20.1.16. ?
20.1.17. , , 6100 .
(, ,
).
,
, . . 18.5 .
[7]
[5, 6, 3].
,
() .
, .
, , .
.
: , , ,
.
.
, .
20.1.1 . . . . ACD B
DC. ABC ABD AB AH , AC AD . :
.
.
b, c h, .
l ( ), A h l. b c
A. A,

479

( b > h c > h)
l. ,
:
A , .
20.1.2 . . . . . . .
,
.
.
, . : ,
.
, : , , .
: ,
.
20.1.3 . . . . 16
44,
.

20.1.4 . . . . , 50945094 . . . 509425472547 . . . 2


25472547 . . . 2547.
. , . . : 25 + 25 = 50, 47 + 47 = 94. (,
.)
100- .
20.1.5 . . . . 3 4
5, 3 5 8, 4 5 9.

480

. , 3 5
x, 4 5 y,
3 4 z. , , 5x + 4z =
3z + 5y = 4y + 3x. , ,
(8, 9, 5).
20.1.6 . . . . .
5
6
3
4
2
1
1
4

2
3

6
5

. ,
, 0. ,
. , 0.
, 6 6
, 0. :
,
.
20.1.7 . . . . . .
6 ,
. 6 .

481

. , . ,
. ,
, ,
. , . ,
, . ,
n n.
, , :
1/6 , 1/n.
, . : 6 ,
.
20.1.8 . : . . . ,
. , 90 % .
p
arccos(2 3 0,92 1). , .
S. S cos ,
. ,

k = 3 0,9. k 2 S.
cos > 2k 2 1 ( , 2k 2 1 < 1). 2k 2 S < S + S cos ,
.

482

. , : . , :
, . ,
,
?! .
,
.
? ,
, , 90 % ( ) . , , ? ,
,
, ! -,
...

20.1.9 . . . . , , I
3, II 2, 2, 2, 2, 5, 5, III 1, 1, 4, 4, 4, 4.
I II 24 (3, 2) 12 (3, 5).
II III II (2, 1) 8 ,
(5, 1) 4 (5, 4) 8 , 20 , .
, III I III (4, 3) 24 .
. ,
, ,
. , . ,
,
, .

20.1.10 . . 0 . . V . D
. , 2V=D. 8 ,
. , .
. , ,

483

. .
4

4
1
4

4
1

20.1.11 . . . . . . 4 m n.

m
n
n

m
m

n
m

. , .
, ! , .
, . 8 ! ,
. , -

484

180 .
. ,
180 ,
. , , , . ,
, . ,
, ,
. ,
, ,
.
20.1.12 . . . . N = 19 ( ):
9.18.7.16.5.14.3.12.1.10.11.2.13.4.15.6.17.8.19.
. (, ,
) .
,
.
N , 1, 2, . . . , N
. N = 2, . . . , 9, 1
2 , N = 10, . . . , 18,
0 9. , N ,
N = 19:

485

1, 2, . . . , 19 0 1 , 1 12 ,
2 . , ,
.
1
20.1.13 . . , 15 : 10
: 17 13 : 19 : 12 1 : 16 14 : 18 .
. 17 . , , , , , 7. , , 7,
7 , . 7 , ,
.

20.1.14 . . . . , .

. .
21 . C72 = 21 . , .
7 . ,
4 . - AB
- C D.
, AB , C D . C D

486

AB,
, . . ,
.
( , ) ,
.
, ,

.
, . ,
, .
20.1.15 . . . . . .

.
. , . ,
. , , .
: . ,
.
: . ,

487

, .
, : , . .
, 4
(. [8]).
20.1.16 . . . . , 30 25 . , , , 20 .
15 45 ,
.
S = 300 2 . ,
2 300/25 = 24 .
. :
. 3 4, 5. ,
, 3 4/5 = 2,4.
. 10 , ,
. , ,
.
.
20.1.17 . . ,
, 2100 . A ,
2100 . A, 100
, , 2100 . . , , 100 ,
2100 . 2100 ,
.

488

.
1 , 3. 1 . 2 , 1 , , , 3,
2 9. ,
100 100 , 3100 .
,
, , , 2100 .

20.2

I (1). . . -


, , ,
.
.
20.2.1. n n
, . 1.
,
. ,
,
) n = 4; b) n = 5.
+
+
+
+

+
+
+

+
+
+
+

+
+
+
+

. 1
20.2.2. 6 ,
0, 0, 1, 0, 1, 0.
, .
?

489

20.2.3. . , () , .
,
a) . 2 ? b) . 3?
1
0

0
0

0
0

0
0

1
.2

0
0

0
0

1
0

.3

. .
20.2.4. 130.
, . ,
.
, . , . ,
.
20.2.5. 10 15 .
2 , , , .
, ?
20.2.6. , .
( 0 1 2 ). , ,
, .
,
, ,
. ,

490

,
, .
20.2.7. -0000 2 ,
. 3 : P : (a, b) (a + b, b);
M : (a, b) (a b, b); S : (a, b) (b, a).
93 81.
a) 1 0?
b) a b 1 0?
c) a b c d?
,
20.2.1 . a) + 1 (1).
,
, 4 .
1, +1, .
b) a) ,
. , ,

2 2. ,
.
20.2.2 . : . , . ,
1, 3, 5, , 2, 4, 6. ( , ). 2.
,
0. , .

II

491

20.2.3 . ) : .
.
) : .
, . .
20.2.4 . .
. - ,
0.
.
20.2.5 . : . + 1
(1). .
20.2.6 . (1)N S, N
, S 3
( 0, 1 1).
20.2.7 . ) : . 3.
) : a b .
.
) : (a, b) = (c, d). (a, b).

20.3

II (1). . .

. ,
, - . . ,
. , ,
1
7

, , [2]

492

1,5. , 1, .
: , , . 8 . , .

. , ,
.
? :
, , , .
,
- , .
20.3.1. , 99 99 (, ), 4.
20.3.2. 1 2 .
3 . . ?
: , , . . :
, ,
. .
20.3.3. (a, b, c) (a+b
c, a + c b, b + c a). (2013, 2014, 2015)
(2015, 2016, 2017), , ?
8

II

493

20.3.4. 200 .
( ).
- , , . .

5 ?
, . : ,
,
, . . 20.4 .
20.3.5. 0, 1, 2, . . . , 10
.
1. ,
?
20.3.6. 2 2.
4-
?
, - .
- .
, ,
.
20.3.7. - , .
, , . - 8 8 .
?

494

20.3.8. , . ,
.
. 90 ?
, -? , . , , , ,
.
20.3.9. ,
. 2015
. , .

, . (
). -.
,
.
20.3.10. : ,
. ,
. , ,
?
, .
,
,
.
20.3.11. 1 1 ,
5 20 6 12 .
?

II

495

1
20.3.12. 100 : 1, 12 , 13 , . . ., 99
. . ,
.

, ,
, + :
,
.
20.3.13. 30 , :
, , , ..
-, .
?
20.3.14. 7, 13
25 . , .
?
, ? . :
- , , , ...
20.3.15.
?
, , . ,
. , ,
, 7 13, :
. , (. . )
9 .
9

[10].

496

, (). ,
,
.
. 25.9 ? .
.
20.3.16. F1 , F2 , F3 , . . . , Fk+1 ( k = 1, 2, 3, . . .) : Fk
, . ? ( ,
.)
.
.
,
20.3.1 . .
992 , . ,
. , 2m + 1 2n + 1, m n .
4m + 4n + 4 4.
20.3.2 . : 1 2 . .
A, B, C. 4 : ABC , ( 0; ).
D, E, F
AB, AC BC ( ). , DEF ABC .

II

497

DEF, , .
1 2 .
20.3.3 . . . . (a + b c) + (a + c
b) + (b + c a) = a + b + c, .
, .
20.3.4 . . . . 1, 1,
. 201.
n 5 , 5n + n = 6n.
6n 6= 201, 201 6 .
20.3.5 . . . .
, .
. , .
, .
. ,
, 0 + 1 + 2 + . . . + 10 = 55
. 0.
20.3.6 . . . .
. -
: 3 1.
60 15 .
,
30 . .
20.3.7 . . . . ,
. ,
.
, . .

498

20.3.8 . . . . : ,
, . ,
.
, .
, ,
. ,
.
20.3.9 . . ABC
, A. ABC ACB .
ABC, 2015
ACB. ,
. ,
. . ,
, , . , - . .
.
. , ,
. , :
360 /2015 2015 ,
. .
20.3.10 . : . . , K, C.
, ,
. , . ,
: ,

II

499

.
CK, KC,
.
20.3.11 . : 248 . .
. , .

? , ... , :
5 20 50 , 100 2 , 6 12
36 , 72 2 . -, , 2 . , 2 , ,
10002 /2 = 500 000 = 500 . 4 ,
(500 4)/2 = 248 .
1
20.3.12 . . 1 11 . m
n1 ,
1/m1/n
1
1/m+1/n
= m+n
. ,
1, .
1
1
1+2+...+99
= 4950
.

20.3.13 . : 25. . ,
. .
,
- 10 . , ,
; . .
,
. 5 ,
5. , 25.
20.3.14 . : 4 . . : 3 13 , 5 7 . .

500

1 6,
n , n + 2 ,
n (n + 2) = 2 = 4 6.
, 4 .
20.3.15 . : . . R . , R.
, . , , ,
. , , , . 2R.
.
20.3.16 . : 6. . . ABCD
F1 . , , CD,
AB . A . ,
. ( , AB)
6 .
, ABKL
ABM N (BK = BM , KL =
M N , LA = N A), .
AK AM . , , AK > AM , ABK > ABM , ALK >
AN M , ABK+ALK ABM +
AN M .
. , ,
, .
, ,

501

. , , , : , ,
.
, .
: c 3
6 4.

20.4

(1). . . -, . .

.
(1). . . -
20.4.1. . ,
2 1.
20.4.2. 4 4 1 ,
. 1 3?
20.4.3. 1 55, 1 3?
20.4.4. 10 10 ?

20.4.5. , 22 1 4, 10 10, .
1 4 2 2.
10 10?
[13, 14]

502

,
20.4.1 . 1 1
. 32 30 ( ). . [13].
(2)10 . . .
20.4.6. 2N 2N .
, .
, ,
.
20.4.7. 88 ,
, . ,
( ). ,
.
20.4.8. n n .
Z- (
, , a1, b1, b2, c2 ).
n ?
20.4.9. 0, 1, 2
100 100 , 3 4
3 , 4 5 ?
+
20.4.10. 8 8 ,
( )?
10

503

20.4.11.

(a) 8 8;
(b) n n
, , -
, ?
20.4.12.
8 8 , ?
20.4.13. 7 7 n
, 4
, .
n ?

20.5

11 (1). . .

, .
, , -
, , .
, ,
, . , .
,
. , ,
!
: ( ) ( ), / ,
,
11

, , [2]

504

.
12 .
/, , .
) ; ) ; ) .
,
.
? : , , , . , .
, .
20.5.1. 100 100
, - .
?
20.5.2. 99 99 .
- ( ) , . ,
.
,
(,
1, 1/2, 1/3, 1/4, . . . , 1/n, . . .).
.
20.5.3. 10 . .
-
) ?
) ( ,
)?
12

505

20.5.4. .
a, b, c, d , (a d)(b
c) < 0, b c . ,
.
, ,
.
20.5.5. .
. ,
,
.
, , , - .
20.5.6. .
100 . , , .
, .
.
. .
20.5.7. .
, ,
.
20.5.8. 100 100 ,
. ,
100 .
, . .
. , , .

506

20.5.9. 100 100


, , - - . , .
, , . . . , ( : , ... ).
20.5.10. . ,
( , ),
. , , , .

.
20.5.11. . - , ,
2. , .
20.5.12. 1000 . , ,
.
100 . ,
, .
20.5.13. , 1. , ,
, 1. ( , .)

507

20.5.14. ,
. .
: , ,
. , , . ,
.
,
20.5.1 . : 198. . , . .
. :
1 2.
1 + 1 = 2, 100 + 100 = 200. 200 2 = 198, ,
198. ,
, (,
99 , 99 ).
20.5.2 . . A,
A.
S 2A. , S
.
, T .
S 6 T . A , A > 1 S
2. ,
( T T 2,
2T /2 = T ).
20.5.3 . ) . . . 10 2, 4, 4 . , .
2 4 3 3, 3, 3, 4 .
, a, a, b, ( a 6= b), a
b. (a + b)/2, (a + b)/2, a.

508

, (a + b)/2 6= a ( a = b).
, , .
, .
) . . . : Q . ,
, a + x a x (
x > 0) a a. Q 2a2 +2x2 ,
2a2 , Q . , .
. 1) , ,
. ...
2) Q , 0 .

. , , Q , .
20.5.4 . . Q . : (a b)2 + (c d)2 (a c)2 + (b d)2 .
Q , 2(a d)(b c).
, , Q . Q , , .
( n (n 1)!),
.
20.5.5 . . , . S
. S
.
( 2N , N
). , -
. . ,
.

509

20.5.6 . . .
1, ,
.
20.5.7 . . . - , .

2, . , ,
, .
1, - . , , ,
.
20.5.8 . .
. S . AB CD AC BD AD BC,
.
,
. S
.
( 100!). , .
20.5.9 . 1. 20.5.1,
. : - .
: .
, . , (, 99

510

). , , .
.
2. v- h- . S = 2v + h. S
: S 1, 2
3 ( , 2 1 = 1 -).
, .
. 2 , 1
. , , .
20.5.10 . n n-
: , 1 2 .
: - , 2 1, , , - . , , 1
.
,
.
. .
, (
).
, ,
. ,
, , ,
.
20.5.11 . , . ,

.
. . [16], . 23.3.6.

511

20.5.12 . , , ,
. . ,
( ) ,
, .
. . [16], . 27.3.6.
20.5.13 . (
0),
. ,
. , . , c
C a A 1. C
, r C A.
: A1 , B C1
a1 = a + r, b, c1 = c r. ,
c1 a1 , b a1 , c1 b c a, 1,
.
20.5.14 . , ) 10 , ) ,
.
. . [16], . 19.7.6.


[1] . ., . ., . . : . : , 1994.
[2] - . ., . . . 4- ., . .: , 2008.
[3] . . . 2- ., . .: , 2008.
[4] ., . // . 1989. N 1.
. :
[5] . . . (
). .: , 2014.
[6] . . :
. ( ).
.: , 2015.
[7] ., . // .
1990. N 9.
[8] . //
. 2012. N 56.
. I:
[9] . // . 1976. N 12.
. II:
512

513

[10] . . .
., 1956.
[11] . . // . ( ; . 4). . 211212;
http://www.mccme.ru/free-books/matpros/i5211212.pdf.zip
[12] . // . 1982. N 7.
. :
[13] . . 1972. N 11.
[14] . // . 1973. N 9.
. :
[15] ., . // .
1989. N 7.
[16] ., . :
. , 2012.

514

21
21.1

(1).
. . , . . , . .

.
[5].

( ). . 20.3 , (
).
21.1.1. ) . , . ,
. ?
?
) 8 9.
. , .
,
( ).
, .
, , .
12

, ,
. . . . , , , . . , .

