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NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Maths Unit 2

Polynomials Class 9

Unit 2 Polynomials Exercise 2.1, 2.2, 2.3, 2.4, 2.5 Solutions


In mathematics, a polynomial is an expression consisting of variables (or indeterminates)
and coefficients, that involves only the operations of addition, subtraction, multiplication, and
non-negative integer exponents. An example of a polynomial of a single indeterminate (or
variable), x, is x2 - 4x + 7, which is a quadratic polynomial.
Polynomials appear in a wide variety of areas of mathematics and science. For example,
they are used to form polynomial equations, which encode a wide range of problems, from
elementary word problems to complicated problems in the sciences; they are used to define
polynomial functions, which appear in settings ranging from basic chemistry and physics to
economics and social science; they are used in calculus and numerical analysis to
approximate other functions. In advanced mathematics, polynomials are used to construct
polynomial rings and algebraic varieties, central concepts in algebra and algebraic
geometry.
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Polynomials Class 9 - NCERT Solutions

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Exercise 2.1 : Solutions of Questions on Page Number : 32

solutions)
Q1 : Which of the following expressions are polynomials in one variable
and which are not? State reasons for your answer.
(i)

(ii)

(iv)

(iii)

(v)

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Answer :
(i)

Yes, this expression is a polynomial in one variable x.


(ii)

Yes, this expression is a polynomial in one variable y.


(iii)

No. It can be observed that the exponent of variable t in term

not a whole number. Therefore, this expression is not a polynomial.

is

, which is

(iv)
No. It can be observed that the exponent of variable y in term

a whole number. Therefore, this expression is not a polynomial.

is - 1, which is not

(v)

No. It can be observed that this expression is a polynomial in 3 variables x, y, and


t. Therefore, it is not a polynomial in one variable.
Answer needs Correction? Click Here

Q2 : Write the coefficients of


(i)

(ii)

(iii)

(iv)

in each of the following:

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English

Answer :

(i)
solutions)
In the above expression, the coefficient of
(ii)

In the above expression, the coefficient of

Science

is 1.
is - 1.

(iii)
In the above expression, the coefficient of

is

(iv)
In the above expression, the coefficient of

is 0.

Answer needs Correction? Click Here

Q3 : Give one example each of a binomial of degree 35, and of a monomial


of degree 100.
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Answer :

Degree of a polynomial is the highest power of the variable in the polynomial.

Binomial has two terms in it. Therefore, binomial of degree 35 can be written as
.
Monomial has only one term in it. Therefore, monomial of degree 100 can be
written as x100.
Answer needs Correction? Click Here

Q4 : Write the degree of each of the following polynomials:


(i)

(iii)

(ii)

(iv) 3

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Answer :

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Degree of a polynomial is the highest power of the variable


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in the polynomial.
English
(i)
Science

This is a polynomial in variable x and the highest power of variable x is 3.


Therefore, the degree of this polynomial is 3.
solutions)
(ii)

This is a polynomial in variable y and the highest power of variable y is 2.


Therefore, the degree of this polynomial is 2.
(iii)

This is a polynomial in variable t and the highest power of variable t is 1.


Therefore, the degree of this polynomial is 1.
(iv) 3

This is a constant polynomial. Degree of a constant polynomial is always 0.


Answer needs Correction? Click Here

Q5 : Classify the following as linear, quadratic and cubic polynomial:


(i)

(ii)

(vi)

(vii)

(iii)

(iv)

(v)

Like

Answer :

Linear polynomial, quadratic polynomial, and cubic polynomial has its degrees as
1, 2, and 3 respectively.
(i)

(ii)

(iii)

is a quadratic polynomial as its degree is 2.

is a cubic polynomial as its degree is 3.

is a quadratic polynomial as its degree is 2.

(iv) 1 + x is a linear polynomial as its degree is 1.


(v)

(vi)

(vii)

is a linear polynomial as its degree is 1.

is a quadratic polynomial as its degree is 2.


is a cubic polynomial as its degree is 3.

