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The Music Story Series


Edited by

FREDERICK

J.

CROWEST.

The
Story of Symphony

^be

"/nbuslc Stovs" Secies.


Volume.

3/6 net per

Already published

in (his

THE STORY OF ORATORIO.


With

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STORY

NOTATION.

OF

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be

had

*:^!t.sl^i>

iO

!2SS
L\ I

Preface.
No

book, so far as

Symphony.

There

have been able

exists in the English


is

to

discover,

language on the History of the


one work

in

French, Brenet's

Histoire de la Symphonie a Orchestre (see Bibliography).

This

is

not well

known

in

this

actual musical quotations, deals

country;

more

it

has few

especially with

and ends with Beethoven.


Symphony Writers since Beethoven

early French composers,

Weingartner's
carries

on the story up to recent times, but more

prominence

is

than to the

given in this to German compositions

equally,

of the Russian

if

The nearest approach


subject

is

Sir

this,

more,

to a

important works

complete work on the

Hubert Parry's masterly

Dictionary^ which
of the

not

and other schools.

treats

article in

Grove's

exhaustively of the history

symphony up to the time of Brahms. But in


more modern composers obtain but slight

again,

consideration.


Symphony

Story of
The present book
reader

all

that

is

important

is

symphony, from the


the present day.
briefly, but,

book

allow.

an attempt to put before the

earliest

Its rise

the

in

story

of

the

examples of the form to

and development are traced

hope, as adequately as the limits of the

Many

musical quotations are given, not

only from the older, but also from the more recent

composers, and a (necessarily) short account of the

works of present-day writers

is

included.

Some comment may be aroused by


tively

Beethoven, seeing that


subject already exists.

me

have influenced

(a)

the compara-

extended analysis given to the symphonies of

The books

much

so

literature

The following

in this

on

the

considerations

connection:

of this series are intended primarily

for amateurs, although

it

is

hoped that much

them may be of use also to the more serious


The ordinary amateur is more likely
to hear a symphony of Beethoven
I am not
speaking of London or of the great provincial
centres than one by any other composer.
The books on the subject (Grove's Beethoven
and his Nine Syt7ipho?ties., etc.) are not posin

student.

sessed by the majority of amateurs; moreover,

they contain

much
vi

that the ordinary concert-

Preface
know

goer need not

for

full

enjoyment

of

their performance.
(b)

The

analytical

programme, on which the amateur

often relies, cannot usually be studied before-

hand

nor does

always contain

it

extracts

from the actual music.


(c)

Spite of

all

modern changes of

symphonies

the

of

most important of

taste

Beethoven

all

and custom,
remain

symphonies

the

they are

most perfect in
form, the most beautiful and dignified in
texture, and the very finest examples of what
still

acknowledged as the

a symphony should be.


(d)

The

lover

of

symphony mus^ know


This book will give him,

the

Beethoven.

his
in

succinct form, a fairly complete

account of

Beethoven's work in this direction,

in addition

some information as to the works of other


composers
and this at a considerably less
cost than the books which deal with the
symphonies of the Bonn master alone.
to

In

Appendix

A the
A mere

difificulty

has been

to

decide

names of those
to omit.
who have composed symphonies would in itself constitute a good-sized volume
It is hoped, however,
what

catalogue of the

vii

Story of
that no

name which has

Symphony
either historical sig-nificance,

or musical importance, so far as

symphony

My

is

the development of

concerned, has been omitted.

thanks are due to Dr. Spooner-Lilling-ston and

other friends for help in revising the proof-sheets and


for suggestions.

E.

Woodford Green,
1916.

vni

MARKHAM

LEE.

Contents.

CHAPTER
WHAT

IS

I.

A SYMPHONY

Ritornello An old instrument


Derivation
use as an interlude Overture The presentday meaning of the word Offshoots of symphony

Vafious

uses

of

the

PAGE

term

Its

development Early use of the term An


example Use in Church Music As an interlude
in song
An operatic Prelude by Monteverde The Overture
of Lully That of A. Scarlatti Gluck The symphony as an
independent form

CHAPTER

H.

EMBRYO FORMS OF SYMPHONY.


Evolution

Rapid

interesting

CHAPTER

HI.

EARLIEST SYMPHONIES.

Decay of dance forms Importance of stringed


instruments Bach and Handel Stamitz Other early masters
Early programme works Dittersdorf Orchestras of the
day Establishment of form Modern programmes have no

Suite and Sonata

room

for these

symphonies

ix

16

Story of

Symphony

CHAPTER

IV.

BIRTH OF THE MODERN SYMPHONY.


PAGE

C. P. E. Bach His methods Use of


wind instruments His modulatory device Haydn Opportunities at Esterhaz Le Midi Early and late examples
"Salomon" Symphonies "Father" of symphony Reasons

The modern symphony

for

comparative neglect of Haydn's symphonies

CHAPTER

24

V.

MOZART.

The symphony becomes a serious matter Mozart "Parisian"


symphony Three great symphonies: " E flat," "G minor,"

"Jupiter"

34

CHAPTER

VI.

BEETHOVEN: HIS FIRST FIVE SYMPHONIES.

supreme master Why is Beethoven supreme? Beethoven


"thinks" in the medium of the orchestra Different methods
Earlier works
The first
to those of Haydn and Mozart

symphony Use of the drum Symphony in D A great


finale
The "Eroica" Reasons for its title A new line of
thought A familiar theme Humour in the first movement
The funeral march A real "Scherzo" The variation finale
Fourth Symphony The slow introduction The first
allegro
A long love-song A new procedure The great
"C minor" The blow of fate A beautiful slow movement

A note of mystery A joyous finish


X


A
Contents
CHAPTER

VII.

BEETHOVEN: LAST FOUR SYMPHONIES.


PAGE

Schopenhauer on Beethoven's symphonies A "titled" work


Beethoven's views on titles Headings of the movements
A picture of nature The slow movement Realism
village band
The storm Thanksgiving Symphony in A
Early criticisms The opening introduction " The apotheosis
of the dance"
A solemn, slow movement A characteristic

"little" symphony Light Small orchestra employed


A straightforward movement An airy allegretto A return
to the minuet Originality in the finale The Choral Symphony Incongruous elements Beethoven's doubts Greatness of the whole First performance The allegro Its
themes The second movement The adagio The curious

scherzo

ness of

The

Bucolic finale

mood A poor

"connecting link"

reception

Turkish

music

CHAPTER

-72

VIII.

romantics: weber, spohr, and schubert.


The

Romance school Weber Spohr Schubert The "Un- Il6


Symphony The "glorious C major"

finished"

CHAPTER

IX.

romantics: Mendelssohn, Schumann, raff,


rubinstein.
Mendelssohn "Reformation" Symphony " Italian" Symphony
"Scotch" Symphony " Hymn of Praise" Schumann
"Spring" Symphony A new departure C major
late start
Symphony " Rhenish " Symphony Raff Rubinstein

Gade

xi

124

Story of

Symphony

CHAPTER

X.

PROGRAMME SYMPHONISTS.
PAGE

Berlioz Episode de la vie d'un Artiste


Fixe Harold en Italic Liszt Other programme

-.--...

Programme symphony

L'Ide'e

symphonists

CHAPTER

132

XI.

BRAHMS.

Brahms A new birth Brahms' orminor Symphony D major Symphony


major Symphony E minor Symphony Brahms' influence - 13S

period

of

exhaustion

chestration

CHAPTER
BRITISH

XII.

SYMPHONY COMPOSERS FROM BENNETT TO


ELGAR.

Church music The late start of English


Bennett Bennett's followers Parry Stanford
Cowen Elgar Younger composers

British vocal music

symphonists

CHAPTER

145

XIII.

RUSSIAN SCHOOL.

New

composers Tchaikovsky His early symphonies


minor Symphony The E minor Symphony The
" Pathetic" Symphony A false comparison Rimsky-Korsa
koff Glazounoff Other Russians Finns and Poles
152
Russian

xii


Contents
CHAPTER

XIV.

MODERN SYMPHONY COMPOSERS.

Dvorak Saint-Saens Cesar Franck Scandinavian


Germany Bruckner Mahler Sgamcomposers Modern
bati American composers Modern orchestras

PAGE

Smetana

i6o

CHAPTER XV.
SYMPHONIC, OR TONE POEM.

definition

Liszt

How

Strauss

Means

.......

it

from a symphony

differs

and Berlioz

Their

followers

CHAPTER

Russian

employed

composers

167

XVI.

FUTURE OF THE SYMPHONY.

appeal What of the future? An answer

?
Wagner's views These views criticized An
imaginary picture What we should miss The symphonic

Is there a future

poem Its

CHAPTER

-171

XVII.

CURIOSITIES AND EXPERIMENTS IN SYMPHONY.

Beethoven's "Choral"
" Battle " Symphony Schubert's

Haydn The "Farewell" Symphony


Voices as symphonic forces

"Unfinished" Spohr The "Earthly and the Divine"


"Historic" Symphony " Le Desert" Other Experiments

Conclusion

xiii

-179

Story of

Symphony
HAL.t

Appbnuix

a.

Chronological
posers of

Symphonies

Glossary of Terms
C. Lists of Instruments
B.

different periods

D.

more important Com-

List of the

List of entitled

....
....
-

employed

in

Lndex

222

Symphonies of

Names

..---.--

191

227

Symphonies, grouped under

Alphabetical List of Composers'

E. Bibliography

230
235

237

List of Illustrations.

"

Harmony "

Photogravure from Painting by

.....

Frank Dicksee, R.A.

TSCHAIKOVSKY

Beethoven's Note-book Extracts

Beethoven's Shorthand Notes

Dvorak

......

N. A. RiMSKY- Korsakoff

Face yi

48

49
60

Face 72

112

156

.....

"Surprise" Symphony

"Farewell"

...
-

Beethoven's Constitutional

Brahms

Frontispiece

180
181

of Symphony.

Story

CHAPTER
WHAT
Various uses of the term

Its use as

the word

To

IS

I.

SYMPHONY

Ritornello An old
Overture The

an interlude

instrument

Derivation

present-day meaning of

Offshoots of symphony.

mind the word Symphony conveys


its uses are, and have been, so
various that the amateur may be pardoned
the ordinary lay

nothing very definite

if

he hesitates as to a definition of the term.


the

In different periods of the Art of


title

Symphony has been appHed


(a)

An

(b)

A Term

(c)

(d)
(e)

(/)

Term

Music the

to

Ancient Instrument.
in

Harmony.

An Overture (generally to an Opera).


An Interlude in a vocal piece.
The introduction to a Song.
A work in Sonata Form for
I

the Orchestra.
I

Symphony

Story of
The term "Symphony"

some extent

to

is still

in

use

as defining the introductory bars to the accompaniment


of a song, any considerable passages of
accompaniment during which the voice is
orneilo
silent, or

has
*'

The

finished.

even the

for

The

in this country.

therefore, for

want

this

of a better

name,

its

general

"Symphony,"

old term
still

tends to cling

to these fragments of instrumental accompaniment.

would be
call

was

word has other meanings, and

has an un-English sound which prevents


adoption

bars after the voice

expression

older

Ritornello," but this

,.

final

less mystifying, perhaps,

we

if

It

could agree to

but custom dies

such fragments "Interludes;"

hard, and in spite of the confusion

sometimes

en-

gendered by the employment of this name, we must


note its use, and remember that in modern days the
word Symphony really implies something on a much
vaster scale.

With regard

may

to some of the other uses of the term it


be noted that the old instrument, the " Organ-

istrum,"

v^ras

known

in

France

as

the

Rubelle, Rebel, Symphonie, and Chifonie.

Instrument

ti

According to the historian Praetonus,

was a kind of peasant's

lyre,

this

played with a crank, the

hand manipulating the keys. As both the instrument, and the term for it, have long been obsolete, we

left

Term

Derivation of
!

may

leave this definition of

deference to

Symphony,

having^ paid

historical existence.^

its

When we think of the derivation of the word


"Symphony" from the Greek, in which Sum (crvix)
stood for "with" and Phone (^wvt^) for
"sound," we can understand its use as a
term

-T

Harmony,

"agreeing

1-

vation

meaning beingThus the term

sound."

in

its literal

synonymous with "concord."


(theoretically) almost

sometimes called " Sumphonos

being

a musician was

concordant,

all

became

Ancient music
" this

use of the word

also obsolete.

is

As applied
were

to intrumental music,

silent

for a

fragments by

itself,

of Peri (1600)
^

time,

we

onward

Batman, who edited

find

own account

orchestra

played

musicians from the time

calling such

bits

little

" Sym-

in 1582 Trevisa's English translation of the

Franciscan Friar Bartholomseus'


his

whenever the voices

and the

description

De
of

Proprietatibus
this

Rerum, adds on

instrument which

is

not

uninteresting.

De Symphonia.
The Symphonye
holowe

is

an instrument of mufyke, and

tree, clofyd in lether in eyther fyde,

wyth ftyches

is

made

of an

and mynftralles betyth

and by accorde of hyghe and lowe thereof comyth

fwete notes, as Ifyder fayth.

hyghte Symphonia,

is

Nevertheleffe the accorde of

all

it

full

fownes

lykewife as the accorde of dyverfe voys hyghte

Chorus, as the Gloc. fayth fuper Luc.

Story of
phonies."
that the

Symphony

Even at these early dates we must notice


word was generally applied to passages for
instruments alone

Use

as

....important
this
is

{i.e.,

...

without voices), and


bearing

as

historically

upon the greater form of Symphony which


the Classic Composers were presently to evolve.
It was, of course, not a vast step from the employ-

ment of the orchestra by


use for
Overture
to

itself for

a bar or two, to

its

a whole series of bars, and eventually

a whole

movement

in

which the voices

Thus in Opera, when the


had no part whatever.
desirability of having a complete little movement
played by the band before the raising of the curtain was
realised,

"Symphony" was composed, this


more appropriate name of "Overcommon name also for this introductory

a short

often receiving the

ture:" a very

movement was " Sinfonia avanti I'Opera." So long as


these movements were confined to the theatre their
nomenclature was somewhat unimportant, but when
they were performed separately in the concert room
(which soon became the fashion), the dignity of the music
was greatly increased, and composers began to lavish
more care upon their construction: the words " avanti
room,

were

I'Opera,"

being absurd

in

dropped,

and

word "Sinfonia" only was

the

first

retained.

the

concert

What
Thus

came

vogue

into

we understand

it

Symphony

to-day

movements (generally
movements bemgf m a more or
in several

"Symphony"

the

work

...

and

(a)

four), these

less stereo-

slow,

of the

(c) lively,

<

and being individually de-

quick,

(d)

(b)

Meaning

quick,

as

for Orchestra alone,

typed order of

Is

signed, in different species of

"Form,"

or constructive

what the musician understands by the


term "Symphony" this and much more. For the
shape.

This

is

Symphony has been

the goal of almost every ambitious

composer ever since the days of Haydn; and of all their


glorious thoughts, the great masters have usually kept
the best for their Symphonies.
to the

Thus

the term brings

mind of the music-lover thoughts

and most precious of

all

his possessions

of the rarest
it

conveys to

him a sense of all the most exquisite and wondrouslywrought legacies of the great ones of Music it means
:

to

him perfection of workmanship, both

harmony,

in design,

and

in

melody,

in

in orchestration, for the period

which any given work belongs. The symphonies in


his library are to him as the " Hundred Best Books " to
to

the book-lover
for a

treasures not to be lightly dipped into

few minutes when the mind

relaxation, but to be

is

tired

and needs

approached with reverence, to be

read again and again, to be studied, and above

be loved.
5

all,

to

Story of

Symphony

There are certainly many offshoots


which

differ

much from

above

some

as

or such

There

little

is

Amen

"

chorus of Handel's

perhaps no great harm

stand what a symphony really


the

symphony

word

will

usually

for the orchestra,

is

and

its

symphony

as an art

forms which have sfrown out of

it.

in

we

still

under-

henceforth in this

mean

only

the

great

minor uses must be

confined to this chapter and the next


deal with the

down

ritornelli for the orchestra as

calling these things symphonies, so long as

book

symphony
laid

The term, too, is still used by


dennmg the mtroduction to a song",

occur, for instance, in the "

Messiah.

of

definition

these will be considered in another

chapter.
<,

the

our purpose

form, and with

is

to

allied

CHAPTER

II.

EMBRYO FORMS OF SYMPHONY.

Early use of the term An interestAs an interlude in song


An operatic Prelude by Monteverde The Overture of Lully
That of A. Scarlatti Gluck The symphony as an independeot

Evolution Rapid development


ing

example Use

in

Church Music

form.

Nothing

is

of greater interest to the historian than the

gradual evolution of macrocosm from microcosm,

of

great forms from diminutive ones, of mighty

and fully-developed creations from tiny and


fragmentary beginnings.

phony are

fascinating

Evolution

The embryo forms of symshowing the grains of

as

mustard-seed, the successors of which were to expand


into

mighty trees

the diminutive seed can be seen,

growth can be watched,


the ripeness of age can

its

its

majesty and splendour in

be enjoyed,

and

its

possible

withering and decaj can be commented upon.


It is

amazing

to think of the short

period in

the

history of musical art that elapsed between the perfec7

Symphony

Story of

"Eroica" Symphony and the un-

tion of Beethoven's

balanced and scrappy fragments called "symphonies"

by Peri and his followers.

Only a couple

of hundred years separate them, but those

Dcvclopyears were the

musical

the

vigorous youthful ones of

many

which

in

art,

our

of

modern saplings shot upwards with wondrous strength


and vigour.
There

some

is

symphony

difficulty

in

instrumental music.
Early use

tracing the

of the

employed

As before mentioned,
was almost always

by

the

Cavalli,

or

Venetian

early

its

Cesti,

and

It is

composers

Carissimi)

the term

at

A collection

Antwerp

Schiitz

in

uses

there

as

Ritornello,

is

little

Peri's Exiridice,

melody

for

three

of pieces for 4, 5, and 6 voices, by Waelrant, appeared

15S5 with the


the

term

voices and instruments.

Ceciliam" (1683), and


introduction.

(such

very interesting to note, however,

that in one of the earliest of operas,

dating from 1600,

works of

in the

dramatic

for

" Ritor," " Rit," make frequent

abbreviations,

appearance.

composers

earlier

passages of this kind, and


the

word

the term " Ritornello "

first

a separate fragment of

in its application to

title

"Symphonia Angelica," and

" Symphonies

Sacros" for

Purcell wrote a
in the

Ode

symphony

in 1629

compositions
in his

for

" Laudate

of 1692 he includes a six-movement

"

Peri's
flutes

which

is

although afterwards
This

but

it

may

**

called

Zinfonia

Zinfonia" on its first occurrence,


called " Ritornello."

it is

not have been the earliest use of the name,

and the music

certainly a very early one,

is

"

is

here quoted as characteristic of the kind


of passage to which the term "

was

Interesting

Symphony"

Example

applied.

first

Peri.

Zinfonia. (Three Flutes.)

Symphonies of

this interludial

ployed

not only by opera

writers

of

such

oratorio,

character were em-

composers,
as

Emilio

but also
del

and Carissimi, and indeed by


almost every composer of concerted vocal
music.
They were frequent in English
Cavalieri

church

music

of

the

time

of

"commanded such as composed


>

I.e.,

The Chapel Royal.

the

Use in
Church
Music

II.,
who
ChapeP to

Charles
for

by

Story of
make

also

anthems

Symphony

Symphonies and Ritornellos

in use,

to

many

of the

which were performed by a band of

instruments placed

in the

Such popularity

Organ-Loft."

these instrumental interpolations gain that they

did

became frequent everywhere, and were a common feature


Even after the
of music both at home and abroad.
orchestras had disappeared from church galleries the
passages were still introduced but the name " Ritornello" was now dropped, and they were marked
;

*'

organ "or "sym."

An

from one of our

illustration

church composers of this period, Dr. Boyce, illustrates


this very simple device.

From

the

Anthem "The

(Voices.)

Heavetis Declare".'
^

(sym.i

DT W. Boyce
J

He -w-eigheth. He wTlgheth Vhe waters by measure

The word "Symphony" now commonly appeared


title for introductions to many songs and extracts.

as the

In almost every one of the older editions of


Interlude
in

songs by Handel, as well as

Song
other

songs,

any

whether introductory or otherwise,

Now

and then, however, as


lO

in

in collections of

instrumental
is

indicated

portion,

"Sym."

the Beggar's Opcra^ the

"
term " Vir

For the

Virginals

" (Virginals) is inserted, to

may

accompanying- instrument

feature of the following extract

show what

An

be.
is

"

the

interesting

the printing of the

instrumental portion on the same music stave as


allotted to the voice.

is

This was usually done to save

space and the expense of qjusic printing.


Air

XXXI from

Pepusch.

the "Beggar's Opera'.'

.^

(.Voice.)

.^

Vir.

Although instructive as indicating the growing use


of the
*'

we must

title,

symphonies

:"

the

not linger upon these very scrappy

preliminary movements

the

to

operas by such composers as Lully and Alessandro


Scarlatti

were growing

in

general shape and design.

importance and
This form of

their

in

Symphony

was now attracting much attention and considerable


was often expended upon its construction.
The plan of preceding an opera by a short, separate
instrumental movement was practised from
Operatic
4.U
J
J
the very early days
off modern
music.
^
^
^
Prelude by
Peri's Euridice (1600) had a vocal pre- lyr
<
;

care

lude, although

we have

seen that a tiny

*'Zinfonia" occurs elsewhere in the opera.


II

Monte-

Symphony

Story of

verde's Orfeo (1607) has, however, a complete instru-

mental prelude.

"Toccata," and
times:

it

is

This
is

is

not called

'

S3'mphony," but

directed to be played through three

scored for trumpets,

etc.,

and

is

in the

nature of a mere fanfare.

Monteverde's "Toccata',' instrmnental prelude to"0rfe9:'

irf--

^^y^^y^^^^^
11

^1

\\

cijv

iffl-r

'.

it

(1607)

.nJJ

Lully's Overtures
No

fresh

development of importance occurs

time of Lully (1633-1687),

who

until the

much expanded

very

the

instrumental preludes to his operas, giving-

such pieces the

title

He

Overture.
.

adopted the form of overture

was

Overture

usually

.,

of LuIIy

in vv^hich there

a slow introduction, followed by a brilliant fugato

movement.

This developed gradually into the modern

overture, as used both for

concert room, and

its

and the

the opera house

influence

upon the symphony was

enormous.
Lully clung to the term "Overture," but his con-

temporary, Alessandro Scarlatti (1659-1725), uses the

word Zinfonia

That

as well.

II Prigio7iiero foriu7iaio,

to his opera,

^rodncQd

in

1698,

has three movements (Allegro, Grave, and Presto), and


is

quite a

symphony

little

chestra,

called

touched upon
that

when

Scarlatti,

in itself.

however,

separate works for the or-

actually wrote

symphonies, which
in

our next chapter.

orchestral

will
It

be
be seen

will

preludes to operas were

written in two or three contrasted sections, the

being

modern

form of symphony was being very rapidly approached.


With the advent of Gluck's later works, and the
characterization in the overture of the actual subject-

matter

of the

became more

opera

distinct

that

was

to

follow,

overtures

from symphonies, and the two

Symphony

Story of

works were meant for different audiences,


and the private music-room of
noble or patron more rarely, too, of course, for general
of

classes

the

theatre audience
;

public performance.

At

first

only those symphonies from operas

were

played separately which had proved themselves most


interesting and attractive to the audiences

Symphony

and then men

works which had nothing

took

to

do with stage performances,

and which were meant to be listened


value and beauty.

to for their

Such a procedure was

by the progress now taking place


composition;

men were

in the

perfectly

own

facilitated

technique of

finding themselves, as the result

of constant experiment, able to develop their

more

writmg separate

to

movements

and consistently; they discovered how

to

balance movements one against another, both from the


points

of

view

improvements

of length,

in the

tonality,

mechanism and

and character
in the

playing of

various instruments enabled them both to enlarge their


orchestras and to emphasize the individuality of the

separate factors they contained.

progress

advancement

in

All along the line

form and design,

in

was

tech-

The days were ripe for


new and mighty form of art-work, and

nique, and in wealth of ideas.


the birth of a

thus such embryo forms emerged from indefiniteness

and uncertainty, and became


14

definite

and

certain.

The

Experiments
symphony was no longer

way

just a

of instrumental music, but a

design, based upon logical

upon

mere anything

lines

work

principles,

in the

of particular

and developed

which had proved their worthiness.

Experi-

ment ceased

for a time, so far as general outline

concerned

improvements that were

more

in the directions of texture

than of architecture.

15

effected

was
were

and of orchestration

CHAPTER

III.

EARLIEST SYMPHONIES.

Decay of dance forms Importance of stringed


Bach and Handel Stamitz Other early masters
Early programme works Dittersdorf Orchestras of the day
Establishment of form Modern programmes have no room

Suite and

Sonata

instruments

for

these symphonies.

In the early days of


allied

modern music

for the clavier

keyboard instruments, two forms, the

Suite and

suite

and

and

the sonata, were struofgling for supremacy.


,
The suite, lbemg- a muchl easier rform in

Sonata

which to
a

much

developed

write,

earlier period

opponent, the sonata.

its possibilities at

more complex and artificial


Even after the safe launching

than

its

amongst recognized forms, composers


suites.
The chief difference between
the two at first was the inclusion or omission of dance
movements these were common and general in the
of the latter
still

wrote many

suite,

and more rare

in the

This difference found


orchestras

of

the

same

sonata proper.

its

reflection

period.
i6

in

Many

works
of

the

for

old

Scarlatti
opera overtures, and symphonies before operas, contained dance

measures

themselves more fully

sent to have omitted

to

finale of

the

construction

seem by general con-

of symphonies, they

The

but as composers perfected

in

dance movements.

all

a symphony tended, in these early days,

have much of the

lilt

of certain dance tunes, but

was mostly avoided.


Hence there
sprung a distinction between the symphony and other
the actual dance

forms, in which the advantage of dignity lay with the


former.

who was born in


He was

Alessandro Scarlatti,

much
busy

for

many forms

in writing

very

....

most of

He gave

instruments,

capabilities

his

did

and

very special attention to

considering

carefully,

and

their

writing
Instruments

his important

passages for them.

The imperfect and uncertain


in

1659,
active

both for the church, the opera-house,

and the orchestra.


stringed

of music.

day accounts for

state of

this

wind instruments

preference,

which had

much influence upon the development of violin playing.


His "Twelve Symphonies for small orchestra" were
produced
is

in 17 15,

and although the

style there

by no means advanced, or indeed

different to that

which he employed

overtures), before his operas, these


17

in

in

adopted

any way very


symphonies

works are

(or

interest2

Symphony

Story of
Ing, as they

must have been among'st the

earliest of

this character written for the orchestra alone.

Bach and Handel wrote few symphonies as such,^


although both wrote overtures, suites, and concertos
in

same form was employed.

which the

The

difference

between the symphonies of

the works of Bach and

Handel
same direction, and even the earliest symphonies
of such a composer as Haydn, is not in the number
and style of movements, but in the way those movements are built up. Scarlatti and the great German
Scarlatti,

in the

contrapuntists started with an idea, and presented that


idea practically throughout a movement, changing

key and sometimes


sionally a

theme

is

new

idea

is

and contrasting
and herein

from

symphony saw

lies

orchestral,

different

its

of presentation; occa-

added to

utilized practically

real founders of

many

manner

its

it,

but the prevalent

start to finish.

The

the desirability of using

subjects with one another,

the point of cleavage between very

and indeed most instrumental, works

written before the time of

Haydn and

those written

afterwards.

There are, however, some contemporaries of Bach


and Handel who show their knowledge of the value of
1

vol.

The

title,

"Symphony

in

F," occurs

xxxi. of the Bach-Gesellschaft.

i8

for a

work published

in

Stamitz
contrasted subjects.
J.

One

of the earliest of these

was

K. Stamitz (1717-57), a Mannheim concertmeister

who wrote many symphonies


In the
work began.
some of these there is a

first

gprnnd

From

before Haydn's

movement

definite

and

Stamitz

of

w'^^^-^""<"''^'^<"p^

c;nhjpr.t.

T9 3 of Six Symplroiiies
Stgs.

by'St&uta.

AWind.

lit Subject.
1st MoTcinent.

Stamitz wrote at least forty-five symphonies, some of

which have been reprinted.


followed in his

footsteps

His son Karl (1746-1801)

and wrote some

seventy

symphonies, which contain much excellence of form

and matter, but are overshadowed


Mozart

in their

Amongst
busily

works of similar
their

powers
19

and

date.

other composers of this

developing

by Haydn

in

date
the

who were
writing

of

Symphony

Story of

symphonies may be mentioned John Christian Bach


(1735-82), Abel (1725-87), Galuppi (1706-85), Dittersdorf (1739-99), Schwindl (i7?-86), Wagenseil (1717-79),

Boccherini (1743-1805), Gossec (1734-1829).


It will

be noticed that although most of the above-

named composers were


all

when Haydn was

alive

born,

save Gossec predeceased him by some years, during-

which years Haydn's powers developed very remarkably;


the symphonic

works

of

many

of these composers v/ere

extremely popular, as Burney's History witnesses.


particular,

In

the compositions of Dittersdorf attracted

great attention as having leanings in the direction of

programme-music, a phase of the

new in his day.


The symphonies

art

which was quite

of Dittersdorf, indeed, claim

cedent for entitled symphonies


Dittersdorf

^,
"La Chasse
,,t

,,

more

There had been some pre-

than a passing mention.


,

11

in

Gossec's
\

(produced about 1770), and

the various hunting, battle, and peace symphonies of

such

men

as Leopold Mozart, Stamitz, and Wranitzky.

But Dittersdorf's aim was higher.

He composed

at

symphonies (somewhere about 1784) with


of subjects taken from Ovid's Metamorphoses:

least twelve
titles

"The Four Ages of the World," "The Rescue of


Andromeda," "Jason and the Golden Fleece," are
examples of their names. The music of these works
20

\Photo by E. Biebcr {Berlin).

TSCHAIKOVSKY.

Early Orchestras
does not appeal to us of to-day,
later

who

are familiar with

and more sensational representations of

pictorial

But they are remarkable for their date, and


although rather absolute music than programme music,
music.

as

we now understand

the term, they provide a wonder-

which the symphony

ful hint as to the directions into

was to follow subsequently.


The orchestras employed by
tioned in this chapter

the

consisted

composers men-

usually of strings,

oboes, horns, and sometimes bas soons.

flutes<

much attempt

was. -jiDt

The

There

contrasting groups of

because

alLumeats*-. probably

so unreliable.

at

strings,

ia=-

wood-wind was
therefore, had to play
the

throughout, and the oboes and flutes doubled the violin


parts from time to time, while the horns sustained the

harmonies.
In form there

movement

was a general adherence

basis.

Stamitz,

Dittersdorf,

to the three-

and others,

however, occasionally added a minuet and


,

scheme, which thus became the

trio to the

same as

that employed by composers

slow movement;

period: {a) allegro;

{b)

scherzo);

quick movement.

jof their
'arrived
tions

{d)

final

Form

of the classic
(c)

minuet (or

In the details

working much greater perfection was being


at, more particularly in the balancing of the sec-

of a

movement.

The double bar during


21

the

Symphony

Story of
first

movement and

the repeat occur with Stamitz and

and the form

others,

Haydn.

is

often as definite as

probable that these

It is

men

it

with

is

learned

much

Haydn, but great credit is due to them for their


pioneer work
they did much that it was necessary
should be done before the symphonic form could be
fropi

upon an absolutely

established

definite

basis

these

composers may be said to have dug a firm foundation


upon which the greater masters were able to erect a
magnificent

We

edifice.

never hear the music of these early composers


present day; there

in the

is

much

so

that

is

excellent

has appeared since, and their thinly

that

scored symphonies
would sound dull and
-^.^
^
unmterestmg to us now.
Even the early

To-day
,

examples of Haydn himself are but rarely played.

The

orchestral music of

because there
Itself;
in

it

has

is

its

Bach

still

lives,

but that

is

so essential a difference in the music

own

vital

power, and

is

master-work

a direction in which the great Leipsic cantor was

essentially at

home.