515

21.1.2.
?
) ; ) ; ) .
, .
,
.
21.1.3. .
. ,
, .
?


. ,
, . , , .
21.1.4. 9 1, 2, 3, . . . , 9
.
, , , . , .
?
21.1.5. 2 2, 1 1.

: , . , 100-
, .
,
) ;
) ?

516

21.1.6. 100 2 1.

.
, .
?

. - .
.
, .
21.1.7. 100 . 1 .
, .
. , -
, ?
21.1.8. 1 100 000 ( )
.
.
, .
13 ,
.
?
21.1.9. :
, ,
, . .
, -
6 . ?

517

-
-
.
21.1.10. ) 2015 .
.
, .
?
) , .
21.1.11. 1 N .
.
, . . ,
.
? ?
- ,
: , ,
. , : ,
, .
,
, , . , , - .
21.1.12. : 1, 3, 5, . . . , 19 .
, ,
, .. . ,
- .
?
21.1.13. 9 9, . , . ,
1 1. , , ?

518



.
21.1.14. , . d1.
, . , h8.
?
, :
21.1.15. , f4?
) ; ) .
.
, , .

21.1.16. , . .
50 . , ,
(. . , ).
21.1.17. 13
.
?
) ; ) .
13

,
.

519

, . m n, m n.
21.1.18. 9 9 , .
, ,
, .
, .
21.1.19. 34 , 42. . ,
n , , n
(, n ). , , .
, .
21.1.20. ,
. . .
?
21.1.21. 2.
, .
, , 1 000 000.
21.1.22. : m, n
, m > 2n. .
, . - .
21.1.23. 10 12.

. , - .
, .

520

21.1.24. m n .
, . ( ) ,
, , ( , ).
, .
21.1.25. 13 17.
.
,
, .
, .
21.1.26. . 1997, 1998 . : ,
. ,
.
21.1.27. ,
20 .
2004! .
, , .

[13,
14, 15].
, ( ) .

.
.
, [10, 11,
12].

521

,
21.1.1 . ) : . : , .
. ,
, , .
n ,
. n
: n- ,
,
, .
: n = 0. . , .
. n-
- A B.
A0 B 0 , . ,
A0 B 0 . , A0 6= A, B B 0 6= A, B 8 8
- ,
.
A0 B 0 , -. , (n + 1)- . ,
-.
. ,
, ,
- .
) : . :
(. . , ), .

522

21.1.2 . : . , . , . .
.
, .
,
. , .
21.1.4 . . 4 .
, . , .
, , . .
.
21.1.5 . ), ) . 22 a1 b2, 11 h8. A f6,
B d6.
(A a), B
), , .
21.1.6 . ,
1m 2n, m > n > 2.
14, 22,

2 (, 2
2 k
1 n, n > m).
21.1.7 . , , ,
.

523

21.1.8 . 13 , , . .
21.1.9 . . .
,
, 5 a > b > c > d > e.
,
a c. c (
c b c, c, d,
c, c, e). c
a, c a c . .,
a kc, b c.
21.1.10 .
. ) 2015.
21.1.11 .
.
21.1.12 . . . . 100 . , ,
: , 0, 1, 2, . . . , 9.
, , 0, , 2. 45 ,
, 55 . , 55- , 56-
. ,
. . .
1 + 3 + . . . + 19 = 100 ,
, , , . ( ,
56- , ).

524

21.1.13 . .
.
, 8 .
( ),
. ,
. , .
21.1.14 . : . :
e3, f7, g6, h8. ( , ,
.
.)
. d1, e3, f7, g6 ,
h8 .
. 8 8 + , ,
. , +, ,
, 8- , h
a1h8. , 8- , h
a1h8 ( h8) +.
, ,
:
1) , ,
+;
2) +,
.
, . h8, g6, f7, e3, d1, c5, a4

525

, +. d1 , ,
. :
, (. .
e3, f7, g6, h8).
.
, ,
[6, 7, 8].
21.1.16 . ,
. Kb1-c3-b1 (
,
), ,
. , , .
, .
[9].
21.1.18 . , .
21.1.19 . .
. ,
, 1:
(0, 1), (2, 3), . . ., (32, 33), (35, 36), . . ., (75, 76).
,
. ,
, , .
21.1.20 . . ,
.
.
.

526

21.1.21 . .
4. , 6, , 1, 6
. 6 , 4 2, .
21.1.22 . .
. k r m n. k > 1. , (n, r), (n + r, n). , (n + r, n)
(n, r). (n, r)
, .
(n + r, n), (n, r) .
21.1.23 . .
-
. ,
- .
!
21.1.24 . . m 6 n. , m = 1 n
m 1 n ,
.
. x y
, x 6 y. (x, y)
, x , y x = 1 x > 1,
. , ,
(0, 1).
. : , x, y
( ).
- 2,
( ).

527

: . (x; y) m n +,
x y , , . ,
(1; 2) (2; 1). ,
:
1) ,
, ,
(1; 1) , +;
2) (,
(1; 1) ) +, .
. , ,
,
, ,
.
21.1.25 . . . ( ) ,
, .
,
.
, , ,
. .
21.1.26 . , . , , . ,
.
21.1.27 . . P , , 21 . 2004, 2004!
P . , P , 21 , . : , P . , P . , P ,

528

, P . .

21.2

(2). . . -
... ?

? !
. ,
. ,
. , : ,
.
21.2.1. ,
, .
.
, ?
, , ,
.
21.2.2. a) . ,
, , . :
? - : , .
b) ,
1000 ( ), .
21.2.3. . ,
, ,

529

. ?, .
36, .
, , . , ,
, . ?
21.2.4. . , , ,
. ,
. .
,
?
. ? , . , .
.
21.2.5. ) 23 ,
. , ,
1 23? ( .)
) , 23 ,
, ).
) , , ?
21.2.6. 20 , , . .
, 11 ? , , ,
.

530

21.2.7. 81 .
, , ?
21.2.8. 12 , ,
.
, ?
21.2.9. 1 .
0,1?
21.2.10. . n .
,
. n
k?
, ,
21.2.1 . : 7. . [16], .
21.2.2 . , , 1? 2?
21.2.5 . a) : , 4- 11-.
21.2.7 . 3, 9 27
.
21.2.8 . [18].

21.3

531

, (2). . .

.
, .
21.3.3.
21.3.1. ( ) ,
( ). , 00000,
00001, 10111, 11111. , . .
. .
21.3.2. 32 ( ).
a)
,

.
b) ,,,,,
, 5 .
c)
, 8 .
d) , 10
.
e) , (c).
21.3.3. 1 2016. :
?. ,
15 ,
.

532

.
.
.
21.3.4. , ?
( .)
21.3.5. (a) 4 4 4. 16 ,
.
(b)
8 8 8, ?
21.3.6. (a) 16 9, 0 1,
.
2
(b) 2n (n + 1)2 .
(c) 16 7.
21.3.7. , , , . ,
,
. ,
. ? ,
.
, ,
[22, 25].
, ,
21.3.1 . ( ). : . . ,
.

533

,
, . , , , , .
, .
.
21.3.2 . d) . ( . ) ,
. a1 , a2 , . . ., a32 . , 3.
, 3 ai , aj , ak , 3 . ,
ai , aj , ak .
, , ai aj .
a0s 6 as . a0i a0j . a0k 4 a0i . a0k a0j , .
ak aj , .
. .
21.3.3 . . . [21].
21.3.5 . (b) : 64. [26]. ,
8 - , 64 .
, 64 , . ,
, (x, y, z)
0 7 , 8. .
, . - . ,
(, x y) , ( z1 z2 ).
x+y+z1 x+y+z2 8. , 8

534

z1 z2 , , z1 z2 , 8.
, , 64 . x y. z
x + y + z 0 (mod 8). , x + y 8, z = 0,
z = 8 ((x + y) mod 8).
21.3.6 . (b) . [21]. () . [21]. .

21.4

(2). . .

21.4.1. ,
.
21.4.2. 33 . ?

n
21.4.3. (a) n
k =
k
[n/2].
(b) Best in their own ways. k . , A B , A B,
, B, A. ?
, n,
k n- ,
() .
21.4.4. n . .

: , .

535

, (
)?
21.4.5.
n . (
). ,
. ,

( )?
. (
) ( ) . ,
n- . k- , k- . , .
. n- .
Z2 {0, 1}. ( 2)
0 + 0 = 1 + 1 = 0,

1 + 0 = 0 + 1 = 1.

Zn2 n, 0 1
2.
L Zn2 ,
x+y L x, y L ( ). , n- ,
(. ., 2).
21.4.6. (a) (0, . . . , 0).

536

(b) .

n
Zn2 ,
k
k
2 ( Zn2
k-).

2
21.4.7. (a) k = 0, 1, 2.
k

3
(b) k = 0, 1, 2, 3.
k

n n
n n

= 2n 1.
(c) = = 1, =
0
n
1
n 1

n n

.
(d) =
k
n k


n + 1 n
n
nk

.
(f)
=
+2

k
k+1
k+1

n
(g) .
2

n
(h) .
k

21.4.1 . ,
. ,
.

21.4.3 . (b) : n = n(k),


k.
21.4.4 . : n.

n
>
[n/2]

537

21.4.7 . (a) : 1, 3, 1.
(b) : 1, 7, 7, 1.
(c) : (2n 1)(2n1 1)/3.
(d) .
(e) n- Z2 (2n 1)(2n 2)
.
(f) n- Z2 k (2n
20 ) (2n 21 ) . . . (2n 2k1 ) .

21.4.1 . . . ,
.
21.4.3 . (a) . n


, n nk
k k 6 n/2
k > n/2.
n . n
. k
k+1
n
k .
X
(b) n- X [n/2]
:
. ,
n- ,

n
, [n/2]
.
.
(a1 , . . . , an ) Rn n

{a1 } {a1 , a2 } . . . {a1 , . . . , an } = Rn .

. n!. a
a!(n a)! > [n/2]! (n [n/2])!

538

n!
n
=
.
[n/2]!(n [n/2])!
[n/2]
. S, a . a < [n/2], S (
) (a + 1)- , - .
(, a- S n a , a + 1 .
(a + 1)- S. , (a + 1)-
a , a S.
na > a+1, (a+1)- , S, a-
S. .)
, S
[n/2] . b > [n/2] (b 1)-. , S [n/2]
.
21.4.7 . (f) (k + 1)- Zn+1
,
2

n
n+1
n

;
Z2 Z2 ,
k + 1

n
n+1
n
nk
.
Z2 Z2 , 2
k
. (k + 1)- L Zn+1
, Zn2 , Zn2 k-
2
L Zn2 . L
L Zn2 , L Zn2
Zn+1
, L Zn2 Zn2 .
2
2n+1k 2nk = 2nk .

539

n + 1 n k+1 n

.
=
+2
k + 1.
k + 1 k
(2n 1)(2n1 1) . . . (2nk+1 1)
(h) :
.
(2k 1)(2k1 1) . . . (21 1)

21.5
21.5.1

.
. .
(1)

Z2 = {0, 1}.
( :
1 a = 0
;
: a =
0 a = 1
(
1 a = 1 b = 1
: a b =
;
0
(
1 a = 1 b = 1
: a&b =
;
0
(
0 a = b
.
2, XOR: a b =
1
21.5.1. (a) a b = a&b. (b) (a b)&c = (a&c) (b&c).
(c) (a&b) c = (a c)&(b c). (d) (a b)&c = (a&c) (b&c).
21.5.2.
(a) x&y x ;

(b) x y x, & .

, , .
. . . 21.5.2. ,
x2 y + y 2 + z 2 x + y xy (..
).

.
, 2x x + y.

540

&, , (x&y&z) (a&b)


xyz ab.
21.5.3. x &:
(a) x y; (b) x y;
(c) x|y, 1|1 := 0 x|y := 1, x, y
( ).
(d) x y, 0 0 := 1 x y := 0, x, y
( ).
(e) x 6 y, (x 6 y) := 1 , x 6 y
.
21.5.4. () , . ( f : Z22 Z2 .) .
21.5.1.
(a) f : Zn2 Z2 ?
(b) f : Z22 Z2
&, x?
21.5.5. &, x f : Z32 Z2 ,
(a) 1 (0, 1, 0) 0 .
(b) 1 (0, 1, 0), (1, 1, 1) 0
.
(c) .
21.5.6. f : Zn2 Z2
(a) &, x; (b) & x; (c) &, 1, 1(x) := 1; (d) |.
21.5.7. Znq Zq q 1 (.. ,
, , . . 4.3),
(21) q = 2, n = 1? (2n) q = 2, n ?
(31) q = 3, n = 1? (3n) q = 3, n ?
(41) q = 4, n = 1? (4n) q = 4, n ?
21.5.8. () f : Zn2 Z2 , . . ,

541

. 1
, . 0
.
21.5.9. f : Zn2 Z2
(a) 1? (b) &? (c) , &, 0 1? (d) &?
(e) f (x, y) = x y 1 ? (f) g(x, y, z) = xy xz yz x?
21.5.10. () Z4 ,
( x(y + z) = xy + xz) Zn4 Z4
?
21.5.2

(2*)

- ,
. 21.5.12-21.5.18 .
F F .

F = {f : Zn2 Z2 }A (.. f n ;
). F F ,
F xj (.. Zn2 Z2 j-
n, j) :
f (x1 , . . . , xn ), g1 (. . .), g2 (. . .), . . ., gn (. . .)
( ), f (g1 (. . .), . . . , gn (. . .)).
gi ,
, .
,
. ,
. [20] .
21.5.11. , f F , ?

542

21.5.12. f : Zn2 Z2 , Z2 {i1 , . . . , is } {1, . . . , n}


(x1 , . . . , xn ) Zn2 f (x1 , . . . , xn ) = xi1 + . . . + xis + (. .
1).
(a) ,
.
(b) 21.5.9. .
(c) , .
21.5.13. f : Zn2 Z2 ,
(x1 , . . . , xn ) > (y1 , . . . , yn ) f (x1 , . . . , xn ) >
f (y1 , . . . , yn ). (x1 , . . . , xn ) > (y1 , . . . , yn ), , x1 > y1 , x2 > y2 , . . ., xn > yn .
(a, b) 21.5.12.ab
(21.5.9.c 21.5.9.a).
(c) ,
.
21.5.14. f : Zn2 Z2 0,
f (0, 0, . . . , 0) = 0.
(a, b, c) 21.5.12.abc , 0 (21.5.9.d 21.5.9.a).
21.5.15. , 1.
(a,b,c) 21.5.12.abc , 1 (21.5.9.e 21.5.9.a).
21.5.16. f : Zn2 Z2 f ,
f (x1 , x2 , . . . , xn ) = f (x1 , x2 , . . . , xn ).
(a,b) 21.5.12.ab
(21.5.9.f 21.5.9.a).
(c) ,
.
21.5.17. (a) x
0 1.

543

(b) 0, 1 x.
(c) , x, 1 0
&.
(d) .
, ( ) (, , 1,
0 ).
,
.
21.5.18. (a) ,
, A B f , f A
f 6 B.
(b) , . ,

.
x1 f : Zn2
Z2 , x2 , . . . , xn Z2 f (0, x2 , . . . , xn ) =
f (1, x2 , . . . , xn ). xi , i = 2, . . . , n.
21.5.19. , .
21.5.20. Zn2 Z2 ,
, . .
(a) ,
?
(b)* , (a), .