Answer needs Correction? Click Here

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Exercise 2.2 : Solutions of Questions on Page Number : 34


Q1 : Find the value of the polynomial
(i) x = 0 (ii) x = - 1 (iii) x = 2

at

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Answer :
(i)

(ii)

(iii)

Answer needs Correction? Click Here

Q2 : Find p(0), p(1) and p(2) for each of the following polynomials:
(i) p(y) = y2 - y + 1 (ii) p(t) = 2 + t + 2t2 - t3
(iii) p(x) = x3 (iv) p(x) = (x - 1) (x + 1)
Like

Answer :

(i) p(y) = y2 - y + 1

p(0) = (0)2 - (0) + 1 = 1


p(1) = (1)2 - (1) + 1 = 1

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p(2) = (2)2 - (2) + 1 = 3


English
2
(ii) p(t) = 2 + t + 2t - t3

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Science

p(0) = 2 + 0 + 2 (0)2 - (0)3 = 2

solutions)
p(1) = 2 + (1) + 2(1)2 - (1)3
=2+1+2-1=4

p(2) = 2 + 2 + 2(2)2 - (2)3


=2+2+8-8=4
(iii) p(x) = x3

p(0) = (0)3 = 0
p(1) = (1)3 = 1
p(2) = (2)3 = 8

(iv) p(x) = (x - 1) (x + 1)

p(0) = (0 - 1) (0 + 1) = (- 1) (1) = - 1
p(1) = (1 - 1) (1 + 1) = 0 (2) = 0
p(2) = (2 - 1 ) (2 + 1) = 1(3) = 3
Answer needs Correction? Click Here

Q3 : Verify whether the following are zeroes of the polynomial, indicated


against them.
(i)

(ii)

(iii) p(x) = x2 - 1, x = 1, - 1 (iv) p(x) = (x + 1) (x - 2), x = - 1, 2


(v) p(x) = x2 , x = 0 (vi) p(x) = lx + m
(vii)

(viii)

Like

Answer :
(i) If

is a zero of given polynomial p(x) = 3x + 1, then

should be 0.

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Therefore,
(ii) If

solutions)

Therefore,

is English
a zero of the given polynomial.

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is a zero of polynomial p(x) = 5x - , then

should be 0.

Science

is not a zero of the given polynomial.

(iii) If x = 1 and x = - 1 are zeroes of polynomial p(x) = x2 - 1, then p(1) and p( - 1)


should be 0.
Here, p(1) = (1)2 - 1 = 0, and
p( - 1) = ( - 1)2 - 1 = 0

Hence, x = 1 and - 1 are zeroes of the given polynomial.

(iv) If x = - 1 and x = 2 are zeroes of polynomial p(x) = (x +1) (x - 2), then p( - 1)


and p(2)should be 0.
Here, p( - 1) = ( - 1 + 1) ( - 1 - 2) = 0 ( - 3) = 0, and
p(2) = (2 + 1) (2 - 2 ) = 3 (0) = 0

Therefore, x = - 1 and x = 2 are zeroes of the given polynomial.

(v) If x = 0 is a zero of polynomial p(x) = x2, then p(0) should be zero.


Here, p(0) = (0)2 = 0

Hence, x = 0 is a zero of the given polynomial.


(vi) If

is a zero of polynomial p(x) = lx + m, then

should be 0.

Here,
Therefore,
(vii) If

is a zero of the given polynomial.


and

are zeroes of polynomial p(x) = 3x2 - 1, then

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solutions)
Hence,

is a zero of the given polynomial. However,

the given polynomial.


(viii) If

is a zero of polynomial p(x) = 2x + 1, then

is not a zero of

should be 0.