The

parly <;ymphr>ni<;tgj on the

withnew problems of
They were by no means

other hand, werg experimenting

form and of orchestratioa.

exploiting a well-trodden path

what

tentative

their steps were some-

and uncertain.

polyphonic school had been


22

left,

The methods of
and th ways of

the
the

Past

Age Music

monodic were thorny.


Hence their music can only
showing
be looked upon as
the way to others. The
great masters of a later date profited by the experiences of the pioneers, for

it

was

essential

spade work should be done by some one.


therefore,

we may not

these early

symphony

ally as

care to hear the

a matter of curiosity,

it,

music of

writers, except perhaps occasion-

we must honour them

for facilitating the progress of the

setting

that the

Although,

symphony, and

as a form, upon a firm foundation.

2X

for

CHAPTER

IV.

BIRTH OF THE MODERN SYMPHONY.

His methods Use of wind


Haydn Opportunities at
Esterhaz Le Midi Early and late examples " Salomon" Symphonies "Father" of symphony Reasons for comparative

The modern symphony


instruments

His

C.

P. E.

Bach

modulatory device

neglect of Haydn's symphonies.

The wofks of symphony composers hitherto dealt with


may be said to have but an antiquarian interest to us
The modern symphony
a symphony which

of the present day.

Symphony

may

be described

conforms
best

specimens

of

m
.

as

structure and design with the

and

type,

its

which^

moreover,

contains music that can be heard with interest and


delight in these days of
It

is

true

modern developments.

very

that

few

performances

are

ever

given to-day of the symphonic works of Carl Philip


C. P. E,
is

Bach

Emmanuel Bach. But this composer was


so much ahead of his time, and his work

...

so far in advance

temporaries, that

it

fossilized relic of a

is

of

that

of

most of

his

con-

impossible to regard him as a

bygone age.
24

His influence upon

Emmanuel Bach
Haydn was immense,
and

especially with regard to

form

orchestration.

He was

Johann Sebastian
He has been
to
1788.
from
Bach, and
1714
the gallant
of
termed "one of the chief propagators
(elegant) style in instrumental music (so called in conthe third son of the great
lived

tradistinction to the grave, contrapuntal style)."

The

and somewhat severe methods of contrapuntal


music had been exploited to their fullest extent by his

dignified

mighty father; composers had to turn, as we knov/,


in

other directions.

The MpnodicL^gbool, with

often trivial forms of melody and accompaniment,

been evolved, and the

possibilities of formal

its

had

design in

Emmanuel
music were now awaiting development.
Bach was the greatest of the pioneers of this new
movement, and he may be said to occupy a midway
position between

J. S.

Bach and Handel upon the one

Haydn and Mozart upon the other.


Emmanuel Bach wrote many important pieces for the
clavier, some of them with fanciful titles
a striking
testimony to the new directions which were being

hand, and

sought.

Eighteen works for the orchestra stand to his

name, and very interesting they


employed,

are.

The instruments

in addition to the strings, are usually flutes,

oboes, bassoons, and horns, with the addition of a line


^

Niecks.


Story of

Symphony
What

is more imwind
instrum ents
that he very often gives the

of figured bass for the cembalo.

portant

is

passages calculated to show

Wind

and

ticular characteristics

Instruments

ara

not

some

merely

of

off their par-

qualities;

they

number of

equally important and interesting contrapuntal parts;


their possibilities in the direction of tone-colour

been studied and understood, and

have

this feature alone

helps us to feel that his symphonies are more

"modern"

than those of the composers hitherto touched upon.

The following
his subjects

extracts will

show

the general style of

and treatment:

Opening subject of Symphony inF.


Allegro dijnolto
.

C. P.

E.Bach.


Modulatory Link
There
of

is

one curious characteristic

in the

symphonies

He

Emmanuel Bach which must be mentioned.

has a

little

to .lead,

habit of e mploying a few modulatory chor ds

from one mo.yement .IcLJJie-Othfir.^ a device


find in Handel (as in the overture to Sanison)

which we

and other composers, but which


the classical period of music.
the

way Emmanuel Bach

fell

out of use during

Here

is

leads us from

an example of

movement

to

movement:

Syminiony in D,

first movement, madnlating link, and


beeinning of slow movement,
c P. E. Bach

End of

> Alleerodimolto.

J?*

Story of

Symphony

And 'now for "Papa" Haydn (1732-1809). What


Haydn do to merit the title "The Father of the
Symphony " ? The answer may lie in the

did

statementJJjiaLJbLe-fQ}ind.ii.a.iLiiimiat,^^
j

liill^r.c.agj:uzed...orin4-JiJLeLat-ixx.thp.

prnud position

oLmonarch of instrnrneatal m u^ic- The merit for this


was not Haydn's alone, for Haydn was enormously
in fluenced in his finest and latest work by Mo^nrt.
But even without

come under
began by
of

its

influence,

this

and before he had

sway, he had achieved much.

symphonies

writing- little

Emmanuel Bach and

others, in

after the

which the

He

manner
first and

second violins were usually playing together, while the

and basses had very much the same work


the way through.
The style was light and un-

violas, 'cellos,
all

important, the musical contents neither very profound

nor very interesting.

But he lived

for

many

years at the palace of Prince

Esterhdzy, where he had an orchestra always at hand;

he was able to experiment with his band,

Oppor-

rf

and

to try en^ects,
tunities at

that appeared

to
,

good

compose
,

to him.

m
,-.

any manner
,

Doubtless he

many unsatisfactory experiments;


it is not every composer who has the opportunities of
making them, or of hearing them when they are made.
Haydn was very happy at Esterhdz. He says: "My
rejected

28

"^1

'_


Haydn's Originality
Prince was always satisfied with my works; I not only
had the encourag'ement of constant approval, but as

conductor of an orchestra

could

make experiments,

observe what produced an effect and what weakened


it,

and was thus

in

a position to improve,

additions or omissions, and be as bold as


I

was

cut off from the world, there

confuse or torment

"and

that for

me "

(think

alter,
I

make

pleased;

was no one

of that, ye

critics

to
!)

was forced to become orighiaW'' No wonder


close upon thirty-three years the composer

remained

in

such congenial occupation.

The earliest symphonies, such as " Le Midi," which


was composed in 1761, show perhaps but little advance
upon the methods of Emmanuel Bach, It
"LeMidi"
is interestingf to note that many of them
have

titles;

besides " Le Midi" there

and " Le Matin"; there

is

the

is

" Le Soir"

"Philosopher," the

"Schoolmaster," "Maria Theresa," and "Mercury";


there

is

the "Military," the "Chase," the "Surprise,"

the "Farewell," and so forth;

some

of these were

designed to a programme, the majority probably not.


The following quotation from " Le Midi" gives the
style of the early

symphonies:

First snbject of first Allegro.


Allegro.
Orch.taBnigon

Subject of Finale.
Allegro.

Vio.I.An

29


Story of
This was written

Symphony

and an
Early and
will

Late
-

year in the service of the

in his first

Esterhdzy family (1761).

Its

simplicity

examination

show what

of

apparent,

is

orchestration

its

a comparatively

way

little

composer had progressed upon

the

the

road

upon which he afterwards travelled. What


"
a contrast between this work and the famous " Oxford
symphony, so called because
city

it

was performed

in that

on the occasion of Haydn receiving the degree

of Mus. Doc. there in 1708:

First sTibject of first Allegro


Allegro spiritoso

In the very year in which this

was composed Mozart

wrote his

three greatest and

finest

symphonies.

From

these
"

Haydn

learned

much;

Salomon "
^^^ direction of form than

less

perhaps

in the

in

meihods

of orchestr ation and the general texture

and intensity of the musical thoughts.


last

symphonies

(called the

Haydn's twelve

"Salomon"

set

they were written specially for concerts given

30
'^'^''

/
/J \.

in

because

London

"
by a

Father

violinist,

Symphony

of almost

all

in

advance of his

earlier

many of those features


humour which are character-

exhibiting

still

of light-heartedness and
istics

of

Salomon), are far

While

efforts.

"

his music, they

probe the depths]

of musical feeling to a far greater extent than those

penned before the influence of Mozart had been

felt;

they are conceived in a loftier style, scored with a


firmer hand,

and

found development

Haydn

is

in
in

some ways

hint at ideas which

Beethoven.

credited by

some

many
Many of

authorities with as

as one hundred and fifty-seven symphonies.

...

these are only overtures and other works

not really of symphonic dimensions.

Some

" Father "

have never been printed.


Other historians e
t
^
bymphony
the number as one hundred and

give

The

number does not really matter


such a composer as Brahms would probably have
destroyed more than half of them, more especially
eighteen.

actual

those which were mainly experimental.

What

really

some eighteen to twenty


of Haydn's symphonies are works of the finest character, and judging by these alone he must be acclaimed
concerns us

is

the fact that

as a master of the symphonic form

nay,

more, as a

founder of this king of forms.

Few

of these symphonies are heard in the concert

rooms of the present day.


31

The

public loves strong

Story of

Symphony

meat; the graceful, vivacious,


art

virile style

hardly pungent enough for

is

loves

Neglect
in rare

cases

it

Haydn and Mozart.

Tchaikovsky to

of the latter composers seems slight

it

The orchestra
there

is

a lack

sonority that comes from the employment of

of the

much

What

and noisy tumult.


prefers Wagner and

frenzy, excitement,

is

Except

of Haydn's

taste.

its

brass and a

complement of wood-wind and

full

percussion; there are no climaxes of noisy outburst,


there

is

no jugglery and trickery of orchestration, no

sensationalism.
\

music, pure music, and for this

It is

most people really care little. All the more a tribute


to the powers of Haydn is it that his symphonies
are sometimes performed by our big orchestras; such
performances become more and more rare, but when

For smaller

they are to be heard are a pure delight.


orchestras, and

more

the large library of

value

to the

Haydn symphonies

and amateur conductors, as a

many instruments

must be done by the


approximate rendering.
orchestration,
analysis, the

of untold

is

rule, are

Interesting without being too

fact.

the material they provide for study

very

amateur bodies,

especially for

and

to

is

of the best; not

are required, but

performers

To

to

good work

give

even an

the student of elementary

those

Haydn symphonies
32

alive

difficult,

who

study

form

and

are ahke indispensable.

Usefulness of Haydn's
And some day

Work

the general public will learn to appre-

works at their true value. Mid all changes


of fashion and fancy they have never entirely dropped
ciate these

out:

it

will

be a bad day for the art of music

they are allowed to do so.

33

if

ever

CHAPTER

V.

MOZART.
The

symphony

becomes

Three

symphony

great

serious

matter

symphonies:

Mozart " Parisian "

"E

flat,"

"G

minor,"

"Jupiter."

With Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1756-91) we come


to the last important composer who wrote a large
number

of symphonies.

In

earlier

days

apparently threw off symphonies with

as

composers
prolific

pen as more modern writers turn out small pianoforte


pieces or songs.

But the composition of a symphony

was now a more

dignified proceeding,

and with the

advent of Beethoven this form of musical art became


so weighty,
cance,

that

its

inherent contents were of such signifi-

few attempted more than

eight

or ten

of
The irresponsible
musical platitudes, meant only to gratify for a time,
were confined to works of less dimension than symNo longer do we find men producing one
phonies.

during a

utterances

lifetime.

34

The

" Parisian

"

hundred and fifty-seven such works as did Haydn.


It was beginning to be realized that if a symphony

was worth doing at all it was worth doing well.


Composers began to live less in the present and
more for the future, with an eye to longevity in their
output.
It is true that

this

Mozart wrote forty-one symphonies:


far below that of Haydn, is a

number, although

prodigious one.

However, of these

forty-

one 'a great many of the earlier ones were

produced

in the

places d'occasion,
his

life

do we

same manner
and not

find

emphatically count.

Symphony

in

as Haydn's, that

is

as

until the last twelve years of

Mozart putting forth examples that


In 1778 he penned the "Parisian"

D, the

first

of those which

show him

as

emancipating himself from convention, and giving to


the world really individual and characteristic music of
this kind.

In his earliest symphonies Mozart had only

used three movements


the

later (in 1767)

minuet, and henceforth

movement form common

to

we

he introduced

usually find the four

him and

to the

symphony

generally.

o^
35

'

Story of

Symphony

The "Parisian" symphony has only three movements, but in many ways it is a pioneer production,
in its freer

" Parisian

Symphony

and
(for

in its

treatment of the instruments,

strength of form.

the period) of

the

The boldness

scoring-

can

be

noted from the following extract:

Ertractfrom Mozart's "Parisian Symphony" showijig the


composer's fondness for passages in double thirds.
CUrioets

BassooBB

Striofs.

Other important examples of a little later date are


the " Lenz," the " Haffner," and the "Prague"
symphonies.
It

is

to the three last

always turns, however,

symphonies that one's mind


in

thinking of Mozart as a

symphony composer. These three marvellous works


(in E flat, G minor and C major respectively) were
written in Vienna in the summer of 1788, and were
completed in six weeks. What marvellous genius had

Trilogy

Mozart to complete, in such a brief time, three works,


any one of which a modern composer would be glad
enough to produce in six years were he
Three
able to do so

These works are so im-

Great

mensely important, and at the same time so Symphonies


very varied, that we can quite understand

Haydn

much from them.

learning

They were

ahead of any contemporary music, both

and dignity of

far

in the strength

their formal shape, in the intrinsic value

of the musical ideas expressed, in their emotional grip,

and

and

sure

their

in

The

orchestral forces.

employment of the
was described by Mozart's

effective
first

biographer, Otto Jahn, as " a triumph in beauty of

sound," the
its

topic,"

minor as

and the third

"a work
(or

of art exhausting

"Jupiter") as "in more

than one respect the greatest and noblest of Mozart's

symphonies."

When

a Mozart symphony

is

played to-day

usually one of these three, although

some

it

is

of the earlier

works are by no means forgotten. There is nothing


in the whole realm of music more absolutely charming
to the ear than the

so untroubled,
It

its

symphony

in

contains no problems, nor will

hearer

who

flat

its

it

is

little

one

modern
The score

please the

revels only in an orgy of sound.

looks quite a

loveliness

grace and elegance are so exquisite.

there are no oboes, there

37

is

"

Story of

Symphony

flute, and the brass is modestly represented


by a pair of horns and a pair of trumpets. But every
note is of importance there is no overload-

only one

"

Flat

ing of the score with extensive doubhng-s,


and with innumerable details which cannot be heard in

performance.
opening-

All

is

of crystalline clearness,

theme of the

first

Allegro

is

and the

typical of the

sweet simplicity of the whole.

Allegro

Examples of Mozart's fondness


double-thirds are plentiful in

minuetto and

trio, in

for scale

passages

the slow movement

pianoforte adaptation,

long a favourite school-girl piece

the finale

is

was

in

the
for

as bright

and cheery as any of Haydn, but with more refinement


and eloquence.
38

"

"

The
The second

"Jupiter
G

of this mighty trinity, the

and the onlv brass

drums,
r

There

original part for

is

single

flute,

andJ an

is

rr.,

pair or horns.

one

r,

two oboes, but

minor,

is

there are no

written for an even smaller orchestra;

later on,

,,

"

^
G

^^

Minor

when Mozart

had learned to appreciate the beauty of the clarinet as


an orchestral instrument, he added clarinet parts to the

Of

"score.
"an(3

the three symphonies this

the most passionate

it

is

the saddest

has perhaps the most

characteristic musical ideas (note the strong boldness

of the opening subject and the wonderful


it

is

The theme

employed).

of the last

way in which
movement is

very similar to that employed by Beethoven for his

first

pianoforte sonata.

The

**

Jupiter" Symphony, as the last of the three

called (although not by its composer),

strong work.

We

miss

in it

some

is

is

a thoroughly

of the tUdrness

and even more the h uman inter est of


It is god-like, sublim e, and so far as
the greater part of its texture is concerned, remote
For this
from earthly loves, fears, and passions.
of the

the

reason

flat,

minor.

it

decessors

is
:

apt to

move

us perhaps less than

pre-

its

there are too few glimpses of humanity to

please some, although passion creeps

now

,,

,,

and then into the slow movement, where


touches of sensuous beauty are not entirely absent.
39

Story of

Allegro molto.^^

Symphony
k

Wlad.

\noUnI

VJoHn

II

40

^J

"

Counterpoint " in excelsis


The

finale is

as

interesting-

combining the forms of

sonata and fugue, an experiment which Mozart repeated

The Magic Flute. Such passages as


those quoted opposite, which seem to have been child's
play to Mozart, have for long been held up as models

in the overture to

of deft

workmanship

to despairing students of counter-

point and canon.

With Mozart

the

symphony was placed on a

foundation as an art form of the

genius pointed the

and

way

led directly to the

work

first

to the later

still

importance.

firm

His

works of Haydn

greater and more wonderful

of Beethoven.

41

CHAPTER

VI.

BEETHOVEN: HIS FIRST FIVE SYMPHONIES.

A supreme master Why is Beethoven supreme? Beethoven


in the

Different
Mozart Earlier works The

medium

of the orchestra

methods

" thinks "

to those of

symphony Use of
The "Eroica"
Symphony in D A great
Reasons
A new line of thought A familiar theme
Humour in the
movement The funeral march A real
"Scherzo" The variation
Fourth Symphony The slow
introduction The
allegro A long love-song A new procedure The great "C minor" The blow of fate A beautiful
slow movement A note of mystery A joyous

Haydn and
the

first

drum

finale

for its title

first

finale

first

finish.

It

is

acknowledged on every hand that

Beethoven

in

the greatest and mightiest form of instrumental music

found

its

So much

greatest and mightiest exponent.

has been written upon Beethoven's powers as a writer


of

symphony

to

add 'yet more to

Supreme
Master

literature.

his

name must

that

But

necessarily

fresh can be said

in

is

it
,

almost presumption
i

work on

loom

upon the

this already
'

large,

subject,

the

and
it

volumuious

symphony
if

nothing

must yet be

presented with a degree of fulness due both to

its

importance and to the fact that the average student or


42

Way
'

amateur

is likely

Prepared

to hear a

symphony by

more frequently than perhaps by any


It is

has

worth while enquiring why

won

composer

other.

that Beethoven

is

it

the proud position that has been assigned to

him as faciie

The reasons

'printefs

amongst symphonic

for this are various.

foremost, he

was born

at

First

writers.

and

the right time.

ThL-exp-eximei3tal_Jffijari:_^n the
)\^^

this

syTnh^^

hppn dnnp. by Haydn and Mozart:

ij"^

-""'.:;^
'

S uprem e
'-*-^

.form JVas

and completely unde rstood the principles of


orchestration, and the inclusion of certain instruments,
settle d,

were matters that had been determined quite


factorily: the great

satis-

composers who preceded Beethoven

had actually gone some distance upon the road towards


introducing a certain amount of emotional material into
their music.

the

When

therefore the great genius arrived,

time was ripe for him and the path had been

opened by pioneers who had cleared


his
t ake

progress.

all

obstacles from

Consequently Beethoven was able to

the sy^lphonic_.iorm for^gTaioted

he was able to

Story of
experiment

in the

Symphony

enlargement of

its

boundaries without

any danger of being misunderstood

he was able to

coacentrate his thoughts upon the emotional contents


of his

music,

pour out his wealth

to

of beautiful

ideas with glorious effects of harmonic richness and


orchestral colour, and to expand his
all stiffness

movements

until

and angularity of form had disappeared.

Not merely

in respect of

form does Beethoven hold

his

proud position as a composer of symphony: the kind


of musical thought welded by

him

into its boundaries is

altogether on a higher plane than any that had appeared


before.

If

we

consider

Mozart we
,.^-.

..

"Thinks"

much
find a

of the

work

of

Haydn and

tendency to similarity

inherent idea in any work, whatsoever


'

-^

ot
its

Very much the same style of music


appears in these composers whether the work be string
quartet, pianoforte sonata, or orchestral symphony.
,

mould.

Beethoven, on the other hand, realizes that in employing


the orchestra he

existing
in
',

medium

is

making use

a similar mannerj he reserves

and most weighty utterances


outlook

is

conception

some

the whole

may

be

The
method of

one of grandeur and of Titanic

Beethoven can be, and elsewhere often


he

of his largest

for his symphonies.

almost invariably big


is

most complex

of the

for the expression of his ideas, and

now and

then even

44

trivial,

is,

force.

less serious

but in the sym-

The "Nine"
phonies there

is

trace of this

little

he approaches the

matter with seriousmien, and the outcome

is

serenely

Thcre'afe^ but nine symphonies of Beethoven,

great.

but they contain more music than do the whole forty


of Mozart or the one hundred and

of

fifty

Haydn.

For Beethoven stands where two paths meet, the


classic

him;

and the romantic; there

in his

music we

much

is

of both in'

peeping through the classic

find,

formulce, that "gravitation towards romanticism," as


Sir

Hubert Parry expresses

**^whKrh

it,

tion of the close relation of music to

is

the recogni-

humanity"; or

as he says elsewhere, "^the sense of expressing some-

thing external to music

by words."

common

In

the symphonies are

romanticism; the
formal

lines,

is

full

stiff

in

music which

with

much

is

not defined

of his finest music

of these unexpected traits of

Viennese period, with

giving

way

to one

in

its

rigidly

which human

thoughts, loves, hopes, fears are to be conveyed on

wings of song

all

the

more

the definiteness of words.


-^ conventional utterance

beautiful because they lack


It is

a personal rather than

which breathes- thrpugh, the

music of^he~greater Beethoven.


"Beethoven's mastery of the orchestra will be dealt
with in the account given of each of his great works;
it

is

by no means one of the

symphony composer

least of his merits as a

that he handles the orchestra of

45

Symphony

Story of
his

day with such invariable

skill

not only does he

use every instrument effectively, but he


earliest to think ow/f

passages that

The

'the instrument.

scoringf

Methods
/
A

will

is

difference

and that of Haydn

one of the

be effective for

is

between

immense

his
;

it

,7
^'^-riir"'r'^
1 c.
the deft
that of Mozart m .u
even eclipses

-^

manner in which he makes every instuutient, even the


drum participate in the thematic development. It
is no longer music that might have suited various com,

binations

of instruments, but happens to have been

scored for the orchestra


for the orchestra,

it is

music originally conceived

and not properly to be interpreted

by any other means.


We do not find Beethoven stepping at once into

this

exalted place as supreme master of symphony.

His

two

first

examples are often spoken of as being

inferior to the others

this

far

does not imply that they

are poor works, for even in these the touch


is

Works

least

at
.

anything

in

as

sure and strong as almost

Haydn

or Mozart, and, in

pajisageSj fields,o which-the^lder composers

gazed from afar are explored.

some

had only

But the significance of

these earlier works wanes in the light of the greater and

more advanced ones which Beethoven produced later


on, and we are apt to find Symphonies I. and H.
neglected,

although

in

series

46

of

concerts

like

the


First

Symphony

Queen's Hall Promenades, or those given by Mr. Dan


Godfrey at Bournemouth, in which the whole nine are
played arjnually, they find their rightful place.

The First Symphony, op. 21, stands in C major; it


was written^hetween 1795 and 1800, and was first
produced at Vienna in the latter year, its
First

composer then being

The movements

thirty years of age.

are four in number,

allegro

(preceded

andante

in F,

by

an
adagio),

introductory

an

a minuetto and

trio,

Symphony

and a quick

an

finale.

The orchestra employed is the usual one of the period,


two each of the wood-wind instruments, two horns and
trumpets, timpani and strmgs.

The
theme

first

movement has

for its chief idea the following

Allegro con brio.


Vio.I,

a very straightforward

and

definite one,

and

subjects are equally clear and melodious.

its

But

other
in the

development section of the movement one traces more


clearly the

hand of the Bonn master.


47

Symphony

Story of
The andante

is

a great favourite

suave melody runs as follows


Andante

pleasing and

its

caiitat)ile

vio.n.

4:'

The

iKiP

drum

nf the

movement

in this

is

noteworthy,

as showing greater freedom of idea than had hitherto

But

prevailed.

Use

of
still

Drum

more
work

of the

minuet, and

the

in

minuet we find a

individual Beethoven
is

harmonies,

its

is

this section

development, and

its

scoring must have sounded very


contrast with this

more nearly a scherzo than a

new

in their day.

its

In

the merry finale, quite in the style

of Haydn, the themes being very gay and spirited but

not specially distinctive.

few years

later, in

1802, appeared the second jjf

The^orchestra employed

the symphonies, op. 36 in D.


is

/ in

the

adopted

is

as in the

similar,

except that a scherzo

major, and the form

takes the place of the minuet.

ductory adagio

many

same

is

The

intro-

longer and more developed, but in

places the themes suggest an even earlier school

of composition than does the

first

symphony.

This

is

noticeably the case in the main idea of the opening

48

-'

V'

/;

//

^r*

/7

('.

NOTE-BOOK EXTRACTS (BEETHOVEN).

j.:x>/r/

FROM NOTE-BOOK (BEETHOVEN).

.u

^^X^ (---.


Second Symphony
allegro,

which

is

very square cut, and to our minds

to-day, unimaginative.
Allegro con brio

VioHfli,

CUoB A Vlclas

The second movement


theme

is

a larghetto, with a charming

Larghetto
Vio.I.

happy and serene, with some beautiful


examples of orchestral device. / Yet even here we have
little of the real Beethoven, who shows us more of his
individuality in the bright and wayward scherzo which

lyrical in style,

follows.

In the

finale_

also

we

find a force

and abrupt-

ness which are much more characteristic, and which


are at once apparent in the chief theme of the move-

ment:
Allegro molto.

Symphony

Story of
This

is

a g^reat finale even to-day, with

coda, and

its

wonderful

which lurks behind so many of the noblest works

ality

VVe have here a hint

of earlier composers.
_,

its

evidences of emancipation from the form-

of the direction in which Beethoven

means

Finale
to extend his

work; freedom of idea and of

meiu3ds-Xxf-w_Drkin^[Jinked with a perfection-&-fara^

finish^hich

is

present without obtruding'

One seldom hears

the second

itself

and

unduly.

symphony nowadays,

except in series of concerts where the whole nine are

played seriatim.

Yet there are those, such as Sir

George Grove, who


the

most

clearness

find

it

" though not the greatest,

interesting of the nine.

how

firmly

It

shows with peculiar

Beethoven grasped the structural

forms which had been impressed on instrumental music

when he began

to practise it;

while

it

contains more

than a promise of the strong individuality which possessed him, and in his works caused him to stretch

forms here and there, with6uf'T5'reaking the


bounds which seem to be indispensable for really cothose

herent and satisfactory composition."^

Beethoven was not a composer who made much use


now and then he would name

of titles for his music;

a work or a

movement from

Grove, Beethoven and his Nine Symphonies.

50

was not
some of his

a work, but he

nearly so industrious in this respect as

(See Bibliography.)

"

" Eroica
who

editors,

invented such absurd and unauthorized

terms as "Moonlight" Sonata and so forth.

symphony, which stands

his third

uses the

title

*'

Eroica."

Although

tion does not stand very far

of the second,

neSspbut by virtue of
its

its

for

he

date of composi-

its

away from
its

But

flat (op. 55),

that

marks aii^enormous

it

forward, not only by reason of

beauty of

in

" Eroica "

step

length and impressive-

glorious themes and the superb

musical thought, which allow

more than a hundred years

after its

it

to remain,

composition, as

one of the masterpieces of musical creativeness.

"Eroica"

The

symphonies by

marked

will

reason

individuality

always
of

its

stand

out

mighty

and beauty, and

Beethoven took

its

for the

theme

of his tone-painting a subject of no

mean

significance.

amongst

strength,

its

historical

the grandeur and dignity of Napoleon,

for Title

the soldier and emancipator of his country.

It is well

order

known how angry


later that

the composer

was when he heard

Napoleon had assumed the

and how he

title

of Emperor,

manuThe music, however, remains to


us an imperishable monument to Beethoven's genius.
The heroic mould is preserved throughout, and the.
script

in

hastily tore off the title-page of his

disgust.

subsequent dedication "to the memory of a great


is

pathetic,

and at the same time appropriate.


51

man "


Symphony

Story of

The music, commenced in 1S03, shows us a Beethoven moving far away from the comparatively plain
road of Haydn and Mozart; he has struck out a new

of

Line

j-^u
j
u ^
somewhat
caution and
been ^treadmg- with
^-

Thought

tentatively;

M
he marches along bolaly
V

now

and confidently, sure of himself and of

We

has hitherto

This he

path for himself.

New

his

own

strength.

have only to note the very considerable length of

the movements, ihe treatment of the subjects in the


(

opening allegro, and the soulful dignity of the^Funeral

March,

to see that

Beethoven was no weakling (was

y- he indeed ever this?), but that he had turned his back

on the models of his youth, and was manfully strik


/

ing

out

and

forcing

way

for

his

extraordinary

individuality-.

Those who know Mozart's


Bastien et Bastienne^

will

find

familiar with the introductoryIt

is

this

wondrous

theme,

delightful

themselves

melody of

in all its simplicity,

possibilities,

which

little

its

opera,

strangely
overture.

and yet with

Beethoven

has,

its

con-

sciously or otherwise, adopted as the keystone to the

opening allegro

Cello

52

Simple Phrase

This apparently simple meandering up and down the


tonic chord becomes in his hands a thing of intense

We

have
beauty and of extraordinary complexity.
discover
to
progresses
it
music
as
only to listen to the

what a mine of wealth Beethoven can extract from it.


As first played on the 'cellos it is short, and immediately succeeded

present

it is

by a violin phrase; indeed, for the

only slightly insisted upon, and the music

soon modulates towards the key of B flat, where a


phrase for wind instruments is heard. This must be
quoted, as much use is made of it in the development
section:

The key

of

flat

thus reached,

we come

to a

number

of themes which together make up the second subject.

The

first

of these, and perhaps the least important,

forms a kind of duet for violins and clarinets:

A more

melodious

beautiful and

and

plastic

phrase follows

harmonious passage, delightfully


53

in

alter-


Story of

Symphony

nated between wind and strings.

most

his

lyrical

It

is

Beethoven

in

and expressive mood:

crescendo brings about a joyous climax, where a

strongly

marked

idea,

also

much used

later

on,

is

jubilantly played by the violins

this

completing the principal ideas of the expository

section.

The development

is

able for the fact that

on a large
it

scale,

oboes,

is

in the

is

makes
what has gone

besides amply dealing with

The new melody, given

and

use of fresh

notice-

material
before.

to the pleading notes of the

remote key of

54

E minor

"

Eroica

and wedded to

a counter-theme for the 'cellos.

is

it

Funeral March

"

This beautiful phrase

of the other subjects,

and

a bold and manly idea for


the orchestra

hushed to a

pianissimo., the ear

expect the return of the

to
,

is

woven with presentations


at length gives way before
the 'cellos and basses, As

deftly

is

this

bemg

tentatively

first

announced

in

subject,

humor-

is

led

Humour

ously premature fashion by the horn, at once followed

by a cadence and the

'cellos as at the

recapitulation calls for no special

once again

in the fresh

new epoch
majestic

in

is

But the coda, with

all

its

important as creating almost a'

the history oF form,

New

is it.

rejoice

beauty of the ideas and their

gloriously rich treatment.

wealth of material,

The^

opening.

comment; we

so lengthy and

devices in the shape of tripping an(

delicate figures for the strings decorate the oft-heard

themes, and constructive ingenuity


pitch

is

carried to a high

the whole coda forms a magnificent peroration.

Of the Marcia fimehre Beethoven spoke in later days,


for, when told of l^j^apoleoji^sdeath^ he said he had
composed the music for that occasion seven1

teen years before; otherwise he


.

made

,.