544

, (, , )
f : Zn2 Z2 .
( ..). . ,
.
21.5.21. , .
,
n

21.5.4 . . (a) 22 .
21.5.7 . (2n), (3n) Znq Zq
q. ,
.
21.5.9 . . ( ).
. (b, d, f) f (x) = 1 (b, e, f) f (x) = 0
. (c) f (x) = x .
. .
21.5.19 . . xyz.
21.5.20 . . (a) 12.

21.6

.
. . , . .

21.6.7. 21.6.18.
13

. .


21.6.1

545

(2)

21.6.1. x1 , . . . , x99 .
.

) x1 + . . . + x99 ;
) x1 + . . . + x66 x34 + . . . + x99 ?
, Z2 ( 21.6.3). Z2
. 21.4 .
x1 , . . . , xn , Z2 . ( 2) .
21.6.2.

) x1 + . . . + x99 ?
) x1 + . . . + x66 x34 + . . . + x99 ?
21.6.3. , , , , , , , Z2 .
21.6.4. ) , xi1 + . . . + xip xj1 +
. . .+xjq x1 , . . . , xn , n1
.
) , xi1 +. . .+xip , xj1 +. . .+xjq
xk1 + . . . + xkr x1 , . . . , xn ,
n + 1 .
21.6.5. , xi1 + . . . + xip
x1 , . . . , xn , 2n (n + 1)
.
21.6.6. m n l .

546

) , km n kl .
) , m kn
x1 , . . . , xkn k(l + m) .
21.6.7. () ) , m, n
m n
mn
100
.
) ,
m m n l
n
2m [log m] . [x] 2
x, . . ,
x, dxe x, . . ,
x.
21.6.2

(3*)

. () , 2
( , . . ).
,
.
. .
, M

L(M ).
21.6.2 L({x1 +
. . . + x99 }) L({x1 + . . . + x66 , x34 + . . . + x99 }.
l, m x1 , . . . , xn l
(m, n) L(m, n).
21.6.4 , L(2, n) 6
n 1 L(3, n) 6 n + 1, 21.6.7 ) ,
l
L(m, n) 6 2m

n m
.
[log2 m]

547

m n
M m n, i- j-
1, j- i- , 0
. i- :
si =

n
X

Mij xj .

j=1

21.6.2
:

1 ... 1 1 ... 1 0 ... 0


1 ... 1 ,
.
0 ... 0 1 ... 1 1 ... 1
m , x0 , . . . , x2m 1 ,
-. Bm .
0 2m 1. , j =
bm1,j 2m1 + . . . + b0,j 20 j < 2m .
Bm = (bi,j ). ,

0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1

0 0 1 1
B1 = 0 1 , B2 =
, B3 = 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1.
0 1 0 1
0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1
M Mij M t (M t )ij = Mji . M t
M .
21.6.8. , L(Bm ) < 2m+1 .
21.6.9. , L(m, n) < n + 2m+1 .
21.6.10. ) M m n,
. , L(M ) + m =
L(M t ) + n?
) , L(m, n) + m = L(n, m) + n?
) L(Bm ).
.

548

21.6.11. x1 ,...,n , n- Zn2 .


, (0, . . . , 0).
,
(1 , . . . , n ) Zn2
P
x1 ...n . (mod 2)

i : i 6i

?
21.6.3

(4*)

21.6.12. , n
n2
L(n, n) <
.
0, 9 log2 n
21.6.13. ,
) (n + k)m+2k k n
m ;
) k = L(m, n), mn 6 (m + 2k) log2 (n + k);
n2
) n L(n, n) > 5 log
;
2n
) > 0 n
n2
L(n, n) >
.
(4 + ) log2 n

.
, an > 0 bn > 0, > 0
k, an > (1 + )bn .
: ak . bk . 21.6.12 )
n2
.
: L(n, n) & 4 log
2n
, an bn (an
bn ), an /bn 1 n .
, {an } o- {bn } (an
bn ), an /bn 0 n .
21.6.14. ) , an . bn bn . cn , an . cn .

549

) , an bn , an . bn
bn . an .
f : Z Z .
21.6.15. , log2 n f (n) 2n ,
nf (n)
. L(f (n), n).
2 log2 (nf (n))
21.6.16. , log2 n f (n) 2n
L(f (n), n) .

nf (n)
.
log2 f (n)

21.6.17. , log2 n f (n) 2n


L(f (n), n) .

nf (n)
.
log2 n

21.6.18. () , log2 n f (n) 2n


nf (n)
nf (n)
. L(f (n), n) .
.
2 log2 (nf (n))
max(log2 n, log2 f (n))
, ,
21.6.1 . ) : 98. . , ,
. , x1 +. . .+x99 98 . , a ,
. , 99 P1 , . . . , P99
xi1 + . . . + xip
xj1 + . . . + xjq Pi1 Pj1 . , , ,
, . , , , 98 , . . a > 98.
) : 98. . ).

550

21.6.2 . 21.6.1.
21.6.3 . , , :

x1 + x2 , x1 + x2 + x3 , x1 + x2 + x3 + x4 , x2 + x3 + x4 .
, Z2

, .
21.6.4 . ) .
n. S(A) ,
A. S(A1 ) S(A2 ) .
B1 := A1 \ A2 , B2 := A1 A2 B3 := A2 \ A1
, ,

|B1 | 1 + |B2 | 1 + |B3 | 1 = |A1 A2 | 3 6 n 3
.
S(A1 ) = S(B1 ) + S(B2 ) S2 = S(B2 ) + S(B3 ).
.
(, ) ,
, ,
.
) . ).
21.6.5 . , 2n (n + 1)
n , .
: , . . . n
.
x1 , . . . , xn .

551

21.6.6 . ) km k
m . ,
.
) , m kn k
m n. kl
m n. k 1 . ,
kl + m(k 1) < k(l + m) .
21.6.7 . ) 21.6.5 n = 500 ,
m 500
l = 2500 . , 21.6.6 ),
m 500k
k(l + m) . , m
n
l n m
(l + m)
500
. , m n , mn/100.
) 21.6.5 , m
[log2 m] l = 2[log2 m] 6
m . , 21.6.6 ),
m [log2 m]k
k(l + m) 6 2km . , m
n
l n m
2m
[log2 m]
.
21.6.9 . A m n.
, L(Bm ). ,

552

, , m (n 1).
, L(m, n) 6 L(Bm ) + n < n + 2m+1 .
21.6.10 . ) : . . , :
( , ),
( , ),
( , ),
( , ).
, Mij j-
i- ( 2). , , . ,
M t .
l1 , l2 .
:
.
n + l1 + 2l2 , m + l2 + 2l1 .
, n + l2 = m + l1 . l1 = L(M ), L(M t ) 6
m n + L(M ). , (M t )t = M .
) : . . ).
) : L(Bm ) = 2m+1 2m 2. . 0 .
Bm Bm
0 )t ,
(Bm
m . . ), .
21.6.12 . n
l

m
n
n
L([0,95 log2 n], n) <
L([0,95 log2 n], n) <
[0,95 log2 n]
0,94 log2 n
n
n
n
<
(n+22[0,95 log2 n] ) <
(n+2n0,95 ) <
.
0,94 log2 n
0,94 log2 n
0,9 log2 n
L(n, n) <

553

21.6.13 . )
( n + k), ( m + 2k).
. , . ,
. , m + 2k - n + k
, (n + k)m+2k .
) L(m, n) n m m n Z2 , 2mn 6 (n + k)m+2k .
, .
n2
) . k = L(n, n) < 5 log
n ,
2

n2 6 n +

n2
2n2
log2 n +
,
5 log2 n
5 log2 n

n,

1
2n2
n2
n
+
log
n
+
=
2
n n2
5 log2 n
5 log2 n

n2 2
4
log2 n
2n2
1
log
n+
= lim
n+

lim
= 2 = .
2
2
n n
5 log2 n n log2 n
5 log2 n
5
5
lim

) .

21.6.14 . ) , an < bn 1 + bn < cn 1 + ,


an < (1 + )cn . .
)
..
21.6.15 . m = f (n). k = L(m, n) < (2+) mn
log2 (mn) ,

2mn
mn
mn 6 m +
log2 n +
.
(2 + ) log2 (mn)
2 log2 (mn)

554

, n.
,

1
2mn
mn
m+
log2 (n +
)=
n mn
(2 + ) log2 (mn)
(2 + ) log2 (mn)

log2 (mn)
1
2mn
mn
= lim
n+
lim
log2 n+
n
mn
(2 + ) log2 (mn) n log2 (mn)
(2 + ) log2 (
lim

.
21.6.16 . h
i A, , m
log2 k . m

k .

log2

n
log2

m
k

m
k , A

m
n

+m
m
k
log2
k

m
k

k + 1 nm
.
k log2 m

k
L(m, n) .
, L(m, n) .

k + 1 mn
.
k log2 m

mn
log2 m .

21.6.17 . 21.6.12 , (0, 1) n


L(m, n) 6

mn
.
log2 n


[1] . // . 1991. N 11.
[2] ., . // . 1999.
N 2.
[3] ., . // . 1985. N 7.
[4] . ., . . . . . : 2000. 322 .
.
[5] . ., . ., . . : . : , 1994.
[6] . ! // . 1977. N 3.
[7] . // . 1971. N 2.
[8] ., . ,
// . 1984. N 7.
[9] . ., . . // . 1981. . 13.
[10] . // . 1977. N 8.
[11] . // .
1981. N 11.
555

556

[12] ., . // . 1996. N 1.
[13] . // . 1987. N 5.
[14] . // . 1994. N 1.
[15] . // . 1972. N 3.
.
[16] . // . 1976. N 7.
[17] . //
. 1980. N 1.
[18] . // .
1979. N 10.
[19] . // . N 3, 5. 1992.
.
[20] . , . , . , . , . , 13 ,
http://www.turgor.ru/lktg/2016/5/index.htm
. ,
[21] ., . // .
1979. N 7.
[22] . , // . 1977.
N 7.
[23] . // . 1992. N 8.
[24] ., . ? // . 1990. N 9.
[25] . //
. 1987. N 11.

557

[26] . . . . . -. 1998. . \http://turlom.


olimpiada.ru.

558

14 . . .

22

.
, , . 17.1
17.3 . , , [1], [4].
.
. , .
.
, . ., ,
22.2.3.bc.

22.1

(1).

, m . , ,
. . (, , . .) a
, p = a/m.
, . .
A M
P (A) = PM (A) := |A|/|M |.
, , M
.
. .
22.1.1. 52 .
,
(a) ; (b) ; (c) ;
(d) . (e) .
14

. . .

559

, 22.1.1.c M ( ) , A (, ) .
.
22.1.2. 3 .
(a) ; (b) .
22.1.3. ,
(1) , ;
(2-12) 2, 3, . . . , 12.
22.1.4. , 1
105
(a) 5; (b) 7; (c) 35.
(a,b,c) 1 100.
22.1.5. 10 30.
2 . ?

.
22.1.6. (a) . AB = . P (AB)
P (A) P (B).
(b) P (AB) P (A), P (B) P (AB).
(c) . PM N (A B)
PM (A) PN (B).
: PM (A) = PM N (AN ) PN (B) = PM N (M B).
22.1.7. (a) . ,
, , 1/2?
(b) , , .

560

22.1.8. * (a) , 2n- ? ? ?


( , . .)
(b) n . ( . . 22.2.5.c.)
,
22.1.6
. (a) P (A B) = P (A) + P (B).
(b) P (A B) = P (A) + P (B) P (A B).
(c) PM N (A B) = PM (A)PN (B).
22.1.7
: () 4; (b) 21.
r b . r(r 1)

. 1/2
(r + b)(r + b 1)
(r, b), (3, 1) (15, 6).
. [3], 1.
22.1.8*
(n2)(3n+1)
n2
n+1
, 2(2n1)
, 2(n1)(2n1)
.
(a) : (n1)(2n1)
.
,
.
, .
,
2n
2
n+1
1
2n1 + 2n1 2n2 = (n1)(2n1) .
, , , , .

1
2
n2
n2
2
+
+ ... +
=
.
2n 1 2n 2 2n 2
2n 2
2(2n 1)
(b) . 0, 1/4, 3/4.

(1)

22.2

561

(1).

22.2.1. (a) 0,8, 0,7. ,


.
(b) .
0,1, 0,2, 0,15. .
. m M
P (m),
1. A
P (m) m A.
, , M , , ,
, .
22.2.2. .
M . ( m M ,
, P (m) = 0.) .
22.2.3. ,
(a) , ;
(b) .
A M ( , ), .
( ), . . A M
P (A) = PM (A) := L(A)/L(M ),
L(A), L(M ) .

562

A M ( ),
. A M
P (A) = PM (A) := S(A)/S(M ),
S(A), S(M ) .
A M , .
, M ,
, (, ) .
22.2.4. * .
22.2.5. * (a) . ,
5 6
, 5 , . 5 .
?
(b) .
?
(c) , .
22.2.5.b M , .

, . ,
( , , 22.2.5.c) , !
,
22.2.1 . 1 (1 0,7)(1 0,8) = 0,94.
22.2.5*
(b)
,

563

, . 1/4.
. ,
.
, . ,
(c) .

22.3

(1).

22.1.6.b. (. . ) A B 6=
M , (. . )
A B B (. . ) A M . ,
B = . A B M
,
|A B| |M | = |A| |B|.


.
, , A N M B M N .
22.3.1. ? ( , .)
(a) {1, 2} {1, 2, 3, 4} {1, 3} {1, 2, 3, 4}.
(b) {1, 2} {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6} {1, 3} {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6}.
22.3.2.
1 105?
(a) , 5, ,
7.
(b) , 15, , 21.
(c) , 15, , 5.

564

(d) , 10, , 7.
22.3.3. A B , A B .
22.3.4. .
, , 10 ,
. 9:8 . ?
, .
( 22.3.12.) XVII .

, . , ,
. (
). , , XVII ., .
.
A B, P (B) 6= 0,
P (A|B) = P (A B)/P (B).
, A B ,
P (A|B) = P (A).
22.3.5. (a) , . , 5.
(b) . , .
, . (
, , .)
22.3.6. ,
70 % . ,
, 0,98, 0,95.
, .

565

.
22.3.7. . M = B1 t . . . t Bn
P (Bj ) 6= 0 (: B1 , . . . , Bn ),
P (A) = P (A|B1 )P (B1 ) + . . . + P (A|Bn )P (Bn ).
22.3.8. .
p, , . .
22.3.9. , .
, ,
. ,
. ?
22.3.10. * : . , 7 11, , 2, 3
12. ,
, , ,
7. .
22.3.11. ,
70 % . ,
, 0,98, 0,95. . ,
.
.
22.3.12. . P (B|A) = P (A|B)P (B)/P (A).
22.3.7 22.3.12:
P (X|A) =

P (A|X)P (X)
.
P (A|B1 )P (B1 ) + . . . + P (A|Bn )P (Bn )

566

22.3.13. , , 0,04.
,
0,05. 0,98. ( 0,0001)
, , , .
22.3.14.
. 2n .
.
22.3.15. . ()
n , .
( )
( ). ,
.
(a) , :
s(n) , , .
(b) s(n).
,
22.3.4 ( . ) :
3/4 , 1/4.
, (,
). 0,5 . 0,5
9 : 9. 0,25 . ,
3 : 1.
, .
22.3.5 (b) ( . ) : 1/3.
,
, , , , , . .
. , ,

567

, 1 0,25 = 0,75.
0,25
1
= .
0,75
3
22.3.6 . 0,7 0,98 + 0,3 0,95 = 0,971.
22.3.13 ( .) : 0,0001.

