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Types of ac generator

Single phase Motors

a) Shaded pole

A Shaded Pole motor is an AC single phase induction motor.

The auxiliary winding, which is composed of a copper ring, is called a shading coil. The current in
this coil delay the phase of magnetic flux in that part of the pole in order to provide a rotating
magnetic field. The direction of rotation is from the unshaded side to the shaded ring.

Applications of the Shaded Pole Motor

This type of motor is used to drive the devices which require low starting torque. The various
applications of the Shaded Poles Motor are as follows:

They are suitable for small devices like relays and fans because of its low cost and easy

Used in exhaust fans, hair dryers and also in table fans.

Used in air conditioning and refrigeration equipment and cooling fans.

Record players, tape recorders, projectors, photocopying machines.

Used for starting electronic clocks and single phase synchronous timing motors.
b) Reluctance

The variable reluctance motor is based on the principle that an unrestrained piece
of iron will move to complete a magnetic flux path with minimum reluctance, the
magnetic analog of electrical resistance.

Applications of a Reluctance Motor

The various applications of the Reluctance Motor are as follows:

Simple construction as there is no slip rings, no brushes and no DC field


Low cost

Maintenance is easy.

It is used for many constant speed applications such as electric clock

timer, signaling devices, recording instruments etc.


The Split Phase Motor is also known as a Resistance Start Motor. It has a
single cage rotor, and its stator has two windings known as main winding and
starting winding. Both the windings are displaced 90 degrees in space. The main
winding has very low resistance and a high inductive reactance whereas the
starting winding has high resistance and low inductive reactance.

Applications of Split Phase Induction Motor

This type of motors are cheap and are suitable for easily starting loads where
the frequency of starting is limited. This type of motor is not used for drives
which require more than 1 KW because of the low starting torque. The various
applications are as follows:

Used in the washing machine, and air conditioning fans.

The motors are used in mixer grinder, floor polishers.

Blowers, Centrifugal pumps

Drilling and lathe machine.

Read more: http://circuitglobe.com/split-phase-inductionmotor.html#ixzz4T7etoy7v


A single-phase repulsion-induction motor combines the constant-speed

characteristics of the single-phase induction motor with the good starting
characteristics of the repulsion motor.
The stator of this machine has a simple single-phase winding like that of singlephase induction motor. The rotor, however, is built up of laminations, each of which
has two concentric sets of slots. These slots contain two distinct windings; in the
outer slots is wound a commutator winding similar to that of a D.C. armature, while
in the inner slots is a cast aluminium squirrel-cage winding which clamps the

Repulsion motor applications included:

High speed lifts

Fans and pumps

Printing presses

Textile machines

Film winding machines (smooth manual speed and direction adjustment could be achieved
without complicated circuitry)

e. repulsion start

As its name implies the repulsion-start induction motor starts as a repulsion

motor with its brushes set to the maximum torque position. When the load has been
accelerated to about 75 per cent of synchronous speed, a built in centrifugal device
places a shorting ring in contact with the com mutating bars, converting the armature
to squirrel-cage rotor. The motor then runs as induction motor on its induction
This type of motor is used for such applications as large air compressors, refrigeration equipment,
and large hoists, and is particularly useful in locations where low line voltage is a problem.
Applications of this motor include:
Machine tools

f. repulsion induction

It works on the combined principle of repulsion and induction. It consists of (a) stator
winding (b) two rotor windings : one squirrel cage and the other usual d.c. winding
connected to the commutator and (c) a short-circuited set of two brushes.
Applications Include:
Petrol pumps
Mixing machines
Lifts and Hoists

g. series

A series ac motor is the same electrically as a dc series motor. Refer to figure 4-1 and use
the left-hand rule for the polarity of coils. You can see that the instantaneous magnetic
polarities of the armatureand field oppose each other, and motor action results. Now,
reverse the current by reversing the polarityof the input. Note that the field magnetic
polarity still opposes the armature magnetic polarity. This isbecause the reversal effects
both the armature and the field. The ac input causes these reversals to takeplace


