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llChapter 1

Introduction
This chapter intends to capture the relevancy of topic, the background, including the statement of
problem and the purpose of the study will be presented. Later, emerging issues will also be
discussed in this chapter.

1.1Background of the study:


Aesthetic sense in one of the greatest blessings of ALLAH and People, who are bestowed with
this blessing, find beauty in everything. They not only beautify material things, belong to them,
but also take care of themselves. This sense can be traced in early childhood of any person but it
grows with the passage of time and people become more conscious about the appearance and
cleanliness of the things around them. Moreover, in the era of globalization, improvement of
science, society, technology, economy and education provide people to have better living
standard and styles. Relating to the development of purchasing power in consumers and market
trend that people become more conscious of hygiene and beauty (Souiden & Diagne, 2009), it
affects to the rapid growth in beauty care industry. (Moungkhem, Surakiatpinyo, 2010).
Nevertheless, how one can define cosmetics? Cosmetics are substances used to enhance the
beauty of the human body. It implies psychologically that you are compensating for something
you do not have. Cosmetics include products such as shampoos and soaps as well as make-up,
hair cares and perfumes (Audrey, Cyrielle, Quentin). Kumar and his colleagues (2006) defined
the cosmetic industry as a very lucrative, innovative, and fast paced industry (p. 286).
Cosmetics refer to all products used to care for and clean the human body and make it more
beautiful. The main goal of such products is to maintain the body in good condition, protect it
from adverse effects of the environment and the aging process, change the appearance and make
the body smell nicer. Thus the products used for the purpose of cleansing, beautifying, promoting
attractiveness or altering ones appearance are termed as cosmetics. Any of the several
preparations (excluding soap) applied to the human body for beautifying , preserving or altering
ones appearance or for cleansing, colouring, conditioning or protecting the skin, hair , nails ,
lips, eyes or teeth are included in Cosmetics and are commonly termed as Cosmetics and
Toiletries (DHADHAL, DHADHAL, 2009).
The Beauty and Personal Care market or the Cosmetics and Toiletries market as it is alternatively
known, consists of the retail sales of over the counter healthcare products, skincare, hair care,

makeup, fragrances, Color Cosmetics, Baby Care, Oral Care, etc. as shown in the figure below in
general

Source: Euro monitors International (citied in DHADHAL, DHADHAL, 2009)


Strictly defined- Cosmetics cover Color Cosmetics, Fragrances and Skin Care, whereas
Toiletries include, Baby care, Bath and shower products, Deodorants, Depilatories, Hair care,
Mens grooming Products, Oral Hygiene and Sun care. In this sense when skin care or the skin
care industry is referred to or discussed, it can be analyzed under the head- cosmetics, or
skincare products can be considered cosmetics products (DHADHAL, DHADHAL, 2009).
For the past centuries, women were more conscious not only about aesthetics of things around
them but also about themselves. Women used much different kind of things to enhance their
beauty, which ultimately led the foundation of cosmetic industry. This industry was feminine in
its nature since its foundation and produce products related to women.
However, this scenario has been changed in last century when men became more conscious
about their appearance and hygiene. This trend was lightened up by men magazines, TV fashion
shows and other such kind of activities. Astute companies took advantage of this opportunity and
made investment in exquisite niche market and for the first time men cosmetics were introduced
by LOreal in 1985.
At present age, it is a fact that Most of people would like to be beautiful, healthy and good
looking. The global world we are living in sets stereotypes that become models. Models are
presented widespread all around us in daily life such as on the television, in the commercials, in
the magazines, on the billboard, in the fashion shows, in the streets and even at school or at
workplace. There is a normal fact that most people want to look like the models. Men and
women are alike, a smooth and bright skin with an ideal body shape for a wonderful life (Nair et
al, 2007). The belief of a man that how a person presents himself to the outer world is important