0,9604, 0,0025. ,

0,96 0,9604 + 0,04 0,0025 = 0,921984 + 0,000100 = 0,922084.
22.3.12 , , , 2 , , 2 , 2 . 0,9604
0,96/0,922084, 99,99 % ( ).
.
A1 , , A2 . B1 ,
, B2 , . P (B1 |A1 ) = P (B2 |A1 ) = 0.98, P (B1 |A2 ) =
P (B2 |A2 ) = 0.05. , P (B1 B2 |A1) =
P (B1 |A1 )P (B2 |A1 ) P (B1 B2 |A2 ) = P (B1 |A2 )P (B2 |A2 ).
22.3.12 P (A1 |B1 B2 ) = P (B1 B2 |A1 )P (A1 )/P (B1
B2 ).
A1 A2 ,
P (B1 B2 ) 22.3.7,
P (A1 |B1 B2 ) =

P (B1 B2 |A1 )P (A1 )


=
P (B1 B2 |A1 )P (A1 ) + P (B1 B2 |A2 )P (A2 )
0,98 0,98 0,96
=
0,9999.
0,98 0,98 0,96 + 0.05 0,05 0,04

22.3.14 :

1
.
2n1

568


n1

22n 1 .
1
, 2n1
. . [3], 16.
22.3.15 (a) k- .
, nk , . . k. , ,
, k-,
k. ,
, ,
, , .
(b) , : k s k
1 s
1
s. n 1 + s+1
+ ... +
s
n ln(n/s). s ne .
n 1e (.[3], 47, [8]).

22.4

s
n1

(3).

M ,
P
m M () P (m) > 0, mM P (m) =
1. X, M , . (xi , pi ), i = 1, 2, . . ., {x1 , x2 , . . .} X, pi = P ({m
M : X(m) = xi }), i = 1, 2, . . . ,
X
.
X , . .
{m M : X(m) = xi } X = xi .
22.4.1. 5 .
.

569

X
E(X) =

xi pi = x1 P (X = x1 ) + x2 P (X = x2 ) + . . . .

.
, .
, . ,
X . , X
nN
P
P
1
1
pn = n(n+1) .
npn =
n+1 ,
. . E(X) . ,

P
, . .
xi P (X = xi ) .
22.4.2. a) ,
P
X, M mM X(m)P (m).
b) , E(X) 6 x, m M : X(m) 6
x.
c) X m M
: X(m) = . E(X).
d) : E(aX +
bY ) = aE(X) + bE(Y ), a, b , X, Y
.
X Y ,
X = xi Y = yj xi , yj .
, ,
.
22.4.3. , X Y , E(XY ) = E(X)E(Y ).
X D(X) =
E(X E(X))2 .

570

.
, . , .
22.4.4. , D(X) = E(X 2 ) E(X)2 .
22.4.5. , X Y , D(X + Y ) =
D(X) + D(Y ).
22.4.6. . , X > 0
P (|X E(X)| > ) 6 D(X)/2 .

22.4.7. 20 30 . 3
. ,
.
22.4.8.
.
, .
22.4.9. N
, .
. , ?
22.4.10. 7 (
3 , 5, 2 4 ..)
22.4.11.
1 6. 3 ,
,
.
?

571

22.4.12. (.)
350 . 10
0,16, 20 0,08, 30 0,05. .
.
, . , 22.4.3
3502 2 . , .
22.4.13. m n .
k .
22.4.14. 52 .
?
22.4.15. n . . , ,
. .
.
,
22.4.8 . . 1.
22.4.9 . . 364 365.
, n
(364/365)n . ,
- 365n(364/365)n . n, 364 365
(. [3], 34).

572

22.4.13 . , - k
,
m(m 1) . . . (m k + 1) + n(n 1) . . . (n k + 1)
.
(m + n)(m + n 1) . . . (m + n k + 1)
, m + n k + 1,
.
22.4.14 . . ,
48/5 (. [3], 40).
22.4.15 . k-
, , , 1/k. 1 + 1/2 + . . . + 1/n, n
ln n.

22.5

(3).

n ,
: 1 p 0 q = 1 p.
1 , 0 .
. M
n- , 0
1, x M P (x) = ni=1 pi ,
pi = p, xi = 1, pi = q = 1 p, xi = 0. M
.
.
. , M
xi
1 p 0 q.
x M n

P xi .
X = xi .

573

22.5.1. n p :
) k ;
) ;
) ;
) .
22.5.2. . X n p. t > 0. ,
:
r

1
pq

P ( p > t
)6 2
n
n
t
. .
, ,
, .
: ,
. , , ,
( ,
)
.
22.5.3. , . ?
22.5.4. 0,515.
, 6 2 .
22.5.5. . 3 , 0,09 2 . ,
, 0,999, 1000
2 ?

574

22.5.6. ,
p.
22.5.7.
0,8. , .
.
22.5.8. (.)
. 7 ,
. -
, .
700 . ?
. , . , ,
.
,

22.5.1 . . ) nk pk q 1k .
) np.
) npq.
) [np], {np} 6 q, [np] + 1, {np} > q ( ). .
k k + 1 .

22.5.6 . . p(1 + 2q + 3q 2 + 4q 3 + . . .) = 1/p.

22.5.8 . ,
, 2/3, . . 33
700. , (2/3)7 ,
.

22.6

575

15 (3).
. . , . . , . .

:
. 2 , -
1. 3- , 1.
.
, . . [10] [13].
[15].
. 19.3 . .
.

.
22.6.1. , 5 . x, 1/2 1/2
. ,
. 5 ( ) 0 (),
: . . 3.2 .
(A) , .
15

. . , . . , . . ,
. . , . . . . .

576

, . .
(B) PT (x) , , x T , .
.
PT (x) T
x
0
1
2
3
4
5
T
1
0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.50 1.00
2
3
4
5
(C) P (x) ,
- .

. T + 1 T + 1 , , ,
. t t- . , x, , s
T L, R,
T + 1 :
1) 1 x.
2) y t, 1 6 t 6 T ,

. drunkard.1, ec.1

. 3.2: (. 22.6.1) (. 22.6.8).

577

t + 1 :

y + 1, y 6= 0, 5 t- s R;
y 1, y 6= 0, 5 t- s L;

y,
y = 0 y = 5.
PT (x) , ,
x, T 5 0,
T ,
5. T
P (x) , ,
x, T 5 0. ,
P (5) = 1, P (0) = 0.
22.6.2. . 5 .
1/2 1/2.
, 0 ( ) 5
( ). P (x) ,
, x .
22.6.3. (A) . , ,
. , . ?
(B) 1-
c.
*
,
. .
22.6.4. , 22.6.1C
22.6.3A ; , p q = 1p.
.

578

22.6.5. , ; 20
, 50 ; 0,45 0,55; , -
. .
22.6.6. ,
p > 1/2 q = 1 p.
.
22.6.7. n m (n > m).
. ,

.


, .
, .
.
, xy C(xy) (P N ). C(xy) 16 xy.
, :
N
, P ; . . 3.2
.
x
v(x). v(x) ,
2 :
1. . x N , v(x) = 0. x P ,
v(x) = 1.
16

, , .

579

P
2. . x 6 P N , xy C(xy) (v(x) v(y)) =
0, xy,
x.
22.6.8. , . 3.2 . v(x)
x = 0, . . . , 5.
( ).
. ,
xy k(xy), , (P N ).
, :
N P
0 1.
x r(x). r(x) ,
2 :
10 . x N , r(x) = 0. x P ,
r(x) = 1.
P
20 . x 6 P N , xy k(xy) (r(x) r(y)) =
0, xy,
x.
22.6.9. 0 1.
r(x).

P N .
. T + 1 T + 1 , , ,
. t t-
. ,

580

(m0 , n0 ), , s T
L, R, U, D
T + 1 :
1) 1 (m0 , n0 ).
2) (m, n) t, 1 6 t 6 T , t + 1 :

(m + 1, n), y 6 P, N t- s R ;

(m 1, n) y 6 P, N t- s L;
(m, n + 1), y 6 P, N t- s U;

(m, n 1) y 6 P, N t- s D;

(m, n),
y P y N .
PT (m, n) , , (m, n), T N
, P , s T ,
N .
T P (m, n) ,
, (m, n), T
N , P . , P (P ) = 0,
P (E) = 1.
2-
, T ,
s T , ( P = N = ).
T -.
, 1,
.
22.6.10. , 3.3 . .
E, P , .
P (x) ,
x, , . x = (m, n) (m + 1, n), (m

581

1, n), (m, n + 1), (m, n 1) 1/4.


N P , .
22.6.11. v(x)
3.3 .
. ec.31,ec.32
. 3.3: ; .
22.6.10 22.6.11.


, ,
. ,
.
22.6.12. (A) . v(x) u(x)
2, a b av(x) + bu(x) .
(B) . v(x), 2,
P N , .. v(x)
P N .
(C) . v(x) u(x) ,
12, v(x) = u(x) x.
(D) . .
22.6.13. .
v(x) x
P (x) , , x,
P , N .

582


22.6.14.
(A) ; (B) ; (C)* ; (D)* .
a. , ,
, . ,
h ,
a; . 3.4 ?
. ec.61, ec.62
. 3.4: ; .
22.6.14(A) 22.6.15(A).
, ,
. ,
.
v(x) . i(xy) :=
C(xy) (v(x) v(y)) P
, xy
x y; i(x) := xy i(xy) ,

x (, i(x) = 0 x 6 P N P
2); C := xP i(x)
17 .
, . 3.2
: i(x, x + 1) = v(x + 1) v(x) = (x + 1)/5
x/5 = 1/5. C = i(0, 1) = 1/5.
22.6.15.
(1) ; (2) ;
(A) ; (B) ; (C)* ; (D)* ;
; 3.4 .
17


, P N .

583

.
22.6.16. :
(A) ,
,

1
1
1/ C1 + C2 ; . 3.5 ;
(B)
C1 + C2 ; . 3.5 ;
(C)
.
. ec.51, ec.52, ec.53

. 3.5: , ; . 22.6.16.
.
22.6.17. .
N (
N ), 1. , ,
N , P N ,
C/degN, C N P , degN
, N .

, , .
( ),
, .

584

1, . . . , k, k + 1, . . . , n. v(x)
,
1. P
Q := xy C(xy) (v(x) v(y))2 ,
. v1 = v(1), . . . , vk = v(k). Q(v1 , . . . , vk )
v1 , . . . , vk .
22.6.18. Q(v1 , . . . , vk ) .
22.6.19. . Q(v1 , . . . , vk )
, v(x)
.
22.6.20. . Q(v1 , . . . , vk ) .18
22.6.21. . - ; . . 3.6 . - ; . . 3.6 .

22.6.22. (A)
44 3; 3.6 .
(B)
2n2n
n ?
(C)* 2n 2n .
22.6.23. 2- c.
18

, ,
, .

585

. networks-fig11, networks-fig12rus

. 3.6: 4 4, ; . 22.6.22 22.6.21.



, .
, , , .
, .
.
. networks-fig14,networks-fig15,networks-fig16

. 3.7: () 3; ( ) 3; () ; . 22.6.24, 22.6.26 22.6.27.


22.6.24. (A) 3;
(B) 2010, (. . 3.7 ).
22.6.25. , 22.6.24,
?
22.6.26.
2010,
k- 2k (. . 3.7 ).

586

22.6.27. 22.6.26 , ( )
(. . 3.7 )? ?
22.6.28. 3- c.
,
22.6.1 . (A) : 1n ,
n .
(B) : . .
3.1: PT (x) P (x)
x

P (x)

0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00

0.00
0.00
0.00
0.06
0.20

0.00
0.00
0.13
0.13
0.40

0.00
0.25
0.25
0.38
0.60

0.50
0.50
0.63
0.63
0.80

1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00

T
1
2
3
4

(C) : P (x) = x/5; .


(B).
0, 1, 2, . . . , n. P (x) x n , 0.
P (x),
x = 0, 1, 2, . . . , n. :
1. P (0) = 0 P (n) = 1.
2. P (x) = 12 P (x 1) + 12 P (x + 1) x = 1, 2, . . . , n 1.

587

, P (x) P (x) = x/n.


1 , 0 n
. 2 ,
x
. 2
PT +1 (x) = 12 PT (x 1) + 12 PT (x + 1) T .
22.6.2 . : P (x) = x/5; 22.6.1(C).
22.6.3 . (B) . 1- - 1.
. [13, 3.1]. [15].
. P - . Pn
n n. , . Pn 6 P 6 1 n.
, Pn = 1 1/n. 1 1 1/2.
1, 22.6.1(C) ,
n 1 1/n.
1, .

22.6.1(C) Pn = 21 1 n1 + 12 1 n1 = 1 n1 .
1 1/n 6 P 6 1 n, P 1.
22.6.4 . : P (x) =
1p
p

(q/p)x 1
;
(q/p)5 1

p > 1/2.
P = 1 p 6 1/2 P =

, 22.6.1(C). , 12
:
10 . P (0) = 0 P (n) = 1.
20 . P (x) = qP (x 1) + pP (x + 1) x = 1, 2, . . . , n 1.

588

A B , f (x) = A(q/p)x + B 10 20 .
x x =
1 p + px2 . p 6 1/2 [0, 1] , 1, p > 1/2 : x1 = 1,
x2 = 1p
p . p = 1 0. p, 1 p 6 1/2
1p
p p > 1/2.
20

1
22.6.5 . 22.6.5 : 1 (0,55/0,45)
. 99,995 %.
(0,55/0,45)70 1
22.6.4.
1
22.6.6 . : 2(1p)
1.
,
1, , 1p
p . ,
2(1 p),
1
2(1p) 1.

22.6.7 . : nm
m+n .
, ,
- , 1. , ,
, .
2m
.
, m+n
22.6.8 . : v(x) = x/5. . 12 ,
v(x) .
22.6.9 . : r(x) = x/5. 22.6.8.
22.6.10 . : . 3.8 .
. 3.8 . P (x) a, b, c, d, e. 1- ,

589

. networks-fig51, networks-fig52
. 3.8: P (x) v(x); . 22.6.10
22.6.11.
P (x) 12 . :
a = (b + d + 2)/4;
b = (a + e + 2)/4;
c = (d + 3)/4;
d = (a + c + e)/4;
e = (b + d)/4.
, .
22.6.11 . : . 3.8 ;
22.6.10.
22.6.12 . 22.6.1222.6.13 . [13,
2.12.2].
22.6.14 . : (A) 2/5; (B) 1/2; (C) 2/7; (D) 2/5.
. 22.6.10,
22.6.15 22.6.17.
22.6.15 . : (1A) 6/5; (1B) 2; (1C) 6/7; (1D) 2.
(2A) 12/7; (2B) 12/5; (2C) 30/19; (2D) 30/11.
22.6.10, 22.6.16; . [10, . 2325].
(2A)(2D)
[14, 3, 3.2].