Answer needs Correction? Click Here

Q4 : Find the zero of the polynomial in each of the following cases:


(i) p(x) = x + 5 (ii) p(x) = x - 5 (iii) p(x) = 2x + 5

(iv) p(x) = 3x - 2 (v) p(x) = 3x (vi) p(x) = ax, a 0


(vii) p(x) = cx + d, c 0, c, are real numbers.
Like

Answer :

Zero of a polynomial is that value of the variable at which the value of the
polynomial is obtained as 0.
(i) p(x) = x + 5
p(x) = 0

x+5=0
x=-5

Therefore, for x = - 5, the value of the polynomial is 0 and hence, x = - 5 is a zero


of the given polynomial.
(ii) p(x) = x - 5
p(x) = 0

x-5=0
x=5

Therefore, for x = 5, the value of the polynomial is0 and hence, x = 5 is a zero of
the given polynomial.

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(iii) p(x) = 2x + 5
p(x) = 0

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English

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Science

2x + 5 = 0

solutions)
2x = - 5

Therefore, for

, the value of the polynomial is 0 and hence,

of the given polynomial.

is a zero

(iv) p(x) = 3x - 2
p(x) = 0

3x - 2 = 0

Therefore, for

, the value of the polynomial is 0 and hence,

the given polynomial.

is a zero of

(v) p(x) = 3x
p(x) = 0
3x = 0
x=0

Therefore, for x = 0, the value of the polynomial is 0 and hence, x = 0 is a zero of


the given polynomial.
(vi) p(x) = ax
p(x) = 0
ax = 0
x=0

Therefore, for x = 0, the value of the polynomial is 0 and hence, x = 0 is a zero of


the given polynomial.
(vii) p(x) = cx + d
p(x) = 0

cx+ d = 0

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, the value of the polynomial is 0 and
hence,
is a zero
English
Science
of the given polynomial.
Therefore, for

Answer needs Correction? Click Here

solutions)

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Exercise 2.3 : Solutions of Questions on Page Number : 40


Q1 : Find the remainder when x3 + 3x2 + 3x + 1 is divided by
(i) x + 1 (ii)

(iii) x

(iv) x + (v) 5 + 2x
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Answer :
(i) x + 1

By long division,

Therefore, the remainder is 0.

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(ii)

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English

Science

By long division,
solutions)

Therefore, the remainder is

(iii) x

By long division,

Therefore, the remainder is 1.


(iv) x +

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By long division,

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English

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Science

solutions)

Therefore, the remainder is


(v) 5 + 2x

By long division,

Therefore, the remainder is


Answer needs Correction? Click Here

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Q2 : Find the remainder when x3 - ax2 + 6x - a is divided


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by x - a.
English
Science
Like
Answer :
solutions)
By long division,

Therefore, when x3 - ax2 + 6x - a is divided by x - a, the remainder obtained is 5a.


Answer needs Correction? Click Here

Q3 : Check whether 7 + 3x is a factor of 3x3 + 7x.


Like

Answer :

Let us divide (3x3 + 7x) by (7 + 3x). If the remainder obtained is 0, then 7 + 3x will
be a factor of 3x3 + 7x.
By long division,

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solutions)

As the remainder is not zero, therefore, 7 + 3x is not a factor of 3x3 + 7x.


Answer needs Correction? Click Here

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Exercise 2.4 : Solutions of Questions on Page Number : 43


Q1 : Determine which of the following polynomials has (x + 1) a factor:
(i) x3 + x2 + x + 1 (ii) x4 + x3 + x2 + x + 1
(iii) x4 + 3x3 + 3x2 + x + 1 (iv)
Like

Answer :

(i) If (x + 1) is a factor of p(x) = x3 + x2 + x + 1, then p ( - 1) must be zero,


otherwise (x + 1) is not a factor of p(x).
p(x) = x3 + x2 + x + 1

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p( - 1) = ( - 1)3 + ( - 1)2 + ( - 1) + 1
English
=-1+1-1+1=0

(http://www.schoollamp.com/class-9-nine/e
Science

Hence, x + 1 is a factor of this polynomial.

solutions)
(ii) If (x + 1) is a factor of p(x) = x4 + x3 + x2 + x + 1, then p ( - 1) must be zero,
otherwise (x + 1) is not a factor of p(x).
p(x) = x4 + x3 + x2 + x + 1

p( - 1) = ( - 1)4 + ( - 1)3 + ( - 1)2 + ( - 1) + 1


=1-1+1-1+1=1
As p( - 1) 0,

Therefore, x + 1 is not a factor of this polynomial.