for the social acceptance has moved a step forward understanding the importance of presenting
nicely will certainly be an advantage to his career is also increasing the consumption of beauty
products (Gupta, Arora, 2013).
This desire and trends are growing and seen as a gold mine for the beauty care market. Beauty
care products imply psychologically that customers are taking care of their hygiene, beauty and
healthiness by using some products items to support.
The beauty industry in women has been obviously growing since long times ago whereas the
mens market have just become blooming in men aspects lately. Currently men are more aware
of their body and the demand for beautifulness, aesthetics, youthfulness, healthiness, and
thinness, which drag them away from old opinion about only sanitation. The advancement of
fashion magazines for men emphasizes this point of view against their appearance (Souiden &
Diagne, 2009). This market is forecasted to witness a double-digit growth in coming years
because of change in lifestyle and increasing spending among male consumers. As, we all can
see grooming products and male cosmetics can now be found under brands such as Garnier,
Nivea, Fiama Di Wills and Olay. Men are increasingly accepting to use products that were earlier
considered the domain of women (Gupta, Arora, 2013).
Due to quite high by value, the characteristics of this market invites many companies to enter to
this market continuously, domestic as well as multinationals desire to reach at the depth of the
market and want to take as much advantage as possible. This is the reason that there is intense
competition in this market but still many companies are paying attention to this market and are
seem to willing to invest in this markets opportunities. (Moungkhem, Surakiatpinyo, 2010).
Therefore, this market is growing at an immense rate and has great potential. Companies are
introducing newer and more advanced products in the market, which were previously very
feminine in nature. Cosmetic giants are now conducting advanced level researches on men skins
and are trying to figure out the area where there is clear difference between men and women
skin. Nevertheless, there is also a need to find out the perception, buying behavior, consumption
habits, most influential factors and motivational factors of using skin care products of men.
Moreover, this market is completely bombarded with male press, which is playing large role in
attracting more market toward consumption of mens beauty products. Due to this, men pay more
attention to support new trends of beauty and are more concern to the product alternatives, as
many products are launched in the market to persuade customers that it can ameliorate their
appearance, to put them in scene and to dramatize it.
In view of whole scenario discussed above, it becomes very clear that mens beauty product
market is growing at immense rate. Nevertheless, there is very scant studies in Pakistan to
understand that perception, behavior and attitude of men toward these products. Therefore, the
present study is about the perception, factors affecting the buying decision and behavior of young
men toward the purchasing and consumption of cosmetics and beauty products.

Moreover, even though men buy more beauty products as grooming and skin care products, it is
predicted that these products are still bought approximately 80% by their wife or companions
(Data panel, 2002). As a result, the percentage drive us to study if there is any internal or external
reason which can be factor affects to men purchasing toward this kind of skin care products, just
because men do not have many experiences against the products, or there is any masculine issue
involvement. In general, some fear to buy these kinds of products directly can lead into question
their virility, associating them to a female, effeminate or homosexual universe (Moungkhem,
Surakiatpinyo, 2010).
Further, it is prerequisite for the companies to obtain an in depth understanding of consumer
behavior and then should figure out the most suitable value proposition and delivery channels for
their goods and services (Business world Marketing White book 2012-13). It is widely
understood fact that the success of any business organization originate from the ability of
company to understand and mold consumer behavior. This study is helpful while designing and
implementing marketing programs. Failure to decipher the dynamic buyer behavior and
inappropriate allocation and coordination of resources will lead the organization to huge losses.
The astute marketers are at fathoming consumer behavior; the more successful they will be at
influencing consumers purchase behavior (Kurti Shah 2009). The marketers have to combat
with a number of challenges in selling products like cosmetics as they have to be applied
directly on human skins, body and other parts. There is a perceived risk of dissatisfaction in the
consumers as far as its benefits are concerned. It is necessary to study the consumer buying
decision process in this regard. The core concept of marketing revolves around the decisions
consumers and organizations take in buying certain products May it be goods, services or
ideas. While buying certain products, consumers become highly sensitive of their quality,
expected benefits and the way of using it. Courtland L Bovee and John V Thill (1992) define
consumer behavior, as consumers all the actions involved in selecting, purchasing, using and
disposing of goods and services. Consumers buying behavior is a complex phenomenon with a
number of factors that affect their behavior when they involve themselves with buying process.
According to Joel R. Evans and Barry Berman (2009), demographic, social and psychological
factors affect the way final consumers make choices and can help a firm understand how people
use the decision process. A prosperous consumer would move through the process more quickly
than a middle-income one due to less financial risk. An insecure consumer would spend more
time making decisions than a secure one. Rajan Saxena (2006) calls consumer mind as the black
box which is influenced by company controlled stimulus like product, price, advertising, sales
promotion, display and distribution, besides social stimulus as word of mouth and reference
group. He calls it an enigma or black box, which responds to the various stimuli resulting in
either buying or no-buying phenomenon. Philip Kotler and Kevin Lane Keller (2007) states a
consumers buying behavior is influenced by cultural, social and personal factors. According to
these authors, culture, subculture and social class are particularly important influences on
consumer buying behavior. Social factors include reference groups, family and personal factors
comprise of age and stage in the life cycle, occupation and economic circumstances, personality