590

22.6.16 . 22.6.1622.6.21 . [13,


2.32.4].
22.6.22 . (B) : C 0 n .
. : ,
2 2, 4 4, . . . , 2n 2n. 22.6.16: Pn 1 1 .
k=1 8k4

n . , .
. [13, 2.1, ].
22.6.23 . . [13, 3.2].
1. P ,
2- . Pn ,
2n2n
. , . , Pn 6 P 6 1 n. , Pn = 1 C/4,
C 2n2n. 22.6.22(B) , C n . Pn 1
n P 1.
2. : , ,
. , 1,
1.
22.6.24 . , n 1 21n .

591

22.6.25 . 3 . ,
2010 . ,
2010 ; ,
2 2010 + 1.
40213 6 236 . , 22011 1.
.
22.6.26 . . [13, 3.3, ].
22.6.27 .
(. 3.9), (. 3.10).
.
. networks-fig58.png

. 3.9: ; 22.6.27.
. 3Dcut.jpg

. 3.10: ; 22.6.27.

22.6.28 . . [13, 3.3].

22.7

(4*). . .

22.7.1. R = {1, . . . , n}
.

592

- R.
. A1 .
A2 , . . . , Am .
(a) P (i, jAi Aj = ).
(b) P (|A1 . . . Am | = k).
(c) P ( i1 , . . . , ir Ai1 . . . Air = ) (r 6 m ).
(d) P (Ai Aj Ak Ai Aj ) (i, j, k ).
22.7.2. * f (n)
Rn , ,
, 2 . , :
(a) f (2) = 3.
(b) f (n) .
(c) f (n) 6 2n .
(d) f (n) > 2n 1.
h n i
.
(e) f (n) > 12 23
22.7.3. * 22.7.2.e. A1 , . . . , A2m
, 22.7.1 p = 0,5. 1 , . . . , 2m ,
Rn .
(a) , ,

.
(
, ,
2
1 , . . . , 2m ,
f (n).)
(b) i , j , k k
( , . . ,
) , Ai Aj
Ak Ai Aj (. 22.7.1.d).
(c) i , j , k ,
. x = M ,
(d) 1 , . . . , 2m , ,
M , .

593

,
22.7.2.e. 22.7.3.d m = m(n).
22.7.3. a) 22.4.2.b . 22.4
.
(c) 22.7.1.d 22.4.2.d . 22.4
.
22.7.3 [16].


[1] . : . .: , 2008.
[2] . ., . ., . .
. ( ; . 135). .:
, 2015.
[3] .
. .: , 1971.
[4] ., .
// . 1986. N 1.
[5] . // . 1991. N 1.
[6] . // . 1987. N 5.
[7] ., ., . // .
1984. N 8.
[8] - . . . M.: , 2003.
.
[9] . //
. 1988. N 8.
.
[10] Doyle P. G., Snell J. L. Random walks and electric networks //
Mathematical Association of America. 1984. http://arxiv.org/
abs/math.PR/0001057.
594

595

[11] . // . 1985. N 1.
[12] . // . 1985.
N 1.
[13] ., ., . // .
. 2012. N 16. C. 2547.
[14] ., ., . // . . 2014.
N 18. C. 3365.
[15] . // . 1987. N 5.
.
[16] . . . ( ;
. 36). 2009. 32 .

596

23

. ..

. (- . ,
23.3.1, 23.3.6, 23.3.11
, .)
, 24.
, 3 , , 5
, 24 [Sk15].

23.1

, , (1)

23.1.1. . :

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
3 5 10 8 11 14 15 6 13 1 4 9 7 2 12

?

. ,
(. . ). f , ,
ak f (ak ). {a1 , a2 , . . . , an }, ak f (ak ),

a1
a2
...
an
;
f (a1 ) f (a2 ) . . . f (an )
ak = k k = 1, . . . , n.
f f 1 , f (f 1 (x)) = x.

f (a1 ) f (a2 ) . . . f (an )


.
a1
a2
...
an

23. . ..

597

f g f g,
(f g)(x) := f (g(x)).
23.1.2. :

1 2 3
1 2 3
1 2 3
1 2 3

; (b)

.
(a)
2 1 3
3 1 2
2 3 1
3 1 2
(a1 , a2 , . . . , an )

a1 a2 . . . an1 an
a2 a3 . . . an a1

, a1 , a2 , . . . , an ,
an a1 ai ai+1 i < n, .
23.1.2 : (12) (13) = (132) (123) (132) = (1).
23.1.3. ( )
(a) (12) (23); (b) (23) (12); (c) (12) (13) (12);
(d) (12345) (12); (e) (12345) (56789).
. , (123) (234) = (12) (34).
.
23.1.4. f n > 0,
f n = id (. . n- f ).
ord f f
n, f n = id.
23.1.5. 9- 7; 10; 12; 11?
23.1.6.
n1 , . . . , nk , ?

598

: h1, 2, 3, 4i
(n1 + . . . + nk )-
23.1.6 hn1 , . . . , nk i. , (14)(253), (15)(432) h2, 3i, (1)(3)(245)
h1, 1, 3i.
23.1.7.
(a) h2, 3i; (b) h3, 3i; (c) h1, 2, 3, 4i.
a b , a = xbx1
x.
23.1.8. (a) a b ,
.
(b) a x n-
.

x(1)
x(2)
...
x(n)
1
xax =
.
x(a(1)) x(a(2)) . . . x(a(n))
, xax1 a

x-:

q
q
1
a = j=1 (ij,1 , ij,2 , . . . , ij,sj ), xax = j=1 (x(ij,1 ), x(ij,2 ), . . . , x(ij,sj )).
(c) gf 1 g 1 f f := (1, 2, . . . , N ) g := (N, N +
1, . . . , L).
(d) .
23.1.9.
(a) ;
(b) , . . ,
,
( , 2);
(c) (1i), i = 2, 3, . . . , n.

23. . ..

599

23.1.10. ,
n- .

23.2

(1)

23.2.1. (a) 3?
(b) ?
(c) 15. 4 4
15 1 1 1, 2, . . . , 15,
. ,
. ,
, ?

1 2 3 4
1 2 3 4
5 6 7 8
5 6 7 8

9 10 11 12
9 10 11 12
13 15 14
13 14 15
23.2.1 , .
f {1, 2, . . . , n}. ,
(i, j), 1 6 i, j 6 n,
f , i < j, f (i) > f (j). ,
.
, .
23.2.2. n
(a) ?

(b) n?

23.2.3. (a) () ().


(b) ,
?
23.2.4. :
(a)
.

600

(b) .
(c) (, ) 3.
Sn n-
.
23.2.5. (a) n- :
?
(b) n, k , Sn , k
1.
23.2.6.* x p1 , p2 , . . . , pk ,
x = x1 x2 . . . xn , 1 6 i 6 n
1 6 j 6 k, xi = pj .
(a) ( 2 ),
.
(b) nk , n > 1, k > 1, (1 . . . n) (n . . . n +
k 1) Sn+k1 .
(c) nk , n > 1, k > 1, (1 . . . n) (n . . . n+
k 1) Sn+k1
.

23.3

(2)


(. . ..).

.

. . 28.
, . , (. . , ), ( 23.3.1.c).

23. . ..

601

23.3.1.
(a) ?
(b) (. . )
4 ?
(c) r ?
, (
), .
(d) 4 r ?
,
, .
23.3.2. p p- (, ), p.
, , .
23.3.1 23.3.2 , ,
.
23.3.3. n r (. .
n- r , , , )
(a) n = 5; (b) n = 4; (c) n = 6.
23.3.3 n , n.
. ( n)
23.3.3.c.
() r . r6
6 .
,
,
. .. Z
.
T ()
, .

602

23.3.4.
, . , ,
, .
. 6 0,1,2,3,4,5.
6Z .
() ,
, . ,
.
23.3.5. (a) 6/T () .
, s {0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5},
s , 6/T ().
(b) 6/T () .
, 6Z
(, s), s {0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5} ,
s . s
rgcd(s,6) .
6Z = r6 + r + r2 + r3 + r2 + r.

6Z =

X
x

T (x)

X 6
6
=
= r6 + r + r2 + r3 + r2 + r.
T (x)
T
()


x , .
23.3.6. :
(a) n r . (. [GDI, 1.5].)
(b) r- n = 2k + 1 . ( ,
, .)
(c) r .

23. . ..

603

(d) r .
(e) K3,3 r .
, .
23.3.7. (. . , ). ( .
.)
23.3.6.(c). ( (b)-(e) . (b) .)
() ( ) r .
r6 .
,
,
. .. Z
.
. 24 , .
24Z .
, , . , .
, , , .
st , ()
(.. ) .
23.3.8. (a) , , st.
, , 0 ,
st.
(b)
, . , 0 , , st = st0 . ( -

604

stx, x
).
P
(, s), s ,
s. .
23.3.9. s fixs (.. ), s.
Nx , x. x stx Nx
24 .

X
X
X
24Z =
stx Nx =
st =
fixs.
x

x ,
, s .
,
23.3.6.a,c?
23.3.10. .
M {g1 , g2 , . . . , gn } , . M ,
.
n
1 P
fix(gk ), fix(gk )

n k=1
M , gk
.
23.3.11. n
. ( .)
23.3.12. (a) bn {0, 1}n {0, 1}
.

23. . ..

605
n

(b) , lim n!bn /22


n

. (. 7.4.2; , , ,
).

23.4

23.1.1 . : 105 .
23.1.3 . : (a) (123); (b) (132); (c) (23); (d) (1345); (e) (123456789).
23.1.5 . : 11 , .
23.1.6 . : gcd(n1 , . . . , nk ).
23.1.7 . :
20;

4 63 /2 = 40;
10!/4!.
23.1.8 . (a) , a b. x.
(c) : (N 1, N, N + 1).
23.1.10 . : , (12) (123 . . . n).
23.2.1 . : (a) ; (b) ; (c) .
23.2.2 . : n n n
.
23.2.3 . (b) 2.

606

23.2.5 . : (a) n > 1;

(b) n k.

23.2.6 . . [Gr].
23.3.1 . : (a) 10; (b) 11. (c,d) r(r + 1)(r + 2)(r + 3)/24.
23.3.2 . : p 2 + ((p 1)! + 1)/p.
23.3.3 . : (a) (r5 + 4r)/5;
(c) (r6 + r3 + 2r2 + 2r)/6.
23.3.6 . (a) :

1 X n d

r . (n)
n
d
d|n

3.1.5.

23.5

(b) (r4 + r2 + 2r)/4;


[GDI] .. , .. , .. , .. , .. , .. , .. , , - ,
2016. http://www.mccme.ru/circles/oim/discrbook.pdf
[Sk15] A. Skopenkov. A short elementary proof of the Ruffini-Abel
Theorem, http://arxiv.org/abs/1508.03317

607

608

24

. . , . .

24.1


, : , , . . ; .
, , .
,
, .
. G n , . n
g G, G = {g, g 2 , . . . , g n }?
, , . . 24.2.1.
,
. .
27 ? , .
, .
( .)
,
,
. , 2, 3, 23. ,

18
. http://arxiv.org/abs/1108.5406.
. , . , . , . , . , .
. .

24. . . , . . 609
. ,
, . . 24.3.
. 24.2 ,
. ,
. . 24.3 , . 24.2. ,
,
.
, - (
3.1.1 3.1.5). . 19
( )
. , , , . ,
, . . , ( ,
), . .
,
, , , . . . 1.2 28 .

,
19

, , , ., , [Br].
, ,
. , ,
.

610

. ,
( ). .
. ,

( , [Al, KS85]).
,
.

24.2
24.2.1


(2)

24.2.1. G 11 , (.. f, g G, f g G f 1 G).


g G, G = {g, g 2 , . . . , g 11 }.
24.2.2. G n n = 2; 3; 4; 5; 6; 7; 8; 9; 10;
12; 15; 21; 1001? ( n.)
G (.. ) ,
(..
f, g G, f g G f 1 G).
. ( ; .
.. . 28.1.)
G g, G (.. G = {g, g 2 , . . . , g n , . . . }),
.
24.2.2.
. 24.1 :
n n ?
24.2.3. n n .

24. . . , . . 611
?
. 20 g,
n,
n, , n 2, 4, ,
.

g 1 , g 2 , g 3 , . . . , g (n)


.
, , .
. G
H M N ,
: G H, (g1 ) (g2 ) = (g1 g2 )
g1 , g2 G.
. , n n ,
.
n n
.
. 24.2. . 24.2.2
, ,
.., , . ( . 24.2.3-24.2.5, . 24.2.2,
, .)
. 24.2.3-24.2.5
. . 24.2.2-24.2.5 , . . 24.2.2 . 24.2.3-24.2.5
.
24.2.2

(2)

(1) Sn n- .
20
.
.

612

(2) {id = (1)(2)(3)(4), (13)(24), (1234), (1432)}


.
(3) {(1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8)k }, k = 1, 2, . . . , 8, 8 .
(4) {(1, 2, 3)k (4, 5, 6, 7, 8)l }, k = 1, 2, 3, l =
1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 8- .

:
(5) , . , 3
4 . 8 .
8 ,
.
(6)
( ), .
(a)
, .
(b)
, .
(7) 6- , K3,3 . ( G
,
, .)

24. . . , . . 613

: K3,3

: f1101 : Z22 Z22


(8) Z22 = {(0, 0), (0, 1), (1, 0), (1, 1)} 2.
a, b, c, d 2 fabcd : Z22 Z22 , fabcd (x, y) = (ax + by, cx + dy).
-. .
24.2.4. (a) .
(b) 8 .
24.2.5. ?
24.2.6. (a) C 21 .
(b) C 55 .
(c) p q q 1 p,
pq .

614

24.2.3

(2)

24.2.7.
, .
hai := {a, a2 , a3 , . . .}.
24.2.8. G f, h G.
(a) f n = id , n ord f (.
23.1.4).
(b) ord h n, hn hf i.
24.2.9. (a) S4 .
(b) () .
(c) 2, .
(d) 3, 3.
(e) .
.
( -,
24.2.7.)
24.2.10. (a) n ,
n , .
(b) n ,
n , .
G , xy = yx
x, y G.
24.2.11. (a) .
(b) ?
24.2.12. (a) 10 .
(b) 21 .
(c) 1001 .

24. . . , . . 615
(d) n n
?
24.2.13. 10
2?
( 24.2.12.a.)
24.2.14. * n n ? (
.)
G G, .
24.2.15. . .
( 24.2.13.)
24.2.16. G 15 f, g G
5.
(a) {f, f 2 , f 3 , f 4 } {g, g 2 , g 3 , g 4 } .
(b) {f, f 2 , f 3 , f 4 } {g, g 2 , g 3 , g 4 } .
(c) f, g .
(d) G 3.
24.2.17. G 15 f, g G
3.
(a) {f, f 2 } {g, g 2 } , .
(b) {f, f 2 } 6= {g, g 2 }, f g 6= gf .
24.2.4

(3)

f, g G G,
g = b1 f b b G. . 23.1.8.
15 24.2.16.c, 24.2.18.b, 24.2.19.c 24.2.21.c,
24.2.19.c 24.2.20.d ( , ).