Funeral

little
^

March

reference to the original dedication of the

symphony.
upon a

It

is

a noble and solemn march, based

truly elegiac idea, first heard in the violins

then repeated by the oboe:

"55

and

Story of

Symphony

Adagio assal
Vio.

second strain,

Its

but the song

of

in the major, is

mourning

one of greater hope,


accom-

returns, rhythmically

panied by reiterated notes of sombre character. The


middle section of the movement brings us to a suggestion of resignation, of comfort

and

The

relief.

beautiful

melody allotted to the wood-wind, with delicate triplet


accompaniments for the strings, commences thus

Bmb"?

and
is

is

continued

in similar fashion.

soon turned once more

key

is

The

joy,

however,

into sorrow, and the minor

resumed with the main theme of the march, now

broken up by the introduction of a considerable fugato,


and by a lengthy episode founded upon a triplet basis.

To

this, again,

a mighty coda

appearance of No. 24

is

is

appended.

noteworthy
56

The

final

the violins,

'

Genuine Scherzo

heartbroken accents as

were, give

it

it

in interrupted

fragments, conveying the idea of extreme grief and

is

sad, almost despondent note, the end

With

sorrow.

reached.

With

however, comes an

the scherzo,

Beethoven

and abounding vivacity.

is

irresistible

here
Scherzo

tl

mood, and at the date


of the production of the symphony its music must

in his

most

original

have been a revelation to musicians.


this

Where

before

time could have been~1iear3^anything like the

pattering

pianissimo

string

figure

with

which

the

scherzo beg"ins ?

Allegro vivace
VI.

This motive,

most

full

mood

gaiety

and a

prevails

concerns

itself

and the busy bustle of

The whole atmosphere

gaily continued.

with

of delicate surprises, lends itself to

effective treatment,

in

delightful

the

trio,

abandon.

is

The same

new

employed by Beethoven:

57

is-

a section which largely

with a subject for three horns

orchjestral featur e her efirst

it

charged

fiA^


Symphony

Story of
Hns

f^teF
'^^4
f?

^^ ^
There

is

Ob

V-

rq

-1

'=

~4J,tI

"]^f

N
^
^N^ ^ ^^ ^^
^-^ -f-ihFt=^

:*=

StgB.

brightness and geniality through both this and


scherzo,

the recapitulation of the

and the necessary

from the sombre tension of the Funeral March

relief

is

well attained.
i

of

The
its

finale is constructed

origination,

upon what was,

a comparatively

symphonic movement

Variation

tions.

preludes this air


to be introduced later.
in

plan for a

air

with varia-

vigorous passage for the strings

Finale

spond, both

an

at the time

new

really a

The

first

bass to a theme

few variations corre-

theme and treatment, with a

set

of

earlier written variations for the pianoforte:

Allegro molto.
pizz.

Stgs

Two

versions of this precede the entry of a melody

(previously

used

by

Beethoven

in

his

Prometheus

music), which has distinct grace and charm:


Ob.

58

Fourth Symphony
The

many

which follow take

variations

sequence

natural

to

which

is

forms, the

" poco

beautiful

andante by many considered the gem of the finale


upon an idea at once expressive and of noble mould.
"

Wind

Its

continuation

decorated with graceful arpeggi for

is

and

the. clarinet,

somewhat prolonged, a

is

bridge-passage leading to the brief

beautiful

final presto,

where

with a brilliant series of passages the symphony, noble

and heroic

in

character from

first

to last,

comes

to a

glorious conclusion.

The gay and


Op. 60,

delightful

Beethoven

is

Symphony

In

in a lighter vein,

flat,

No.

4,

exceptmg per-

haps the magnificent slow movement, which


Fourth
possesses

all

the lofty attributes of dignified

symphonic music.

It

Symphony

bears the date 1806,

and was the first completed Symphony after the


" Eroica," although the colossal C minor had been
partly written before this time.

a commission,

and from

found the composer


True,
critics,

it

its

in genial

The present work was


contents seems to have

and playful mood.

by no means gave satisfaction to

and no

less a

its

early

person than the composer of

59

Der

Story of
Freischi'itz

not

Symphony

amused himself by

penning- a

altogether kind skit upon

its

humorous and

originalities

and

Beethoven's coNsxixuTioNiL.
difficulties.

But even the great influence of Weber

and the scoffings of many

lesser

men

obscure the bright freshness and


60

could not for long

skilful

mastery of the


Reversion
ideas depicted.

Older Methods

tr

The symphony may not

have been quite so often played as


brethren, but in later days

among
From

has taken

its

the immortals, and one from which

likely to be

what

it

some years
more titanic

for

its

never

removed.

certain points of^.view

earlier

due place
it is

model than the

*'

it is

built

Eroica."

upon a some-

We

see this in

the slow introduction that begins the work, and in the

use of the minuet after the truly Beethovenian

spirit

which the scherzo of the "Eroica" establishes. But


these are minor details, and many of the qualities that
characterize

We

music of the Bonn master are as

the

apparent here as

others of the "immortal nine."

in the

have before mentioned the greatness of the slow

movement, and many parts of the opening allegro and


/
'

of the finale are pure Beethoven.

The adagio which preludes the work is of noble


and forms a suitable commencement to a movement of large proportions. Starting with a
dignity,

solemn unison phrase for the strings,

...

we
Intro-

soon hear disconnected quavers,


a presasre
^
f
&
of the idea to be developed in the allegro.
'

duction

The detached quavers and


for material,

up

the unison idea serve amply


and with a gradually quickening "rush

" of the violins

we

are soon launched

and joyous allegro, with

its

upon the merry

gaily tripping subject

6i

Symphony

Story of
Allegro Tivace.
VI i

^i^y^''^

^i^

jiv'^'
J^^p-,
^^
V
,

*i

The

'1

^^

vD

vlfn

vr,
^

'

Ob ,-^1
'^fr'yi^r r r
\^ *t f)T

presentation of this

~f

in-^A.'i.\
vsr vij' vp
r-r

f ^

iL-r

^ i
.

o'^ "-o
1

succeeded by a number of

is

tremolo figures for the strings, while the bassoon trots

along

with

quaint

First

merriest

possible

staccato

way.

step

the

in

we

Soon

find

Allegro

another link with the introduction

form

of a unison phrase for the strings,

which stalks along, as


fortissimo^
clarinet

it

now

the

in

staccato,

were, from a pianissimo to a

and then conducts us to a pleasing canon

for

and bassoon

Clar

Q&iii^n

One

other idea

syncopated one for the strings

completes the material of this movement, and after the


usual repeat

ending of

we

this

enter

upon the development.

section, is

drum being used

of remarkable beauty,

as an harmonic factor

hushed chords lead by

skilful

62

and

The
the
the

enha rmon ic change^rom


Rhythm
the key of

main subject

is

The " rush up

flat.

even more exhilarating than at

same mood

the

to that of

" to the

first,

and

prevails in the regular recapitulation

which follows, the short coda bringing

all

to a

merry

conclusion.

gentler and deeper note

is

touched

a long love-song of tender expression


feeling.

In

the

very

first

in the

we have

bar

rhythmic idea^starte^d by the second violins

which

is

of prime importance, and

is

adagio-

and of intense
Love-Song

allotted

toi

every

instrument of the orchestra during the course of the

movement, not even excepting the_dxums. This is but'


a preliminary to the lovely expressive melody now sungi
by the violins
Adagio.

mMMim
the last bar of which reintroduces the rhythmic feature

from whence the accompaniment


After a repetition by the
to

is

given to the clarinet, and

flat

is

in part

wood wind, an

derived.

episode leading

major conducts us to the second subject.


63

is

This

of a similarly tender


Symphony

Story of
nature,

its

accompaniment

beinsf delicate

and

The movement

in sextolets

by the strings

gfraceful

contains a wealth of loveliness which

permeates every bar, and the utilization of matter


remarkable for

its

resourcefulness as well as for

is

its

extreme beauty.

The minuet^^o
istics of

has far more of the character-

called,

a scherzo than

it

and Mozart.
^

th&4Ki4s-ef^Haydn

in

attributes of the lighter

had

In treatment, too,

style, especially in the

^ the

violins.

More

use

allied

section labelled trio, a

made
to

of the opening idea of

the older minuet

is

in their entirety

The movement

the

leads

and then both_rio and

an

S cedure which Beethoven also employed

Symphony.

has the

somewhat long one, which

/'to a return of the minuet,

^ minuet are repeated

it

and more humorous

is

unusual pro-

in his^Seventh

thus in five sections,

with a short coda to wind up.

For

finale

we have

a busy bustling

movement on

running passages of semiquavers which seldom cease,


64


Symphony

Fifth
forming- a figure of

accompaniment when they are no

longer subject-matter
Allegro

ma

vfT.

non troppo.
r-1

Vl.n*Viola.

ir

melodic theme of importance

is

The movement

is in

second subject

in

accompaniment

for the clarinet.

Cel'.o&Biss,

also heard

orthodox form, and has a definite

given to the oboe, with a

The whole

triplet

finale is of

the most genial type, and forms a fitting ending to the

gaiety and spontaneous delight of the entire work.

Colossal in
essence, and

its

majestic power, romantic in

inherent ideas, the

tit3.nic in its

Symphony, op. 67, stands out as one of the


r
T^
noblest and most characteristic of Beet

hoven's works.
his nine
side,

Coming

symphonies,

and by

its

it

nobility

as

is

it

does

unlike

in the

its

it

C minor
C Minor

mid-path of

fellows on either

and majesty holds

head aloof with a dignity which

very^

its

is

its

proud

well able

after

to

Beethoven commenced work upon it soon


the completion of the " Eroica," and the same

sustain.

6q


Symphony

Story of

deep seriousness and earnestness are apparent.


events caused

when

it

its

made appearance

by

side

"Pastoral" at a concert at Vienna


that year.

It

genius, and

is

Various

production to be deferred until 1808,

with

side

in the

the

winter of

was gladly received as an exposition of


generally held to be the most popular of

the symphonies with the public.


Its

most

distinctive features are the fierce_aild-abrupt

nature of the opening subject of the

first

and the weird mysticism of the scherzo.

movement runs

movement,
This latter

direct into the finale, being connected

by a curious bridge-passage, and

its

mysterious notes

are later on introduced into the directly contrasted and

joyous movement which succeeds


/^

i^

The opening Allegro con

and

it.

brio begins

by the strings

clarinets rapping out those four hard

and unsym-

pathetic notes, which, separated by pauses,


are unlike anything else in the whole realm

of
'^

'

Such

is

the

music.
As Beethoven said of them,
blow of Fate upon the door "

Allegro con brio.

They determine the character of the movement and


dominate its hue from first bar to last. The main
66


Variations
subject
is

is

but a continuation of this idea, while contrast

afforded by the melodious character of the second

subject in

flat

tfii'r.

The development

section, soon

of no other material than

followingf,

that already put forward

and disguises

manifold deyices

makes use

there

subject-matter remains the same.

are,

but the

Alternate chords for

wind and strings gradually reintroduce the recapitulatory section, which is diversified by a short and
plaintive cadenza for the oboe.
for

comment

until

we

coda, the longest

arrive at the

movemerrt ^ In

section of the

Hereafter nothing calls

this

much

use

is

made

of fragments of the second subject in the minor key,

and a bold finish is reached.


In the Andante con moto we have instances of Beet-S
hoven's power as a writer of variations, and also an'
example of the
period.

The

ment accorded
appearances

limitationj^_oJ__th^e

first

orchestras of his

evidenced by the diversified treat-

to the opening

subject on

its

various

the second by the fact that there were no

horns or trumpets
therefore the

is

in the

key of the movement, and that

composer introduced a
67

little

fragment

in

Story of

Symphony

the key ^f.C_ijQ..which they could play readily.


artistic skill

with which this

is

The

done quite condones for

the imperfections of the instruments of his day.

The
and

chief

melody

is

at first

continuation of this in the

violins

announced by the violas

unison

'cellos in

leads us

same manner

for

wind and

by a charming- modulation to the

passage above mentioned for the brass


Brass,

and by a

still

the key of

more

flat

beautiful

once again.

harmonic device back to

The

first

variation of the

theme now ensues in flowing- semiquavers, and the


same harmonic progressions, all varied in orchestration
and style, lead us to its third presentation, in demisemiquavers, by the violins.

This concluded,

there

wind alone, and


further varied treatment, some part of which is
beautiful ritornello passage for

68

is

then
in the

Note of Mystery
The

minor key.
devices,

and

scoring- is rich

after some"no"ble

a triumphant conclusion

The succeeding

is

allegro

and

full

of contrasted

and "beauteous harmonies,

attained.

is

notable for the silent sweep

opening subject

of the basses over the notes of

its

a mysterious whisper,

were, of things vast and

inscrutable.

In

as

great

question-like phrase

it

contrast

to

this

comes the bold answer

Note of^
Mystery

of the horns, firm and confident, reliant and

strong
Hn.

As middle

major key, occurs a fugaio

section, in the

passage of a busy, rumbling nature, in which the lower


strings enunciate short fragmentary passages of an
interjectural kind.

Then we have a return

ductory portion almost


tibe

in the

same music, but very

of the intro-

nature of an echo.

slightly scored,

being delicate, ethereal, and mysterious.

69

It is

everything

Suddenly we.

Symphony

Story of
are launched upon

commences

a chord of

to reiterate the note C.

and unapproachable passage by


linking this

^-

movement

made, and then

vi^ith

vi^ith

flat,

and the drum

It is the

his finale.

crescendo

a great outburst of tHe

to vi^hich for the first time in the history of


piccolo, double-bassoon,

we are hurled
movement

added,
last

mysterious

which Beethoven

full

is
is

band,

symphony

and threeTrombones are now-

into the march-like subject of the

The jubilant character


moods of the earlier

the

of this

is

quite

removed from

part of the symphony, which

have been emotional and intense rather than exultant.

The joyous sweep

of the violins through rushing semi-

quavers, the bold arpeggio flights of the basses,


the fanfares of the brass
delight, the
light

all

glorious all-embracing happiness.

and playful

is

and

emphasize the unbounded


Quite

the string melody, accompanied by

triplets, that serves for

second subject

70

Joyous Finish
The movement

is

development

chiefly

is

orthodox binary, form, and the

on the

triplet idea,

employment of the trombones.

dignified

capitu lation_ an
sc herzo)

in

is

allusion

to the

with

much

Before re-

preceding allegro (or

made^_ Then once more the joyous notes of

the march are resumed, and a splendid and lengthy

coda

is

The

added.

bass which

is

the whole symphony.


tonip

final

presto

With

concludes

in

accompanied by a

a glowing reiteration of

and dominant chords, quite

emphatic end

is

reminiscent of the opening four notes of

is

in the Italian style,

reached, and the great

"C

triumph, noble and majestic to the

71

an

minor"
last.

\>-

CHAPTER

VII.

BEETHOVEN: LAST FOUR SYMPHONIES.


Schopenhauer

on

Beethoven's

symphonies

"titled"

work

The slow movement Realism A village band


The storm Thanksgiving Symphony in A Early criticisms
The opening introduction "The apotheosis of the dance"
A solemn, slow movement A characteristic scherzo The Bucolic
finale A "little" symphony Lightness of mood A poor reception Small orchestra employed A straightforward movement
An airy allegretto A return to the minuet Originality in the
finale The
Choral Symphony Incongruous elements Beethoven's doubts Greatness of the whole First performance The
allegro
themes The second movement The adagio The
curious "connecting link" Turkish music.
Beethoven's views on

titles

Headings

of

the

movements

picture of nature

Its

Schopenhauer,

in

Die Welt ah Wille und Vorstellung^

has some pertinent remarks on Beethoven


Schopen-y-*
(*''

hauer

and

his

symphonies.

"If," he says,

look at pure instrumental music,


that

"we

'S

irN-iJie

symphony of
72

Beethoven the

we

notice

greatest


Schopenhauer
disorder reigns, and yet beneath

the

all is

most absolute X

the most violent strife, which immediajtely \^


becomes the sweetest concord. Itis-rerumconcordza^

order:

</z>aJ>'j:r~a~TrTre&ft^complete picture

nature of the world, which

rolls

on

of the essential

in the

measureless

complexity of numberless shapes, and supports

itself

At the same time alljiuman


passions and emotions speak from this symphony joy
and sorrow, love and hate, fear and hope, all in the
abstract only, and withotrt any particularity; it is
by constant destruction.

the

really

matter.
realise
flesh

of

form of emotion, a

It is true,

while listening, to clothe

it

and blood, and

life

spirit-world

to behold in

this is of the

general,

it is

op. 68

in

most

in

the varied scenes

symphonies of Beethoven

specially true of the Sixth

F, for here

we have

"Pastoral" the symphony


various

title,

to

title

be,

movements have each a

our thoughts
direction.

is

may be

Let
"

it

in

Symphony,

the great Beethoven

condescending to the bestowal of a

his

our fancy with

it
it

and of nature."

True as

its

without

however, that we are inclined to

upon his work.


and moreover

sub-title, so that

definitely turned in the

proper

be noted that the composer adds to

^1P^^ an expression _ o f feeling than a


lies much of the force of Schopen-

painting;" therein

hauePs remarks.

Beethoven has here descended some73

Story of
what from

Symphony

mighty pedestal, and has made one of


human weakness in providing"

his

his rare concessions to

No

us with a key to his ideas.

with
Ore

^^

Kroica,"

emo tional
/^we are

en

rrith

is

mighty

flTe

stor ms a nd passions,

as

interpretation

her

elemental joy.

of

in

mood,

led to a quieter, calmer

he concerned

much-loved

his

in

wo rkings of
the C minor:
a musical

to

Nature,

with

all

soothing charms, her soft caresses, her simple

In 1815 Beethoven

named Neate

saw a good

him he

told

without a picture
_,

longer

profound contemplation of a hero, as

the

or

may

deal of an Englishman

that he seldom
in

his mind.

worked

This

may

not have been so, for Beethoven was

fond enough of mystifying his hearer, and


deceiving him as to his real intentions.
are certain, that out of

"named"

Beethoven
to fewer,

he

the

one himself.

mass

of his compositions,

such

to

hear,

The fancy names


as "Dramatic,"

many

to

even
so

if

many

he

saw

of the

"Moonlight,"

and

fictitious inventions of pu*^

and are thus designated without Beet " we


notice

authority.

On

we

but few, attached programmes

listener

"Pastoral," are so
lishers,

the

this

and never gave a complete idea of the picture

desired

sonatas,

all

But of

one of these rare occasions, then, when


74

^'reatest


Fancy Names
does vouchsafe some explanation, there devolves upon
the hearer

all

more need

the

for care in the hearing-.

Let him not expect a panoramic vision


scenes, incidents,

or episodes.

up a series of impressions

call

to in the right spirit,

liste'ned

hearken

the

.to

work must be

but the listener must

and not expect

himself,

for

many

so

in

Be^4>evefi-jjdshes

to

have every

detail pointed out to him.

Even
meats,

of

these

Beethoven was

exist in several

scripts

sub-titles

forms

which

not so

in his

head the move-

very confident

various manu-

they

__

Movements

and sketches, thus showing that he

was a little doubtful as to the exact wording of them.


As finally modelled they stand as follows
:

First Movement.

on arriving

The
in

cheerful impressions aroused

the country.

By the brook.
Third Movement. Peasants' merrymaking.
Fourth Movement. Storm.
Fifth Afoveme7it. Shepherds' Hymn.
Gratitude
Second Movement.

and

thanksgiving after the storm.


his

tic
_

..

^ is

-^

u
nauer s
'

our synopsis
it is

re

we

have here no drama

in

merely a series of incidents, and without

the

'

-'

movements would be equally


75

beautiful


Symphony

Story of
and

But

delightful.

authority

properly

so

to

receptive

as

yet,

do,

we have

Beethoven's

us cast ourselves into the

let

mind

of

state

for

listening

to

them.

We
with

and

must divest our minds

its

turmoil,

We

cares.

its

basking

its

in the

of

strife, its

all

thought of town

business,

must beco me

s imp le

its

and

life,

pleasures,
g'uileless ,

sun of God's heaven, listening to the

singing of sweet birds and enjoying the smell of fragrant


flowers

childlike, happy, and

Are we yet
to

its

the

interpretation

opening

prelude

,_

trustful.

in this restful
in

moodr

If not, let

commences

allegro

us listen

the simple theme with which

without

further

Allegro

ma

non troppo

VI. I.

How

slight

and simple and pleasing

all this is

We

are sitting under trees on the fresh grass,


Picture of

Nature

with nothing to disturb us, and no sounds


but those of Nature's voices.

to

Nature the music

is

For
76

five

And how true

hundred and twelve


Voice of Nature
movement develops and proceeds

bars this wonderful

from

either with material

absolutely allied to

same sounds

it.

this

melody or from subjects


sanie.iiLNature

It is_thLe_

hundreds, thousands of times, and

we never weary

repeated and repeated, but the ear never

There

the

of

Bars such as the following

them.

are

are reiterated again and again and again

is

justification for every note,

and

all is

palls.

true to

the idea represented.

From

absolutely regular
of

much

movement
C major,

the formal point of view this

less

contrast and a

the second subject, in

importance than the


foil

chief rhythmic idea.

to the

more

first

alluring

it

is

is
is

only a

charm of the

In the coda the pastoral feeling

becomes stronger than ever. Just towards the end


clarinet and bassoon hold a comical duet, which the

band promptly squashes it is the distant


some rustic musicians, perhaps, but the sounds
of Nature soon shut them out.
Well, then, we are in the country, and we have
received many pleasant impressions upon our first

rest of the

strain of

77

Story of
arrival.

Our

pasture,

over

trees,

Symphony

have led us through cornfields and

feet
hill

and

and

dale,

beneath

somewhat wearied, we

until,

rustling

"by

rest us

the

brook."

Very gentle

is its

murmur

Andante molto mosso.


Violins

4 VlolM.

lOllo* aa octave

sometimes
quavers,
like Tennyson's brook,

This figure

semiquavers

in

"run on for ever." There


lengthy movement in which
prevailing impression

ment

^joyousness,

above

The

allied

the

in

inclined

to

are few bars in


it

is

all

in the first
;

this

The

not present.

same as

calmness, contentment

quiet, rest,

all,

is

sometimes
is

move-

and here,

and peace.

themes

Bassn.

are in the

long one,

same

we

vein.

Our

siesta

by the brook

is

are soothed to refreshing slumber, from

78

Realistic Effect
'

which the coda rouses us by a piece of realism as

and

vivid

the

as

Strauss'

startling- to the

Don

in

,,

Realisms
its

imitation

of nightingale,

and cuckoo, proved an almost insuperable bar

the presentation of this


existence.
all

of Beethoven's day

Quixote are to modern ears.

Indeed, this coda, with


quail,

critics

and wind-mills

sheep

bleating-

Musically

that precedes

in the score,

it,

symphony

it

is

in its early

to

days of

exquisitely apportioned to

and, but for

its

having been labelled

might have passed almost unchallenged.

To-day we can

rejoice in its elegant simplicity

and

its

singular appropriateness:

Ob. (Quail)
Flnte (Ktghtingalff)

The third movement, the merrymaking of the


is

light

delicate

and

dainty scherzo.

After

peasants,

opening we come soon to a quaint

Village

Band

/mitation of a village band; the oboe starts

a theme

all

out of time to the accompaniment of violins

and bassoon, thus


79


Symphony

Story of

crcsc.

Then we

are suddenly hurled into a tumultuously

scored rustic dance, a representation of noisy revelry.


All

this

is

quite

and the return

boisterous,

delicacy of the scherzo

is

to

the

very acceptable.

Suddenly, without any warning, the scherzo ceases,

and a rumbling, muttering sound of tremolo notes


the strings

is

Storm

heard

of the storm.

it is

in

the distant rumble

staccato passage for the

violins suggests the pattering of the rain.

Trombones

and piccolo are added to the score, fearsome chords


resound, and the 'cellos and basses growl very much

at cross purposes with one another

on

short scale

passages

which produce an

The storm
violins

effect of

increases;

confusion and grimness.


little

jerky passages on th\

suggest lightning, while the rumble of thunder


80

Seventh Symphony
'is

Chromatic scales indicate that the

generally present.

storm

is

at its height

then the noise of the tumult

quietens down, the thunder dies into silence,

and a happy, solemn phrase leads us


the final

The theme
clarinet

Bavarian Alps or
the

and

is

in

giving

and thanksgivmgf.

of joy

of this,

and horn,

into
.

movement

a kind of pastoral jodelling of

may

of a kind that one

Tyrol to-day.

hear in the

The main theme

of

movement

its

variations are the chief material employed for

this finale, which, like the

whole symphony,

is

a model

of exquisite elegance of detail and charmingly calculated


effect.

As a motto

for the

work we might

well quote

from Browning
"God's

in

His heaven

All's right with the world."

"A

grand Symphony

In these terms

quite

Beethoven spoke of
/ritten in i8i^.

in the

upon

A, one of

my

best works."

unusual for him, be


this

work

it

noted

in a letter

Posterity has set the seal


.

of approval

in

his

own verdict, and

romantic, glowing, vivacious


81

in

rejoices

"No.

7," op. 92.

Story of
Penned

1812,

in

Symphony

comes, after a somewhat lengthy

it

interval of four years, next to the " Pastoral,"

evidence of the development of


his

ality,

life

and upon

complete emancipation from the

his

/ earlier influences of

and gives

composer's person-

more humorous outlook upon

C-the world, and


In form

its

Haydn and Mozart.


But

contains no real point of originality.

it

although the shape and mould of the symphony


conventional lines, the treatment of ideas

is

is

on

altogether

novel for the perio^, and some features proved stumbling-

blocks

in the

path of

its

original success.

The Seventh Symphony, however, had not to battle


for favour quite so hard as some of its predecessors.
True it is that amongst the more reserved
musicians of Northern Germany it was long
Criticisms
r
^.
m gammg a foothold.
The sapient critics
,

of Leipsic declared that such music as that of the

and

last

first

movements could only have been composed by

an unfo rtunately drunken conditi on," wh er eas


Weber is said to have exclaimed that Beethoven was
now ripe for the madhouse. These, after all, were but a
one

in

''

comparatively small number of hostile and mistaken


criticisms,

the hands

work

and the

Vienna, and upon


of the

its

speedily

production

in

found

London

Philharmonic Society.

least friendly critics

found beauty at a
82

favour
in

Even
first

in

1817 at
the

hearing


Performance of

First

the lovely

in

allegretto,

The length

praise.

some, and

is,

it

first

bar to the very


first

beauties are

its

in the

Beethoven

last.

performance

inventor of the metronome.

the

But

8th, 1813, at a concert given

little

its

to by

with the exception of the "Choral,"

himself conducted the

with. but

in

work was objected

and may truly be said to abound

score from the

December

"

and were unanimous

of the

the longest of the mighty nine.


characteristic,

No.

''

Vienna on

in

by Maelzel, the

The last-named person,

feeling for incongruity, introduced into

two Marches for his own


The Symphony was, spite of'
and the allegretto was encored,

same programme

Mechanical Trumpeter.
this,

much

most successful,

to Beethoven's delight

and

gratification.

Nobility and dignity are the chief features of the preludial

The

introduction,

imitatively start on a

arpeggio, the

full

supporting with

grand

here developed on

wind-instruments

successively

lines.

and

theme derived from the

auction

orchestra commenting and


full

chords at intervals.

The

violins

then begin to ascend through soft scale-passages, and

worked up, arpeggio and scale figures


being here combined. After some treatment of this
motive, a new one of melodic charm is heard in the
unrelated key of C, and is thus announced by the
a crescendo

is

oboe
83


Symphony

Story of
Poco eostennto.
Ob.

dolce

When

this

is

replayed by the

string's,

the oboe and

bassoon, by reiterated statements of a single note, give


a hint as to the importance of such reiterations in what
is

The

to follow.

other keys.

It is

now

material

set forth

is

repeated in

worthy of note that there seems to be

no attempt to use the subject-matter of

this introduction

Symphony. In this it differs


from the more modern methods of procedure, and one
regrets that the lovely theme above quoted is no more
for

any

to

be heard.

later part of the

orchestra

After

commences

its

final

presentation in F, the

that wonderful series of repetitions

of the dominant (E) which the critics at

hard a

to swallow.

pill

Twice broken

mentary snatches of melody,

it is

in

upon by

This

vivace.

devices,

is

is

in

Musically

to lead from, the sostemUo to the

by rhythmic changes

effected

and we are almost insensibly drawn

swing- of the f

frag-

soon heard alone

dialogue form between strings and wind.


the use of the idea

found so

first

movement, when

flute

and

into the

and oboe establish

the fact that the quick section has begun.

The

jovial,

panied,

is

easy-going principal theme, lightly accom-

heard on the

flute

alone

84


Apotheosis of the Dance

Its continuation is

the strings, which

in their turn,

little

broken up by imitations of
after a

pause,

give

vigorous presentation of the same melody.

feature not to be overlooked at this point

is

the rhythm set going in the basses and

the brass, which

the

'

is

hardly ever relinquished

whole way through, and

which

f^'^
of the
p,
Xy Alice

has

helped to establish for this work the reputation of the

most rhythmic of the Beethoven Symphonies, and led


to describe it as " the Apotheosis of the Dance."
There is very little of the usual episodical working

Wagner

towards the second subject or second set of themes,


these occurring almost immediately.

Beginning

in

sharp minor and soon modulating to E, the chief of


these

may
VI.

be quoted


Story of
The development
in

section

workmanship.

its

Symphony

We

wonderful and masterly

is

never

escape

from

prevalent rhythm, but the variety of treatment


vellous.

Sometimes

sometimes

in

wind,

now

yet in

all

in soft

the

mar-

whispering scale-passages,

boisterous imitative arpeggios,

in the strings, it is

this

is

now

always with us

long movement there

in the
;

and

no feeling of

is

monotony. Through all the mazes of the working out,


and of the regular recapitulation which follows, it holds
sway, and Beethoven seems to glory in it. Only in the
coda does he seek other devices when, with a fine
crescendo, he gives ten repetitions of this ornamental

pedal-bass

i
Even above this the rhythm asserts its sway at length,
and the triumphant peroration to the movement is
almost entirely concerned with

The
and

allegretto, the

really the
its

Movement

it.

second section of the symphony,

slow movement,

is

undoubtedly one of

composer's most ideal utterances.

solemn

march-like

opening
.

ponderous heavy tread,

its

theme,

Its
its

consummately

lovely counter-theme (a triumph in the practical use of

simple and double counterpoint),


86

and

its

contrasted

Combined Melodies
middle section are

all

imperishable

in

their

beauty.

After an indefinite chord for the wood-wind, the main


idea

is

announced, and

will

be seen to be one of pulsating;

rhythm rather than of melody


Allegretto.

It

is.given to the lower strings, the violoncellos being

divided, and, after


its

its first

presentation,

is

re-stated with

beautifully contrasted counter-theme

As more and more

of the orchestra enters with one or

other of these melodies (which,

capable

worked

of being
up.

Then, while the

by the basses,
brings a

inverted),

pizzicato.^

new theme

a
first

it

may

lengthy

rhythm

be seen, are

crescendo
is

is

maintained

a change of key to the major

for the clarinet

87

and bassoon

Symphony

Story of
This affords

relief

and contrast, especially by

accompaniment.

We

are

then

resumption of a discussion of the

now

first

its triplet

ready

quite

for

themes, which

take more animated form, eventually leading- off

into 3ifugato for the strings.

strain ensues, after

repetition of the

which the chief idea returns

major

finally,

and

this

it is

played sectionally by different parts of the orchestra

time alone.

Moreover,

(the strings pizzicato).,


sad, indefinite

its

treatment

changed:

is

and concludes with the same

inversion

movement opened.
The third movement,

which the

of a chord with

a scherzo,

although not so

named,

is in Beethoven's most characteristic manner,


and strongly reminds one of the similar sections of his
"Eroica" and "Pastoral" Symphonies. The intro-

ductory bars will suffice to give an indication of

its style:

Prosto

The contrast

commencement,

of the loud

with the

tripping grace of the measures that follow, offers plenty

of material, of which the composer


,

c. ,
Scherzo

splendid use.

modulatory
'

effective.