and self-concept, and life-style and values. According to Philip Kotler and Keller, the buying
decision process comprises of Five-Stage model involving: Problem recognition, Information
search, Evaluation of alternatives, Purchase decisions and Post-purchase behavior. The market
for male cosmetic products is growing and evolving. Male consumers are placing greater
importance on looking good and the personal care aspects of improved health and wellness.
Understanding male needs, attitudes and behaviors towards grooming will open up new
commercial avenues in this under-served arena. The male cosmetics market, while exhibiting
strong potential, needs a markedly different approach in order to succeed compared to the mature
female market, due to some substantial differences in attitudes and behaviors that exist across
genders. Before a decade or so, the word cosmetics was predominantly associated with a single
gender i.e. woman. It did not mean that male never used cosmetic products. They certainly did.
However, marketers coined the term male cosmetics recently thus identifying special segment
for particular products based on gender differentiation. Celebrity endorsements of certain
products of this category in TV ads seem to have played a greater role in spreading the concept
on wider scale. Undoubtedly, men are becoming more and more sensitive about skin care and
grooming. Now that separate products for men are available, it is certain that men will not use
the products that are used by women anymore. This also projects the scope of developing more
products for men in the years to come. An extensive research at Emami implied that more than
30% of the users of fairness creams (all targeted for women at that time) were male. Men are
rapidly converting to using products that were hitherto considered the domain of women. High
on the spirit of vanity, the male personal care category is growing faster than the overall category
growth rates in skin creams, hair color and even toilet soaps where such products have failed to
take off in the past (Times of India, 2012). The process of assessing and selecting the most
appropriate / suitable types and brands in male cosmetics cannot be very simple. It is because
such products have been bought with many expectations and there is always a risk of
dissatisfaction and dissonance and sense of uncertainty. Each person must have different
expectations of likely benefits from the use of the product. The researcher would like to find out
those factors male consumers must be applying while selecting, purchasing and using particular
brands of male cosmetics (Shimpi, Sinha, 2013).
Apparently, there are many disparities between men and womens market for skin care product.
Hence, the companies have had to deep in details about the strategies of marketing to this new
market target to persuade mens attention to their products. Those adjustments suppose to
concern all the areas of the marketing mix: product, promotion, place and price, including other
related factor influences on their masculinity and metro sexual perspectives (Saravanan,
Kummar, 2013).
In addition, Facial skin care product is a personal usage (Rence, 2004). Consumers have many
different attribute beliefs toward a product or a service. These bundles of beliefs form ones
attitude toward that product or service. Marketers need to figure out the buying pattern of
external and internal factor, which affect customers intention to purchase. It is important to

comprehend the buying habit of consumer due to changing technology and uncertain future
perception and caused the buying pattern of consumer become fickle with every generation
(Rence, 2004). Up until now, facial skin care has played a hand in Malaysia market. In order to
shape the consumer buying behavior, the high profile international retailers and the global mass
media have also take a role on it. Malaysians are becoming more westernized, sophisticated and
cosmopolitan. Sales of skin care products are designed to moisturize, cleans, tone, and otherwise
maintain the skin (Yee, Suan, 2012).