616

24.2.18. G , b, f G k .
(a) (b1 f b)k = b1 f k b.
(b) .
k
(c) b1 f b = f m , b1 f k b = f km bk f bk = f m
24.2.19. G 15 , f G {e} h G hf i.
(a) h1 f h = f .
(b) {f i hj | 1 6 i6 ord f, 1 6 j 6 q} G.
(c) G = f hord f .
G , {id}, G.
24.2.20. G 15 . .
(a)
.
(b) s
15/s .
(c) Fb ,
, 7 < Fb < 14.
(d) .
24.2.21. G f G
cG (f ) , f (
f ).
zG (f ) , f (
f ).
(a) cS3 (f ) zS3 (f ) f S3 .
(b) cG (f )zG (f ) = |G|.
(c) 15
5, 4
.
24.2.22. ( 24.2.20.b.) G f G nG (f ) , f

24. . . , . . 617
f :
nG (f ) := |{b G : f b = bf k k}|.
(a) nS3 (f ) f S3 .
(b) nG (f ) > ord f .
(c) nG (f ) = ord f , f
|G| = 15.
(d) , hf i, |G|/nG (f ).
24.2.23. pq
, p < q q 1 p, .
24.2.24. G 1001 f G {e}
, G .
24.2.5

(4*)

24.2.25. G 1001 , .
(a)
, G. .
(b) .
,
n =
15. . n = 1001 .
?
24.2.26. G
Z = Z(G) := {a G : ga = ag g G}
, . (
.)

618


(a) Z(Sn ) n = 2, 3, 4, . . .
(b) .

24.2.27. G 1001 , . .
(a) .
(b) .
(c) ,
s , 1001/s.
(d) Fb , F ,
500 < Fb 6 1000 |Z|.
(e) .
,
24.2.1. 24.2.2.7
n = 3.
24.2.2. (7) n = 3. , ,
G . a . a2 6= e, a, a2 , a3 . a2 = e, b G, e a. ab
e, a, b. (, ab 6= a ab 6= b . ab = e,
b = a2 b = a .) .
(10) . , . , 4 5 . 10 . 10
, .
, s t, , st 6= ts. s = g k t = g l
g, st = ts.

24. . . , . . 619
24.2.2.10. , , 24.2.6. r s 5- 5-, 2/5 . r5 = e = s2 sr = r1 s. 10
rk sl , k, l Z. sr = r1 s ,
. ( , .
, .) ,
.
24.2.2. : n {2, 3, 5, 7, 15, 1001} .
n n = 7, n = 15 n = 1001 .
n > 2 n = 10, n = 21 .
24.2.3. n.
24.2.4.

f G

f 1 G

f f 1 = e G.

24.2.5. : (1) n = 2, (3) (4)


, .
24.2.6. (a) 49- Z27 . (x, y) 7.
k, l
fk,l : Z27 Z27

fk,l (x, y) := (2k x, lx + y).

,
21;
;
(
).

620

. . 24.2.2-10. , r s, rk sl , k, l Z,
21 .
.
(b) , 25 = 33 1.
k, l fk,l : Z211 Z211
fk,l (x, y) := (4k x, lx + y).
(c) a
Zq p. k, l
fk,l : Z2q Z2q fk,l (x, y) := (ak x, lx + y).
,
pq;
;
(
).
24.2.8. (a) n ord f .
(b) ord h .
24.2.9. (d) a 3. .
: x x, xa, xa2 .
.
(, , , ,
xa . xa = y, xa = ya,
xa = ya2 y.
x = ya2 , x = y, x = ya. ,
x . . )
, .
. , 3.
(e) . . 24.3.3.
24.2.12. (a) p f . p = 10, . p < 10.

24. . . , . . 621
p {5, 2}. g 10/p,
G = {f g, (f g)2 , . . . , (f g)10 }. g 6 {f, f 2 , . . . , f p }
p. {f k g l }k,lZ p2 .
( 24.2.15.b).
24.2.13. (a) f, g , {e, f, g, f g} 4 . ( 24.2.15.b).
24.2.14. n
, n = pk11 . . . pkl l n k
ki < 3 pi pj j 1.
, ,
1 ,
.
24.2.15. . . 24.3.3.
24.2.16. (a) 25 f k g l 1 6 k, l 6 5.
15 , 1 6 k, l, m, n 6 5
, (k, l) 6= (m, n) f k g l = f m g n . f m
g l , f km = g nl . f g
5, {f, f 2 , f 3 , f 4 } {g, g 2 , g 3 , g 4 } .
(b) (a) .
1 6 k, l 6 4, f k = g l . (k, 5) = 1,
m, 5 | km 1. f = f km =
(f k )m = (g l )m = g lm . , .
(c) (b).
(d) (c). ( (d)
.)
24.2.17. (a) 24.2.16.b.
(b) 9 , .
24.2.19. (a) 24.2.8.ab.
(b) (a).
(c) , ord(f hord f ) q ord f .
24.2.18. (a,d) k.

622


24.2.20. (d) (c) Fb = (s 1)15/s = 15(1 1/s).

24.2.21. (b) b G f b1 f b.
, f g ,
f g
f f.
(c) 24.2.17.b , f
e, f, f 2 . (a) cG (f ) = 15/3 = 5.
24.2.22. (b) : n(e) = n((ijk)) = 6.
(c) 24.2.21.
24.2.23. p = 3, q = 5.
24.2.24. 24.2.19.
24.2.27. (d) (c) Fb = (|F ||Z|)1001/|F | = 1001(1|Z|/|F |).

24.3
24.3.1

:
(2)

G ,
(.. f, g G, f g G f 1 G).
(. . 24.2.1.)
(). n
g G, G = {g, g 2 , . . . , g n },
, n
n = p1 . . . pt
(*) pi
(**) pi pj 1 i j.
( (*) (**) n (n),
(n) 1 n, n,
.. .)
. 24.2, ,
24.2.7, 24.2.23 24.2.6.c.
G g, G (.. G = {g, g 2 , . . . , g n , . . . }),
.

24. . . , . . 623
24.3.2

(3*)

Z/k := {(1, 2, . . . , k)i | i = 1, 2, . . . , k}.


M N M t
N := M {0} N {1}. g h
M N , g t h
M t N
(
g(x) x M {0} M t N
.
(gth)(x) :=
h(x) x N {1} M t N
G H, M N ,

G H := {g t h : M t N M t N | g G, h H}.
(*), , p1 =
p2 = p, n
Z/p Z/ np . 21
Zk k , . (
Z/k, !)
(**), , p1
p2 1, a Zp2 ,
a, a2 , . . . , ap1 = 1 .
( . 24.2.1).
Gp1 ,p2 fk,l : Z2p2 Z2p2 ,
fk,l (x, y) := (ak x, lx + y) k Zp1 l Zp2 .
22 ( )
n Gp1 ,p2 Z/ p1np2 . 23 QED
24.3.3

(4*)

G.
n = |G|. ,
n
o
.. (1, 2, . . . , p)i (p + 1, p + 2, . . . , p + np )k | i = 1, . . . , p, k = 1, . . . , np .
k

a
l

22
, Gp1 ,p2 =
Z22
k

Z
,
l

Z
.

p
p
p2
1
2
0 1
n
o
23
.. f (1, 2, . . . , p1np2 )j | f Gp1 ,p2 , j = 1, 2, . . . , p1np2 .

21

624


.
ord a a
n, an = id.
( ). .
. 24 G.
x G {x, xf, xf 2 , . . . , xf ord f 1 }.
, .
, ord f . xf k = yf l , y =
xf kl . x ,
. , |G| ord f . QED
n = |G| .
.
,
.
. .
. G, {h1 , . . . , hm }. x G {xh1 , xh2 , . . . , xhm }. m .
xhk = yhl , y = xhk h1
l . x
, . , |G| m.
QED
,
. .
f G hf i G
( .. ). f () hf i.
, .. G . f 24

( , . )
[KS, . 64].

24. . . , . . 625
( ,
hf i).
f g G G,
g = b1 f b b G.
: f . h G hf i. q
n, hn hf i. q ,
hord h hf i.
, |G| q. ord h q: ord h = qt + r. hr = hord hqt hf i 0 6 r < q.
q r = 0. .. ord h
q. , |G| q.
, hf = f h. q
h1 f h = f k k Z. , f = hq f hq = f k
( q q). k q 1 mod ord f . , k ord f
. (*) (**), |G|
(ord f ) . |G| q, q (ord f )
. , x y, qx + (ord f )y = 1. , k k qx+(ord f )y 1 mod ord f .
f h = hf . QED
. f h = hf , G

{f i hj | 1 6 i 6 ord f, 1 6 j 6 q}
q ord f . , (*)
ord f q . g := f hord f . g j =
f j hj ord f j, ord g q ord f .
ord g = q ord f . hf i , hgi = G.
, G . . QED
:
. 25
25

, ..

626

X Y G xy, x X y Y .
,
, Y = {y}, Xy X{y}.
G
Z = Z(G) := {a G : ga = ag g G},
.. , .
(1) .
(1). , , F Z. F Z ,
F . F F Z = G. , G , .. G = Z(G). .
. QED
(2) .
(2). . ,
,
.
, .
. , .
(1) . QED
: . ,
. (2) .
. . ( F, F 0 G , g 1 F g = F 0 g G. )
. N (F ) (3)
. , N (F ) = F , . . (1) , Z(G)
N (F ). , .

24. . . , . . 627
Fb
, F . F1 , . . . , Fs
.
|G| = |Z| +

s
X

Fbi .

i=1

,
. QED
(3) |G|/2 6 Fb < |G| |Z|.
(3). ,
, .
(, g 1 F g F 0 G, F gF 0 g 1 G.)

N (F ) := {a G : F a = aF }.
, F ( F ),
|G|/|N (F )|. 26
(, G F . u, v G F , .. u1 F u = v 1 F v, (uv 1 )1 F uv 1 =
F . , uv 1 N (F ) , , u N (F )v.
, u N (F )v u1 F u = v 1 F v. ,
|N (F )v| = |N (F )|. G, F , |N (F )|. , , e F , |N (F )| ,
G.)
N (F ) = F .
(, N (F ) . N (F ) 6= G. N (F ) F ,
N (F ) = F .)
26

. , .

628

|G|
|Z|
Fb = (|F | |Z|)
= |G| 1
.
|F |
|F |

|G| > |F |, Fb < |G| |Z|.


(1) F . , |Z| |F |. Z 6= F . , |Z| 6 |F |/2. Fb > |G|/2. QED


[Al] .. , . : , 1976.
[Br] K. Brown, Mathematics 4340, When are all groups of order
n cyclic? http://www.math.cornell.edu/~kbrown/old/4340/
cyclic_only_orders.pdf
[KS85] .. .. , , .: , 1985.
[So86] ., . (N12,1986)
[So97] ., . (N2,1987)

629

630

25
25.1


(2). . .

. . 18.2
18.1 .

25.1.125.1.6 ,
( ) ( ).
25.1.1. , . ,
.
25.1.2. , ,
. , , .
25.1.3. , ,
k . , k
, .
25.1.4. , . , ,
.
25.1.5. , l,
.
) , , ,
2l.
) , ,

l/2.

631

25.1.6. , l,
. , . ,
. (. , 1990 .)
25.1.7. 3
. ,
. ,
. (. ,
1989 .)

25.1.825.1.13 ,
,
.
25.1.8. , . , .
25.1.9. , ,
3/4 . , .
25.1.10. , , k . ,
2k 1 , .
25.1.11. . , ,
. (. , . ,
1995 .)
25.1.12. 11, 2. , ,
. (. , 1990 .)

632

25.1.13. 2020,
11, 90. ,
, .
25.1.14, 25.1.15
,
.
25.1.14. 2020,
1 1, 95. , 1, .
25.1.15. 20 20,
200. ,
6 .
3D
25.1.16.
.
25.1.17. 12 , .
.
, .
12? (. , 2005 .)
25.1.18.
, . ,
, .
25.1.19. . d , d? (. ,
1998 .)
25.1.20. .

633

,
. ,
. , , :
( ) ( ),
, .
25.1.1 . [ai , bi ], i = 1, 2, . . . , n -. a = ai = max{a1 , a2 , . . . , an }, b = bj = min{b1 , b2 , . . . , bn }.
a > b, [ai , bi ] [aj , bj ] . , a 6 b, [a, b].
.
(. . 25.2 ). . ,
.
25.1.2 . [ai , bi ], i = 1, 2, . . . , n , a = ai =
max{a1 , a2 , . . . , an }, b = bj = min{b1 , b2 , . . . , bn }. a 6 b,
[a, b]. n/2 [ai , bi ],
a = ai (,
). n/2 [aj , bj ],
b = bj . ,
a, b. .
25.1.3 . [ai , bi ], i = 1, 2, . . . , n .
n ( ). a = ai = max{a1 , a2 , . . . , an }.
, [ai , bi ], ai , [ai , bi ]
, k 1 . [ai , bi ],
. [ai , bi ], k ,
, .

634

. 25.1.3
. 50 . , 8 , , 8
.
25.1.4 . , , .
.
25.1.5 . ) , . ,
,
, .
) , , ), , .
25.1.6 .
1 , . . . , k . l
, . . 0l , l 3. ,
01 , . . . , 0k .
25.1.7 . Ai
t E = 7i=1 Ai 3 7 = 21 . V 42
( ). (e, v),
e E v V , e. Ai Aj .
2C73 = 42. , E ,
- , . .

635

.
.
3D , , (,
l m, ),
.
25.1.8 . - l m,
. 25.1.1 l
A. , m0 , m
A, . ,
l0 , l, . , l0 m0 .
25.1.9 . n l m.
25.1.2, , n/2 ,
l .
l-. ,
n/2 m- . , l- m-.
, .
25.1.10 . .
2(k 1) ( ). , 25.1.3,
.
25.1.11 . : l m, 25.1.4.

636

25.1.12 . l AB 2. l , AB,
l. , m ,
m. ,
l m ,
.
, . 25.5.3 . 25.5
.
25.1.13 . A : A0 ,
A 2. , A B , A0 B.
1/2, 19 19. 4 90 =
360 < 361 = 192 . 19 19 1 1,
1 1.
25.1.14 . 25.1.13.
:
1 1 , 1/2
( 2 2
). , 95s0 < 192 ,

s0 = + 3 .
4
25.1.15 . , l m . , l m
. ,
5 (20 + 20) = 200 .

637

25.1.17 . : . P1 P2 . . . P12 . (P1 , P2 )


.
(P4 , P5 ), (P7 , P8 ), (P10 , P11 ).
1 2 = , 3 4 =
, i j (i < j, (i, j) 6= (1, 2), (3, 4)) .
: , .
25.1.18 . 25.1.1.
25.1.19 . : . a, b, c
x, y, z . s =
ax + ay + . . . + cz . ax + ay + az > a,
bx + by + bz > b, cx + cy + cz > c, s > a + b + c.
, ax + bx + cx 6 x, ay + by + cy 6 y,
az + bz + cz 6 z, s 6 x + y + z.
25.1.20 . : .