Domestic appliances
Rail traction
Starter motor

These motors are used to drive
(1) high speed vacuum cleaners
(2) Sewing machines
(3) Electric shavers
(4) Drills
(5) Machine tools etc.

h. Synchronous

The construction of the synchronous motors is essentially the same as the construction of
the salient-pole alternator. In fact, such an alternator may be run as an ac motor. It is similar
to the drawing in figure4-6. Synchronous motors have the characteristic of constant speed
between no load and full load. Theyare capable of correcting the low power factor of an
inductive load when they are operated under certainconditions. They are often used to drive
dc generators. Synchronous motors are designed in sizes up tothousands of horsepower.
They may be designed as either single-phase or multiphase machines. Thediscussion that
follows is based on a three-phase design.


Synchronous motors are used in generating stations and in substations connected to the
busbars to improve the power factor. For this purpose they are run without mechanical
load on them and in over-excited condition. These machines when over excited delivers
the reactive power to grid and helps to improve the power factor of the system. The
reactive power delivered by the synchronous motors can be adjusted by varying the field
excitation of the motor. These motors used for power factor correction applications can
also be termed as "synchronous condensers". Advantage of synchronous condensers
compared to shunt capacitors is that shunt capacitors generate constant reactive power
whereas on the other hand synchronous condensers can able to deliver different
reactive power levels by varying the excitation of machine.

Because of the higher efficiency compared to induction motors they can be employed for
loads which require constant speeds. Some of the typical applications of high speed
synchronous motors are such drives as fans, blowers, dc generators, line shafts,
centrifugal pumps, compressors, reciprocating pumps, rubber and paper mills

Synchronous motors are used to regulate the voltage at the end of transmission lines

In textile and paper industries synchronous motors are employed to attain wide range of
speeds with variable frequency drive system

Read more: http://electricalquestionsguide.blogspot.com/2012/09/applications-synchronousmotors.html#ixzz4TAY1wP5V

polyphaser motors
a. induction(squirrel cage or wound motor)

The induction motor is the most commonly used type of ac motor. Its simple, rugged
constructioncosts relatively little to manufacture. The induction motor has a rotor
that is not connected to an externalsource of voltage. The induction motor derives its
name from the fact that ac voltages are induced in therotor circuit by the rotating
magnetic field of the stator. In many ways, induction in this motor is similarto the
induction between the primary and secondary windings of a transformer.Large
motors and permanently mounted motors that drive loads at fairly constant speed
are ofteninduction motors. Examples are found in washing machines, refrigerator
compressors, bench grinders,and table saws.The stator construction of the threephase induction motor and the three-phase synchronous motorare almost identical.
However, their rotors are completely different (see fig. 4-8). The induction rotor
ismade of a laminated cylinder with slots in its surface. The windings in these slots
are one of two types(shown in fig. 4-9). The most common is the squirrel-cage
winding. This entire winding is made up of heavy copper bars connected together at
each end by a metal ring made of copper or brass. No insulationis required between
the core and the bars. This is because of the very low voltages generated in the
rotorbars. The other type of winding contains actual coils placed in the rotor slots.
The rotor is then called awound rotor.

b. Communicator or synchronous

AC commutator motors, like comparable DC motors, have higher starting

torque and higher speed than AC induction motors. The series motor operates
well above the synchronous speed of a conventional AC motor. AC
commutator motors may be either single-phase or poly-phase. Since a
commutator motor can operate at much higher speed than an induction
motor, it can output more power than a similar size induction motor. However
commutator motors are not as maintenance free as induction motors, due to
brush and commutator wear
APPLICATIONS The fractional horsepower a.c. series motors have high-speed
(and corresponding small size) and large starting torque. They can, therefore,
be used to drive: (a) High-speed vacuum cleaners (b) Sewing machines (c)
Electric shavers (d) Drills