Specially interesting-

scheme,

The middle

which

is

section

is

thing else in the realm of music, although

88

makes
is

bold

his

and

unlike any-

its

source

is

Hymn

Pilgrims'
said to have been a

Beethoven uses

accompanied

it

hymn sung by

in full

chords

Austrian pilgrims,

for the

wood-wind,

by long holding notes for

upper

the

string's

Wind

The

unimportant-looking figure of the

little,

bars of our extract

where

it is

made

pace as the crescendo

full

is

worked

it is

presto.

heard again

The

in the

It

increases

up, after which the

orchestra sonorously sings through

Then

accom-

to serve as a kind of perpetual

paniment to the second part of the melody.


in

the melody.

gradual resumption of the

both ^esto and

wjiolejof_the foreg^oing'

middle section

is

now

repeated in extenso.

This

unusual, and had only once been done before.


the plan

two

last

soon transferred to the horn,

is

is

Later

was developed by Schumann, who, however,

supplied a fresh middle section

concluded, the whole presto

whereupon the

is

on repetition.

This

restated for a third time,

major melody starts once more.

we have heard
Beethoven has made a

begin to think that

quite

and that

mistake.

We

enough of
This

it,

is,

however, one of his surprises, for after four bars only


Symphony

Story of
he brushes

it

aside with a few bright, quick chords, and

movement is over.
The finale, tremendously vigorous, almost

the

bucolic,

is

a joyous rush of bright, tumultuous notes,


Bucolic

much marked by

Finale

and syncoHere is the chief


of the whole

false accents

pated accompaniments.
theme, foreshadowing the style

This and
quieter

developments, some of which are of a

its

(although the

character

always to be

lead to a

felt)

second subject

in

recapitulation

restrained.

is in

orthodox sonata form.

regular, and only in the coda does

is

the wild impetuosity

more

is

playful

sharp minor.

This exhilarating finale

The

rhythmic vigour

more graceful and

of the music

This

become somewhat
employment

effected by the

is

of legato passages for the strings, which eventually


settle

down over another ornamental

noble use
ant

is

finale

made.
hurries

tumultuous to

"A
ously

pedal,

of which

After a weighty climax, this buoy-

along

its final

to

its

end,

joyous

and

cadence.

little one."
Thus affectionately and half humorwas Beethoven inclined to speak of his Eighth

90

Eighth Symphony
Symphony, op. 93, in F, Truth to tell, it is no little
one if sound work and exquisite musicianship be considered.

It

the

is

shortest of the

nine,

and moreover does not contain an example

" Little"

Symphony

mighty slow movements which


must have cost their creator so much in thought and
in feeling.
So that it is, perhaps, of slighter calibre
than the other symphonies, but none the less a work
of those

9^

most distinctive
feature is the sho rt allegretto whlctTTakes tlTe place
of the ordinary slow movement, and which is of a
of genius and of superlative merit.

Its

its

composer.

old

form, the

piquant nature, somewhat unusual with

The

movement

third

returns

to

the

more usual scherzo.


Certainly it is the most light-hearted and playful of
all the symphonies, and there is not a single movement

minuet,

in place of the

which exhibits that tre mend ous earnestness


'
^"

n '
and depth wh ich Beethoven usually incor1

T-,

Lightness

r?^>a'

porates with his more serious outpourings.

reason for this

space of time

in

may perhaps

which

it

be found

matured

in

the short

four months.

With-

Schubert, Mozart, or Mendelssohn this would perhaps

have been a long time, but Beethoven's usual manner

was

to

collect

selectively

them

until

materials

his

to prune
in their

very

gradually,

very

them, modify them, and alter

final

metamorphosed shape they


91

''""

Symphony

Story of
bore

external resemblance to the orig-inal idea.

little

Traces of such careful work exist also jn connection


with the Eighth Symphony, but not nearly
fusion as

usual

is

work seems

to

and as a matter of

have been completed

1812, very soon after

upon the much grander


Symphony.

The
its

that the

fact

in the

work

is

whole

summer

of

had been be-

the final touches

stowed

such pro-

in

fact the

and

Seventh

finer

texture than

lighter in

predecessors by no means presupposes that any

apology for such

now and

is

necessary.

Beethoven's work

then have been unequal, but there

is

no

may

falling

symphony in quality of idea, or in delightful


and consummate mastery. Perhaps the composer was
off in this

little

wearied after a striving with such Titans as the

C minor and A major Symphonies.


fresh,

spirited,

Whatever the

work he has ceded

reason, in this particular

and magnificent piece

Save the Choral Symphony,

writing.

of
it

to us a

orchestral

was

his last

essay in this direction, and the remaining fifteen years


of

his

witnessed no

life

further

purely

orchestral

symphonies.

from any other of

It differs

scale

by

its

Beethoven

his later

easy light-heartedness

in

works on a large

(common enough

in

a single movement, but not often carried

through an entjre work), by

its

playful,

humorous

ideas,


Use of the Drums
and by the absence of any
production took place

first

real slow^

Vienna

in

poor reception was accorded


perhaps due to the

to

it

movement. Its
in 1814, and a

circumstance

performance was almost

fact that its

immediately preceded by that of the Seventh Symphony,


a work of so unlike calibre that
that in which the "

would be calculated

mood to
Symphony should be heard.

throw an audience into a

to

it

little "

different kind of

Beethoven's special characteristics were but

under-

little

stood, and his half-wayward, half-humorous treatment

of his musical ideas

of

his

moods, and

fell

for

flat

for

lack

of

want of knowledge
recognition

extraordinarily diverse qualities of which he

of

the

was

the

possessor.

Only a small orchestra

is

employed (one pair of horns,

no trombones), but

traits of originality

tuning of the drums

in

for

octaves for the

peep out

finale,

in the

a departure

which there was no precedehf.^'TTatwithstanding

that most of the orchestration

is

times longs for more power

the bass department

in

masterly, one some-

the return of the main subject in the 'cellos and basses


for example,

although marked

fff, being almost indistinguishable

amidst the more

in the first

movement,

powerful reiterated chords of the brass and wood-wind.

The opening

allegro

is

founded upon a very straight-

forward and singable subject allotted to the

93

violins, the


Story of

Symphony

wood-wind having the second phrase. It is regular,


rhythmic, and square-cut, and at once by its unpretentious character gives a key to the whole work
ci.

This

is

immediately followed by an episodical passage

of a rhythmic nature for the


still

aolce

full

orchestra, the violins

taking the lead with a definite, although a less

distinctly melodic, idea.

lation to the

key of

the second subject

mencing

in

An

abrupt pause, and a modu-

brings us somewhat suddenly to

also

in C.

comAs accompaniment

given to the violins

and finishing

the bassoon trips quaintly along


Vlns.in DCtates

With some tremolo passages, and mysterious arpeggios


founded on the chord of the diminished seventh, the
94

Some Doubtful Scoring


music takes a more dramatic turn, and new melodies,
mostly based on the scale, occur for the wood-wind,
outbursts

climax

of

in the

chords occasionally intervening.

full

key of

movement comes

the

is

much use

The development, which


the dropping octaves.

made

of both

part of

is

made

The

later.

then repeated.

almost entirely with the

is

first

an end with an important

to

octave passage of which

opening section

reached, and the

is

little

is

first

As

it

not long, concerns

bar of the

itself

movement and

continues, wonderful use

fragments, the former especially

being employed with amazing ingenuity.

Devices of

imitation at close distance between the upper and lower

increase

strings

bassoons,
It

is

'cellos,

and

excitement,

the

at

to

need more power.

repeats the subject, after which

the climax

The wood-wind then


Beethoven continues

his melodic treatment of the bass instruments, but

contrives a
violins

heard

matter

new and

above them.

subject there
is

is

first in
is

beautiful counter-theme

the

in

now
the

Before the return of the second

again an abrupt pause, and the melody

flat

and then

in F.

All the succeeding

regularly recapitulated, and the important

coda, like the development, freely employs the


of

in

and basses the main subject reappears.

here that one sighs for a trombone,

seeming

length

movement.

After

first

much development,

95

bar

rising


Story of

Symphony

to a great pitch of exultation, the actual


soft, pizzicato

ending

is

quite

chords for the strings alternating with

the tiniest effects for wood.

of the usual

In place

allegretto scherzando.
"pTirases,

Airy

slow movement comes an

Berlioz,

In

one oFTiTs liappy

speaks of this as "having fallen

from heaven straight into the brain of

its

Allegretto

This charming Gallicism

author."

is

actually a fact, as the notebooks prove, but the

and grace

veyed suggestion of spontaneity

Delightfully piquant and light,

enough.

is

this

not
contrue

fairy

music might almost hav e emanated from the pen of a


nineteenth-century

French

composer.

It

has

the

sparkle of Rossini or Auber, and a delicate airiness that

from the plane of Symphony.

The

quite removes

it

chief motive

thus announced in the strings, accom-

is

panied by light staccato chords for wood-wind

"Die

most Beethovenish feature

lec tion

violins

of bo isterous

and basses

in a pert

is

chords.

Ts kept"~up^

the occasionaljnter-

dialogue

between

one answering the other

and frolicsome manner.

A new theme

having the same figure of accompani96


The
ment beneath

it

now

Finale

appears, and the

movement runs

regular course, winding up with a charming

little

coda,

which has, however, a noisy ending.

The

third

difFers_ Jqm Jhe,_stgr.Q-.^

^nd t*"'" '^n^tf^ad nf a srher:


melodies are suave and flowing rather than dis-

typrfJinnrl
fts

movement agai n
is

nuiniT^^-

tinctive.

The
that

movement, allegro vivace, contains much


and a wealth of development of
The main feature is a persistent rhythm of

final

characteristic,

is

material.

present almost from

triplets,

ingenuity with which this idea

As

Its

first

heard

in the violins

it

first
is

to

treated

last
is

and the

astonishing.

runs as follows

continuation proceeds quietly and simply until

we

are startled by a sudden loud outburst of the orchestra

on

sharp,

tonality.

return

to

a note apparently quite foreign to the

This for the present leads nowhere, and


the key

The

of F.

97

triplets

continue,

we
a


Symphony

Story of

dropping arpegfgio figure supplying contrast

and

after

working towards the key of C, the second subject


appears in the unusual key of A flat,

the key of

C being resumed when the wind take up the


The triplets now become triplets of

charming melody.

crotchets instead of quavers, thus giving the impression

of a slower rate

syncopated

of

figure

development

is

Then with a short

movement.

terminates,

section

this

proceeded

with.

and the

and the

This

re-

capitulation are regular but interesting, especially in

the unusual tuning of the

which follows

after

drums

a pause,

in octaves.

is

The

coda,

long and important,

from the use of a new sustained theme


employed against the persistent triplets. Dignity and
weight, features that have hitherto not been prominent

more

in

especially

the finale, characterize

however, we come back

drum, and

this idea.

After a while,

to the octaves of

this time the curious

sharp

is

bassoon and
seen to have

harmonic significance, for it takes us into the key of F


a remote tonality from which trumpets
and horns drag us back into the key of F. Here we

sharp minor

98


Ninth Symphony
seem

be

to

nearing-

another surprise

us

now

in the

second subject, which appears both


(later) in the basses.

Beethoven

but

finish,

in store for

Another pause, and then matters

mostly restatements of previous material

cadence of oft-reiterated

final

us

and the

chords,

125, in

one of a small class of works

9), is

wind

leading

Symphony closes with a joyous outburst.


The Choral Symphony of Beethoven, op.
minor (No.

and

in the violins

are hurried on, soft phrases and chords for the

to a

has

shape of the

in

which

the intetest centres partly in the orchestral,

As opposed
Symphony

partly in the choral portions.


to a

symphony

term

where

m
.

'.
^
;
,
the ordmary sense of the
,

the interest

to a choral cantata

is

where

throughout orchestral
the

or

voices reign supreme,

the orchestra having only the subsidiary role of accom-

paniment
in

we are here

compelled to give our attention

one part of the work to the instrumental, and

in

another part to the vocal features.

Now

this

is

necessarily a hybrid form, and even the

mighty genius of Beethoven has perhaps scarcely made


a success of

ments)

may

it.

The instrumental

be enjoyed on

their

often performed separately.

own

The

account, and are

final

choral section

same way. But the


somewhat incongruous, and although

might perhaps be treated

two elements are

sections (three move-

in the

99

Story of
the power of Beethoven

Symphony

is

work

was such

that

for all time, the

rarely be en repeated^and

more

sti ll

his

Choral

experiment ha^

rarely with

g ood

Beethoven himself had previously experimented

result.

in this direction

The

Symphony

with a little-known "Choral Fantasia."

g-reatest followers in

with his

Hymn

phony,

where a

path are Mendelssohn

this

of Praise, and Liszt in his '-'-aaisfl^mchorus is employed. in_tli_Einale^

Mendelssohn's three movements, although absolutely


,

symphonic

in design, are

really but

an exceptionally

lengthy Prelude to a fully fledged Cantata with solos,

duets, choruses, etc.

Beethoven's work, however,

is

more akin to a symphony of ordinary mould, in so far


as the movements are four in number, the last being^a
set of choral variations.
It

interesting to

is

know

that Beethoven had his

work had been written and performed,


wisdom of the employment of the chorus in
movement he even sketched an alternative

doubts, after the


as to the

the last

Finale, to be purely instrumental.

came

of

that his

might have formed a separate work.


are

marvellously

moments
that

it

However, nothing

We

might almost wish that it had, and


setting of portions of Schiller's " Ode^p Joyi,"
it.

beautiful

things

in this choral Finale,

Of course
and

there

imperishable

but no one can assert

reaches the high plane of interest attained by the


lOO

Vocal Ending
foregfoing-

movements.

whatever with the

Beethoven was not at

He had had
difficulties,

no connection

his best as a writer for chorus.

came

it

at

Bonn

words, but he had great

set Schiller's

when

really

movement, and we know that

min d, ever_^iiig_garlj days

in his

the desire to

These have

last

to the point, in the selection

of suitable portions, and in connecting his instrumental

movements with

his Finals.

For this purpose he tried various experiments, the


outcome of which was the curious orchestral passage in
which he seems to try over the ideas of all the previous

movements, and
purpose.

now

On

to

this

reject

we

them

shall

say a few words as to

as unfitted for his

all

comment later we would


the Symphony viewed as a

complete work.

There can be scarcely anything


the opening

finer in all

movement, so severely

same time so majestic

in

its

ideas.

manifold manipulation of material


marvellous, and

its

in

many ways

hoven's achievements
to

the

and

at the

Technically,

its

short

of

is

little

The Scherzo

in this direction.

perfectly beautiful

that can ever be penned.

is

the longest

most noteworthy of

comment adequately upon

most

music than

expressive qualities, especially in

the Coda, are very great.

and

simple,

the Adagio,

pieces

The
lOI

all

Words

Beetfail

us

one of the

of orchestral

writing

Finale, as a setting of an

Story of
*'

Ode

to Joy,"

solo voices
section,

is

sections

different

Symphony
main joyous, and the

naturally in the
of the

and chorus

poem

being"

are

suitably

The

introduced.

from a musical point of view,


major and minor.

is

clothed,
finest

the Andante

The

Maestoso

in

portions,

although very vigorous and jubilant,

concluding-

are

excessively tiring for the voices, and are very heavily


scored.

The

May

first

7th,

performance that ever took place was on


1824, in

Vienna

hoven's death.
First Pcr-

three
It is

years before Beet-

pathetic to

know

that

he himself was so absolutely deaf at this

formance

time that, although he stood

the midst of

the orchestra beside the conductor for the performance,

he continued to beat time after the whole work was


finished

one of the principal singers had to turn him

round to the audience


enthusiasm

before

who were

applauding him with

he realized what was happening.

Symphony was to the


who commissioned
the work, paying the composer ^^50 for it it was not,
however, performed in London until March 21st, 1825,
when Sir George Smart directed the proceedings.
The First Movement begins with a soft muffled

The

original dedication of the

Philharmonic Society of London,

passage for the strings on the dominant chord, with


short interjectural phrases based on the opening subject

Movement Themes

First
for the violins.

the chief idea of


the

full

Without any very long preliminary,


the movement is soon announced by
It will

orchestra.

be seen that

made up of the arpeggio of the


keynote

common

indeed, a feature of this

it

is

largely

chord of the

Symphony

is

the

extent to which the ideas are based on chord or scale

passages
Allegro

ma non

troppo

After a repetition of the opening introductory idea

upon the chord of the


in

flat,

to notice

there

is

tonic,

a return to

and of the above phrase

minor.

a tiny melody of great

is

The next point

charm

in the

wind

which leads directly to the second subject of the move-

ment
Fl.CUr.A
iBassn.

Sigs.kU

=\

in cctaves

i^

i.

^^


Story of
This,

it

Symphony

should be noticed,

is

departure from regular form,

also in
in

which

flat

a slight

the

second

subject would have been in the key of F.


Its

Themes

There

is

some working and development of


and then comes a great outburst

this motifs
for the full band,

succeeded by a sweetly simple, soft

phrase on the clarinets


CUr,

Full Orch.

Notice

now

the repetition of this idea, with a most

beautiful modulation into five sharps


t)f

fine

example

the early romantic in music.

There soon follows, while the characteristic rhythm


is

maintained, a

first in

little

descending melodic passage

the minor and then in the major

which

anon

becomes of great importance

VI. II.

Other subsidiary ideas are presented before the whole


of the exposition section is

completed, this part con-

cluding with a vigorous and rhythmic utterance of the


104

New

Melodies

arpegfg^io of

with

wealth and profusion of material, the usual

all this

repeat

is

We

flat

major.

It

can be understood that,

omitted.

now

reach the middle section, in which these

themes are developed and transformed.

First

of

all

comes a repetition of the opening muffled idea, working


up to a statement of the first subject in G minor. In
this key we soon have a beautiful and plaintive little
melody, henceforth of much importance
Ob

p espress.
This,

it

will

be seen,

chief subject,

and

it

is

derived from the thrrd bar of the

now

figures largely in the music

indeed, for a long time the whole development seems to

be based entirely upon

The second

it.

subject

is

also

used imitatively.
After a climax a return

introductory bars, and

reach a fine coda.

is

made

to

the idea of the

proceeds as before until

all

This

is

portance, and introduces a

of great length

new

we

and im-

feature in the shape of

^Tpoignantly expressive chromattclpassagfi^forjtrings

^^^
and bassoons

105

Story of
This

is

strings,

many

played tremolando by the 'cellos and upper

and smoothly by the double-basses, and

which

the

The sorrowing

times repeated.

heightened by a

in

Symphony

it

will

movement

new

little

is

effect of this is

phrase for the oboe

be seen that the characteristic rhythm of


is still

present.

With a

stern

and vigor-

ous restatement of the main theme the allegro comes


to a noble end.

The next movement, Molto vivace (D minor,


time), has all the characteristics of a scherzo

there

Second

Movement

is

octaves, in
in

octaves,

little

prelude

of

and

3-4
trio

descending

which the 'drums (here tuned


an unusual procedure at

this"

date) have one bar solo.

The second

violin then

announces the motif of the

scherzo, originally planned by Beethoven as 1 fugue


subject:

Molto vivace.

The instruments drop in one after


idea is for some time insisted upon.
106

another, and this

We are

then led

Rhythmic
to the key of C,
is

Varieties

where a bright and graceful theme

given out by the wind, accompanied by

in

unison with the same

all

the strings

persistent descending octave

figure:
Wind

After

some extension

of this a repeat of this part

made, and then through a

series of

is

modulations we

led to the key of E minor, where the rhythm,


which has hitherto been the ordinary one of four bars,

are

now becomes

that of three bars.

All this

in con-

is,

what has gone before, delicate and quiet, but


even now the drum sometimes bursts in boisterously

trast to

with

its

persistent dropping octave.

"Now

orchestra said,

a while."

At

after a time

first
it

is

let

the

It

is

as

the

if

us be playful and gentle for

drum

quieted

will not have it so, but


down, and the scoring is

charmingly delicate and piquant.


the normal four-bar rhythm

Soon we return

but suddenly there

is

to

great outburst, and the main idea comes back heavily


scored and quite pompously.
in

Then we hear

major) the second theme above quoted

citement dies

down

to a pianissimo, the

throughout maintained.

This portion
107

is

(this
;

time

the ex-

rhythm being

now

repeated.


Symphony

Story of

We

next come to the alternative section,

there

is

ma|or^.and

is

the melodv:

in

two minims

in

in

which

we

are in

a bar (presto).

Here

a change of both time and key;

Ob.&Clar

the accompaniment to which

is

a tripping and staccato

scale passage in the bassoons.


,'

We

must notice some charming scoring,

the delicate

y^

way

in

which,

when

especially

the horn takes charge

of our last-quoted melody, the strings accompany

These various accompaniments are


but

point,

the

cleverness

of

its

in

it.

double counter-

use by no means

obscures

its

beauty.

After this very delightful interlude, the opening section (Molto vivace)

is

repeated in

The slow movements

entirety,

its

coda (containing a hint of the presto)

is

of Beethoven's

are unsurpassable, and that of the

and a

added.

Symphonies

"Choral"

is

no

exception to this rule: for sheer beauty of


^^*

idea there

is

little

in

the realm of music

that can approach this masterpiece of beautiful melody.


Its

ideas are so rich in their variety, so delicate in

their

ornamentation, and withal so profoundly symio8


Curious Link
pathetic, that he

must be a hardened

who can hearken

to

this

listener indeed

movement without some

perception of a vision of the heavens opening, and of

a distant gaze into some world beyond

this.

Here

we have Beethoven as an exponent of the sublime.


The main theme is allotted thus to the violins:
Adagio.

feature not to be

overlooked

is

the rt'^ornello-Vike

echo of the ends of the phrases by wood-wind instrurnenJs^J

We

movement, an

now come

the

to

second idea of the

in 3-4

time in the key

movement

(really a set ot

entire contrast

D:

of

Andante moderato.

vi.n.

On

these two themes the

variations) is built.

We

now

unusual,

arrive at the

feature

of

most

the

interesting, because

Symphony

the

curious bridge-passage leading us from the

Instrumental to the Choral Section.


this

connecting link

It

most

" Connecting Link "

was

which gave Beethoven so much


109


Symphony

Story of
trouble,

Here

is

and was the subject of so many experiments.


his final solution of the problem.

commencing with a

orchestra,

the

First of

all

discord,

violent

plays a preliminary phrase, and then the 'cellos and

basses give utterance to a recitative-like passage in

The orchestra again intrudes, and the basses


Then the composer is reminiscent;

unison.

protest once more.


in turn there

occur quotations from the

the second (scherzo), and the adagio

first

movement,

between each of

these suggestions of what has gone befdreTHere

phase of orchestral

fresh

as

it

were, discarded; the orchestra says, "

like this suggestion."

Then appear

is

Each idea

recitative.

is,

do not

four bars which

theme of the finale immediately the


music turns into the major key of D, and the orchestral
hint at the real

recitative says as plainly as possible:

much;

it

will

do very well."

factory cadence, and

we

There

'* I

is

are launched

like this

at once

the straightforward diatonic melody which


of the final section:
Allegro aseai.

no

very

a quite satis-

is

upon

the basis

Schiller's
The extreme

"Ode

all

it

is

coupled

simplicity,

Joy"

with

the

majestic

cannot escape notice.

dignity of this theme,


of

to

announced

by

'cellos

First

and basses only.

Various instruments gradually enter with the theme,


the other parts continuing meanwhile with the
beautiful

tuneful melody.

and

in

climax

most

counterpoints, which glorify and enrich the

power,
all

this

The music
and

rises

being

increases in
to

preliminary

complexity

instrumental

fine

to

any

vocal

portion.

At length, however, the orchestra ceases to develop


melody, and returns to its opening " discontented "

this

passage, whereupon the baritone soloist exclaims:


friends, not these sounds, but let us sing

more joyous and more

full

"O

something

of gladness;" upon which

the chorus immediately exclaims, " Freude," and the


soloist enunciates, to the

words of

Schiller's ode, the

melody we have already quoted, which the chorus then


Variations upon the same theme follow,
carries on.
all

in the_kfiyefE>-

major.

Here are verses of

section:
" Sing then of the heav'n-descended

Daughter of the starry realm


Joy,

by love and hope attended,

Joy,

whose raptures overwhelm

this


Symphony

Story of
"

Wine she gave

to us,

and

kisses,

Friends to gladden our abode

E'en the

And

worm can

feel life's blisses,

the seraph dwells with God."

After the climax on the

word "God"

there

comes

a sudden dramatic pause, and another variation

time

in the

key of B

flat

follows.

This

is

this

known

as

the "

March of the Sun, Moon, and Planets,"


was
called " Turkish Music," on account
and
_^
Music
of its employment of the big drum, cymbalSj__
and triangle. The use of a different tonality and 6-8
,

time gives quite a fresh colouring to this portion of


the work, which

is in

the main orchestral.

The scoring

should be noted: apart from the use of the percussion


instruments just

mentioned,

we should

observe the

introduction of the double-bassoon, and also the great

use

made

of

strings being

oLthe chorus.
the words

the wind

and

bra.ss~ instruments,

the

practically silent until the introduction

The tenor

soloist sings this section to

" Glad as suns, thro' ether wending,

Their flaming course with might pursue,

Speed

ye, brothers, glad

Conquest

in

After a short chorus on the

lengthy

and

and

true,

your train attending."

same idea there

is

important orchestral section upon this


I

12

'^

All- Embracing "

theme, which
the

key

D,

vt-hen the

of expectancy

Theme

a varied version of the

is

The change

melody of the Finale.


of

is

first

bars of

made

is

to the

music dies down, and a feeling

aroused by some soft notes for the

horns, with suggfestive phrases for oboes and bassoons.

The chorus suddenly then bursts in loudly and joyously


to the same rhythm.
We now come to the most impressive and the most mystic portion of the whole Finale
upon these words
"

ye millions,

embrace ye

Here's a joyful kiss for

To

the power that here doth place ye.

Brothers,

all

let

us prostrate

ye millions, kneel before

fall.

Him

Tremble, earth, before thy Lord

Mercy holds His

flashing sword

As our Father we implore Him."

The theme stands

As

as follows

befits the dignity of these

words the music here takes

a majestic tone, the solemn notes of the trombones

emphasizing and strengthening the voice part.


113

For the
8

Symphony

Story of
second stanza a change

is

and the dramatic intensity

made

is

to the

key of

minor,

increased by the alternation

of loud and soft phrases, a great height of devotional

utterance being reached in the beautiful but trying


setting of the last line.

We now return to the bright key of D major, when


original

melody

is

once more used

subject being employed which

is

in 6-4 time,

the

a counter-

identical with our last-

quoted phrase; the words used are those of the opening


We are now nearing the climax of the whole

section.

work.
trying

This portion

manner

heavily scored, and written in a

is

for the voices, constant use being

of the high notes.

Soon

made

the time quickens, and the voices

have a new melody, accompanied by

light, soft

quavers

Here another climax is worked up, at


the end of which we have still further diversion in the
form of the entry of four solo voices, which now execute
in the strings.

an

elaborate

Prestissimo,

To

cadenza.

when

employed, and the

this

the

final

the whole weight of the orchestra


last

shows

is

cadences are elaborately accom-

panied by rushing masses of notes.


close Beethoven

succeeds

Even

at the very

his preference for the orchestra,

with what has been


"
humorously described as a series of rapid bangs, 127
Howin number, upon the big drum and cymbals."

which he allows

ever

to

we may view

finish alone

the

interpolation

114

of

the

vocal

A
element
will

Mighty

in this last section of the

deny that here

is

its

Symphony, no one

a masterpiece unequalled in the

tremendous vastness of
able for

Work

originality,

its

conception, and unapproach-

power, and lavishly scattered

beauties.

"5

CHAPTER

VIII.

romantics: weber, spohr, and schubert.

The Romance School Weber Spohr Schubert The "Unfinished"


Symphony The "glorious C major."

The great group of composers known


composers turned

their

as the

attention to

"Romantic"

the question of

deepening the means of expression

the

gradual growth of musical works from an


School

architectural

time of Beethoven.
is

the outcome

pomt

His

of view ceases after the

last magnificent

symphony

of years of laborious effort in expand-

ing and perfecting the fo7-m of this class of work.

Well may those who succeeded him have


impossibility

of

felt

the

progress Jn_tjiis_ direction;

further

methods of conveying their


more complex harmony, more

wisely, they sought other

messages

by means

of'

t3^aried and powerful orchestration, and by the adoption


(to

a large extent) of a

their

music

programme

basis for

much

of

the symphonies which these composers

ii6

Weber
penned speak

a different language to that which

in

Beethoven uttered.

The shape

in

which he cast

sufficient for their

to equal

his

surpass

works remained

it

they could not;

was, generally, beyond their power.

it

the poetic

hands:

charm of

But

their music, the wealth of lovely

melody which they display, and the greater richness

owing

possible

to the increase in

number and developmade

ment

in perfection of the orchestral instruments,

their

work very acceptable

day.

the symphonies of
final

for

to the audiences of their

At the present time we hear

little

Weber and Spohr,

or nothing of

but Schubert's

works are constantly played and are

many

likely to

be

years to come.

Weber's name always leaps to the mind when the


Romance composers are mentioned, because of his
enormous influence over all German music
Weber
He was the
of the nineteenth century.
1786-1826
pioneer in the new path or national expression, his music breathes a new atmosphere, and
*

his genius has

,.

remained unquestioned.

But so

far as

symphony is concerned his work is very unimportant


his life work was opera, and by means of his operas
he exerted untold influence over
musical

art,

many

other forms of

such as the concert overture and the song.

He was weak, however,

in

117

the direction

of musical

Symphony

Story of

form, and his two symphonies, written at the age of


twenty,

are

shelved

now

immature works, which are


in

practically

favour of more interesting music from

his

pen

his

commanding

Although

in other directions.

this is the case,

personality must be acknowledged as

having been not without

effect

upon other symphonic

composers.

More importance attaches

who made

to Spohr,

teresting experiments with the symphony.

though not without value,

efforts,
*

no special comment.

1784-1859

menced

symphony

his

of Sound," by which he

He

present time.

work

works

perhaps best

is

(for

"The

entitled

in

call

he com" The Power

known

at the

symphony,

two orchestras), and another

Seasons," which brought the

in the

Some account of these


For the moment it will

for

18-^2

also wrote an " Historic "

a double symphony

of his nine

But

entitled

in-

His earliest

roll

shape of symphony to an end.


will

be found

in

Chapter XVII.

suffice to state that

Spohr had

very considerable influence upon the development of


the

symphony

gramme

as a

means

of depicting a definite pro-

in his "Pastoral"
symphony, had, as we have seen, done something in

of

events:

Beethoven,

this direction, but Spohr's attempts


definite,

and were destined

to

music that has been written since


118

were much more

have bearing upon much


his

day.

Before

Schubert's " Unfinished


leavlngf Spohr,

was

it

may

this

the. first in

"

be of interest to note that be

country to conduct with a baton.

This he did at a Philharmonic Society's concert

in

1820, the previous custom having been to direct the

orchestra from the clavier or pianoforte.

Greater than either of these men, because more rich


in the

possession of musical thought of undying beauty,

comes Schubert, the great lyric genius. He


Schubert,
symphonies
at the age
commenced writmg

^
^
1797-1828
of sixteen, and by the time he was one-and-.
twenty had written six, the most widely known of
which is that entitled "The Tragic." This fine work
.

some notable pages, especially in its slow


movement, which approaches in majestic dignity some
But we
of the finest movements of Beethoven.
remember Schubert mostly for his eighth and ninth

contains

symphonies.

The former of these, in B minor, was written in


is known as "The Unfinished," consisting
Why
as it does of two movements only.
"Unfinished"
u ^ we shall
u u perhaps
u
it
was not. finished
Symphony
never know; fragments of a third movement exist, and so it may be assumed that he had
some intention of completing it; but the six remaining
1822 and

fi

years of his
it is

life

were

filled

with other work, and perhaps

as well that no attempt

was made by him

119

to

match


Symphony

Story of

those two unequalled manifestations of his genius, for


their beauty

seems unapproachable,

their

charm im-

possible to matck, and, to speak from a practical point

how

of view,

useful

symphonies, when

it

one

is

in

these days

takes

that

of lengthy

an hour

is

not

programme

considered over long, to include in one's

and beautiful work of some eighteen minutes

this short
all told.