25.2

(2). . .

25.1.1
25.1.2 .
A ,
, .
, , .
25.2.1. . ) . ,
,
.
)* n- .
25.2.2. . )

638

. , .
)* n- .
25.2.3. ,
, ?
) . ) .
25.2.4. ) ,
, . ,

. , .
) ,
?
25.2.5. ) , R,
.
)* , r,
r.
25.2.6. ? , n, n
2 , ,
?
25.2.7. 100 A1 , A2 , . . . , A100 ,
100 . , A1 , A2 , . . . , A100
9901
. ( .)
25.2.8. 2k 1 2k 1 . , k ,

639

k . , , , ,
.
25.2.9. k ,
. k ,
- . ,
2k 2 .
25.2.10. X T . , X 0
X, 9 ,
T . ,
X T .
,
25.2.5 . ) ( . ) R
. 3 R,
R. , . ,
. R
.
25.2.8 . ( . ) , ,
,
. .
, k .
k ,
k . ,
2k-1, ,
.

640

, : ,
, ,
. ,
,
. , ,
, . ,
, , . ,
, .

25.3

(2). . . , . .

: ( 12).
[13], [17].
,

. [14],
[15]. ( 12)
[18],
[20].
. ?? .
. 20.5
.
,
, 1.

641

(2)

.
.
25.3.1.

. 3.11.

. 3.11:
(. 3.11 ) , , ( ,
). (. 3.12) , A ABC , B.
25.3.2.
?

) 1; ) 2; ) 2; ) 13; ) .
25.3.3. ,
) ;
) ;
)
(

1, 1, 2, ; . . 3.12
);
)
,
, ;
) ;
) 1/2.

642

A0

. 3.12:
.
25.3.4. , , ( ,
)?
) 6; ) 7; ) 8; ) 9; ) 12; ) .
25.3.5. ) , , ( , ) .
) , ?
) 1 . ?
) ( ),
1 ,
.
) , . , ,
. .
S , i
, b .
25.3.6. )
b + i . ?

643

) :
S =i+

b
1.
2

.
25.3.7. (a) , .
(b)*
?
(c)* n cos n ?
25.3.8. 8 8 ,
1 . , ,
, .
) ?
) ?
25.3.9. ,
, p q .
) p q ?
) ?
) ?
25.3.10. ) kM , M k
. 2S(M ) = n(2M ) 2n(M ) + 1,
S(M ) M , n(M ) M .
)
.
25.3.11.
.

644

(3*)

M = A1 A2 . . . An (. 3.13 ). , M O.

A1 A2 , A2 A3 , . . . , An A1 O
O . n ,
M , (. 3.13 ).

M
. 3.13:

25.3.12. , O
1, 90 O.

(. [20]).
. ( 12) M O, b ,
M b .
b + b = 12.
25.3.13. , . 3.14. M

645

? M ? M M ? M = M ? ? , .











?











. 3.14:
12.
, , .
. 25.3.5 ) .
25.3.14. ) ; ) ;
1 . ?
25.3.15. 12 : ) b = 4;
) b = 3.
. M ,
. , . 3.14
. 3.14 .
.
25.3.16. ,
) . 3.14;

646

) ;
) , 1
?
25.3.17. ) M M .
) 12.
25.3.18. M 1 , M
1 .
25.3.19. M M .

,
(
x0 = ax + by + e,
y 0 = cx + dy + f,
( , a, b, c, d, e, f ad bc = 1). , , .
25.3.20. a) 9; ) ;
.
,
25.3.1 . : 6, 3, 1/2 ( ).
25.3.2 . : ).

647

25.3.3 . ) ABC A0 BC BC,


AB = BA0 , . ,
.
) D BC. , D . ABC ,
A00 BC . A00 BA0
, A00 BC.
, A00 A0 BC , ,
A0 BC .
) , , .
. , .
, , .
( ), ,
, . . , A,
, . D
, A, M , A. ,
, D M , ,
.
) B .
AC , AC > BC AC > AB = BA0 .
ABC , A0 BC, AC >
A0 C ( ABC A0 BC
).
) , , .
,
( ). )
.

648


) ) ).

25.3.4 . : ).
25.3.5 . ) ABCD , O = AC BD.
ABCD , ABC ACD . 25.3.3 )
1/2. BO = OD. AO = OC, , ABCD .
) ,
ABCDE ( ). ) ABCD , BCDE
. A = E . , .
) : 6. . 3.15 . ( , , 12). O ,
.
. > 7,
4 . A, B, C, D.
OABCD ,
). .
, M
n = 3, 4, 5, 6.
) ABC
O. AOB, BOC COA ,
25.3.3 ) 1/2. , , AO B C. AO . BO CO .
) 25.3.3 ).
25.3.6 . ) : 2i+b2. . ,
n, n . ,
2i, .

649

, b- ( , , ), . . (b 2).
, .
) 25.3.3 ).

[13]. ( 25.3.3; 25.3.3 ). (P, M ) , M P , . .

P, P ,
P ,
(P, M ) = ,

2, P M .

(M ) =

(P, M ),

P M

M .
.
1) (M ) = (2i + b 2).
2) (M N ) = (M ) + (N ), M N
.
3) (M ) = 2S(M ),
) M , ;
) M , ;
) M ;
) M .
25.3.7 . a, b)
( , , ). ,
.

650

, ,
( ), ( ),
.
25.3.8 . ) : 31. , ,
, 64/2 1 = 31 ( 64 ;
).

) : 28 + 36 2.
1.
, 36
64 2 ( ). ,

36 . 2, , 1 1. , . ,
, 49 31 = 18,
7 7 . ,
36.
2 (. ) ,
. 28
. , , (
). , ,
. ,

( , ). 28 ,
28 .
25.3.9 . : ) p, q > 3 (p1)(q1); ) (p1)(q1);
) (p1)(q1)
1.
2
.

651

25.3.10 . ) ,
(.
25.3.6).
) ,
,
6V (M ) = n(3M ) 3n(2M ) + 3n(M ) 1

6V (M ) = n(2M ) 2n(M ) b(M ) + 3.


[14]. , .
[15] .
25.3.11 . n(i) i .
n(i) i:
i

...

n(i)

...

n(0) = 4 n(1) = 6 25.3.5 ), ). n(2) = 6



25.3.5 ).
i
n(i):
n(i) 6 2i i > 3.
i
. , i . , 25.3.5 ), n(i) 6 6. O ( )
. O , .

652

n(i) > 2i, ,


, 3 . , ,
, 25.3.5 ).
.

n(i) 6 Ci1/3
C, .
: n(5) < n(4).
25.3.12 . , 25.3.3 ): O M
, A B
M AOB 12 .
25.3.13 . . . 3.15 . . 3.14
, . , . . 3.15 ,
M = M . :
1) M 1 (. 25.3.18);
2) M M (.
25.3.19)
3) S(M ) + S(M ) = 6, 12,
( 25.3.6 ) S(M ) = i + 2b 1 = 2b .
25.3.14 . ) : 9. . 3.15 . 12. T T 12 , , T ,
T , . 3 ,
.

653







































. 3.15:
9 , , 12. (. 3.16). 2 ( ), . , , AB, > 3 ( , . . 3.15 ). ,
1 .
, , AC > 2 .
D, A. DE k AB, E BC.
AB F , A. G H
DE, DG = AF GH = AF . , , . AB AC
, CD : CA > 23 AF : AB 6 14 .
DE : AB > 23 . , DH < DE, . . G H
, .
.
) : 8.

25.3.15 . ) . [17, (1)]


) ) O ABC.

654

C
D

E


. 3.16:

AB CA = 3AO,

BC AB = 3BO,


CA BC = 3CO.

. ,
, AO, BO CO,
3 . AO, BO CO ,
2 ( ). b + b = 3 + 9 = 12.
25.3.16 . 3 . )
).
) , , , (. 25.3.3 ). . . , . . , . . ,
. 25.3.3 ),

655


.
) [17, (3)] , / b = 4, i = 1.
, b = 4, i = 1 /
. 3.14 . ABCD .
AOB . ,
. 3.14 .
AOB,
(. 25.3.3 e)), AOB . ,

/ . .
25.3.17 . ) . [17, (2)]
) ) , / b + b . 25.3.16 )
b = 4
/ . b + b = 12 ( 25.3.15 ). 12 .
25.3.18 . , M Q, O.
AOB, A B M . OQA OQB , 25.3.3 )
1/2. ( 25.3.4 )),
Q OM . M M
D, E F , DE = OA EF = OB.
, DF k OM , , DF k OQ. DF = 2OM >
2OQ, DF 2 . M
, : DF M ,
DF M . , M
2 . M = DEF

656

. . ,
Q .
25.3.19 . 25.3.12.
25.3.20 . ) , ( [20].
1 [19] (, ). , 16
.

25.4

(3). . .

25.4.1. 0,99 0,01 .


. 2. ,
.
25.4.2. . (a) (
0,01). , ( 12 , 12 )
. , .
: (.. Ox) ,
.
(b) ,
, .
(c) () ( 0.01
).


( 2, 3). ,
. (
, ;
).


25.4.3. (a) log10 2 .
.

657
(b) 2n

25.4.4. , 2n .
. an k 1 n, 2k 1. ,
an
limn , . (
n
. .)

25.4.5. m n , | 2
m
|<
n
1
1
1
1
.
(a) <
; (b) <
; (c) < 2 ; (d)* <
2n
999n
n
5n2
25.4.6. (a) > 0
, ,
c > 0 m, n Z, n > 0,
m
1
| | < 2+ .
n
cn
( : > 0 , (2 + )-, 0.)
(b) . p/q Q, |
1
m
|< .
2
n
n 5
() 5 :
c > 5 ,
p/q Q,
m
1
| | < 2 .
n
cn
,
25.4.3 . [21, 22].
25.4.5 . (b) N , k k

658

1
m/n Q , n 6 N k | m
n | < N n . . 25.5.14 25.5.15 . 25.5
.

25.5

27 (3). . .


, . A
S(A)
.
, (x0 , y0 ), A, A,
(x0 , y0 ), A.
,
:
A , S(A) > 0;
A A1 A2 ,
, S(A) = S(A1 ) + S(A2 );
, . . , , ;
.

. 3.17:
: B , > 0 A1 A2 , A1
27

[26].

659

B A2 S(A2 ) S(A1 ) < (. . 3.17).


,

, .
, (., , 25.5.2).
[25].
25.5.1. , , , .
, , .
25.5.2. , .


, .
25.5.3. . A
, A1 , . . . , Am , A.
,
S(A) < S(A1 ) + S(A2 ) + . . . + S(Am ).
- A1 , . . . , Am
.
. .
S(A1 A2 . . . Am ) = S(A1 ) + S(A2 ) + . . . + S(Am ).
A1 , . . . , Am A A\A1 A2 . . . Am ,
S(A1 A2 . . . Am ) 6 S(A).
.

660

25.5.4. A , A1 , . . . , Am , A. ,
nS(A) < S(A1 ) + S(A2 ) + . . . + S(Am )
n < m. - n + 1
A1 , . . . , Am .
. n + 1 , A1 . . . Am

S(A1 ) + S(A2 ) + . . . + S(Am )
n ,
S(A1 ) + S(A2 ) + . . . + S(Am ) 6 nS(A).
25.5.5. 1 ,
12 . , ,
.
25.5.6. , . ,
.



, . , . 1.
.
, . , ,
( !).

661

. 3.18:
25.5.7. . A
, n.
A ,
n + 1 .
. A (A !). S(A) > n , > n + 1. ,
, (. . 3.18).
> n + 1 1,
> n.
25.5.4, ,
P , n + 1
. A
, P .
n = 1
.
25.5.8. A , 1. A (x1 , y1 ) (x2 , y2 ), x2 x1 y2 y1
.

662

, A ,
,
.
, (. Minkowski),
.
25.5.9. A > 4.
A , .
. A 12 , B > 1.
25.5.8 B (x1 , y1 )
(x2 , y2 ), x2 x1 y2 y1 . (x1 , y1 ) B, B
O ,
(x1 , y1 ) (x2 , y2 ).


x2 x1 y2 y1
. , O
2 ,
2
(x2 x1 , y2 y1 ) A.
25.5.10. ,
S(A) > 4 S(A) > 4.
25.5.11. A , < n. , A
, n 1
.
25.5.12. A
> 4n. , A
2n + 1 .

25.5.13. . s x y,
0<x6s
1
|x y| < .
s

663

. , .
25.5.14.

n
1
1o
A = (x, y) : |x y| < , |x| 6 s +
.
s
2
,

2
1
1
2 s+
=4 1+
> 4.
s
2
2s
(. . 3.19). , A
, (0, 0). ,
( !).
.
25.5.14. ,
s m
n,
1
0 < n 6 s | m
|
<
.
n
ns
25.5.15. ,
m
n ,

1
m

< 2 .
n
n
Oy
Oy
Oy

A
A

11
x
x
x
=
=
yy =

ss
11
yy =

x
x
=
ss

11

xx =
= ss
22

Ox
Ox
Ox
11
= ss +
+

xx =
22

. 3.19:

664

,
25.5.1 . , n-, , , , n. , . , , , .
25.5.2 . , , .
,
.
25.5.5 . F , F 0 ,
. S(F ) + S(F 0 ) > 1 ( 25.5.3) X
F F 0 . , X X 0
.
25.5.6 . ,
, .
25.5.10 . {(x, y) : |x| < 1, |y| < 1}.
25.5.11 . , k 6 x, y < k
4k 2 . k
, K. , K\A 4k 2 n + 1 .
K, A
n 1 .
25.5.12 . A
12 , B > n. , B

665

(x0 , y0 ), . . . , (xn , yn ), xi xj yi yj . , x0 > x1 > . . . > xn


(xi , yi ), xi = x0 , y0 . , , , A (0, 0), (x0 xi , y0 yi ),
(xi x0 , yi y0 ), .
25.5.14 . x.
, : , 2, . . . , s
[0, 1] s . .
1. s , 2, . . . ,
s. n n 6 s {n} <
1/s, m/n, m = [n], .
2. n1 n2 .
m/n, m = |[n1 ] [n2 ]|, n = |n1 n2 |.
.

25.6

(3). . . -

,
.
,
. ( ) .
.
, . 22.2
[5].
25.6.1. . A B . , (),
2L, A B
, .

666

L,
?
25.6.2. . 6, 7 12 . .
9 ?
25.6.3. . )
A1 ,
a. ,
B1 , A1 B1 . A2
, , B2 6= B1 ( ), A2 B2 , . , ,
. - An
1000000a?
b*) ,
?
25.6.4. ,
. ,
, .
25.6.5. 7 .
, ( ).
?
25.6.6. N ,
, ,
,
. , .
? ,

667

, ,
.
25.6.7. (
) . ,
, .
25.6.8. (
) k. ,
, , k .
25.6.9. 1000
r . ,
1000

.
25.6.10. 1000. , , 500 .

25.7

(3). . . -

.
f (x) = ax + b, a
b .
:
, ,

() - .
25.7.1. .
25.7.2. , ABCDE
ABC, BCD, CDE, DEA, EAB.
25.7.3. n .
?