1.2Purpose of Cosmetic Use


People use cosmetics for several reasons (Nash, Fieldman, Hussey, Lvque, & Pineau, 2006).
They use makeup for attractiveness, emotional pleasure social and professional interaction
success, (Vanessa, Patrick, Sandra, & Ralf, 2011), symmetrical face (Mulhern, Fieldman,
Hussey, Lvque, & Pineau, 2003) and better physical appearance, self-perception (Cox &
Glick, 1986; Nash, Fieldman, Hussey, Lvque, & Pineau, 2006). Both males and females prefer
female faces with makeup as more attractive compared to the same faces with no makeup
(Mulhern, Fieldman, Hussey, Lvque, & Pineau, 2003). Women also think that they can be
more feminine, sensual, and confident by using cosmetics (Cox & Glick, 1986; Buss & Schmitt,
1993; Cash 1988; Cash & Cash, 1982; Cash et al., 1985, cited in Vanessa, Patrick, Sandra, &
Ralf, 2011). Society is an integral factor triggering females to utilize cosmetics. In Asian society,
for example, people value young, white and flawless skin as a beauty attributes (Li, Min, Belk,
Kimura, & Bahl, 2008). To fit their natural skin to notion of beauty, many Asian people wear
several layers of cosmetics. In summary, people use cosmetics predominantly to influencing
factors of perception on a conscious and subconscious level (Pooler, 2003).

1.3Cosmetic Companies and Consumers


The first image that comes to mind, when encountered to the word cosmetics, is undoubtedly
the feminine area, which cosmetic companies have mainly targeted. Before the nineties, people
regard cosmetics as a females privilege (Kumar, Massie, & Dumonceaux, 2006). However,
cosmetics are no longer monopolized by female segment, but now tailors new markets which
target the preteen generation (Lee & Kuh, 2007) as well as the male segment (Souiden & Diagne,
2009) which are steadily emerging. The perception appearance is competitiveness which is
widely diffused among young female and male consumers created this phenomenon.
Consumers needs and demands are constantly evolving and companies are determined to satisfy
them. Consequently, cosmetic firms are forced to create, innovate, replace, or upgrade their
products (Akers & Porter, 2005, cited in Kumar, Massie, & Dumonceaux, 2006). Developing
revolutionary technologies and shifting customers demands and needs contribute towards
increasing cosmetic companies abilities to product various kinds of cosmetic merchandises
(Kumar, Massie, & Dumonceaux, 2006). Accordingly, the existing companies expand their

market; the more new firms enter the market to share their profit. As a result, many cosmetic
companies in the world are competing to capture a large market share through competitive
method such as marketing strategies, product line, distribution channel, and selling method. This
fierce competition and an influx of new cosmetic products, the importance of cosmetic
consumers particularly innovative consumers has more emphasized in order to take the
advantageous position first in the market.
Cosmetic merchandises have varying degrees of product life cycles. According to Kumar (2005)
some products have long life cycles (e.g. soaps, facial cleansing and deodorant) while makeup
products such as lipstick and nail polish have short life cycles (three months). Although cosmetic
product life cycle can be shorten by competition and technology development, the most
significant determinant is the customer (Kumar, Massie, & Dumonceaux, 2006). In turn, the
mainstay of any cosmetic product as a steady seller or a fad in the market depends on
consumers preferences, thus, innovative cosmetic consumers play significant roles as
messengers of information. Cosmetics companies release new cosmetic products on a regular
basis, for example, every season. Innovative cosmetic consumers are actively seeking those new
cosmetics, while directly expressing their opinions about the product on the internet, thus
persuading others to follow suit. Consequently, they promote the diffusion of new products.
Therefore, their existences and roles are important as much as those of media and celebrities are
(Kyung, 2012).