Schubert uses here the ordinary orchestra of Beet-

hoven with the addition

three

of

although his orchestra does not

from that of

employing

it

his
is

great

trombones

differ

predecessor,

but

very materially
his

on a much more varied

method of
scale.

He

has in this work "discovered" certain instrumental

combinations with which we are sufficiently familiar


but which were absolutely

in the present,

day.

We

find

new

in their

passages displaying orchestral colour

of a kind fresh to the world: soft chords for the trom-

bones, alternating passages for wood-wind and strings,

and lovely melodic phrases

in

instrument

its

paper

it is

liness is

is

displayed to

which the genius of each


fullest

advantage.

On

impossible to suggest what exquisite love-

conveyed to the ear by such fragments as

these:

I'20

Some

of

its

Themes

Opening of Slow movement.


Andante con moto.

DoobleBass
pizx.

S-

Extract from Slaw movement.

Stg;s.pi>z.

Somewhat
account of

its

less

frequently performed,

perhaps

great length, but almost equally


121

on

fine,

Symphony

Story of
is

Schubert's " Glorious

phony

is

often

major," as his last sym-

affectionately

called.

was com-

It

menced in March, 1828, only a few months


'*

Glorious

C major "

before

death,

his

and lay

for

years

un-

amongst his papers until the


discerning eyes of Robert Schumann first fell upon it.
His enthusiasm for the work was unbounded, and this
regarded

enthusiasm he conveyed
result that, in 1839, the

under the

to

Mendelssohn, with the

symphony was

first

Mendelssohn,

latter at Leipsic.

performed

still

burning

with zeal, brought the work with him to London, but,

shame
it

to say, the

members

of the orchestra treated

with such scorn and contempt that he indignantly

refused to perform

it.

This neglect and ignorance of


since

been made good.

and beautiful swan-song


possessions, and

is

when

amongst our most treasured


first romantic theme

Is

its

heard on the horns, we

solid enjoyment,

we English has long

To-day Schubert's original

settle

down

for our

hour of

and "our joy no man taketh from


122

Schubert's
us."

It

is

"C Major"

sad to think that the composer himself

never experienced

this

joy,

and that

his

own

ears

never heard, save in imagination, the lovely wealth of

two greatest
more must we
honour the classic genius which was his, and learn
the lesson of patient labour which his unrewarded life
orchestral

device and colour which his

symphonies display for

us.

can teach us.

123

All the

CHAPTER

IX.

romantics: mendelssohn, Schumann, raff,


rubinstein.

"Reformation" Symphony "Italian" Symphony


"Scotch" Symphony "Hymn of Praise" Schumann A late
"Spring" Symphony A new departure C major Symstart
phony "Rhenish" Symphony Raff Rubinstein Gade.

Mendelssohn

Mendelssohn's position as a composer of symphony


is

similar to his position in every form of musical art


in all

things he

is

11,

a polished and exquisite

worker, the possessor


sohn,
^

1809- I 847

of

many

beautiful

thoughts, but one who moves upon


con^

ventional lines, adding little or nothing to


,

'

work on
Of
of symphony

the real development of music, but content to

methods
his

many

laid

down by

those

boyish essays

nothing need be said

who preceded

in the direction

by the age of

him.

fifteen

he had

written his thirteenth symphony, the earliest that


survives.

This stands

in

minor, and

the Philharmonic Society of London.

124

is

now

dedicated to

'

Mendelssohn
Six years later, in 1830, appeared the " Reformation"

Symphony, a work with some measure


basis,

illustratingf

the

opposition

programme

of

between
**

the older and newer forms of religious faith.

Reformation"

The "Dresden Amen," so much used in


Wagner's Parsifal^ and the Luther Chorale, " Ein'
feste Burg," make occasional appearance, and convey
the suggestion that the

composer looked upon the

first

as representative of the Catholic, the second

of the Protestant, faith

in the

gradually develops from a

Symphony

soft, tentative

the latter

utterance to

one of convincing authority and majesty.


Better

known

and sparkling "

made by Mendelssohn
1830-31.

It

ently bright

is

audiences

to concert
Italian "

Symphony, the
to

is

the brilliant

result of a visit

that country in

^^

Italian

perhaps the most consist-

and joyous of

all

great symphonies, even

if

a touch of comparative sadness breathes through the

Pilgrim's

March which forms


125

the

slow

movement.

Symphony

Story of
The very vivacious
cludes

is

perhaps

which the work con-

Salterello with

its

most characteristic

The longest and


Mendelssohn's works
inception

the
is

feature.

most effectively scored ot


"Scotch" Symphony, the

the

of which dates from

same

the

Scotch

period as the "Italian," and which repro-

duces

glowingf colours the impressions

in

composer by a
a whole,

as

overture,

it

visit to

Perhaps

Scotland.

than his supremely


still

made on
less

the

happy,

Hebrides

beautiful

depicts for us in picturesque fashion

the sombre grandeur of the Scotch scenery

its

most

notable features are the opening introduction, the very


individual

Scherzo,

representation of the
really a version of

and the

the theme

of which includes
"Scotch Snap" (and which

" Charlie

is

my

a
is

darling").

final coda.

need be said of the three symphonic movements


which form the prelude to the " Lobgesang," the wellLittle

known and much


_

loved short oratorio which

Mendelssohn seems

Fraise
lines of

to

have planned on the

Beethoven's "Choral" Symphony.

Although sometimes reckoned as one of the composer's


126

Schumann
more on the vocal than the
instrumental side, and it has had no real bearing upon
the development of the symphony.
Of far greater interest to musicians are the symIt is true that these
phonies of Robert Schumann.
have their failings, the most prominent of
which is the somewhat cumbrous manner
symphonies,

its

importance

is

1810-1856

which the orchestra

in

is

employed.

Schu-

mann had not that genius for orchestration which is


now the possession of many third or fourth-rate comBut

posers.

musical ideas are so noble and so

conceptions are so poetic, and his develop-

vital, his

ments

his

symphonic form are so legitimate, that he has

in

been well described as the most important symphonic


writer since Beethoven.

Schumann was

nearly thirty before he started upon

the task of orchestral writing.

had gone
emotions
been

But long ere that he

far in perfecting himself in


in

very

expressing his

musical language, the pianoforte having


largely

his

medium.

The

transference

such emotions to the larger horizon of the or-

of

chestra

was wonderfully

his

delightfully fresh

he

at

one

time

well

first

accomplished, even in

symphony,

op.

thought of calling the

38,

which

"Spring"

Symphony.
In this

work Schumann gives an


127

indication of the

Story of

Symphony

method of procedure he proposes

to adopt, a logfical

and consistent development of a whole movement from


This is much more allied
manner of Beethoven than are the
Symphony
works of Schubert and Mendelssohn, and
a tiny phrase.
to

the

the skill with which he builds almost the whole of the


first

movement from

a single phrase

Allegro molto vivace.

reminds one of the similar methods of Beethoven

in the

minor.

Yet another and more extended form of device


apparent

in the

Symphony

in

is

minor, op. 120, which

appeared soon after the

first.

Like

the

"Scotch" Symphony of Mendelssohn, it is


meant to be played through without a break
between the movements but the four movements are
no longer independent and individual sections, they are
united into a common whole by the fact that motives

Departure

themes

and

are

transferred

thus linking together both


in

emotional purport

four

movements

of

from one to

in

another,

musical material and

those (formerly self-contained)

which the
128

symphony has been

The "Rhenish"
shown

to

duced

into

The beautiful violin


Romanza of the work

solo intro-

consist.

the

is

another

notable feature.

The Symphony

C,

in

op.

6i,

full

is

of rhythmic

contains a very striking introduction, a beautiful

vitality,

slow movement, and,

common

in

with his

symphony, gives us a new device which


Schumann introduces also into some of his

first

chamber music

that

of not merely repeating the trio

(or middle section) of the scherzo, but of writing

two

separate and well-contrasted trios, which throw the


three-fold

greater

performance of the scherzo

Schumann's
*'

last

symphony,

Rhenish," was written

key of

itself

into

far

relief.

flat (op,

\^

the fact that the

q?).
^'^

name

Its

generally

1850,

in

due to

is

composer gives

called

and stands

us,

the

in the

"Rhenish"

this

work, a series of pictures of impressions made upon

him by Rhine

life.

It

in

is

five

movements,

the

additional (fourth) one being an expression of feelings

him by witnessing a ceremonial enthroneCologne Cathedral, Besides these four works,

produced

ment

at

in

there also exists the sparkling and delightful " Overture, Scherzo,

and Finale"

(op. 52),

which

is

quite of

symphonic dimensions.

On

a far lower level than

Mendelssohn and Schumann,


129

Story of

Symphony

but yet symphony composers of more than a

little

eminence, are Raff and Rubinstein, late disciples of


the Romantic School.
'

1822-1882

a vvondrously

Raff,

composer, wrote ten symphonies,


^

prolific
.

givmg titles to them all. For many years


his "Leonore" Symphony, a programme work based
upon a familiar legend, was a popular favourite, and it
thanks to

is,

times heard.
of dignity,

its

picturesque orchestration,

But Raffs music


the

lack

declining,

it

the Russian pianist-composer.

falls

be his only

Anton Rubinstein,

His music

follower of Mendelssohn,

the public.

is

that of a

At one time

perhaps
"Ocean" Symphony,
^

his

his

finest

^
^
^
^
orchestral work, was very frequently before

This was originally

in

four

movements,

but Rubinstein eventually added two others, the


of the

is

ever-green

his

violinists) will

Into a very similar category

1830-1894

some-

His fame

displays.

and soon perhaps

"Cavatina" (so beloved of


remaining monument.

'

still

suffering from the lack

of care, and the lack of proper

thematic development which


rapidly

is

whole being dominated by the

composer, although the work

is

title

mood

chosen by the

not based upon any

Of Rubinstein's four other symphonies


programme.
that called the "Dramatic" achieved some success in
its

day.

130

Other Romantics
Amongst other
may be mentioned

followers

of the

the Danish

Romantic School

composer, Gade,

who

wrote eight symphonies, and Goetz, whose

Symphony
latter is a

in

is

sometimes heard

the

charming and somewhat neglected

work, described by

its

Gade,
1817-1890

writer as "springing from the

quiet and holy spaces of the heart."

131

CHAPTER

X.

" PROGRAMME " SYMPHONISTS.


Programme symphony Berlioz
L'Idee Fixe

Harold

en

Episode de vie d'un Artiste


Liszt Other programme symla

Italic

phonists.

Beethoven started a somewhat dangerous ball rolling


when he gave to the world his " Pastoral " Symphony.
True it is that he was careful to explain it as an
" expression of the emotions rather than
"

but

painting,"

many

such reticence.

The symphonies

are frankly designed with

the

those who
away with all

of

followed him have done

of Berlioz and Liszt


idea

of conveying a

definite story and not a mere impression; and without


some knowledge of the story the music is apt to be

incomprehensible.

The arguments pro and con

matter are too lengthy for insertion here,^ but

be

briefly

said that the

They may be seen

set

may

symphony, being the expres-

sion of absolute music in

Professor Niecks' book,

in the
it

its

out at

highest form, finds


some length

Programme Music.
132

in

itself

Chapter V.

of

"

Berlioz
degraded by being linked with ideas which
freedom, which weaken

basis,

its intellectual

fetter its

and which

leave nothing to the imagination of the hearer.

Nevertheless, the symphonic works of Berlioz and


Liszt are

full

of

even

interest,

they appear

if

to-

day somewhat experimental and tentative.


T3

poor

unconvmcmg uby reason

,.

rJerlioz

is

melodic

gift,

and

1803-69

capacity

limited

development of his ideas.

for legitimate

Berlioz,

orc uhis

Yet

his un-

conventional methods and his mastery of instrumental


effect

have created for him a place of some importance

in the later history of

Although

musical composition.

not the earliest to shape musical work upon a pro-

gramme

basis, he is certainly

absolutely the

symphony

first,

best

phonie fantastique
Artiste,"

treat

among
the

the

first,

majestic

known

instrumental

Episode

dates from

1830,

de

la

to depict
an elaborate story.
^
-^

I.

II.

of

work,

and attempts
It is in five

entitled

"Reveries

"Un

passions."

Bal."

" Sc6ne aux champs."


IV. " Marche au Supplice."

III.

V. " Songe d'une Nuit du Sabbat."


133

"Sym-

Vie d'un
la

movements,

not

if

forrn

manner.

in this

Berlioz's

to

^
Vic d'un
.

Artiste

Symphony

Story of
The

idea running" through the whole

musician

memory

haunted by a theme

is

of which

ball,

young

that a

with the

associated always the vision of a

is

beloved woman.

is

[idee fixe)^

Through

the whirling mazes of the

the calm, idyllic peace of the country evening,

through a ghastly nightmare of his imaginary execu-

and

tion,

through the

witches' sabbath, with


pain, wailings," the

phosed forms,

Such

is

in this
will

of

metamor-

upon which the music takes


as

it

may

be called,

i.s

its

one of

compared with many of the


themes which
^
Wagner was afterwards to ongmate; but
As
respect Berlioz was something of a pioneer.
interest as

forcible

fixe"

in variously

of

cries

ever present with him.

leit-motiv,

little

"L'idie

hallucination

"howls, laughter,

same melody,

the story

The

stand.

is

fantastic
its

and

truly suggestive
oo

be seen, this "guiding theme" contains

little

of

melodic beauty, rhythmic interest, or harmonic suggestiveness

it is

indeed of a strangely diatonic and obvious

character.
Allegro agitato.

The sequel
Berlioz's

to

this

work, " L61io,"

most successful

efforts.

134

is

not one of

Of greater

interest


*'

Programme " Work

and importance
in

which the

in

"Harold

throughout

title-role is indicated

en

by a viola solo, and which

is,

like

Italic

"

the

work, largely dominated by an

earlier

" Harold

symphony,

second

the

is

a record of a visit to Italy,

Italy,"

'^

idee fixe,''

which runs as follows:

The symphony
I.

II.

is

divided into four scenes

" Harold

in the

"March

of pilgrims

mountains."
singing the prayer of

evening."
III.

" Serenade."

III.

" Orgy of brigands."

The dramatic and programme


deal of the music
is

masterly

effects.

is

much

very

in its orchestration

Yet, in spite of

many

the

good
work

and picturesque

in its

nature

may be

is

often forced

said of the

upon one.

symphony,
135

imaginative and finely

conceived movements, the impression of

some music

of

to the fore

its

being

Much

the

"Romeo and

tire-

same

Juliet,"

Symphony

Story of
into the seven

movements

of which both solo voices

The scherzo

and chorus are occasionally introduced.


of this, "

Queen Mab,"

a delightful orchestral picture,

is

and is often played separately, and much of the " Sc6ne


d'amour" is of the most passionate and beautiful character.
But, as a whole, the work fails, its style being
inconsistent and often incongruous.
Liszt

is

better

known

for his symphonies,

and

for his

symphonic poems than

his doings in the

former con-

nection will be dealt with in Chapter


*

But his two **


great symphonies, "A Sym^
^
^
phony to Dante's Divina Commedia" and

'

1811-86

"A

XV.

Faust Symphony," written between 1847 and 1857,


to Berlioz.
The programme nature of both

owe much
is

very apparent,

Berlioz by having

of one main one.

but

many

extends

he

the

methods of

representative themes instead

Thus,

in

the Faust

symphony he

has one set of themes for Faust, another for Marguerite,

and a third

for Mephistopheles; moreover, these themes


undergo many changes and alterations according to

meaning which they endeavour


These changes, or "metamorphoses of
themes," are amongst the most original and fresh
points of Liszt's work, and have had enormous inthe particular poetical

to

convey.

fluence
tion.

upon succeeding schools of musical composiBoth the Liszt symphonies employ a chorus.
136

"Rustic Wedding
The symphonies with programme
Raff

and

by

tendencies

Rubinstein have already been mentioned.

Amongst other followers of this class of


Other
work may ube namedJ ^t.
the opera composer,
Programme
Carl Goldmark (1832-1915), whose symphony, "Rustic Wedding," standing in
five movements, is much played
Felicien David's
symphonic ode, '* Le Desert," a work that made the
1

t,

composer famous, belongs

to the

137

same category.

CHAPTER

XI.

BRAHMS.

Brahms A new birth Brahms' orchestration


C minor Symphony D major Symphony F major Symphony
E minor Symphony Brahms' influence.

period of exhaustion

About midway through the


growth of symphony appeared

nineteenth century the


to suffer

from a number

Composers were
turninsf from the pure and noble form of
symphony bequeathed to them by the great
of paralyzing influences.

Exhaustion

and were experimenting

classic masters,
tions.

Many

less constrained

symphonic poem

in the case of Raff, Berlioz,

that the

those

direc-

we have seen

Liszt, the adventitious


;

they gave definite

works, even to the separate movements,

and sometimes

movements.

and

and the programme

title

titles to their

many

and those who con-

tinued to write symphonies sought, as

aid of the

in

forsook the symphony altogether for the

to the very

Many

themes occurring

in

those

thinkers on the subject imagined

symphony, as a form, was exhausted, and


still strove to work on the classical model

who

"

"

The Last of

the Classics

could produce only pale and banal imitations of the


g-Iorious masterpieces

One master

there

which they sought to emulate.


was, however, whose star rose

but slowly, and whose achievements for long went only


Indeed,

half-recognized.

we have yet
of the work
t

doubtful

is

it

,-1.

arrived at a

full

if

appreciation

Brahms,
1833-97

of that noble North

Johannes Brahms, "the


has been called, and

last

who

is

German,

of the classics," as he

now

widely recognized

as the legitimate successor, in the realm of absolute

music, of Bach and Beethoven.

was even many years

It

after his

mastery of other

forms of music had been acknowledged that the world


accepted Brahms as a great composer of
orchestral music.

He was

late in

himself to this branch of the art, and

1876 that he gave his


reception

Its

praise

first

and

condemnabeing

extended
to

it.

After

a lapse

Birth

it

symphony

was not

until

to the world.

was a very mixed one, both excessive

e x'c e s s i V e

tion

New

devoting

of

nearly forty

139

Symphony

Story of
years one can

now

safely proclaim

it

as one of the

noblest works in the region of orchestral music, and

with

its

birth

seems to have dawned a new era in the


True it is that it has no com-

history of symphony.

panions worthy of the name, save possibly the other

symphonies by the same composer, but

it

gave a fresh

impetus to serious music just when such an impetus

was

sorely needed,

and many earnest minds owe much


His mighty chain of great

to the influence of

Brahms.

works stands,

a row of snow-clad peaks, pure and

like

noble in distant whiteness;


heights as

we

we may never

rise to

such

see in them, but they remain, a noble

and enduring monument, an example of what can be


done, an encouragement to those

who

believe

the pure, the beautiful, and the great in art

may

that

not

yet be exhausted.

Brahms' symphonies are only four


they

may perhaps

in

number, and

be said to lack that glowing richness

of colour in their orchestration to which

we have become accustomed

Orchestration

the
are, not

it

thought

There

must be remembered that

composer always pays

tion of

etc.

merely here and there, very beautiful bits of

scoring in Brahms, but


this

with Berlioz,

modern Russians, Dvordk,

itself

it.

more attention

to

the

rather than to the picturesque presenta-

Those who seek the great beauty of these


140

Similarities
symphonies must not look for it in effect of colour,
it must
tricks of orchestration, and obvious devices
;

be sought

music

in the

inherent and subtle qualities of the

itself.

The fi rst symphony, in C minor, op. 68, often called


the "Tenth" symphony by those who claim it as the
direct follower of Beethoven's nine, clings
.

>

closely to classical form,

and

is in

the usual
-'

'

fduTTnovements, with a
to the first

and

last.

by a charming
finale

The

sj

ow

in troduction

place of the scherzo

allegretto.

The main

undoubtedly brings to mind the

of Beethoven's

C minor
_
Symphony
is

taken

subject of the
last

movement

"Choral Symphony,"^ the theme

Allegro non troppo.

recalling

the

manner of

earlier

work both

in

style

repetition of its phrases.


^

See the theme quoted on

141

p.

no.

shj,pe,

and

Symphony

Story of

in D major, op. 73, is by


most "popular," it being the one that makes
This
the fewest demands upon the hearer.

The second symphony,


far the

major

does not mean that

it

lacks profundity, but

the g-raceful elegance and suave, flowing themes with

which

it

abounds cannot

fail

to captivate those

find

the more austere methods of the

too

much

this

quotation from the second

for

them.

Such

melodic

first

fragments

subject of the

movement,
AJlcgTo non troppo

or the theme of the fascinating Allegretto,

Allegretto grazloso
Ob.

must carry conviction with them.


142

who

symphony
as
first

Brahms

Influence of

The Symphony in F, op. 90, is bold and resourceful,


and displays more orchestral device than we sometimes
Its four movements are
^
find in this master.
F ma.] or
on the regular plan.

his

should be noted

It

the scherzo in any of

Brahms does not employ

that

symphonies

appears

he

forms
third

indeed,

movement.

the

other

three

symphonies he

kind

of

an Allegro

fourth

the

in

cyclic

in

some

first

an Allegretto, and

writes

work

his

all

prefer

to

In

in

Giocoso.

The Symphony
received

the

in

full

minor,

measure

op.

has not yet

98,

public

of

v^'elcome

which the others have long been admitted.


This fourth symphony of Brahms

is

to

E minor

un-

doubtedly a somewhat hard nut to crack, although


materially assist

study or re-hearing will


It
is

is

full

contrapuntal

of

remarkable

measure
works.

of

but

there

is

The slow movement

but the form of the

not

last,

here

of

is

a set

the

task.

ingenuity

its

marks

which

spontaneity

and

device,

the
the

great

same
earlier

beauty,

of elaborate varia-

upon a "ground bass," militates against the


Although
success of the work, taken as a whole.

tions

grand and

dignified,

this

last

movement

is

apt to

leave one cold.

The

influence of

Brahms has been


143

felt

perhaps more

Story of
widely

in

Symphony

other directions than in that of symphony.

example of one working'

But even here the noble

on the highest plane has not been without


effect,

and the

foremost
school of

symphony

Italian,

Sgambati, and the

representatives

of

our

English

writers, such as Stanford, Parry,

and Elgar, owe not a

little

to

144

Johannes Brahms.

CHAPTER
BRITISH SYMPHONY COMPOSERS

XII.

FROM BENNETT TO ELGAR.

music Church music The


of English sym Bennett Bennett's followers Parry Stanford
Cowen Elgar Younger composers.

British vocal

late start

phonists

British composers have, during the history of music,


often been

famed

achievements

for their

The Madrigals
__

Music

the oratorio u^riting

often fine, even though


*'
'

Handel

of

Their school of opera

is

vocal forms.

of the seventeenth century

are second to none

Vocal

in

and,

it

later,

is

shows the mfluence


of

Mendelssohn.

But instru-

not without merit.

mental music, at any rate for the orchestra, cannot, up


to the nineteenth century, be said to be very remarkable.

Purcell and others wrote well for the orchestra

is some fine chamber music of


The symphony, however, was a form
which developed at a time when English composers

of their day,

and there

an early period.

strove, for the

most

part, for

eminence

in

music for

the Church.
145

10

Story of
The composition
and

dig-nity

at

of church music

least

Church

appeal
is

it

than

itself,

influence over

its

it

from ranking

beauty and worthiness wholly


necessarily limited to those of

is

but an

transportation from

adjunct to a thing

and

own

it

does

higher

not well

bear

Moreover,

sphere.

other forms of the art

not necessarily influenced

is

after

those high forms of the art in

relies for its

and nobler

it

is,

associa-

amongst

one creed,

and

it

its

words prevents

Its

itself.

But

tion with

which music
on

a task of nobility

is

should be so.

it

only a side track of music

all,
,

Symphony

is

its

but slight,

very materially

forms.
However great, therefore,
work of that noble army of church
composers whose names loom so large in the British

by

such

may

other

be

the

mind, their prestige


of

our

of

little

own

land,

but small outside the borders

is

and

their

achievements are but

use for our concert rooms, or even for our

homes.

The minds

of English composers being so centred on

the music of the Church, or other vocal forms,


to realise

why we have

Late Start

mental compositions.

made, and

it

was not

century that our


their best

work

until well

own composers

it is

so few fine instru-

A
on

very late start was


in the

felt

nineteenth

inspired

to put

into the large instrumental forms.

146

easy

The

Sterndale Bennett
made, progress was good, and symphonic

start once

productions have been improving-

But we have not,

the present day.

band of men who can leap


composers

and

may

it

a decade,

in

development

into

our country, a

in

fame as symphony

our

feel

way

cautiously,

we

be some few years yet before

duce symphonies as
moderns, even

if

pro-

those given us by other

fine as

we

Our

had the Russians.

as

we

slow,

is

up to

in quality right

ever equal

them

in

this

par-

ticular line.

The

name

first

of any eminence that need be recorded

that of William Sterndale Bennett,

is

from the success of his

and

elegantly conceived overtures than from his


,
c
u
n mmor, op.
one and only symphony
G

m
'

more

this

and

picturesque

1816-75

43,

which was only moderately successful.

Nevertheless,

Bennett gave proof that an English composer could

was

write orchestral music that


originality.

Before

Bennett's

come Macfarren's Symphony


1834, while
six

in

of beauty and

full

solitary

example had

minor, produced

John EUerton (1801-73) wrote no

symphonies,

now

Symphony

(1864),

Davenport's

Cliffe's

Symphony

than

practically forgotten.

Bennett's example
Leslie's

less

in

was followed by

in

in

two

symphonies

C minor
147

(his

Henry

others.

minor

(1876,

etc.),

(1847), Barnett's in

most esteemed

Symphony

Story of

work) dating from 1889, and a second from 1892,


Prout's three works (1874, 1877, ^""^ ^^^5 respectively),

and works by both George and Walter Macfarren,


besides

repute, show that


was devoting attention.
not without some considerable

others of

less

the British composer

Followers

and that

measure of success, to

Symphony

branch of music.

this

produced

E,

in

in

more perhaps from the composer's triumphs


branch of the art than from
these were by no

means

its intrinsic

Sullivan's

gained

1866,

in

success

another

merits, though

slight.

More importance attaches

to

works of three

the

composers born about the same time, whose symphonies


are

still

played, and who, moreover, are

writing for the orchestra.

wrote his
Festival of 1882

produced

at

the

December 19 12.
"English" and

first

symphony

Philharmonic
Intermediate
the

ones,

F (produced by

ample Parry goes so


have

as

titles

to
for

his "four linked

movements."

one

Society's

been very frequently performed.

gramme

for the

his last, so far, is

far

in

the

still

Hubert Parry

Sir

Birmingham
in

minor,

Concert

such

as

Richter),

in

the

have

In his newest exdirection

of

pro-

Elgar
Sir Charles

Stanford has written symphonies during

the greater part

Symphony

of his

in

Alexandra Palace
(" In

in

works

F.

ability

to

in

which

convey

'

in

l8'i2

Watts) dates from

The most

back.

in this direction is,

phony, op. 28,

His

a composer.

'

Memoriam," G.

a few years

career as

was produced at the


1876, and his latest

flat

representative

however, the "

and

his individuality,

his

music

the

of his

Irish "

his

sym-

happy

impress of his

nationality are very marked.


Sir Frederic

Cowen's symphonies,

number, are

six in

characterized by the feeling of poetry, and by the spirit

marks so much of
his work.
Three of them have names. The
"Scandinavian," the "Welsh," and the
of fairy-like grace which

"Idyllic."

The

first

pieces are

many

Qt2

of these had a very considerable

vogue about the time of


Cowen's

'

delightful

its

production (1880), but

overtures

more frequently heard

and

in the

symphonic

concert-room

than are his symphonies.

Unlike these composers, Sir Edward Elgar waited


until

he had achieved great eminence

forms of music,

and had, moreover,


to

attained

very great

//
yZ<.^^C<.

in

many

other


Symphony

Story of

mastery over orchestral resource, before he ventured

upon the production of symphonies.


flat,

Elgar,

to the great reputation

gained,

and

so

far

has been but short

when

A
its

which Elgar had already

can

as

be

seen,

The music

lived.

necessarily symphonic

the

in

first,

1908,

composer was over fifty years of age. Its


success was phenomenal, a fact largely

1857
due

His

not appear until

did

is

this

success

fine,

but not

the mystic theme with which

work opens
Nobilmente e eemplice.

although particularly typical of

its

composer,

is

perhaps specially typical of the symphonic form


second symphony,

in

flat,

dating from 191

1,

not
the
also

appears to have gained but a meagre foothold on the


150


Modern English Composers
shore of success.

Great as are these works they are

neither so strong nor so convincing as

Many

of Elgar's

of our younger British composers are writing

orchestral

works of great

poem

symphonic

is

originality

much

them, but few write actual


,

many

conceived tone pictures for the orchestra.

less classically

and beauty.

practised

by

symphonies.

Composers

The followmg names may be mentioned


here as composers of work which is symphonic
if not in name
:

William Wallace (i860-).

Edward German

The

(1862-).

Frederick Delius (1863-).


Granville Bantock {1868-).

Vaughan Williams

(1872-).

Josef Holbrooke (1878-).

in

scope

CHAPTER

XIII.

RUSSIAN SCHOOL.

Tchaikovsky His early symphonies


The E minor SymphonyThe "Pathetic"
Symphony A
comparison Rimsky-KorsakofF^Glazounoff
Other Russians Finns and Poles.

New

Russian

composers

minor Symphony

false

The overwhelmingly

and powerful flood of music

rich

that has been poured out by Russian composers during

years is one of the most extraordinary


modern music. The influence of these men
has been in the main upon opera, but in other branches
of the art, and notably in symphony, they have also
the last

fifty

features of

called

own
The works
too German in

attention to themselves not only in their

country but throughout the civilized world.


of Rubinstein

method and idea


but

with

the

to

are

rank as really Russian creations,

advent

symphony becomes
There

Chapter IX.) are

(see

of

many who

music

is

West

rather than

Tchaikovsky

Russian

the

a thing of reality.
that

affirm

also not really Russian


of the East

152

Tchaikovsky's

that he

is

of the

that the impress of

Tchaikovsky
German

Influence

shown

so strongly

is

in his

works

that he cannot be classed as a " nationalist" composer.

This

to

is

some extent

true, but his inclu'

sion of Russian melodies in his works, his

1840-93

employment of national dance rhythms,


and above all the characteristic melancholy which

much

breathes through so
to place

him with

some measure
to

of his output, incline one

adherence to

this school, spite of his

of classical form and his non-adherence

many of the tenets


The symphonies

of the " Koutchka."^


of

Tchaikovsky

now

are

They are six in


"Winter Dreams,"

established in public favour.

and of these the


the

second, in

the

(1866),

third,

first,

"The

minor,

Polish," op.

played, although they contain

second, with

its

many

Little

op.

17

well

number,
op.

13

and

(1872),

29 (1875), are seldom

much

fine

music; the

Russian themes, has been

described as "perhaps the most distinctively national


of
^

all

Tchaikovsky's works."

The " Koutchka" was

Balakireff,

sorgsky,

Borodine,

who formed

name given

Dargomijsky,

to five nationalistic musicians,

Rimsky-Korsakoff,

and Mous-

a kind of league with the determination to break

away from formalism and


^

"

classic tradition in musical composition.

For a more complete account of

this,

and of Tchaikovsky's other

symphonies, and for musical extracts from their pages, the author's

volume, Tchaikovsky

may be

consulted.

in

John Lane's "Music of the Masters"

Series,

Symphony

Story of
The

three

known.

last

The

_
F minor

fourth, in

, ,

minor, op. 36 (1877), dedi-

"To my

cated

symphonies are much more widely

(Madame von
...

best friend"

\,

Meek), was a favourite with

and was chosen by him


Philharmonic Society

for

1S93.

in

composer,

its

performance by the London


It

is

of interest,

full

and has since been shown, by the publication of


correspondence, to have a
largely dominated by

full

programme

what Tchaikovsky

basis.

calls

his
It is

" Fate,"

and alternative themes represent "hopeless despair"


and " happiness." The second movement, song-like

and sweetly sad, represents "another phase of


ing "

and

the third,

extraordinary

in

its

suffer-

rapid pizzicato

contrast of the different sections of the or-

its

chestra,

is

"a

series of confused

through our thoughts as we

fall

images which pass


asleep"; while the

fourth,

wild and impetuous, with a folk-song basis,

depicts

happy scenes of
shadow of " Fate

sinister

The

imminent over

same kind of procedure

E minor
,

rejoicing, with,
"

symphony,

op. 64 in

however, the
all.

is

adopted

minor,

in the fifth

in

which the

sad melody announced by the clarinet at

the very outset

154

The "Pathetic"
Andante.