668

25.7.4. 0 < a0 < a1 . . . < an . ,


a0 + a1 cos x + + an cos nx (
) n [0, ].
25.7.5. n . n-
.

. k = 1, . . . , n
, k- ,
k- .
?
. kartinka-k-linejnomu-varjirovaniju.png
25.7.6. . , , . ,
, ,
. . ,
.
25.7.7. ( ). n . ,
, m
, (n + 1)/4.
25.7.8. x1 , x2 , . . . , xn , 0 6 xj 6 1.
X
|xi xj |
16i<j6n

.
25.7.9. n a1 , . . . , an
, .

669

(a) , 2 , 4/n.
(b) , ,
, , 8/n2 .
25.7.10. ,
. .
, 2
, , ,
. , 0. ,
0.
25.7.11. , x a1 cos x + a2 cos 2x + . . . + ak cos kx > 1. ,
a1 + a2 + . . . + ak 6 k.
25.7.12. 300 : 100 , 100 , 100 . . ,
50 (. .
).
25.8.9
25.8.10 . 25.8 .
25.7.13. n > 2 ,
. , , ,
n 2 () .
,
25.7.1, 25.7.13 [30]

25.8

(3*). . . , . . , . .

(
):

670

. , ,
?
, .
.
, ., , [39].
[36].
, ( ).
[40, 41].
[37].

! , .
. .
? .
...
! . ,
. ?
. ,
25.8.1. , m n m n ?
) ; ) .
25.8.2. . ( A,B) ,
, ( ).
?
25.8.3. 3 ,
?

671

25.8.4. 5 ?
25.8.5. C, ,
D .
?
25.8.6.
, ?

okno.jpg, okno11.jpg, bookshelf.jpg, squaredsquare.jpg


A

25.8.7.


2 + 2? 2 2, 3 + 2 2 3 2 2.

25.8.8. 1 + 2 a + b 2,
a b ?
. .
, - ,
. , . , A,B , ,D .
4 , . .
25.8.9. ()
1?
25.8.10. ()
?
25.8.11. ()

2? 1 + 2.

672

, x = a + b 2
a b, .
25.8.12. ( ) x
()
x?
.
, , , ,
, , .
.
25.8.13. 1x x1 x1 , x2 x2 ,
. . . , xn xn . , x, x1 , . . . , xn . ,
x0 , x01 , . . . , x0n , x, x1 , . . . , xn , 1 x0 x01 x01 , x02 x02 , . . . ,
x0n x0n .
25.8.14. ,
x = x21 + + x2n .
25.8.15.
x1 , . . . , xn . , x1 , . . . , xn
, , . ,
, x1 , . . . , xn .
25.8.16. 7 A1 , . . . , A7 A, 7 B1 , . . . , B7 B.
.
A B .
, i, j:
Ai Aj ,
Bi Bj ;
Ai Aj ,
Bi Bj .

673

, i = 1, . . . , 7 Ai
Bi .
25.8.17. .
( ), .

,
, . . .
" ".
25.8.18. r
. , P (r) : Q(r), P (x) Q(x) .
25.8.19. , P (x)/Q(x) =
P (x)/Q(x) x P (x)/Q(x) > 0 x > 0.
25.8.20. r
. r .

x
= a b 2
x = a + b 2.
25.8.21. ,
x
x = a + b 2 a b (,
).
25.8.22. , x y , x+y, xy,
x y, x/y .
x
y?
25.8.23. .
, .

674

.
. !

!...
.
r, ?
(
[43]).
(1994).
r > 0 :
1) r.
2) ci
1

c1 r +

= 1.

c2 r +

c3 r + +

1
cn r

3) r , .
,
25.8.1 . ,
m : n, m n , mn ; . . 3.20. . ,
, .

675
. 3.20:

25.8.2 . (A) : .
. 3.21:
. , , 3.21: , .
. 3.22:
,
. , , . 3.22. .
. , .
.
(B) : . . [41].
. picture2.jpg

. 3.23:

25.8.3 . : . . k 1,
k . . k k 2 , 3.23. ,
k. 1 + k 2 . ,
,

676

k(1 + k 2 ) = k 3 + k.
, 1 + k 2 = k 3 + 2k.
: f (k) = k 3 k 2 +2k 1. k = 0 1, k = 1
+1.
(0, 1), .
k.
.
k,
f (k) = 0 , . ,
: k < 1 < 1 + k 2 .
25.8.4 . : ( ). : 3 [40]. . [36].
25.8.5 . : C) ; D) . C . [40], D .
25.8.6 . : . . [40,
1].
25.8.7 . : .
. . . 3.24.

1
.

a + b 2. k k(a + b 2)
. a
b ,
, ,
.
.

1(2+ 2) (2 2)2 ,
3.24A.


1, 2 2 2
+ 2, 2 (. 3.24B)
1 (3 + 2 2) (3 2 2) 1.
(. 3.24C).

677

. picturea1.jpg, pictureb.jpg, picturec,d.jpg


A

C,D
. 3.24:

25.8.8 . : . . ,
.
25.8.9 . : ,
( ).
. [42, 4 . 25].
25.8.10 . : ( ).
: 25.8.1325.8.17.
. [36, 3] [40].

25.8.11 . : 2 , 1 + 2 .

2 . [40, 7]. 1+ 2
25.8.12.

25.8.12 . : x = a + b 2 , a2 > 2b2 , a, b


.
. pictureEAS.jpg
. 3.25:
. . 25.8.1825.8.23 . 3.25.
, , . [41,
] ( ).
25.8.13 . [40].

678

25.8.14 . : .
, [43, 5].
25.8.15 . : .
25.8.16 . [40].
25.8.17 . . [40], [36, 3].
25.8.18 . 25.8.18, 25.8.19, 25.8.20. . [41].
25.8.22 . : x + y = x+y, x y = xy, x y = xy, x/y = x/y.
c. [41].

25.9

?28 (3). . . , . .

.
. ( ). , .
, ,
, !
[44, 45], . . 20.3 .
25.9.1. ) 1
2 4 ,
.
) 6 .
28

. , . , . , . , . . .

679

) 6 .
)* 123
,
.

M . 1, 2, . . . , n. l1 , l2 , . . . , ln ,
1 , 2 , . . . , n . M li i , li , i (. 3.26).
. 3.26:
(-), ,
, (. 3.27).
,
,
, .
. 3.27:
25.9.2. , a .
?
) 4a ; ) 4a 4; ) 6a ; ) 6a 6.
.
. . ,

680

- l .
25.9.3.
, M M1 , M2 , . . . , Mk .
25.9.3. ) e M , l ,
. l1 , l2 , . . . ln Mi , e,
1 , 2 , . . . , n . l n
l1 1 , . . . , ln n .
) ` , M . l1 , l2 , . . . ln Mi , `, 1 , 2 , . . . , n . n
l1 1 , . . . , ln n - c
l .
) .
,
, ,
-.
.
) .
, .
. . (. .
/
/ Q), a b a b
-. , -
l .

681


. 25.9.4.
.
, . .
25.9.4. ) -,

, ,
.
. ,
a b , , . , , y1 , y2 , y3 , . . . , yN ,
.
Y = {, , y1 , . . . , yN }.
) y10 , y20 , . . . , yn0 Y ,
y Y
y = p + q + p1 y10 + p2 y20 + . . . + pn yn0 ,
p, q, p1 , p2 , . . . , pn .
y10 , . . . , yn0 ( 25.9.4 ),
). y Y f (y) = p,
p
y = p + q + p1 y10 + . . . + pn yn0 .
M x1 y1 , x2 y2 , . . . , xn yn ,
yi Y ,
J(M ) = x1 f (y1 ) + x2 f (y2 ) + . . . + xn f (yn ).

682

) J(M ) M .
) .
) : .

.
25.9.5. ) :
a b , ab .
) ,
( 1) .
25.9.5 . 25.8 , 25.8.1325.8.17.
:
, ,
(
[45]). ,
, ,
.
( [44]).
-
l , .
J(M ) - , (
[46]).
,
25.9.1 . ) 1 2 2.

683

) ,
.
) . ABCDA0 B 0 C 0 D0
6 AC 0 BB 0 , AC 0 B 0 A0 , AC 0 A0 D0 , AC 0 D0 D, AC 0 DC, AC 0 CB
,
A, C 0 .
(,
AC 0 BB 0 AC 0 A0 D0 120
AC 0 ).
. 0 6 x, y, z 6 1
6
0 6 x 6 y 6 z 6 1, 0 6 x 6 z 6 y 6 1, 0 6 y 6 x 6 z 6 1,
0 6 y 6 z 6 x 6 1, 0 6 z 6 x 6 y 6 1, 0 6 z 6 y 6 x 6 1.
, - , ,
.
25.9.3 . ) . ei Mj ,
e. C e
1 ( e).
e L l (
) ( ). Ci ei
1 ei Mj
Li li i .
M ,
L L1 , L2 , . . . , Ln .
L l ,
li i .
) . `, M , Mi , . e1 , e2 , . . . , en

684

, ` ( l1 , l2 , . . . , ln ). e1 , e2 , . . . , en `. , ,
e1 , e2 , . . . , es , I . f1 , f2 , . . . , fm
I Mj .
, e1 1 , e2 2 , . . . , es s
- l .
, , ,
.
C, Ci , Ck 1 I, ei , fk . ei Ci li i ( li i
). Mj , fk , Ck fk ;
, , Mj .
M , C li i fi .
, . C .
( fi ), 2 .
,
, l1 1 , l2 2 ,
. . . , ls s , , .
) . , M M 0 . M1 , M2 , . . . , Mn , M , M 0 . , M , , 25.9.3 a, -
, -

685

M1 , M2 , . . . , Mn . M 0 . , -
. , , M M 0 ,
, .
) . ABCD. M
CD. AM BM CD,
AM B CD . a,

3
AM = BM = 2 a.
AM B
cos =

AM 2 + BM 2 AB 2
1
= .
2AM BM
3

, cos n = a3nn , an
3. n = 0 n = 1 .
. n > 1:
cos(n + 1) + cos(n 1) = 2 cos n cos ,

cos(n + 1) = 2 cos n cos cos(n 1) =

2an 3an1
.
3n+1

an 3, an+1 =
2an 3an1 3.
, cos n 6= 1 n, n 6= 2m
n m, . . 6= m
n 2. .
25.9.4 . ) . , , . : .
: ,

686

.
, .
) . 2 [45].
) . x y.
, , : , J(M )
x1 f (y) + x2 f (y) xf (y) = 0,
. . .
. xf (y1 ) + xf (y2 ) xf (y). ,
.
y1 = f (y1 ) + q1 + 1 y10 + 2 y20 + . . . + n yn0 ,
y2 = f (y2 ) + q2 + 1 y10 + 2 y20 + . . . + n yn0 .

y = y1 + y2 = (f (y1 ) + f (y2 )) + (q1 + q2 ) +


+ (1 + 1 )y10 + (2 + 2 )y20 + . . . + (n + n )yn0 .
f (y) = f (y1 ) + f (y2 ), .
) .
( 25.9.4 )), 25.9.4 ) - . (a , l ) a, b .
, -.
) . : a b .
, 6 a
l1 - 8 b 2 l2 .
- 6a , l1 ,

687

+ l2 . , 2 -.
25.9.3 )
-. .
b
2

25.9.5 . ) . a b
, - ba (
90 ).
ab .
) . . a1 , a2 , . . . , an
, a.
25.9.3 ), ) 6a1 , 6a2 ,
. . . , 6an - 6a , l . ,
25.9.4 ), )
a1 + a2 + . . . + an = a.

a31 + a32 + . . . + a3n = a3 .
:
a31 + a32 + . . . + a3n + A = a3 ,
A > 0, .
. . ,
. ,
. , , .
25.9.3 ).


[1] ., ., ., .
// . 1990. N 3.
[2] ., . //
. 1987. N 3.
[3] . // . 1989.
N 11.
[4] . //
. 1970. N 3.
[5] . // . 1987.
N 6.
[6] ., . // . 1991. N 7.
[7] . // . 1982. N 12.
[8] . // .
1991. N 11.
.
[9] Dolnikov V. L. Some Problems for Mathematical Olympiad.
Combinatorial Geometry. CIMAT, Mexico, 2004.
.
688

689

[10] . ., . . . ( ; . 4). .; .: , 1951. 343 .


[11] ., . , // . 1991. N 8.
[12] . // . 1974. N 9.
.
[13] . . // . 1974. N 12.
[14] . // . 1977. N 4.
[15] . // . 1977. N 6.
[16] . // .
1986. N 11.
[17] ., ., . . 12 // . . 2005.
. 77, . 1. . 117120.
[18] . . // . 1988. N 10.
[19] . . , // . . 1997. . 52, . 6. . 113142.
[20] Poonen B., Rodriguez-Villegas F. Lattice polygons and the number
12 // Amer. Math. Mon. 2000. V. 107, N 3. P. 238250.
.
[21] . // 1978. N 5.
[22] . . 1998. N 1.
[23] . . 1984. N 6.

690

[24] . // . 1975. N 8.
.
[25] . . .: , 1960.
[26] . . ii . :
, 1985.
.
[27] . // . 1991. N 1.
[28] . // . 1986. N 4.
[29] . ? // . 1983. N 5.
.
[30] . ., . . //
. 1992. N 11..
[31] . // . 1983. N 3.
[32] . 50 // .
1989. N 6.
[33] . // . 1989. N 6.
[34] ., ., .
// . 1988. N 3.
[35] ., . //
. 1987. N 1.
.
[36] . . ? // . . .: , 1968. 112 . http://ilib.mirror1.mccme.ru/djvu/yaglom/
square.htm

691

[37] . // : . 2- ., . . . .
.: , 1999. 447 .
[38] . // . 1984.
N 1.
[39] . // . 1987. N 7.
[40] ., ., . // . 2011. N 3. P. 1016.
[41] ., ., . // . 2015. N 2. C. 611.
[42] ., . // .
2011. N 2.
[43] Prasolov M., Skopenkov M. Tilings by rectangles and alternating
current // J. Combin. Theory A. 2011. Vol. 118, N 3. P. 920937.
. ?
[44] . . // . . 22. .: , 1956.
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, .
.

26

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at the expense of the other, but to include and to connect.
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[Ko] .. , , . : , 2001.
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698

28. . .. 699

28

. ..
It startled the well informed by being a new and fantastic
idea they had never encountered. It startled the ignorant by being
an old and familiar idea they never thought to have seen revived.
G. K. Chesterton. The Man Who Knew Too Much.

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Classification_ of_ cyclicity-forcing_ numbers .

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[Ar84] .. , , , , 1984.
[BKS] . , . . ,
n ? http://www.mccme.ru/circles/
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[IKR] . , . , . . ,
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[Ki05] ..
,

,
http://www.mccme.ru//dubna/2005/courses/kirichenko.html
[Kl] . , .
[KS08] . . , :
( ), . , 12
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[Po1] . , , .: , 1990.
[Po2] ., ,
712

713

[RS00] ., . , , 4 (2000), 154-180.


[RS02] ., .
, , 6 (2002), 6077.
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, , , 2009, http://arxiv.
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[Sk11] . , . , 15 (2011), . 113126. http://arxiv.
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[Sk99] . , N - , , . , 3 (1999) 184188

714

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