(iii) If (x + 1) is a factor of polynomial p(x) = x4 + 3x3 + 3x2 + x + 1, then p( - 1)


must be 0, otherwise (x + 1) is not a factor of this polynomial.
p( - 1) = ( - 1)4 + 3( - 1)3 + 3( - 1)2 + ( - 1) + 1
=1-3+3-1+1=1
As p( - 1) 0,

Therefore, x + 1 is not a factor of this polynomial.


(iv) If(x + 1) is a factor of polynomial p(x) =

must be 0, otherwise (x + 1) is not a factor of this polynomial.

, then p( - 1)

As p( - 1) 0,

Therefore, (x + 1) is not a factor of this polynomial.


Answer needs Correction? Click Here

Q2 : Use the Factor Theorem to determine whether g(x) is a factor of p(x) in


each of the following cases:
(i) p(x) = 2x3 + x2 - 2x - 1, g(x) = x + 1

(ii) p(x) = x3 + 3x2 + 3x + 1, g(x) = x + 2


(iii) p(x) = x3 - 4 x2 + x + 6, g(x) = x - 3
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Answer :

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English
(i) If g(x) = x + 1 is a factor of the given polynomial p(x), then p(-1) must be zero. Science
p(x) = 2x3 + x2 - 2x - 1

solutions)
p(-1) = 2(-1)3 + (-1)2 - 2(-1) - 1
= 2(-1) + 1 + 2 - 1 = 0

Hence, g(x) = x + 1 is a factor of the given polynomial.

(ii) If g(x) = x + 2 is a factor of the given polynomial p(x), then p(-2) must
be 0.

p(x) = x3 +3x2 + 3x + 1

p(-2) = (-2)3 + 3(-2)2 + 3(-2) + 1


= - 8 + 12 - 6 + 1
= -1

As p(-2) 0,

Hence, g(x) = x + 2 is not a factor of the given polynomial.

(iii) If g(x) = x - 3 is a factor of the given polynomial p(x), then p(3) must
be 0.

p(x) = x3 - 4 x2 + x + 6

p(3) = (3)3 - 4(3)2 + 3 + 6


= 27 - 36 + 9 = 0

Hence, g(x) = x - 3 is a factor of the given polynomial.


Answer needs Correction? Click Here

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Exercise 2.5 : Solutions of Questions on Page Number : 48


Q1 : Use suitable identities to find the following products:

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(i)

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(ii)
English

(iii)

Science

(iv)

(v)
solutions)
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Answer :

(i) By using the identity

(ii) By using the identity

(iii)
By using the identity

(iv) By using the identity

(v) By using the identity

Answer needs Correction? Click Here

Q2 : Evaluate the following products without multiplying directly:


(i) 103 x 107 (ii) 95 x 96 (iii) 104 x 96

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Answer :

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English

(i) 103 107 = (100 + 3) (100 + 7)


solutions)
= (100)2 + (3 + 7) 100 + (3) (7)
[By using the identity

x = 100, a = 3, and b = 7]

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Science

, where

= 10000 + 1000 + 21
= 11021

(ii) 95 96 = (100 - 5) (100 - 4)

= (100)2 + ( - 5 - 4) 100 + ( - 5) ( - 4)
[By using the identity

x = 100, a = - 5, and b = - 4]

, where

= 10000 - 900 + 20
= 9120

(iii) 104 96 = (100 + 4) (100 - 4)


= (100)2 - (4)2
= 10000 - 16
= 9984

Answer needs Correction? Click Here

Q3 : Factorise the following using appropriate identities:


(i) 9x2 + 6xy + y2
(ii)

(iii)
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Answer :
(i)

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(ii)

English

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solutions)
(iii)

Answer needs Correction? Click Here

Q4 : Expand each of the following, using suitable identities:


(i)

(ii)

(iii)
(v)

(iv)
(vi)