Clar.

is

employed

effect

that

each of the four movements with an

in
is

dramatic, and which evidently implies

some programme in the composer's mind. The slow


movement of this work is one of the most lovely
of

Tchaikovsky's many beautiful creations, and

all

specially noticeable for the richly varied


its

orchestration.

The last of Tchaikovsky's symphonies is


known "Pathetic." It was not so called at
was only given this name after a compara^
.

tively
its

is

character of

the wellfirst,

B minor

poor reception had been accorded to

initial

summer

performance.

It

(1893) of his

life,

was written during


and

his tragically

death, combined with the fact that his last

and

the last

sudden

work had

been thus named by him, aroused a good deal of sentimental interest not of the best kind.
lived

down

early

reputation,

merits.

its

and

is

character
its

accepted

now on

its

own

These are great, despite the somewhat over-

pessimistic

of

The work has

melodramatic and rather unfortunate

last

movement

yp

C^

/^

1/

,.

Uc/TicUf

^55

ftr

Story of

Symphony

such exquisite melodic passages as that given to the

movement,

clarinet in the first

Andante,

and such rhythmic charm as that displayed

famous

five-four

in

the

movement

are examples of features that have contributed to the


fact

that the

recently, the

sense) of

Of

all

symphony is, or has been until quite


most widely "accepted" (in the popular

symphonies.

course, the

symphonies of Tchaikovsky cannot

be compared with those of Beethoven for pure beauty


or perfection of form, although they naturFalse
ally

Comparison

exceed the examples of the German

composer

chestral colouring.
in

in

their rich

and elaborate

Nor can they be

or-

said to equal,

dignity and real musical feeling, those of such a

156

[By Pcniiissiott of Messrs.

N. A.

J.

RIMSKY-KORSAKOFF.

&^ W. Chester.

Other Russians
modern master
is

of the

first

very likely to

not

rank as Brahms.

is

it

with

kindly

particularly

deal

of Tchaikovsky, but

the music

Fate

nonsense to

all

some do in the present day, and to


down as merely a neurotic and emotional
individual. Though not a composer of the very highest
order, he yet has much to say to us.
decry him as

write him

Another composer whose symphonies have obtained


a wide following

performed

in

J
J
produced

or

is

1865,
^-

Rimsky-Korsakoff.

was one

native

His

u
symphonies,

andJ

Suite,"

is

and announced as an

the best known.

'

He

latterly,

in the direction of

ander Glazounoff.

His

first

1844-1908
*'

Oriental

however, gave

his attention rather to opera than to orchestral

More famous

symphony

was written

work.
is

titles to

diff'erent

We

find

Alex-

at the age

of sixteen, and up to the present he hsB


penned seven others, the eighth (op. S^)

appearing a few years back.

i,

Korsakoff,

afterwards revised

op.

Rimsky-

^
as

^r
such had a great reception.
Of
subsequent
works, his second symphony, "Antar,"
,

first,

of the earliest

'

no

the symphonies of this composer; he

is

of a

order to the majority of Russian composers

in that he works very largely on classical models


and has been considerably influenced by Brahms. His
harmony and orchestration are rich, and his power of

157


Story of

Symphony

developing an Idea very considerable.


sixth

il

His fourth and

symphonies are the most frequently performed.

quotation from the former

Andante.
CorAnglai*.

show

___

dolce

will

that

he

sometimes

melancholy which we have

exhibits

now

the

learned

to

vein

of

expect

from Russian composers.

There are many other successful Russian composers


of symphonies

whom

limits

of space

preclude from

more than a mere mention, and the reader must be


The names of the
referred to Appendix A for these.
more prominent may be given here:
Borodine (1834-77).
BalakirefF (1836-1910).

Arensky (1862-1906).
Scriabine (1872-1915).

Rachmaninoff (1873
Gli^re (1874).

).

"
The

richness

Russia

into

Finlandia"

of musical

composers, Jean Sibelius (1865

much

of

his

has overflowed from

art

Of Finnish

both Finland and Poland.

orchestral

music,

has

won fame

which includes

for

two

symphonies and the popular tone-poem "Finlandia."

Of

Polish

(i860

),

birth,

the

celebrated

numbers a symphony

his compositions.

159

pianist,
in

Paderewski

B minor among'st

CHAPTER

XIV.

MODERN SYMPHONY COMPOSERS.

Dvorak Saint-Saens Cesar Franck Scandinavian com Modern Germany Bruckner Mahler Sgambati
American composers Modern orchestras.

Smetana

posers

Smetana,

the

father

modern

of

Bohemian

music,

appears nowadays to belong to a somewhat remote


period of the art.

Smetana,
^"

fame

'^

Yet his ideas are very

often post-symphonic
tion of

lies in

opera

in the direc-

His chief

title

to

but a most striking work of his

is

"Mein Vaterland."

is

the fine symphonic poem,


in six sections,

and tend

programme music.

This

each of which forms a complete work in

These sections, a performance of individual


numbers of which is fairly frequent, are entitled

itself.

"Vysehrad."
*

Vltava."

"Sarka."
" Aus Bohmen's Hain und Flur."
'

Tabor."

"Blanik."
1

60


"

New World " Symphony

Bohemia produced, however, a pupil and disciple of


Antonin Dvofdk, who easily outstripped
his master in both name and fame, and
Dvorak,
whose symphonies, more especially that
1841-1904
entitled " From the New World," op. 95,
Smetana,

have won great popularity.


the

two

last are

contains

much

that

is

many melodies

his

that in

five

symphonies

major, op. 88,

and delightful, while the


owes much of its charm to

fresh

"New World" Symphony


the

Of

much played

of Indian origin which

it

includes.

Dvofdk gathered his material very largely from the


American Indians, and, moreover, assimilated
style so happily to that of the
this

his

own

borrowed material, that

has become perhaps his most popular and esteemed

work.

Two

extracts, one in quick, the other in slow

must suffice
on which this very
time,

to

show

the kind of melodic idiom

delightful

symphony

is

founded

Allegro molto.

'^^^^A'^^^^^^^'ZJ'";^^

161

II


Story of

Symphony

Largo

With

symphonic composers,

may

Napravnik and Fibich,

brief mention of

this list of

both

Bohemian symphonists

close.

In France

Saens.

music

world
'

composer, Saint-

the veteran

lives

still

With wonderful

versatility he has given to the

of every

His sym-

kind.

phonies, three in number, have not attracted

much

attention, although the third, which

contains parts for the organ and for pianoforte duet in


addition to the usual orchestral instruments, has had a

More interest has been


good many performances.
excited by his symphonic poems, all of which are frequently played. They are entitled
" Rouet d'Omphale," op.

31.

Phaeton," op. 39.


" Danse Macabre," op. 40.
**

" La Jeunesse d'Hercule,"


C6sar Franck, a Belgian by

op. 50.

birth, is

ranked as a

French composer by reason of


Cesar Franck,

residence

m that country.

..u

1822-90

i.

tt-

his long
4.-

His reputation
<.

has only grown very gradually, and his


works are only now beginning to be appreciated at
162


Cesar Franck
His Symphony

something- like their proper value.

minor, written in

proving

1899 at the close of his

importance,

its

and

his

life,

in
is

symphonic poems,

"Les Eolides" and " Les Djinns,"

are

often

be

to

heard.

Amongst other French composers


phonic works

may

of

modern sym-

be mentioned

Vincent d'Indy (1851

).

Gustav Charpentier (i860

).

Paul Dukas (1865).

Scandinavian composers have not been

name

of Niels

W. Gade

idle.

The

has already been mentioned.

Svensden, a Swede (1840-1911), Ole Olsen (1850

and Christian Sinding (1856

good work

in

),

Norwegians, have done


the direction of symphony.
),

Very interesting are the works of modern German


composers

the

for

Like

orchestra.

men

of

other

Germans have largely succumbed to


the programme basis for their work and

nationalities the

the influence of

natural resultant, the symphonic poem.

its

are

still

men working

in

But there

Germany who believe

symphony, as a form, presents

possibilities,

endeavour to carry on the work of

that the

and who

their great classical

forerunners.

Of

these the oldest

is

Anton Bruckner.
163

His nine

Story of
symphonies are
they are

Symphony

known

little

much played

in

in this

Germany.

country,

though

He was

a com-

poser of very serious mien, whose work at


Bruckner,

one time was compared


with that of Brahms.
^

1824-96

Opinions vary much as to the real merit of


his music,

but most acknowledge that he was very

considerably under the influence of


there

is

much

Passing

rich

romanticism

Ferdinand

over

Wagner, and

in his

Hiller

that

symphonies.
(181 1-85),

Robert

Volkmann (1815-83), and Max Bruch (1838 ), we


come to a more interesting personality in Gustav
Mahler (i860

),

small sensation.

whose symphonies have created no


This is due to some extent to the

somewhat abnormal length

to

which they

seventh takes seventy-five minutes


to the unusual

chorus.

in

employment of voices both

(See Chapter XVII.)

considerable

comment on

(the

in solo

and

His nine or ten sym-

phonies are colossal works, and excite


as to their merits.^

run

performance), and

much

discussion

His themes are usually of great

amount

of

information

and

much interesting
may be read in

the Symphonies of Bruckner and Mahler

Weingartner's

"Symphony

Writers since Beethoven."

graphy.

164

See Biblio-

Theme

Mahler
length, but here

is

an eight-bar subject from one of his

works.
Scherzo from MahleKs 6th Symphotfj'.
Wachtig.

Other Germans of fame

(1873

Weingartner (1863

Max Reger

),

).

connection are FeHx

in this

Richard Strauss (1864

),

and

Strauss, although he wrote an

symphony, may be more properly considered as


a composer of symphonic poems (see Chapter XV.).
Italian composers of the last fifty years have devoted
early

far

more attention

to opera than to the

symphony, or

Exceptions, and

any other form of absolute music.

notable ones, are Giovanni Sgambati (1843-1914), an

upholder

of

Martucci

(1856- 1909),

well

classic

music

in

whose

Italy,

and

Giuseppe

symphonies are

American composers have not come very much


'

fore as symphonists.
little

fairly

known and much esteemed.

for

the

orchestra,

to the

MacDowell (iS6i-igo8) wrote


and did not get beyond the

John Knowles
George Whitfield Chadwick (1854

symphonic poem.

165

Paine (1839-1906),
),

and others who

Symphony

Story of

have written symphonies have not had much success

beyond the borders of

own

their

country.

The instruments employed by composers


symphonies are many and varied.

All,

as the foundation of the

Modern
_

.,

^.

modern

of

however, take

orchestra the in

struments of the "Classical Orchestra

,,

of

Orchestras

Beethoven.
is

now almost

bones.

The most important

instruments

by Dvofdk

The

In addition to these, the tuba

uniformly present as a bass to the trom-

is

in his

clarinet

addition to the wood-wind

the cor anglais, so effectively employed

symphony " From

New

the

World."

D, used by Richard Strauss

in

in

his

" Domestic Symphony," various forms of saxophones,


and other occasionally introduced instruments are not
yet regular constituents of the

Various percussion and special

symphonic orchestra.

effects are

now and

employed, such as the gong (or tam-tam)

in

then

Tchai-

kovsky's "Pathetic Symphony," the cymbals (SaintSaens,


really

etc.),

the xylophone,

important

additions

from the musical


view

(as apart

to

etc.

Beethoven's

The only
orchestra

from the sensational) point of

are the cor anglais,

The organ and

celesta,

the tuba,

and the harp.

the piano are also at times introduced

into their scores by

more recent symphonic composers.

(See Appendix C.)

66

CHAPTER XV.
SYMPHONIC, OR TONE POEM.

How

definition

Liszt

and Berlioz

from a symphony Means employed


Their followers Russian composers Strauss.
it

differs

Mention has already been made on


of the symphonic poem.

Its rise

several occasions

and development has

been one of the most prominent features of present-

day music.
dimensions.
depicting

may

It

be described as a w^ork for the

amorphous

orchestra,

of

suggested by the
It differs

story

of

or

but

symphonic

of

series

of

by

that

its

is

pretty generally adhered to.

may be

framed by the

classic

cast

into

the

The symphonic

recognized mould

composers; but
167

from

'a. bymphony

'

also

^,
differs

shape,' and though


it may have a title, and
^_
at times a programme, this architectural
is

We

absence of form.

symphony

almost always cast into a regular form or

design

incidents

from the symphony, and from the closely

already seen

poem

the

are

characteristics

of the piece.

title

allied concert overture,

have

form

in

particular

Its

it

is

much more

Story of

Symphony

often without definite plan of construction;

work

usual for each

attempt

to

it

is

more

to illustrate the picture

which the composer desires to conjure up before the

mind of the hearer; the individual fancy and

bias of the

writer also has a pronounced effect upon the shape of


the work.

The symphonic poem more


other elements which

phony; much use

is

often than not contains

differentiate

it

from the sym-

frequently made, for purposes of

definite delineation, of the leitmotif; the orchestration

generally seeks to be of a picturesque, and

is

some-

times of an extravagant order; and "effects" (occasionally of an experimental nature) are frequent.
is

one long movement, or

usually in

It

a series of

in

of different time and style but linked up

movements

by connecting bars, and played without break.


The term was invented by Liszt, who has been called
It was applied
the " Father of the Symphonic Poem."
Liszt

and

Berlioz

by him to his twelve orchestral pieces which


...
^
which were
had a programme nature,
,

ambiguous in form and m which the principle of the metamorphosis of themes was first seriously
utilized.
His chief works in this direction (Dante,
Tasso, Orpheus, etc.) are better known than his sym.

phonies and have more historical significance.

although working much on the same


1 68

lines,

Berlioz,

does not

Tone Poems
His orchestral works which are not

use the term.

symphonies are usually concert overtures.

Of

the older composers

of Liszt
the

of

whose works have already been given.


Dvofdk, also wrote many symphonic

disciple,

poems

followed the lead

be mentioned the Bohemian, Smetana,

titles

His

who have

may

at the close of his career, but they have not

equalled in importance or interest the symphonies and

was so

overtures in which he

successful.

Saint-Saens'

four examples have been mentioned in Chapter

XIV.

Russian composers have to some extent adopted


Balakireff

term.

the

has given us

*'

In

Boheme,"

"Russia," and "Thamar": Borodine, "Dans


les

steppes de I'Asie Centrale "; Glazounoff,

"The

Forest,"

"The

Kremlin," "The Sea,"

_,

Composers

" Stenka Rasine," etc.; Glinka's " Kamarinskaja "


well

known, as

is

Noskowski's

"La

" Fatum," "Manfred,"


Rimini," and " Voievoda " also belong to

kovsky's

of composition.
that

it

is

little

At

this

hard

point
to

tell

it

is

Steppe"; Tchai" Francesca


da

may

this class

be mentioned

sometimes

whether

an orchestral work, unless specifically entitled by

its

composer, should be designated as a symphonic poem, a


tone poem, a concert overture, a fantasia, or a rhapsody.

The more modern symphonic poem owes


ence mainly to Richard Strauss.

169

its

exist-

His series of works

Symphony

Story of
in this form, together

chief

title

fame,

to

'

with his operas, constitute his

and have made

name now

The world has

almost a household word.


Strauss

his

not been slow to appreciate tne beauty, or


to recognize to

some extent

the extravagance of these

works, and they have been

played

country until they rank almost

symphonies of Beethoven.
extremely free

in their

They

in

latterly

as familiarly as

this

the

are very frequently

harmonies, complex

in texture,

The
and surprisingly clever in their orchestration.
earlier ones, such as " Don Juan," " Death and Transfiguration," and ''Till Eulenspiegel," have met with
more acceptance than

"Thus spake

such recondite

Zarathrustra,"

"Don

examples

as

Quixote," and the

" Domestic Symphony."

The

influence of Strauss has been widely

Most
the com-

felt.

composers of the younger generation turn to

poems rather than to that of


The greater freedom of form, the stimulus

position of symphonic

symphonies.

of the "story," and the romantic nature of the whole,

make
midi,"

many

it

very attractive.

"Fetes,"
of the

etc.,

Debussy with his " L'ApresScriabine's "Divine Poem,"

works of the young composers of our own

and other countries, are monuments to this influence.


The very name of such composers is legion; for the most
part their work is too near our own day to judge of
170

Scriabine
its

value or of

its

possible importance.

Their methods

of expression are to a large extent novel,


still

larger disconcerting.

and to a

But, speaking broadly, the

symphonic poem, though interesting, can never attain


the position which the
to express

definite

symphony

holds.

ideas, to carry out

In striving

a suggestive

programme, there is that great loss of dignity which


the symphony, of all musical forms, has striven most
to keep.
But a discussion of this point must be
relegated to our next chapter, and one extract from

one of the most modern examples, Scriabine's " Divine

Poem," must
tained in so

suffice to

many

From
Allegro

show

the kind of music con-

of these recent works.


First movement.

CHAPTER

XVI.

FUTURE OF THE SYMPHONY.

Wagner's views These views criticized An


What we should miss The symphonic poem
Its appeal What of the future An answer.
a

there

Is

future?

imaginary picture

There

some who

are

no future;

believe that the

that, as a form,

fullest capacity,

and

and the sonata,

its

has been exploited to

it

common

that, in

greatness

tale of

modern works being but a

symphony has

feeble

its

with the fugue


is

already told,

and pale

reflection of

an erstwhile glory.

Nor

is this

idea one of the present day only; no less

a person than Richard

Wagner

affirmed that the right

of composing symphonies

agner

Views
last

symphony

was abolished by

His words are:

Beethoven's Ninth.

"The

the redemption of music

is

from her own peculiar element and her incorporation


in the

universal art.

art of the future.

for

upon

it

It

the

is

Beyond

it

human gospel

no progress

is

of the

possible;

there can follow only the perfect art-work

of the future, the universal drama, to which Beethoven


172

Symphony

since

Beethoven

That Beethoven himself


is proved by the fact

has forg-ed for us the key."

did not conform to this opinion

began sketches

that he himself

for a tenth

symphony, /^

which unfortunately did not materialize.


In spite of

_^y

Wagner's dictum, composers subsequent

to

Beethoven have continued to write symphonies.

It

is

almost inconceivable, this idea that no progress

is

wondrous magician with the orchestra


as Wagner must himself have realized, had he not
been so busily engaged in attempting- to prove the

possible; such a

unprovable, that the wonderful advance in perfection


of orchestral instruments, and the consequent progress
in orchestration,

would cause

earlier

symphonies (even

those of Beethoven himself) to sound old-fashioned

and

comparatively thin.

Doubtless

his

mind was

centred more on the music than on the method of

presenting

it;

upon the serene glory of the

thoughts rather than upon the inefficiency


minds) of their representation.

Wagner

Even

rich musical
(to

modern

then, however,

could hardly have believed that the coming

generations would not find beauty in works of sym-

phonic form subsequent to the Beethoven period.


Let us try to imagine a series of orchestral concerts
in the

present day which should include no symphonies

after Beethoven's.

We

should hear far more of the

\vork of Haydn and Mozart than we do, which would


173

Story of

Symphony

Beethoven would,

perhaps be as well;

suppose, be

played at every concert, and for occasional variety we


might have some Carl Philip Emmanuel
Bach, which would be interesting now and
Imaginary
^nr
like Wraand a work by some one ^^
agfam,
^,
&
.

-'

Picture

'

nitzky or Gossec (which

Side by side with this

we should have

Heaven forbid !).


the most modern

orchestral tone-poems and rhapsodies, which by their


fulness of orchestration, their

complex modernity, and

would cause the older


more threadbare and jejune

their utter differences of style,

works to sound

really

than they should.

And what

should

we miss?

First of

all

phonies of Mendelssohn, Schumann, and Raff.

we

could

get along without these,

the

sym-

Perhaps

although

many

Symphony.
would regret the
Then the glorious works of Brahms, which are becoming more and more precious to concert goers; every
sparkling

"Italian"

re-hearing of these confirms the feeling that they are

master-works,

fit

of even the great

to stand side

by side with the works

Bonn composer.

Next would go

all

the productions of the Russian composers, with their

very marked individuality, their wonderfully picturesque


orchestration, and their novel outlook.

may

These works

not perhaps rank on a par with the really great

symphonies, but they meet our needs of the day, and


174

A
we cannot

as yet

Comparison

spare them.

Finally,

every sincere and noble effort

in

we should miss

absolute music for

it must be admitted that,


modern forms of orchestral
suite, symphonic tone poem, and so forth may be,
your really serious composer, when he wishes to put

orchestra alone

the

however

attractive

for

the

before the world his highest and best thoughts,

still

turns to the symphony.

And

here

it

will

be as well perhaps to state in what

ways the symphony

superior to the symphonic poem.

is

In the first place, the fact that

has a

it

Svmr)fonir

and pre-determined shape, or form,

definite
.

is

distmct

intelligent,

advantage

knows what

the

Poem

listener,

to expect; he

is

if

not constantly

disturbed by unexpected and partly incomprehensible

He

changes of mood.
appeals

to

him

by

music as music,

listens to the

without having to read into


its

own

it

extraneous ideas

merits,

it

and does not

depend upon meretricious influences.

This leads us

which

never on quite

to

*'

secondly"

so high a plane

when

is,

that music

is

depicting, or striving to depict,

external objects, incidents, or occurrences, as

when

it

is

merely concerned with an expression of the beautiful;

it

may

gain in picturesqueness,

the attention more,

the bizarre; but

it

it

may

it

may perhaps

rivet

indulge in the eccentric and

lacks the great dignity which

we

Story of

forms of absolute music;

find in the best

the imagination

and

is

direct rather than

lays itself open to abuse.

it

poem

the symphonic
lose

Symphony

individuality

its

tends,
;

it

appeal to

its

by suggestion,

Thirdly, the music of

following a story, to

in

approximates,

the

in

examples, more to the music of the stage, and


worst,

more

rarely remains

to

the

music

of

the

on a consistently high

cinema

best

in the

But

it

throughout,

level

although such beautiful examples as Strauss' "Death

and Transfiguration" may well rank with the best


pages of musical

literature.

And yet, of late years, the appeal of the symphonic


poem has been greater, both to composers and to
audiences,

than

has

selves incompetent to

that

of

many who

Doubtless there are

symphony.
them-

feel

strength against that of

pit their

Beethoven and other great symphonists, and yet know


that they have something to say;

ready means of self-expression


offered
ful in

by

the

title
*'

and programme

many

also find a

in the vivid
;

many

are

single-movement" form than

more

opportunities

more successin the

lengthy

its diversity of movement which yet


demands such unity of purpose. And practical and
mundane as such a suggestion must be, many again

symphony, with

feel that

a symphonic poem, on a story that

to the public, will obtain

much more
176

may

readily

appeal

both a

Modern Tendencies
performance and a publication than would a symphony,

which would probably

dusty and neglected on a

lie

But whatever the considerations, com-

shelf for years.

posers certainly to-day lean

much more

poem than

direction of tone

of

readily in the

symphony; such com-

posers as Glazounoff and Elg-ar are notable exceptions.

What

then of the future?

used up

Is

the

Will audiences

that

is

time

feel, in listening- to

symphony a form

in

a hundred years

a symphony, that
,

somethmgf
they
J
& archaic,
^ have been enioymsf
6>
as we do to-day when we listen to a

J-

tj^g

What

of

Future?

sixteenth-century madrigal, or to a motet of Palestrina?

Will they

feel that the old is better

than the new, even

as we feel in hearing a Bach fugue after one of the


more modern examples of fugal construction ? Or will
another great composer of symphonies arise, one who
will compare with the greatest of bygone days?
This question is not easy to answer. Weingartner
draws an imaginary picture of the future symphony
composer, and shows what manner of man he must
be.

The task

is

no slight one, but there

reason to despair of

its

being undertaken.

is

not any
It

is

in-

conceivable that this magnificent form should not be

pursued

in

will arise.

How

rapid

some day the great man


word is patience.
was the development of the symphony from
the future, and

But

for the time being the

177

12

Story of

Symphony

Haydn

the early examples of

to the ripe productions

Progress was too rapid


was quite a considerable time
Now again
before Brahms appeared upon the scene.
we seem to be going through a period of interregnum,
of Beethoven and Schubert
to be maintained,

and. probably
one.

it

and

will

it

last longer

than did the earlier

The day may never come, but

be a Titan that

it

will

bring with

178

it.

if it

does

it

will

CHAPTER
CURIOSITIES

XVII.

AND EXPERIMENTS

IN

SYMPHONY.

Haydn "Farewell" Symphony Beethoven's "Choral" Voices as


symphonic forces
"Battle" Symphony Schubert's " Unfinished "Spohr The "Earthly and the Divine" " Historic"
Symphony " Le Desert " Other experiments Conclusion.

in symphony were soon introduced after


was once established. Among- the earliest of
are one or two of Haydn's, althougfh
^
^
Haydn

Experiments
the form
interest

we should not consider such


things very startling-. The "Surprise" Symphony is
so called from the fact that in the slow movement a

jiowadays

very soft passage for the strings

will

scream," said Haydn.

is

" There

fortissimo for the full orchestra.

followed by a
all

the

women

This was a device which

Beethoven employed very frequently, and to which we


are

now accustomed.

Although at times

not nearly so distressing as

V.
occ.

'en pianissimo
"*nally

after

discovered

a loud
that

179

the

its

startling,

it

converse, a very

passage,

when

unwary are

in

it

is

the

Symphony

Story of
midst

of

a vigorous

conversation,

or

are

possibly

indulging in a somewhat strident sleep

THE "surprise" SYMl'HONY.

Greater interest

attaches

Symphony, because of

its

to

Haydn's "Farewell"

biographical nature.
1

80

Haydn

"

Haydn's Hint
and his orchestral players

the

in

service

of

Nicolaus were being kept on duty at Esterhdz


longer than they liked, beinsf anxious to
return to their

composer

homes and

therefore

strong- hint

gave

families.
his

The

Prince

Prince

much

" Farewell
.

bymphony

during the last movement of the sym-

" FAREWELL."

phony the players stop playing, get up and go out,


until only two violins are left.
It is satisfactory to
know that the Prince took the hint and raised his
Court.

This symphony, with


i8i

its

amusing

finish, is

Story of

Symphony

great favourite at some of our seaside places and spas,

where the lighter works of the great composers


a footing denied to their

When

Haydn played a very

at Esterhdz,

practical joke

on his musicians

which

toys,

Symphonies

fair

a collection of

"cuckoo,"

included

"drum,"

"trumpet," a

delightful

he brought back with

him from a country

"Toy"

find

more serious achievements.

"whistle,"

"triangle," and a "quail."

For

wrote a symphony

movements, adding also

two

violin parts

in

three

this

and a double bass to

are told that the

combination he

his score.

performers laughed so

they could not keep their time.

much

We
that

This jeu d'esprit has

become very popular at school and other performances,


as has a similar work by Romberg, which includes
much the same instruments, as well as a rattle and
a bell (to say nothing of a part for pianoforte duet

The

effect

in

movement

last
;

it

is

of Haydn's

is

!).

extremely humorous

played three times, each time faster

than before, and ends with a scurrying presto.

To

include voices in the performance of a

was an innovation

for

hoven.
Beethoven's
,,

,,

"Choral"
his

it

in his

symphony

which we have to thank Beet-

The composer had already

tried

Fantasia for ^
pianoforte, orchestra
.

..

and chorus, op. 80, before employing it in


great " Choral " Symphony (see Chapter VH.).
182

Vocal Symphonies
Since his day the experiment has been tried over and

over again, but with more persistence by modern than

by the better-known composers.

two important names may


and Berlioz frequently include

In this connection one or

be

mentioned.

Liszt

cltoruses in their

second

_^
novelty

symphonic works

in his

symphony MahleL, introduces


.

the

Voices as

Symphonic

of a solo song^ in addition to parts

foi^a _boys' choir-and-a three-part choir of


In one of his latest symphonies,

female voices^

Song_of_E.arth7-'Hiiere are solos for tenor

"The

and contralto.

The natural corollary to the employment of the chorus


in symphony is the omission of the orchestra altogether
an experiment which has been made by Granville

Bantock;

this

composer,

in

Atalanta in Calydon, writes

a choir of twenty parts, and has endeavoured to

for

provide by different groupings of his choral forces the

same kind of variety of tone colouring and contrast


which

is

obtained from the different departments of the

With Arnold Schon-

berg

we

find

the

solo

voice admitted into the


hitherto pure and classic

realm of the string


quartett.

Symphony

Story of
orchestra.

though

To

its

and a

This work,

recently appeared,

is

successor which has

certainly revolutionary in idea,

success appears doubtful.

We

return to Beethoven.

have already noticed

Sym-

the tendency to description in the "Pastoral"

Much more leaning: towards programme music is indicated in the same

phony.
" Battle"
_

^--

Symphony

....

" BatUe^' Syrnphony {not one

composer's

of the " immortal nine," nor a very great work).

composer himself spoke of


although Niecks classes

it

it

The

as a piece of tomfoolery,

as "important

among

battle

work "Rule Britannia" stands for


the English forces, and " Malbrough s'en va-t-en
guerre " for the French. The battle itself is noisily

pieces."

In this

indicated, the defeat of the French represented by their

theme being played

in the

general jubilation, with

This experiment

is

minor, and at the end comes

much " God save

the King."

not highly to be commended, even

though perpetrated by Beethoven. It has led to awful


pianoforte pieces, such as the " Battle of Prague," and
to vulgar orchestral effusions, of which Tchaikovsky's

" 1812

"

Overture

is

a type.

movements
a symphony, which had grown into

The conventionality
and

their order in

qi>ite

as to the

number

of

an accepted condition of things by the time of

Haydn, was disturbed, no doubt quite without


184

pre-

Spohr's Experiments
who

meditation, by Schubert,
orchestral

work

left

He

"unfinished."

most exquisite

his

knew

probably

nothing- of the precedent set in the late


r

Ti

Schubert's

pianoforte
sonatas of Beethoven,' and
^
some accident alone prevented the com-

,,,,,,,, ..
"Unfinished"

The older convention still largely


to number of movements (more's the pity,
movements are usually poor), but their

pletion of his work.

obtains as
fourth

for

disposition has been considerably varied by later

posers, as by Tchaikovsky in leaving the slow

com-

move-

ment of his " Pathetic " Symphony to the end.


To Spohr may be attributed the real "programme"
symphony, his great work, "The Consecration of
Sound,"

at

which

no previous attempts of importance

in the

dating-

construction

from 1832, a date

of

symphony with

Spohr

definite

pro-

gramme basis had been made.^ Spohr directed that


poem which the work illustrated must be distributed

the

Of

course, a

a piece of

mere

title for

programme music.

work

Were

is

not enough to justify

this the case,

it

as

the Dittersdorf

symphonies might be classed as programme symphonies, and Beethoven's

What

is

"

Pastoral " and other works might

here said of Spohr finds

symphonies are

definitely

fall

into the

its justification

same category.

in the fact that his

based on a programme of events of which

the music seeks to give an illustration, and this not merely as a piece
of occasional realism but as a definite whole.

"

Symphony

Story of

to the audience, or else recited aloud before the

play-

This instruction should apply to

ing of the music.

programme music, which

loses

unless the poetic idea on which

much
it

is

of

its

based

is

all

meaning
grasped

beforehand.

With

his

symphony

and the Divine

for

Human

in

two orchestras, "The Earthly


Life," Spohr made yet another

Eleven solo stringed instruments represent

innovation.

the Divine, while the ordinary


the

Earthly

definite

orchestra stands for

each of the three

title " Childhood,"

"Triumph

full

movements has

"The Age

of the Divine."

In the " HistGricIi-Syjtnphony Spohr writes the

movement
<

Historic

its

of Passions,"

in the style of

first

music of the period of Bach

period
the second, r
and Handel (dated 1720);
'
-"
the third,
of Haydn and Mozart (1780)
periodof Beethoven (1810); and the fourth,
'

period of his

own day

(1840).

of and transitions

S^et

another symphony

moods
between Spring, Summer, Autumn,

"The

of Spohr's, called

Seasons," reflects the

and Winter.
Although not strictly a symphony, F^licien David's
symphonic ode, " Le Desert," shows a further device
**Lc Desert"

that of connecting
^ the various instrumental

and

spoken) words
'
\
.

vocal
;

the

movements

by

recited

{i.e.,

speaking of words through the


186

Modern Extravagances
music (melodrama)

is

a more familiar form of a similar

idea.

many innovaHolbrooke's "Illuminated" Symphony

In recent times composers have tried

Josef

tions.
is

The music, which

one of these.

both orchestral and vocal,

is

based upon

is

Experiments

man."

poem, "Apollo and the SeaBut chorus and orchestra are hidden behind

a large

screen,

French's

upon which

pictures which thus

displayed a series of

is

the

illustrate

ideas

conjured up

by the orchestra or conveyed by the sung words.


nothing

is

left to

From this it is but a step to another


we are threatened the irradia-

are provided for.

innovation with which

tion of our concert halls

are to reflect

the

by colour combinations which

various instrumental combinations

which are taking place; the eye


in exactly the

of

man

same manner

as

is

is

to be appealed to

the ear.

The ingenuity

continue to invent things of this kind,

will

though how

Here

the imagination, both eye and ear

far

human

nature will tolerate such ex-

periments remains to be seen.

When
that

it

all is

is

said

and done, however, we

the music to which

still

we must always

realize

return.

may please us for a time,


Conclusion
our imagmations may be kmdled, our sensations may be pandered to, all sorts of voluptuous
Freakish tricks

,,

187

Symphony

Story of
attacks on eye and ear
it is

maybe made;

but

in the

end

the pure, unsullied beauty of the music itself which

appeals: music, without adventitious aid; music standingits

firmly on

its

indefinable

perfection

There

is

of

own

charm

feet, appealingf to
;

our senses by

to our brains by its logic, its

construction,

its

clearness

of

always room for experiment, there

some one who

will

outline.
is

always

be attracted by a curiosity; but, for

stuff that will endure,

we must seek

that truthful

and

noble outpouring of spirit that characterizes the finest

Was

music.
*'

From

heart

it

it

not Beethoven, after

all,

who

said

the heart this music has sprung, and to the


shall penetrate " ?

88

Appendices.
A.

Chronological

B.

Glossary of Terms.

C.

Lists of Instruments employed in Symphonies

List of the more important


Composers of Symphonies.

OF Different Periods.

with Definite Titles grouped


UNDER Alphabetical List of Composers'
Names.

D.

Symphonies

E.

Bibliography

189

.'A

{Photo hy C. Erase k (Berlin).

BRAHMS.

Appendix A.

more
important Composers of Sym-

Chronological

List

of

the

phonies.
1

17.

Hubert Waclrant (Brabant), 1517-95. A distinguished


contrapuntal composer, whose " Symphonia Angelica"
appeared

15

They

are for voices only.

He was the originator of opera, as we


Jacopo Peri.
understand the term. In his Euridice (1600) appears a
little

1567.

in 1585.

Zinfonia for three

flutes.

Claudio Monteverde (Cremona),

567-1643.

powerful

personality in developing the resources of the orchestra,

and of the methods of writing


overture,
1585.
'

1587.

some

for instruments.

The

had influence upon the


which eventually expanded into the symphony.

preludes to

of his operas

Heinrich Schutz (Kostritz), 1585-1672. A famous church


composer who wrote a number of Symphoniae Sacras
(published by Breitkopf & Hartel).

Samuel Scheldt (Halle-on-Salle), 1587- 1654. A German


church composer whose works include seventy " Symphonien auf Concert-Manier."
191

Story of
1633.

Symphony

Jean Batiste LtjIIy (Florence), 1633-87. Became famous


works in the direction of opera, and his success
in Paris.
He invented a form of overture which was
much in favour and was afterwards employed by Handel.

for his

1658.

Henry Purcell (London),

1658-95.

This English com-

poser did remarkable work in many directions, chiefly in


church music and in opera. His " Laudate Ceciliam"
(1683) contains a symphony, a maestoso in
three-two time.

major in

1659.

Alessandro Scarlatti (Trapani), 1659-1725. This famous


opera composer used the orchestra boldly, and very
frequently wrote ritornelli in his arias, etc. His " Twelve
Symphonies for Small Orchestra" appeared in 171 5.

1685.

Johann Sebastian Bach (Eisenach), 1685-1750.


mighty list of works includes a Symphony in F
rule

his

orchestral

works were

termed

His
;

as a

concertos

or

suites.

1685.

George Frederick Handel

(Halle), 1685-1759.

Like his

great compatriot, Bach, Handel's orchestral movements,

though many, are rarely described by the name symphony. The short " Pastoral " Symphony in the Messiah
is,

1686.

1690.

of course,

known

to

all.

Niccola Antonio Porpora (Naples), 1686- 1766, employed


the term " chamber symphonies " for his six works for
two violins, 'cello, and continuo.

Guiseppc Valentini (Florence), 1690-1735. This Italian


(whose birth is sometimes given as 1680) was
an early composer of symphonies; his op. i is a set of
Twelve "Sinfonie 3" (z>., in three parts, and not for
violinist

full

orchestra).

192

Appendix

1693.

Christoph Forstcr (Thuringia), 1693-1745.


hundred works include symphonies.

1698.

Johann Graun (Wahrenbriick), 1698-1771. Less famous


than his brother, who wrote the famous " Uer Tod Jesu,"
but the composer of some forty symphonies.

1699.

1705.

His three

Christoph Schrotcr (Hohenstein), 1699-1782. A famous


Saxon organist, one of the claimants to the invention of
He wrote sonatas and symphonies.
the pianoforte.

Giovanni B. Sammartini
symphony was produced in

(Milan),
1734,

1705-75.

His

followed; he has been called "the precursor of


in

first

and twenty-three others

Haydn

symphonie and chamber music."

1706.

An instruBaldassare Galuppi (Burano), 1706-85.


mental composer whose works, according to Burney, had
more influence on English music than those of any other
composer.

171

H. Blainville (Tours), 171 1-69.


Wrote a
symphony in the Phrygian (or Me) mode, which received
the commendation of Rousseau.

1.

1711.

Charles

Ignaz Holzbauer (Vienna), 1711-83.

His works, which

include no fewer than one hundred and ninety-six symphonies, were warmly praised by Mozart.
1714.

Carl Philipp

Emmanuel Bach

third son of the great

J. S.

quite important as bearing

(Weimar), 1714-88. The


Bach. His symphonies are

upon the work of Haydn and

Mozart.
1714.

Christopher Willibald Gluck (Weidenwang), 1714-87.


His influence upon the operatic overture was great he
strove to give, in the music of the overture, a foreshadowing of the emotional purport of the opera.
;

193

13

Symphony

Story of
1715.

1717.

G. C. Wagcnscil (Vienna), 1715-77. A favourite composer of his day for the clavier. His works include
divertimenti and symphonies.

K. Stamitz (Deutsch-Brod), 1717-61. An early and


important composer of symphonies, favourably mentioned by Burney.
A thematic catalogue of his forty-

J.

five

1719.

symphonies

exists.

Leopold Mozart (Augsburg), 1719-87. The father of the


great composer, and himself the writer of important
musical works, including symphonies.

1724.

C. G. Toschi (Munich), 1724-88. A prolific composer


whose "symphonies were favourites in Paris before
Haydn's advent." His dates are also given as 1745-1800.

Wrote eighteen

1724.

Pierre van Malder (Brussels), 1724-68.


symphonies.

1725.

Karl Frederick Abel (Coethen), 1725-87. One of those


symphony composers who influenced Haydn in the
matter of "form."

1727.

Joh.

Wilhelm Hertcl
Duke

(Eisenach),

1727-89.

Concert-

Mecklenburg-Schwerin.
wrote oratorios, sonatas, and twelve symphonies.

meister to the

1730.

of

Franz Beck (Mannheim), 1730-1S09.

violinist

He
who

wrote some symphonies.


1730-

Ignaz von Beccke, 1730-1803.


Mozart, who
symphonies.

1731.

wrote

an

oratorio,

friend of

some

Cluck and
and

operas

Christian Cannabich (Mannheim), 1731-98. A popular


composer of ballets, operas, and symphonies. Mozart
praised him highly as a conductor.

194

Appendix
17

Friedrich Schwindl, 17
His symphonies were
1786.
very popular in London and on the Continent about
1770.

1732.

J.

J.

Bach (Leipsic), 1732-95. Ninth son of


Bach, whose cantatas and symphonies enjoyed

C. Friedrich
S.

some measure
1732.

Joseph

Haydn

of success.

(Rohrau), 1732-1809,

"The Father

of the

Symphony." His many (one hundred and fifty-seven)


symphonies are not of equal importance, but in the last
ones he worked with a very sure hand and his efforts

symphony as
The total number of his symphonies is
given, some of them not being distinguishable

resulted in the firm establishment of the

an

art form.

variously

from overtures.
1734.

F. J. Gossec (Vergnies), 1734-1829. Wrote twenty-seven


symphonies (mostly for Paris) the first of these, published in 1754, antedated the earliest of Haydn's by five
;

years.
1737.

Michael Haydn (Rohrau), 1737-1806.


Younger
brother of Joseph Haydn
he wrote much music, including about thirty symphonies.
J.

1737-

Joseph Mysliwcczek (near Prague), 1737-81.


Wrote
symphonies, operas, and oratorios. Mozart speaks v.ell
of his sonatas.

1738.

Franz "Weiss (Miihlhausen), 1738-95. This composer of


symphonies was a member of the private band of
George III.

six

1739.

K. D. von Dittcrsdorf (Vienna), 1739-99. One of the


compose symphonies upon a programme basis
or with a definite title.
(See Appendix D.)
earliest to

195

Symphony

Story of
1739.

J.

B.

Wanhal

(Neu-Nechanitz),

1739-1813.

This

Bohemian wrote symphonies which were popular

No

in

than one hundred are given in the


Dictionary of Boheiniaii Musicians. Burney speaks of
their day.

them
1741.

J.

G.

less

as " spirited, natural,

Naumann

and

(Blasewitz),

unafifected."

Wrote many

1741-1801.

operas and symphonies.


1741.

Giovanni PaisicIIo (Taranto), 1741-1816.


A famous
composer of opera, who devoted most of his life to that
form of the art.
He also found time to write twelve
symphonies.

1741.

W. Pichell (Vienna), 1741-1805. Left


music, including eighty-eight symphonies.

1741.

His harmonies
A. E. M. Gretry (Liege), 1741-1813.
used to be spoken of disparagingly, and the remark was
made "that one could draw a coach and four between
the bass and the first fiddle." He was a very capable
opera composer, however, and gave to the world also
some six symphonies.

1743.

Luigi Bocchcrini (Lucca), 1743- 1805.

composer of chamber music.

He

also

mass of

most

prolific

wrote twenty

symphonies.
1745.

Salomon (Bonn), 1745-1815. Famous for his conwho wrote the twelve symphonies
called the " Salomon " set for the London concerts of the
Bonn violinist.
J.

P.

nection with Haydn,

1746.

1746.

Karl Stamitz (Mannheim), 1746-1S01. Asonof Johann


Stamitz; his works include nine symphonies.
Giovanni G. Cambini (Leghorn), 1746-1825. A prolific
composer of symphonies which, however, were of little
value or importance.

196

Appendix
1749.

Domcnico Cimarosa

A
One

(Aversa), 1749-1801.

of the

His works

most noted of early composers of opera.


include seven symphonies.
1749.

Abbe Vogler, The

(Wiirzburg),

1749-1814.

dis-

His Symphony in C,
one of his best works, was performed by Mendelssohn
on two occasions at the Gewandhaus at Leipsic.
tinguished organist and theorist.

1750.

Franz Anton Roessler (or Rosetti), 1750-92. Wrote a


symphony entitled " Calypso et Telemaque," and another called " La Chute de Phaeton."
great imitative

One

of

the

many composers, about

this

period,

of

"hunting" symphonies.
1750.

1750.

Antonio Salieri (Legnago), 1750-1825, was a well-known


composer of opera after the manner of Gluck. He also
experimented in symphony.
Stcrkel (Wiirzburg), 1750-1817. A very productive
composer, whose ten symphonies were popular in their

Abbe
day.

Birnbach

1751.

Karl

ten symphonies are accredited to him.

1752.

J.

(Silesia), 1751-1805.

prolific writer;

Muzio Clementi (Rome), 1752-1832. Celebrated for his


books of studies for the pianoforte; he composed symphonies and overtures.

1752.

Justin Heinrich

Knecht

(Biberach), 1752-1817.

Wrote

number

of symphonies with titles; the most interesting


of these, " Portrait musical de la Nature," has a pro-

gramme corresponding almost

entirely

with

that

of

Beethoven's "Pastoral" Symphony.


1752.

I
F

Succeeded
A. Kozeluch (Wellwarn), 1752-1814.
Mozart as Court composer. He wrote a great number
of works, including thirty symphonies.

L.

197

Story of
1752.

Symphony

Johann F. Rcichardt (Konigsberg), 1752-1814. Was


Capellmeister to Frederick the Great, and was one of
the earhest to employ analytical programmes. He wrote
seven symphonies, besides numerous operas and other
works.

^753-

Gactano Brunetti (Pisa), 1753-1808.


Was a Court
musician to Charles IV. of Spain; he wrote thirty-seven
symphonies.

1754.

Pater

Sixtus

organist

who

Bachmann

(Bavaria),

1754-1818.

Mozart; he afterwards became a monk.


works are some symphonies.
1754.

Amongst

his

Peter von Winter (Mannheim), 1754-1825.


A wellknown composer of operas, many of them highly extolled
in their day.

are
1756.

An

had, at the age of ten, a contest with

now

Like his forty operas, his nine symphonies

forgotten.

(Salzburg), 1756-91. One


of the most supreme masters of symphony.
His last

Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart

three examples remain models of purity of style

and

elegance of symmetry.
1756.

1756.

August F. K. Kollmann (Hanover), 1756-1829. The


composer of a programme symphony, " The Shipwreck."
Paul Wranitzky (Moravia), 1756-1808. One of Haydn's
Esterhdz composer of chamber music and

violinists at

of twenty-seven symphonies.
1757.

Ignaz Joseph PIcyel (Rupertsthal), 1757-1831.


As a
boy he studied with Haydn, and later was the founder
of the Pleyel pianoforte factory.
His numerous compositions include twenty-nine symphonies.

198

Appendix
1760,

Maria Luigi C. Z. S. Chcrubini (Florence), 1760-1842.


Best known now by his book on counterpoint, and
sometimes remembered by his operas. He wrote a few
symphonies.

1760.

1760.

Franz Krommcr (Kamenitz), 1760-1831. A violinist


conductor and composer of symphonies, quartets, etc.
F.

Neubauer

C.

(Horzin),

Wrote

1760-95.

twelve

symphonies.
1763.

Adalbert Gyrcwetz (Bohemia), 1763-1850. A friend of


Mozart; he wrote thirty operas, forty ballets, and sixty
symphonies.

1763.

Gottlob Bachmann (Saxony), 1763- 1840.


opera and symphony.

1763.

Franz Danzi (Mannheim),

763- 1 826.

Composer of
singing teacher

who penned symphonies.


1765.

J.

B. Brcval, 1765-1825.

French

'cellist

who wrote

eight symphonies.
1766.

An

Francisco Basili, 1766-1850.

Italian

composer of

opera, oratorio, and symphony.


1766.

Anton Ebcrl
and

of

Mozart

(Vienna), 1766- 1807.


;

is

remembered by

Gluck
and sym-

friend of

his operas

phonies.
On one occasion his Symphony in E flat
appears to have been placed in the same programme as
Beethoven's " Eroica," and was criticized more favourably than that masterpiece
!

1767.

Andreas Romberg (Vienna), 1767-1821. A well-known


composer, long remembered by his setting of Schiller's

"Lay

of the Bell."

His

but the popularity of his

six

symphonies are forgotten,

"Toy" Symphony

that of Haydn's.

199

quite equals

Story of

Symphony

1769.

Joseph Xavcr Eisner (Grottkau), 1769- 1 854.


One of
the teachers of Chopin, and a popular composer of
Polish operas, besides many symphonies and other

1770.

Ludwig von Beethoven

1770.

Anton Joseph Reicha (Prague),


Bohemian theorist and friend

1770- 1836.

symphonies

experiments

works.

exhibit

(Bonn), 1770-1827.

interesting

of

A famous
his
Beethoven
;

in

their

harmonies.
1772.

1774.

Christian G. A. Bergt (Saxony), 1772-1837. Composer of


popular Lieder as well as symphonies and sacred music.

Johann W. Tomaschek (Bohemia), 1774-1850. A composer whose works influenced Schumann he wrote one
;

symphony.
1776.

Ignaz

Seyfried

pupil of Mozart's,

(Vienna),

1776-1841.

who wrote numerous

An

industrious

oratorios, operas,

and symphonies.
1778.

Franz Weiss (Vienna), 1778-1830, who wrote symphonies


and other works, was the viola player in the famous
"Schuppanzigh " quartett which first performed' Beethoven's strmg quartetts under that master's direction.

1779.

Stefano Pavesi (Casaletto Vaprio), 1779-1850.


composer of opera and symphony.

1782.

Joseph

Blumenthal (Brussels), 1782-1850.


A
and pupil of the Abbe Vogler
wrote some
symphonic works.

von

violinist,

1784.

Italian

Francois

J.

Fetis (Mons), 1784-1871.

was also a prolific composer.


symphonies and overtures.
200
ician,

A famous theoretHis works include

Appendix
1784.

George Onslow (Clermont-Ferrand), 1784-1852. Devoted


most of his life to chamber music he wrote four symphonies, one of them being penned for the Philharmonic
Society of London upon his election as a member.
;

The biographer

of

1784.

Ferdinand Ries (Bonn), 1784-1838.


Beethoven; wrote six symphonies.

1784.

Louis Spohr (Brunswick), 1784-1859. One of the most


interesting of all who wrote symphonies, but one whom
the world very largely forgets to-day.

1786.

J.

C.

F.

composer

A- prolific
Schneider (Saxony), 1786- 1853.
he is accredited with twenty-three sym-

phonies.
1786.

Carl Maria von Weber (Eutin), 1786-1826. A genius


as regards opera, but his early symphonies are of little
account.

1788.

Johann F. Berwald (Stockholm), 1788-1861. Was a


precocious violinist, who wrote a symphony at the age
of nine

1789.

Ramon

Carnicer (Catalonia),

1789-1855.

Spanish

composer of national opera and of symphony.


1789.

Fricdrich

Ernst

clever composer,

A
Fesca (Magdeburg), 1789- 1826.
whose symphonies, however, fail by

reason of their poor orchestration.


1794.

Anselm Hiittenbrenncr
of operas, symphonies,

(Graz),

1794-1868.

and songs.

Composer

Beethoven died

in

his arms.

1795.

J.

B. Birnbach (Bresiau),

his gifted pupil Nicolai;

much

other music.

Is famous for
1795-1879.
he wrote two symphonies and

Story of
1796.

Symphony

Franz Bcrwald (Stockholm), 1796- 1868. The director


wrote symphonies and

of the Stockhohii Conservatoire

an opera.
1797.

Franz Schubert (Vienna), 1797-1828. His " Unfinished"


Symphony is perhaps more frequently played than any
other in concerts of repute.
Beethoven's "C minor"
runs

1798.

it

very close in popularity.

K. G. Rcissiger (Belzig), 1798-1859. Wrote easily and


much, but his music, although very popular for a time,
had no enduring merit his mass of compositions includes
one symphony.
;

1801.

John L. Ellerton

An

(Chester), 1801-73.

early

com-

poser of English nationality to write symphonies of


any importance; his five examples include a "Forest"

symphony.
1801.

Joseph Janssens (Antwerp), 1801-35. One of the earliest


Belgian composers to cultivate programme music, as he
did in his symphony " Le Lever du Soleil."

1801.

Johann W. Kalliwoda (Prague),

1801-66.

His many

compositions include six symphonies.


1802.

John Barnett (Bedford), 1802-90. Well known as the


composer of the opera, "The Mountain Sylph"; wrote a
symphony, which has remained in manuscript.

1802.

W.

1803.

B. Molique (Nuremberg), 1802-69.


not outstanding all-round composer
stands to his name.

A
;

good though
one symphony

Alfred J. Becher (Manchester), 1803-40, who wrote one


symphony, was shot as a revolutionary.
202

Appendix
1803.

Hector L. Berlioz (Grenoble), 1803-69, the "father of

modern

orchestration,"

important as a programme

is

symphonist.
1803.

Franz Lachner (Munich), 1803-90. At one time held a


very honoured position amongst German musicians one
of his symphonies (of which there are eight) received
;

high praise from Schumann.


1804.

Sir

Julius

Benedict (Stuttgart),

1804-85.

prolific

composer of opera wrote also concertos and symphonies.


His long residence in this country caused him to rank as
an English composer.
;

1804.

Heinrich L. E. Dorn (Konigsberg), 1804-92.


One of
many opponents of Wagner; wrote a symphony.

the
1806.

J.

F. KittI (Bohemia), 1806-68.

He

Conservatoire of Prague.

Was

wrote

a director of the

much

music, includ-

ing some symphonies.


1807.

Jan van
pianist

who
1808.

Boom

(Utrecht),

who wrote mostly

also

1807-72.

for his

own

distinguished

instrument, but

penned operas and symphonies.

Michael Costa (Naples), 1808-84.


Wrote three
symphonies
his work, which was mainly done in
England, was chiefly as a conductor, in which role he
Sir

attained to considerable fame.


1809.

Felix

Mendelssohn

"Italian" and
frequently heard.

His

1809.

Bartholdy (Hamburg), 1809-47.


"Scotch" symphonies are very

Adolf F. Hesse (Breslau), 1809-63.


director of the Breslau

Symphony

he wrote some works.

203

For many years


Concerts, for which

Story of
1810.

1810.

Symphony

Norbert Burgmullcr (Dusseldorf), 1810-36. A pupil of


Spohr, who died at an early age; his two symphonies
and other works showed great promise.
FcHcien David (Vaucluse), 1810-76. Is famous in the
symphony by virtue of his very interesting
symphonic ode, " Le Desert," which is, however, more

history of

of a cantata than a

symphony

proper.

He

also wrote

fine operas.

1810,

Ferdinand David (Hamburg), 1810-73. A famous violinwhose advice Mendelssohn took in the writing of his
well-known violin concerto.
David composed symphonies, but is best remembered by his much used
ist,

"Violin School."
1810.

Robert Schumann (Zwickau), 1810-56.

His symphonies

contain glorious thoughts, but their orchestration

always very
181

1.

181

1.

181

1.

is

not

effective.

Konstantin J. Becker (Freiburg),


Saxon composer of symphony.

181 1-59.

Was

Wrote three
Ferdinand Hiller (Frankfort), 181 1-85.
symphonies, one being entitled " Spring must come at
last."

Franz Liszt (Raiding), 181 1-86. The master pianist;


composed some interesting symphonies; he is accredited
with the invention of the "symphonic poem," and left

many

fine

hearing
1811.

in

examples of such works, which

still

find a

our concert-rooms.

Vincenz Lachner (Rain), 1811-93. Though less famous


as a symphony composer than his brother Ignaz, yet did
good work. He conducted a season of German opera in
London in 1842.
204

Appendix

1811.

K. G. W. Taubcrt (Berlin), 181 1


symphonies, and chamber music.

1812.

Jos.

K. Boers, 1812-96.

Is

91.

Wrote

operas,

one of the few Dutch com-

posers of symphony.
1812.

Hermann Hirschbach

(Berlin), 1812-88.

notable on

Schumann expected much from


as well as of music
him. He wrote fourteen symphonies, and in a preface
;

to

two of them

(op.

46 and 47) he writes interestingly as


and which influenced his

to the motives which induced

compositions.
1812.

J.

A. great editor of Mozart's


Reitz (Berlin), 1812-77.
Beethoven's symphonies ; himself wrote three

and

examples.
18 12.

C. G. P. Gradener (Rostock), 1812-83. Spent most of


Hamburg. He wrote two symphonies.

his life in

1813.

Sir G. A. Macfarren (London), 1813-87.


led a busy

and

life

cantata.

A man

who

and composed much, more especially opera


His symphonies are good examples of

their kind.
1813.

Richard Wag'ner (Leipsic), 1813-83. This great master


of music drama wrote a symphony in C major at the age
of nineteen, confessedly on the model of Mozart and
Beethoven it was played in 1833 at the Gewandhaus,
and then the score was "forced" upon Mendelssohn,
;

who apparently

mislaid it. As long after that date as


1872 a set of parts was discovered, and in 1882 Wagner
himself conducted a performance at Venice. The intense
interest taken in

Wagner's music

still

accounts for an

occasional performance of the symphony, which, howlittle merit of its own, and was described by
composer as " an old-fashioned ouvrage de jeunesse."

ever, has

205

its

Symphony

Story of
1815.

F. R.

Volkmann (Lommatzsch),

of whose works

some

1815-83.

authorities speak highly

composer
;

he wrote

some seriously-conceived symphonies.


1815.

Henry Hugo Pierson


symphony,

is

(Oxford), 1815-73,

remembered by

who wrote one


second

his setting of the

part of Goethe's Faust.


1816.

William Stcrndale Bennett (Sheffield), 1816-75.


one of the foremost English composers of the
His one symphony stands in
nineteenth century.
Sir

Was

G
1817.

minor,

Anton Berlyn (Amsterdam),

1817-70.

A Dutch com-

poser of opera and symphony.


1817.

1817.

A conductor of
E. M. E. Deldcvcz (Paris), 1817-97.
the Grand Opera. Wrote three symphonies.
The first of
Niels W. Gadc (Copenhagen), 1817-90.
the Scandinavian musicians to rivet European attention.
Wrote

eight

symphonies and some good orchestral

overtures.
1

81 7.

Lcfdbure-Wely (Paris), 1817-69. Was a very famous


and achieved eminence for his improvisations.
He wrote symphonies and many other works.

organist,

1817.

Fritz

Spindler

(Lobenstein),

writer for the pianoforte,


1

818.

Antonio Bazzini

(Brescia),

violin compositions are

Wrote
1818.

who

1817-1906.

prolific

also wrote symphonies.

1818-97,

much played

in

some

of

whose

the present day.

a symphonic poem, " Francesca da Rimini."

Jean Baptiste C. Dancia (Bagneres-de-Begoire).


four symphonies.

Some

of his violin pieces are

esteemed,

206

Wrote

much

Appendix
1818.

Heinrlch Esser (Mannheim), 1S18-72.


Some of his
symphonies (ops. 44, 79) are published and gain an
occasional hearing.

1819.

T.

L.

Gouvy

(Saarbruck),

1819-98.

Composed

an

enormous amount of music, including seven symphonies.


1821.

August Conradi (Berlin), 1821-73.


chamber music, and five symphonies.

1822.

Cesar August Francfc (Liege), 1822-90.


One of the
most interesting modern composers of absolute music;
his Symphony in D minor is a fine work, and his symphonic poems are also of a fascinating description.

1822.

J.

Wrote

operas,

Joachim Raff (Lachen), 1822-82. A composer whose


some extent, set for many years his fine
descriptive "Leonore" symphony was constantly played.
star has, to

1823.

Selmar Bagge (Coburg), 1823-96.


writer of one symphony.

1S23.

K. J. Bischoff (Ansbach), 1823-93.


symphonies.

1823.

Giovanni Bottesini (Lombardy), 1823-89. Was a very


famous double-bass player. Wrote operas, symphonies,

Composer and

Composed

critic;

three

overtures, etc.
1823.

L. E. E. Reycr (Marseilles), 1823-1909.


Wrote a fine
symphonic ode in addition to an opera, " Sigurd."

1824.

Adolphe Samuel (Liege), 1824-98. A winner of the


Grand Prix de Rome. Composed seven symphonies.

1824.

Jos.

1824.

J.

A Belgian
Batta (Maestricht).
poser of symphonies and overtures.
N. Coencn (The Hague),

symphonies.

207

1824-99.

'cellist

and com-

Composed two

Story of
1824.

Sym hony

Anton Bruckner (Upper Austria), 1824-96. One of the


of modern German music
at one time he

leaders

seriously

contain
1824.

rivalled

some

Brahms, and

his

symphonies

nine

fine music.

G. E. Goltermann (Hanover), 1824-98. A fine 'cellist.


by him was played in Leipsic in 185 1.

A symphony
1824.

Carl H. C. Rcinccke (Altona), 1824-1910.

composer
His many

of very great industry and colossal output.

works include three symphonies.


1824.

Friedrich Smetana(Leitomischl), 1824-84. The "Father


Bohemian Opera" and the teacher of Dvofdk. Is

of

remembered in our concert-rooms by


of symphonic poems.
1825.

G.

F.

violinist

1825.

Bristow (Brooklyn), 1825-98.


An
and composer of opera, symphony,

Wa

Adolf von Doss (Bavaria), 1825-86.

who wrote
1825.

his very fine cycle

American
etc.

Jesuit priest

three symphonies.

L. Ehlcrt (Konigsberg), 1825-84.

and Mendelssohn.

pupil of

Schumann

His "Spring" symphony

is

one of

his best compositions.

composer

1826.

Jean Jos. Bott (Cassel), 1826-95.


of symphony.

1826.

Emil Buchner (Naumburg). Capellmeister of Meiningen


and composer of symphonies.

1826.

violinist

Franz Coenen (Rotterdam), 1826-1904.

Composed one

symphony.
1827.

E. Silas (Amsterdam) had a


in

London on two

Symphony

in

or three occasions, 1863-64.

208

performed

Appendix
1827.

Adolf Fischer
symphonies.

1828.

Woldcmar Bargiel (Berlin), 1828-97.


C is included amongst his works.

1828.

Pietro Bianchini (Venice)

Wrote

(Pomerania), 1827-93.

of Italian writers of

several

A Symphony

in

one of the small number

is

symphony.

1829.

A. H. Dietrich (Meissen) was a pupil of Schumann


he wrote a Symphony in D.

1829.

Louis M. Gottschalfc (New Orleans), 1829-69. Was at


one time a very well-known pianist.
He wrote an
entitled symphony.

1829.

Anton G. Rubinstein (Wechwotynecz), 1829-94, who


achieved eminence in so many musical directions, wrote

many symphonies,

of which

"The Ocean"

is

the best

known.
1830.

Hans von Bronsart

"1830.

Hans von Bulow

"Powers

(Dresden),

conductor, composed
1830.

His symphonies include

(Berlin).

two, entitled " In the Alps,"

1830-94,

critic,

pianist,

some symphonic works.

Edward Lassen (Copenhagen),


his

of Fate."

charming songs and

his

Best known by
1830-94.
Faust music, wrote two

symphonies.
1831.

Henry

C. Banister (London), 1831-97.

writer of books

on music

he

also

well-known

composed sym-

phonies.
1831.

Salomon

Jadassohn

(Breslau),

1831-1902.

one hundred and


positions, including four symphonies.

theoretician, wrote over

209

Another
com-

thirty

14

Story of
1832.

Symphony

Abert (Bohemia), who wrote a " Spring" Symphony,


was much praised by Liszt he was a successful composer
J. J.

of opera.
1832.

1832.

Leopold Damrosch (Posen), 1832-85.


and Wagner, wrote a symphony.

The friend

of Liszt

Karl Goldmark (Keszthely), 1832-1915, wrote a highly


"Rustic Wedding" Symphony. The year

successful

1830
1833.

is

also given as being that of his birth.

Otto Bach (Vienna), 1833-93.

Kapellmeister of Salz-

burg, and composer of operas and five symphonies.


1833.

Franz Bcndel (Bohemia), 1833-74. A pupil of Liszt,


and composer of attractive pianoforte pieces, also wrote
some symphonies.

1833.

Johannes Brahms (Hamburg), 1833-97.


modern German symphonists.

1834.

A. E. A. Becker (Quedlinburg), 1834-99. His Symphony in G minor is amongst his finest works.

1834.

Peter Benoit (Harlebeck), 1834-91. One of the most


Like Beethoven and
recognized Flemish composers.
others, he wrote a "

1834.

The

finest of

Choral" Symphony.

Alex. P. Borodin (Petrograd), 1834-77. Was a great


chemist as well as a musician. He is famous for his
operas, and his larger works include three symphonies
and a symphonic poem.

1835.

1835.

Julius von Beliczay (Hungary), 1835-93. A pupil of


Joachim, whose orchestral works include a symphony.
Jules E. D.

Cohen

writer of song, also

(Marseilles),

1835-1901.

prolific

penned some symphonic music.


210

Appendix
1835.

Felix A. B. Draeseckc (Coburg). A disciple of Liszt,


was a revolutionary in principle, but has more recently
returned

to

orthodoxy, and

has

written

three

sym-

phonies.
1835.

This versatile and


^' Camille Saint-Saens (Paris).
composer is often represented in concert programmes by his highly interesting symphonic poems ;

gifted

his
1835.

symphonies have commanded

less attention.

Ebenezer Prout (Oundle), 1835- 1909. Professor Prout


was a voluminous composer. His four symphonies and
many other works are now rarely played, but his
theoretical writings are of great value.

1836.

1836.

Mily Alex. Balakireff (Nishni-Novgorod), 1836-1910.


One of the most interesting of Russian composers, and
one whose influence has been considerable. He wrote a
few symphonic poems and one symphony.
Robert

Emmerich (Hanau),

1836-1891.

A German

conductor, composed two symphonies.


1837.

1837.

John Francis Barnett (London),


numerous works is a Symphony in

1838.

his

Alfred Holmes (London), 1837-76. A famous violinist,


who produced four titled symphonies, which were
played

1838.

Amongst
mmor.

1837.

in

Petrograd, Paris, and London.

H. Schutz-Beuthen (Upper Silesia). A disciple of Liszt,


produced eight symphonies, several of which have titles.
(Cologne).
A well-known German comHis first symphony was produced at the age of
fourteen, and several have since appeared.
211

Max Bruch

poser.

Symphony

Story of
1838.

Samuel David

(Paris), 1838-95.

Composer

of four sym-

phonies and a symphonic ode, " Le Triomphe de


1839.

la Paix."

Victorin de Joncicrc (Paris), 1839-1903. A critic, and


Wagner, wrote two or three symphonies,
including a choral symphony.

follower of

1839.

Friedrich Gernshcim (Worms).


his

symphonies

in

minor and B

Jewish composer
are described as
;

flat

remarkable.
1839.

1839.

Edward Napravnik (Koniggratz). A Czech composer,


who wrote a symphony, "The Demon."
Knowlcs Paine (Portland, U.S.A.), 1839- 1906. Was
one of the foremost composers of serious music in
America
he wrote two symphonies and some symphonic poems,
J.

1839.

1 839-1901.
Devoted himcomposition of many kinds, especially enriching
the organ with a fine collection of sonatas.
Owed much

Joseph Rheinberger (Vaduz),


self to

of his early success to his "Florentine"

and

" Wallen-

stein" symphonies.

Hamilton Clarke (Birmingham), 1840-1912.


English composer of much music of various kinds.
Wrote two symphonies.

1840.

James

1840.

Hermann Goetz (Konigsberg), 1840-76. The early


death of Goetz prevented his fine Symphony in F from
having a successor his single work in this direction is
very highly thought of.
;

1840.

Friedrich K. Rudorff (Berlin), 1840-1908. A follower


Composed two symphonies.

of the Romantic School.

212

Appendix
1840.

1840.

His
S. Svcnsden (Christiania), 1840-1911.
symphony (in D major) has been much played
and other countries.
J.

P.

I.

Tchaikovsky (Votinsk),
this composer are

symphonies of

often played, as
1841.

any

The

1840-93.

later

known, and as

as well

at the present time.

Anton Dvorak (near Kralup), 1841-1904. One


his
most successful of modern symphonists
World Symphony" is almost a household word.
;

1841.

single
in this

of the
" New

At one time he was


1841-91.
considered as of importance amongst modern Italian
composers. His Symphony in F displays some origin-

Franco Faccio (Verona),

ality.

1842.

1842.

Heinrich Hoffmann (Berlin), 1842-1902.


"Frithjof" symphony.

Arthur

S.

Sullivan

(London),

1842-1900.

known as a composer of charming light


one symphony during his mid-career.
1843.

Composed

operas.

So well
Wrote

Asger Hamerik (Copenhagen). Has written six symHe was a pupil of Sade, and
phonies, all with titles.
also studied orchestration under Berlioz.

1843.

1843.

H. von Herzogenberg (Graz), 1843-1900. A composer


who was much influenced by Brahms. Wrote works of
many kinds, including a symphony, " Odysseus."

^ brother of
Gustav Jensen (Konigsberg), 1843-95.
more famous Adolph Jensen. Wrote one symphony.

the
1843.

Giovanni Sgambati (Rome), 1 843-1914. Was one who


upheld the lamp of classical musical art in Italy he contributed important examples to the list of symphonies.
;

213

Symphony

Story of
1843.

Jules

de

1844.

Swcrt

(Louvain),

1843-91.

well-known

and the composer of operas and symphony.

'cellist,

N. A. Rimsky-Korsakoff (Tichwin),

Another
His symare extremely well

1844-1908.

of the excellent Russian composers of opera.

phonies, mostly on

programme

lines,

orchestrated.
1844.

Josef Rebicek (Prague), 1844- 1904.


ductor.

Left

Symphony

in

A well-known conminor as his chief

composition.
1845.

Anastasius Drezzcr (Poland).


composer of two symphonies.

1845.

Gabriel Faur6 (Pamiers).

brilliant

pianist

and

prominent French com-

Wrote a symphony, produced

poser.
1845.

in Paris in 1885.

Charles Marie Widor (Lyons).


The distinguished
French organist.
Has written two orchestral symphonies, besides some so-called symphonies for the
organ.

1846.

August Bungert

(Miilheim).

A modern German follower

of the symphonic poem.


1846.

Jules

Bordier,

1846.

1846-96.

poems. Was one of the


the cause of Wagner.

first

composer of symphonic
Frenchmen to champion

Silas G. Pratt (Addison, U.S.A.).


A distinguished
American composer of symphonies and symphonic
suites.

1846.

Thomas Wingham

(London),

1846-93.

Wrote

four

symphonies.
1847.

Francis
theorist

W. Davenport (near Derby).


and composer of two symphonies.
214

musical

Appendix
1847.

1847.

Klughardt (Cothen), 1847- 1902.


" and four other symphonies.

August
"

A
Wrote

Leonore

Robert Fuchs (Frauenthal). Has written some serenades


which are much played, and also a

for string orchestra

Symphony

f
1847.

in C.

Augusta Mary Ann Holmes

Wrote
(Paris), 1847-1903.
three entitled symphonies, which were very successful in
Paris.

1847.

1847.

L. Philipp Scharwcnka (Samter), whose pianoforte


compositions are so multitudinous, has composed two
symphonies.

G. B. Salvayre (Toulouse).

Has
1848.

1848.

written a "Biblical"

noted French- composer.

Symphony.

Noszkowski (Warsaw).
contemporary orchestral composer.
Sigtsmund
Sir

Hubert

cellent

distinguished

Has written exParry (Bournemouth).


in addition to works of almost every

symphonies,

other description.
'1849.

Benjamin Godard (Paris), 1849-95.


some of them with titles.

Wrote

six

sym-

phonies,

1849.

^' ^. Ivanoff (Moscow).


Has composed symphonies.

1850.

Zdenko Fibich (Bohemia), 1850-1900. A nationalist


composer and one who did much in opera. Also wrote
three symphonies and

pupil

of Tchaikovsky.

numerous orchestral

pieces.

1850. Ole Olscn (Hammerfest).


An ultra-modern, who has
written a symphony and various tone-poems.
1850.

F. X.

Scharwenka (Samter). Brilliant pianist. Has


symphony possessing PoHsh characteristics.

written a

215

Story of
185

185

1.

1.

1852.

Symphony
A

Vincent d'Indy (Paris).


modern French school.
phonic works.

prominent member of the


written important sym-

Has

Victor E. Bendix (Copenhagen).


forte music and of symphonies.

writer of piano-

Hans Hubcr (Schonewerd, Switzerland). Wrote a wellknown Symphony in E minor which is an eulogy of a
Swiss painter (Bocklin)
the last movement is based
;

upon a

series of suggestions derived

from eight of his

pictures.

1852.

Sir

Frederick

several

H.

entitled

Cowen

Has

(Jamaica).

symphonies, and

many

written

brilliant

or-

chestral works.
1852.

Sir C.

V. Stanford (Dublin). Has done dignified and


work in the direction of symphony.
More

scholarly

recently he has written orchestral rhapsodies.


1852.

Max

Vogrich (Transylvania), some of whose pianoforte


Has written some symphonies.

pieces are quite popular.


1853.

J.

A. Nicode (Posen).

His symphonic poems, and his

symphony with solo, chorus, orchestra, and organ,


" The Sea," are highly thought of.
1854.

George Whitfield Chadwick (Lowell, Mass.).


of the foremost of American composers.

He

entitled

Is

one

has written

three symphonies.
1854.

Alex, Kopyloff (Petrograd).


composers of symphony.

1S54.

Alex. Winogradsky (Kieflf).


composed symphonic works.
216

One

of the

many Russian

famous conductor.

Has

Appendix
1855.

1856.

1856.

Was one of the


Ernest Chausson (Paris), 1855-99.
most prominent of modern French composers. He wrote
one symphony and three symphonic poems.
G. Martucci (Bologna), 1856-1909. Shared with Sgambati the honour of upholding music of the best kind in
His symphonies have occasionally been
his native land.
played in England.

A Norwegian comChristian Sinding (Kongberg).


poser of eminence; his Symphony in D minor is very
known.

well

1856

S. I.

Taneieff (Vladimir).

well-known

pianist.

Has

written several symphonies.


1857.

Sir

Edward Elgar (Broadheath). The hopes

men

of English-

are largely centred in this composer, although his

two symphonies have not gained the esteem

in

which

his choral writings are held.

1857.

Frederick Cliffe (Bradford). His Symphony in


is amongst his most important works.

1859.

Camille Chevillard (Paris), 1859-1903.


symphonic composer.

1859.

S.

Liapounoff

in

1859.

(Jaroslavl).

C minor

A notable French

Has published

Symphony

minor.

Algernon Ashton (Durham). Is an English composer


and grim determination, whose symphonies,
like many of his larger works, have not met with a great
measure of success.
of pertinacity

i860.

Is perhaps the most inGustav Mahler (Bohemia).


teresting of modern German composers of symphony.
His works are of great length and employ very large

217

Story of

Symphony

orchestras for their performance.

Opinions are divided

as to the value of his works.


i860.

Gustavc Charpentier (Dieuze).

Is

much

better

known

Jj^iifi. by his delightful opera, "Louise," than by his orchestral

and symphonic works.


i860.

I.

J.

Paderewski

pianist.

i860.

Includes a

The world-renowned
(Podolia).
symphony amongst his compositions.

William Wallace (Greenock). Has written a symphony,


The Creation," and several symphonic poems.

"
1

86 1.

N. von Rcznicefc (Vienna). A Czech composer of


Has composed a " Tragic " and also an " Ironic "
symphony.
E.

opera.

1862.

Has written
A. A. Arensky (Novgorod), 1861-1906.
some symphonies, but his name is more familiar to lovers
of chamber music.

1862.

J.

Edward German (Whitchurch), whose

light orchestral

Has also written works in


/ija%., niusic has so many admirers.
7
the more dignified form of symphony.
1862.

Leon Boellmann
composer.
Has

(Alsace),

written

1862-97.

symphony

famous organ
organ and

for

orchestra.
1863.

F. Blumenfeld (Kovaleska).

has

written

symphony,

A
"A

Russian composer who


la memoire de chers

defunts."
1.863.

1
^

'

Is a most important
Frederick Dclius (Bradford).
present-day composer of symphonic works, although he
has written no symphonies so called. His writings are

mostly of the order of the symphonic poem.


1863.

Felix Weingartner (Zara).


published two symphonies.

218

Great

conductor.

Has

Appendix
1864.

Alex. Gretchaninoff (Moscow),

Contemporary Russian

composer of symphony.
1864.

Richard Gcorg Strauss (Munich).


His symphonic
poems have created one of the sensations of recent
years; his "Domestic Symphony" is, however, not one
of the happiest of these.

1865.

1865.

Paul Gilson (Brussels). A composer of opera.


written a symphony, " La Mer."

Paul Dukas

(Paris).

Widely known by

work, " L'Apprenti Sorcier."

Has

Has

his orchestral

also written a

sym-

phony and a symphonic poem.


1865.

Is probably the most


Glazounoff (Petrograd).
prominent of modern Russian composers of symphony.
His numerous works in this direction are classically

A.

conceived, and yet contain

day
1865.

many

features

of present-

interest.

Jean Sibelius (Tavastehus). This Finnish composer has


done much orchestral composition of a high order. His

symphonies and symphonic poems are not yet as well

known
1866.

as his popular tone-poem, " Finlandia."

Basil Kilinnikoff (Voina), 1866-1901.

Russian com-

His
poser whose first symphony was well received.
early death prevented this success from being followed
up.
1867.

1868.

talented American composer


written a " Gaelic " symphony.

Mrs. H. H. A. Beach.

who has

Is interesting for his


Granville Bantock (London).
attempts to write symphonies for voices only. He has
also written orchestral symphonic works.

219

Symphony

Story of
1868.

Max

Composer

Schillings (Diiren).

and of

of opera

symphonic poems.
1869.

Armas

Composer of
Jarnefelt (Viborg).
orchestral " Prccludium."
Has also written

popular

symphonic

poems.
1870.

Sigismund Stojowski (Strelce). This Polish musician


has published a symphony and certain symphonic works.

1872.

S.

1872.

von Hausegger. A German author and composer.


His symphonic poems are well spoken of.

Has

Paul Juon (Moscow).

written two symphonies,

the First having been played at least twice in London.


1872.

Has
Ralph Vaughan Williams (Down Ampney).
"Sea" symphony and other orchestral works.

written a
1872.

A. N. Scriabine (Moscow), 1872-1915. One of the most


His earlier
widely discussed of modern composers.
his "Divine Poem,"
Further interesting
brought to a hearing.
developments were arrested by his early death.

symphonies have been eclipsed by

recently

1873.

Composer of the
S. V. Rachmaninoff (Novgorod).
famous pianoforte " Prelude." Has written some symphonies.

1873.

Max

An

Reger (Brand).

nowned

for his

ultra-serious

musician, re-

Has composed

organ works.

a sym-

phony.
1874.

Reinhold Gliere

(Kieff).

symphony

in

flat

was

played in London in 1906.


1874.

Josef

Sufc

written a

(Krecovic).

symphony

in

Bohemian

minor.

220

violinist.

Has

If.

Appendix

A
Ernst von Dohnanyi (Pressburg).
His symphony in D minor
composer.

1877.

fine
is

modern

one of his

largest works.

Has

1879.

George Fitelberg (Diinaberg).


Symphony m D mmor.

1883.

Rather a classic in
Maximillian Steinberg (Vilna).
style.
His Second symphony has recently been played
in London.

also

published a

Among other contemporary composers of symphony and


symphonic poems may be mentioned:
Arnold Bax.
W. H. Bell.
Frank Bridge.
Yorke Bowen.
A. von Ahn Carse.
J.

B.

A. Hinton.
Holbrooke.
Emmanuel Moor.
Malichivsky.

J.

M.

McEwen.

Phillips.

Wassilenko.
Wischnegradski.
Zemlinsky.

H. Balfour Gardiner.

M. Esposito.
Goedicke.
E. Halsey.

Zolatarefif.

Walter Rabl.

221

Appendix

B.

Glossary of Terms.
Music depending entirely upon its own
Absolute Music.
appeal, and independent of surreptitious aids, such as those
supplied by titles, programme, or words.
Arco.
in

Played with the bow.

Used

for stringed instruments

opposition to the term pizzicato.

Air with Variations


frequently used in
days.

The

(or

Theme

with

Symphony, more

Variations),
especially

Finale of Beethoven's "Eroica"

in
is

a form
earlier

a good

instance.

Brass. The trumpets, trombones, tuba, and other brass


The horns, although of
instruments of the orchestra.
brass, are usually included with the wood-wind.

Canon, a composition
or instrument

in

which an idea started

strictly

is

repeated

distance of time and interval.

Beethoven's Fourth symphony.

Cembalo

(Italian).

See Clavier.

Classical Orchestra.

(See Appendix C.)

222

in

one voice

another at a certain
good instance occurs in
in

Appendix B
In early days the
conductor used to direct the performance from the clavier,
the baton not being in use.

Clavier, a predecessor of the pianoforte.

Contrapuntal, employing the devices of counterpoint.

Coda, the

final

matter

manner
coda

Colour

is

in

part of a

movement, in which the


and treated in a

is

usually developed

to

its

subjectdifferent

former presentation. The importance of the


in Beethoven's works.

much emphasised

music

is

obtained (by analogy) by the employment


Orchestral colour arises from

of certain characteristics.

the blending and contrasting of the various instrumental


forces.

Concert Overture, a work in a single movement, generally


entitled, but written on the plan of the first movement of a
symphony.
Counterpoint. The art of adding melodies to one another, as
opposed to the mere filling up of harmonies.

Development Section.

The

portion of a

themes previously heard are subjected

movement

in

which

to variety of treat-

ment.

Divertimento, originally a "diversion," a term occasionally


applied to early symphonic works.
Fantasia.

Orchestral works which are not in definite shape

are sometimes so called.

Finale, the last

movement

of a work, and

generally

the

weakest portion, though there are notable exceptions.

numerous examples are


Folk Song, a song of the people
introduced into their works by modern Russian and Eng;

lish

composers.

223

Symphony

Story of
Form.

The

architectural design or shape of a musical work.

Fugato. Passages in the manner of a Fugue. Notable examples occur in the slow movements of Beethoven's
"Eroica" and A major symphonies.

Ground Bass.

harmonies and
Sometimes the theme of the bass is
transferred to a middle or top part.
The Finale of Brahms*
Fourth symphony employs this device.
reiterated bass, with varying

variety of treatment.

Instrumentation deals with the

pitch,

compass, and quality of

the various orchestral instruments.

Interlude.

more important

short passage linking together

parts of the musical structure.

common

procedure

in

preface the opening quick

movement

with a

Introduction.

very

bars in slow time.

The

introduction

symphony is
number

may be

Haydn it is often a few bars only


Seventh Symphony occurs a very long and

in

Brahms,

in

introductions both to the

Lcit-Motif, or

melody

Wagner
phony

is

harmony

demonstrated
of

in the

Themes.

The themes

to the finale.

distinctive

fragment

of

or rhythm) largely used by


Its

use in sym-

works of Berlioz and

Liszt.

Varying treatments of subject-

are altered in tempo, rhythm,

to gain diversity in unity.

in

movement and

for purposes of characterisation.

Metamorphosis
matter.

first

guiding theme.

(or possibly

of

of any length

Beethoven's
fully developed
his First symphony, has lengthy
;

introduction.

to

Liszt

employs

etc.,

this device.

Minuetto, a dance of stately character, which held place as the


third movement of a symphony, until Beethoven supplanted it by the scherzo.

224

Appendix B
Modulation, the process of passing from key

Monodfc.
place

to key.

term applied to a kind of writing in which chief


given to the melody, and little use is made of

is

contrapuntal devices.

Opus.

A work.

order (op.

Its
i,

is used to indicate the


which the printed works of

abbreviation op.

op. 2,

etc.) in

composers are published.


(See Suite.)

Orchestral Suite.

Orchestration, the art of combining the various instruments of


the orchestra.

Overture, the instrumental beginning of an opera, from which


the symphony took its rise.
Partitur (German).

Score, q.v.

Percussion, the drums, cymbals, gongs, triangle,

etc.,

of the

orchestra.

Strings

Pizzicato.

plucked with the

finger.

An

excellent

example of the whole stringed orchestra playing //>^/ra/o


occurs in the scherzo of Tchaikovsky's fourth symphonj'.

Polyphonic music is that in which all instruments or voices


taking part have music of an equal degree of importance.
It is opposed to Monodic music.
Recitative, a kind
definite

rhythm

of musical
or melody.

examples of it occur in the


" Choral Symphony."

Rhapsody

Rhythm,
[e.g.,

are

is

last

movement

of Beethoven's

another term for orchestral works of no

the swing or

the

declamation, or music without


Both instrumental and vocal

first

lilt

of the music.

Certain

allegro in Beethoven's seventh

much more rhythmic than

others.

set design.

movements
symphony)

Symphony

Story of

A short instrumental fragment. (See Chapter II.)


A jest. A very quick and, generally, playful move-

Ritornello.

Scherzo.

ment, which developed from the minuet. Most symphonies


include a scherzo as either their second or third movement.

The printing of the music in such a way as


what every instrument or voice has to do.

Score.

Scoring.

Another term

Strings.

The

violins,

to

show

for orchestration.

violas,

violoncellos,

and double-basses

of the orchestra.
Suite.

of pieces, generally

collection

largely

built

sonata grew out of the

Symphonic Ode.

suite.

work

including a chorus.

one key, and

in

all

The symphony and

upon dance forms.

of

symphonic

David's " Le

dimensions,

Desert''

is

but

a typical

example.
Toccata, a brilliant showy piece, generally of quick running
notes.

Tone Poem,
Trio.

An

name

often given to the

symphonic poem.

alternative section to the minuet

later,

it

became

an alternative to the scherzo. Beethoven in his fourth and


Schumann
seventh symphonies has it played twice
develops this idea by having two different trios. In either
;

case the scherzo proper

Wood-Wind. The
With these are

flutes,

is

played three times.

oboes,

clarinets,

often reckoned the horns.

and

bassoons.

Modern com-

posers often add to this section of the orchestra (Cor


Anglais,

etc.).

326

Appendix C.
Instruments

of

Lists

Symphonies

in

of

Employed
Different

Periods.
1.

The

''

Zinfonia

" in

Peri's " Euridice " (1600).

3 Flutes.
2.

C.

P.

E,

Bach and the

earliest

symphonies of Haydn

(Circa 1756).
2
2

3.

Oboes.
Horns.

late
I

Strings.

Haydn Symphony, "The

Military" (1794).

Trumpets.
Timpani.

Flute

Oboes.
2 Bassoons.
2 Horns.
2

Strings.

Haydn sometimes
The clarinets are not present here.
employed them, but they were not in general use in his time.
Mozart also omits them from his earlier symphonies, but includes them later, after having heard some works in which
they were employed.

227

Story of
4.

The

Symphony

" Classical," or

" Beethoven " Orchestra, as exemSeventh Symphony (18 12), became the

plified in that master's

accepted model for

many

years.

2 Flutes.

Oboes.

Timpani

2 Clarinets.
2

Horns.
Trumpets.

Bassoons.

Strings.

The trombones (three or four), horns, the double bassoon,


were occasionally introduced by Beethoven. With the
works of Schubert and other romance composers we find the
four horns and the trombones accepted as regular members of
5.

etc.,

the orchestral force.


6.

Brahms'

First

Symphony,

op. 68,

is

scored for the usual

orchestra of the period (1876).

2 Flutes.

Horns

Oboes.

Trumpets.

2 Clarinets.

Trombones (last movement only).

2 Bassoons.

Double Bassoon.
Horns in C.

in

flat.

Timpani.

Strinsfs.

As an example of the large orchestra sometimes


7.
manded by composers of the present day may be instanced
sixth symphony of Mahler.
4 Flutes.

Glockenspiel.

3 Clarinets in

flat.

Heerdenglocken.
Xylophon.
Bass Drum.

Bass Clarinet
3 Bassoons.

in

Triangle.

4 Oboes.
Clarinet in

flat.

flat.

Side Drum.

328

de-

the

Appendix C
I

Double Bassoon.

Cymbals.

Horns.
4 Trumpets.

Tambourine

Trombones.
Bass Tuba.

Celesta.

Harps.

Strings.

Timpani.

229

Appendix D.

List

of

Symphonies,

Entitled

grouped

under Alphabetical
List of Composers' Names.

Except

who did not use Opus numbers


was not the custom of the classic composers to give names to their symphonies; with the rise of the
Programme and Romantic Schools, however, it became a very
common procedure, although some moderns, such as Brahms,
Glazounofif, etc., have preferred to let their works remain under
As a// symphonic poems
the general title of "Symphony."
have names, they are not included in the following list. In
some cases names for symphonies have not been bequeathed by
to

in

the case of Haydn,

any large

extent,

it

their composers, but, as in the case of Schubert's "Unfinished,"

cling to

them by general consent.

Abert

" Spring."

Bazzini

"

Beach

" Gaelic."

Beethoven

" Eroica."

Senacheribbo' (Choral Symphony).

" Pastoral."

" Choral."

There

is

also

230

" Battle "

Symphony

Appendix

Another work attributed to Beethoven,


which was unearthed a little time
back, has been called the "Jena'' Symphony.
"Walt Whitman."
Choral Symphonies, "The Reapers'' and
"Hucbald."
" Harold in Italy."
" Funeral and Triumphal."
" Romeo and Juliet."

Bell

Benoit

Berlioz

Blumenfeld

Bronsart

" Fantastic."
" A la memoire de chers defunts."

Cliffe

Cowen

"In the Alps "(Choral).


"Powers of Fate."

"A Summer

Night."

"The Idyllic."
"The .Scandinavian."
" The Welsh."

David

Dittersdorf

Le Desert " (Symphonic Ode).


Symphonic dans le genre de cinq nations."
Twelve symphonies on subjects from Ovid's
Meta}norphoses "Orpheus," "Ajax and
"

"

Ulysses,"

Draeseke

DvoMk

"Tragic."

"

"Spring."

"

Ehlert
Ellerton

Franck

Gilson

Godard

From
The

the

etc.

New

World."

Forest."

" Psyche."
" La Mer."
" Legendary."
" Gothic."

"Oriental."

Goldmark

" Rustic

Wedding."
231

Symphony

Story of
Gossec

Gottschalk

"The Chase."
"Le Nuit des Tropiques."

Hamerik

"Poetic," "Tragic," "Lyric," "Majestic,"

"Serious," "Spiritual."

Haydn

very large

have names

Herzogenberg

Hiller

Hirschbach

Holmes

Holmes

number
;

of Haydn's works
the chief are " The Fare-

well,"

"The

"The

Clock," and

"Odysseus."
"Spring must come
" Life

"The Surprise,"
"The Military."

Oxford,"

at last."

Struggles," " Recollections of the

Alps," etc.

"Jeanne d'Arc."
" The Youth of Shakespeare."
" Robin Hood."

"The Siege of Paris."


" The Argonauts."
" Lutece."
"

Hofman

Huber

Orlando Furioso."
" Frithjof "

"Bocklin."
" Tell."

D'Indy

Janssens

Jonciere

"Jean Hunyade."
" Le Lever du Soleil."
"Romantic."

"La Mer"
Klughardt

Knecht
Kollmann

(Choral).
" Leonore."

"Portrait musical de

"

la

Nature."

The Shipwreck."

Leslie

Liszt

"Chivalry."
" Dante."

"The Song

" Faust."

Mahler

of Earth."

2 JS

Appendix
" Italian."

Mendelssohn

"Reformation."

Mozart

" Scotch."
" Jupiter," " Haffner," " Linz^' " Parisian,"
" Prague," etc.

Napravnik
Nicode

"The Demon."
"The Sea."

Paine
Parry

"Spring."
"The Cambridge."

Raff

"Leonore,"

"The

English."

"Im

Walde,"

"An

das Vater-

land," etc., etc.

" Florentine."
"Wallenstein."
" Hakon Jarl."

Rheinberger

Reinecke
Reznicek

" Ironic."
" Tragic."

Rimsky- Korsakoff

" Antar."

Romberg

" Toy."
" Dramatic."

Rubinstein
Salvayre

Schubert

" Ocean."
" The Resurrection."

"Tragic."

"Unfinished" (not so named by the com


poser).

Schulz-Beuthen

Spohr

"Fair Elizabeth,"

etc.

" Rhenish."

Schumann
Scriabine

"Spring."
" Divine Poem."
"The Earthly and the Divine."
" Historic."

"

Power of Sound."

" Seasons."

233

Symphony

Story of
Stanford

"Elegiac."
" Irish."
" Domestic."

Strauss

Tchaikovsky

" Polish."

" Pathetic."

Vaughan Williams

"Winter Day Dreams."


"A Sea Symphony."

Wallace

"The

Creation."

234

Appendix E.
Bibliography.
All

histories of

many other works, deal incidentally


The following are either specially
may be particularly recommended

music and

with the Story of Symphony.

devoted to the subject or

M. Michel Brenet. "


Villars, Paris.)

Histoire de la Symphonie."

(Gauthier-

Goes up to the time of Beethoven


reference to Gossec and other composers

2s. 6d.

only, with special

of France.

(In French.)

Berlioz. "A

Critical Study of Beethoven's Nine Symphonies."


Translated by Evans. (Reeves.) 4s.

Daymond.

(" Proceedings
Paper on C. P. E. Bach.
Musical Association,'' vol. .xxxiii. Novello.) 21s.

von

E.

Elterlein.

"Beethoven's
Translated

Significance.'
-

3s.

Symphonies in
by F. Weber.

their

of

Ideal

(Reeves.)

6d.

"Stories of Symphonic Music." (Harpers.)


Gives accounts of many modern programme works,
and relates the stories they depict.

Laurence Gilman.
5s.

Grove. " Beethoven and

his

Nine Symphonies."

6s.

^35

(Novello.)

Story of
Niecks.

Symphony

" Programme Music."

book

is

more than

plete history of

"Oxford History

title

its

it

Each,

Volumes

This masterly
forms a comnew ground.

i6s.

really

music and opens up much

of Music."

Press, Oxford.)

(Novello.)

implies

iv., v., vi.

(Clarendon

15s.

Article

(Macmillan.)
in Grove's "Dictionary," vol. iv.
Quite of book dimensions, and a splendid survey of
the history of symphony up to the time of Brahms.

Parry.

21S.

Tectgcn.

" Beethoven's

(Reeves.)

Wagner.

3s.

"Art

Symphonies

Critically

Discussed."

6d.

Work

of the Future."

Translated by Ashton

Ellis.

Wcingartncr. " Symphony Writers since Beethoven."


lated by A. Bles.
(Reeves.) 6s.

2-j6

Trans-

\Z2

Index
Dance

Abel, 20
Arensky, 158
Auber, 96

tormsi I7

Davenport, 147
David, Felicien, 137, 186
Debussy, 170

Bach, Carl

Philip Emmanuel, 24,


25-27, 28, 29, 139, 174
John Christian, 18, 20, 22
Johann Sebastian, 25

Balakireff, 158, 169


Bantock, Granville, 151, 1S3
;Barnett, 147
Beethoven, 31, 41, 42-115, ,118,
119, 128, 139, 172, 173,^178,
188
Bennett, William Sterndale, 147,
143

Delius, Frederick, 151

D'Indy, Vincent, 163


Dittersdorf, 20, 2i-

Dukas, Paul, 163


Dvorak, Antonin, 140, 161, 166,
169

Elgar,

Sir
I50> 177

Edward,

FiBiCH, 162
Franck, Cesar, 162

Borodine, 158
Boyce, Dr., 10

Gade,

Brahms, 31, 59, 60, 61, 65, 66,

Galuppi, 20, 163

67. 72, 73. 139. 140, 143. 144


British symphony composers, 145

German, Edward,

vocal music, 145


Bruch, