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INTRODUCTION

Gluten is a mixture of proteins found in wheat and related grains,


including barley, rye, oat (depending on cultivar and processing), and all
their species and hybrids (such as spelt, kamut, and triticale). Gluten is
appreciated for its viscoelastic properties. It gives elasticity to dough,
helping it rise and keeps its shape and often gives the final product a
chewy texture.
Gluten gives wheat flour the properties of making dough plastic and
elastic. Wheat flours differ because they are made from different parts of
the wheat kernel or because they are from different types of wheat. These
can be categorized into hard and soft wheat. Hard wheat contains more
gluten and protein and is good for breads and cakes because it doesnt
form large air pockets, while soft wheat flours are starchier (contain less
gluten and protein) and are better for soft breads. Stirring and kneading
strengthens and organizes the gluten mesh. It can be easily separated
from the other water-soluble elements in flour by rinsing with water.
Bread would be very dense and flat without gluten. Rice, potato and oat
flours do not have gluten and bread made from these does not turn out
well.
In this experiment, demonstrates what gluten is and importance gluten in
bread making and what purpose for all the flour.
OBJECTIVE
1. To determine observation of dough ball in different types of flour.
2. To determine observation of gluten formation.
MATERIALS/APPARATUS
Normal wheat flour, high protein wheat flour, cake flour, rice flour, mixing bowl, plastic
plate, spatula, balance, 25 ml measuring cylinder.
PROCEDURE
1.
2.
3.
4.

55 gram of each type of flours are weighed and put into the mixing bowls
25 mL of water is added to each bowl of flour and mix
The dough mixtures are kneaded for about 5 minutes each
The texture, appearance, colour, elasticity, and flexibility of each dough ball is
observed
5. The dough ball is placed under the faucet and let cool water run over it. The dough
ball is squeezed to drain white, starchy water
6. Step 5 is continued under running water until no more starch comes out
7. The dough ball that contains gluten thread shrinks in size, changes colour and
becomes thread-like. The water that drains from the dough ball is white as the starch
is washed out of the dough ball.

RESULTS
Table 7.1: Observation of Dough Ball
Sample
Normal wheat flour

Textur
e
Tough

High protein wheat


flour
Cake flour

Tough
er
Tough

Appeara
nce
Coagulat
e
Coagulat
e
Smooth

Rice flour

Soft

Smooth

Colour
Yellow
Pale
yellow
Pale
yellow
White

Elasticit
y
Elastic

Flexibilit
y
Flexible

Elastic

Flexible

Elastic

Flexible

Not
elastic

Flexible

Table 7.2: Observation of Gluten Formation


Sample
Normal wheat flour
High protein wheat flour
Cake flour
Rice flour

Gluten
Colour
Yellowish
White
White
None

Size
Large
Largest
Small
None

DISCUSSION
In this experiment, by using different types of flour, formation of gluten that present
in each of the flour had been observed. The types of flour that have been used as the samples
in this experiment are normal wheat flour, high protein wheat flour, cake flour and rice flour.
By using this samples, observation on dough ball been conducted first before proceed to
observation on gluten formation.
During the making those flour into dough ball, a few characteristic of the dough such
as texture, appearance, colour, elasticity and flexibility have been observed. Based on the
result shows that high protein wheat flour has the tougher texture compared to the wheat flour
and cake flour that only has tough texture. Out of all those samples, rice flour contributes to
have soft texture among others. Other than that, the appearance of those samples that can be
seen is cake flour and rice flour have smooth appearance while normal wheat flour and high
protein wheat flour have coagulate appearance. Besides, the colour of the flour that formed
when turned into dough was totally different between one and another. High protein wheat
flour and cake flour formed the same colour which is pale yellow while normal wheat flour is
yellow in colour and rice flour is in white colour. Three out of four samples flour have elastic
dough except rice flour that show an opposite results. This is because rice flour cannot turned
into dough when been mixed water so it does not has an elastic dough. Lastly, all of the
samples are flexible in terms of flexibility from what that has been observed.
For the observation of gluten formation, the different types of flour was being washed
for several minutes under running water until the white colour or starch contains in the flour
is disappears. It showed that the size of the high protein wheat flour is the largest than the
other types of flour. It is because it contains the highest amount of protein/gluten in the flour
and the colour is white. While normal wheat flour has the second large size of gluten after the
high protein wheat flour but the colour of the flour is yellowish. Then, the cake flour showed
that it contains the smallest gluten content compared to the other flours and the colour is

white. However, the gluten content in the rice flour is none as the rice flour cannot form into
dough ball at all. So, there is no gluten content in the flour and the colour is white.
CONCLUSION
In conclusion, the samples had observed whether able to form dough ball or not.
Then, high protein flour had higher the gluten formation than other flour. The results prove
that different types of wheat flour do contain different quantities of gluten.
REFERENCES
1. Figoni, P. (2004). How baking Works: Exploring the Fundamentals of
Baking Science. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
2. https://www.ssaipostercomp.info/posters/2015-honmentiom-ofGluten_Content_Flour.pdf
3. https://www.researchgate.net/publiction/250010301_Gluten_Formati
on_from_Flour_Wheat_Grain.pdf

QUESTIONS
1. List the major proteins present in wheat flour.
Major proteins present in wheat flour are albumin, globulin,
gliadin and glutenin (gluten)
2. What is Gluten?
Gluten is a composite formed from several different proteins.
It is found most commonly in wheat and other related grains,
such as barley and rye. Adding texture and a characteristic
chewiness to baked goods, this ingredient is used in a wide
variety of other foods as a thickener and binder, flavour
enhancer, and protein supplement.
3. Which flour has greater gluten content?
High protein wheat flour has greater gluten content.
4. Which flour is suitable for bread making?
High protein wheat flour is suitable for bread making because
it will increase the stretch in white and mixed flour breads

FST 261
EXPERIMENT 7: FORMATION OF GLUTEN IN DIFFERENT TYPES OF FLOUR
NO
1.

STUDENTS NAME
NORSYAFIQA BT MAULOD

MATRIC NO.
2015617734

2.

SITI NOOR SYAFIZA BT YUSRI

2015838698

3.

ASMAA SYUHADA BT AMINUDDIN

2015867272

4.

NUR SYAHIRAH BT ABDUL MALEK

2015889868

5.

PUTERI NUR AMIRAH BT ABU SUFIAN

2015817396

GROUP

: AS116 4B1

DATE OF EXPERIMENT : 12 JANUARY 2016


th

DATE OF SUBMISSION : 19 JANUARY 2016


th

LECTURERS NAME

: NUR AISYAH BT ISMAIL

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