1.4Problem statement:
Consumer categories such as cosmetics benefited from the rapid growth in consumer spending,
and have become a huge moneymaker. Meanwhile, the increasing fashion and beauty
consciousness, as a natural outgrowth of rising incomes, diversify consumers demands.
Obviously, this potential has not only attracted international cosmetics companies, but also led
more domestic cosmetics producers trying to enter the market. Consequently, competition will be
further intensified among foreign and domestic companies (ukessays.com).
Mens skin care products market is growing at an immense rate. However, there is little search in
this area. Previous studies were conducted mostly to know about the behavior of females about
beauty care products but there is little attention has been paid toward male behavior about beauty
products. Some said that men were not explicitly ready to use, or directly buy their skin care
products by themselves whereas others considered the mentalities ready to confront an explosion
of this new market (Blanchin et al, 2007 cited in Moungkhem, Surakiatpinyo, 2010). There is a
need to know in depth about the perception and buying behaviors and the underlying factors
affecting this. Therefore, this study is conducted in taking into consideration the abovementioned problems.
The problem statement of this study is lack of knowledge about the perception and behavior of
men about purchasing and consumption of skin care products.

1.5Objectives of the study:


By reviewing the literature, it became clear that many studies have been conducted outside
Pakistan to understand the behavior and attitude of men toward beauty products. However, there
is hardly any study available in Pakistan. Therefore, followings are the objectives of this study:
First objective is to pinpoint and gather a general formation of the cosmetics industry in
Pakistan. On completion of this objective, the intention would be to get awareness about the
cosmetics environment and the rapid growth trend of the industry to have a good knowledge
base that can support the study throughout the project.
Second objective is to investigate and analyze cosmetics buying behavior of male in
Pakistan. The intention of this objective would be to
To describe the demographic profile of cosmetic consumers,
To study the style of purchase of cosmetics,
understand how men perceive cosmetics,
identify their characteristics in terms of cosmetics purchase,
develop a greater understanding of motivation for purchasing, different
factors involved in purchase decision of cosmetics and how product
attribute, such as price, packaging, features etc, effects buying patterns,
Uncover factors involved in decision of not using these products as well as
figure out the reasons, which could change this negative decision into
positive one.
Based on the analysis of the research carried out, briefly propose a number of key
recommendations enable companies in the industry to target their marketing strategies at men
cosmetics consumers.

1.6Segnificance of the study:


Mens cosmetics industry is growing at very fast pace. Every day, more prospects turned into
customers and more customers into consumers. Many consumers turned into loyal customers and
many customers switch to another company. There is vital need of having in depth knowledge
about this market.
The boom of cosmetics industry has brought about changes in consumer behavior. The
importance of the study cannot be understated. It is anticipated that the outcome of this study
will certainly contribute towards a better understanding of the changing perception and behavior
of cosmetics buyers (ukessays.com).
This knowledge obtain from this study will
Enable companies to make better strategies to select, target, and retain their customers,
Helps companies to better development of product and effective communication,

Help in generating required knowledge that is worthwhile for many existing mens cosmetic
companies as well as companies interested in this market,
Help them to understand different taboos prevailing in the market, thus will be able to
combat with them.

1.7Organization of the Thesis:


The study is arranged into to five chapters as follows:
Chapter one of the research establishes background for the study and essential
components of introduction of the study have been presented in Chapter 1.
Chapter 2 explores the relevancy of study, how relevant research travels from unknown to
known.
Chapter 3 provides the research methodology or framework for the study and explores
the foundations on which this study is based on, research strategy, sampling techniques, methods
of data collection, analysis etc.
Chapter 4 includes analysis, results and relevant discussion. Implications of the research
findings are discussed suggestions for future research are drawn.
Chapter 5 includes Research Conclusions and Recommendations for the existing
companies in this field as well as for those who are interested in this field.

1.8Limitations of the study:


Keeping in mind the element of accessibility and period it is not possible to approach each
relevant sample of the study. Another limitation of the study is limited number of sample size
who responds to the research instrument.

1.9Delimitations of the study:


Delimitation is such a borderline across which research is relevant. This research is
delimited to the GC University Faisalabad due to the shortage of time and accessibility issues.