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Answer :

It is known that,
(i)
(ii)
(iii)

(iv)

(v)

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(vi)

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solutions)

Answer needs Correction? Click Here

Q5 : Factorise:
(i)

(ii)
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Answer :

It is known that,
(i)

(ii)

Answer needs Correction? Click Here

Q6 : Write the following cubes in expanded form:


(i)

(iii)

(ii)

(iv)

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Answer :

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English

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Science

It is known that,
solutions)

(i)

(ii)

(iii)

(vi)

Answer needs Correction? Click Here

Q7 : Evaluate the following using suitable identities:


(i) (99)3 (ii) (102)3 (iii) (998)3
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Answer :

It is known that,

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English

Science

(i) (99)3 = (100 - 1)3

solutions)
= (100)3 - (1)3 - 3(100) (1) (100 - 1)
= 1000000 - 1 - 300(99)
= 1000000 - 1 - 29700
= 970299

(ii) (102)3 = (100 + 2)3

= (100)3 + (2)3 + 3(100) (2) (100 + 2)


= 1000000 + 8 + 600 (102)
= 1000000 + 8 + 61200
= 1061208

(iii) (998)3= (1000 - 2)3

= (1000)3 - (2)3 - 3(1000) (2) (1000 - 2)


= 1000000000 - 8 - 6000(998)
= 1000000000 - 8 - 5988000
= 1000000000 - 5988008
= 994011992

Answer needs Correction? Click Here

Q8 : Factorise each of the following:


(i)

(iii)

(ii)

(iv)

(v)
Like

Answer :

It is known that,

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(i)

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(ii)

(iii)

(iv)

(v)

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Q9 : Verify:
(i)

(ii)
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(i) It is known that,

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(ii) It is known that,

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Q10 : Factorise each of the following:


(i)

(ii)

[Hint: See question 9.]


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Answer :
(i)

(ii)

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Q11 : Factorise:
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Answer :

It is known that,

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Q12 : Verify that


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It is known that,

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Q13 : If x + y + z = 0, show that

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It is known that,
solutions)
Put x + y + z = 0,

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Q14 : Without actually calculating the cubes, find the value of each of the
following:
(i)

(ii)
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Answer :
(i)

Let x = - 12, y = 7, and z = 5


It can be observed that,

x + y + z = - 12 + 7 + 5 = 0

It is known that if x + y + z = 0, then

= - 1260
(ii)

Let x = 28, y = - 15, and z = - 13


It can be observed that,

x + y + z = 28 + ( - 15) + ( - 13) = 28 - 28 = 0
It is known that if x + y + z = 0, then

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Q15 : Give possible expressions for the length and breadth of each of
thefollowing rectangles, in which their areas are given:

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Answer :

Area = Length Breadth

The expression given for the area of the rectangle has to be factorised. One of its
factors will be its length and the other will be its breadth.
(i)

Therefore, possible length = 5a - 3


And, possible breadth = 5a - 4
(ii)

Therefore, possible length = 5y + 4


And, possible breadth = 7y - 3

Answer needs Correction? Click Here

Q16 : What are the possible expressions for the dimensions of the cuboids
whose volumes are given below?

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Volume of cuboid = Length Breadth Height

Science

The expression given for the volume of the cuboid has to be factorised. One of its
solutions)
factors will be its length, one will be its breadth, and one will be its height.
(i)

One of the possible solutions is as follows.


Length = 3, Breadth = x, Height = x - 4
(ii)

One of the possible solutions is as follows.

Length = 4k, Breadth = 3y + 5, Height = y - 1


Answer needs Correction? Click Here

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Maths : CBSE NCERT Exercise Solutions for Class 9th for Polynomials (
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Exercise 2.1

Question 1

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Exercise 2.2

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Exercise 2.3

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Exercise 2.4

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Question 2

Exercise 2.5

Question 1
Question 2
Question 3
Question 4
Question 5
Question 6
Question 7
Question 8
Question 9

Question 10
Question 11

Question 12
Question 13
Question 14
Question 15
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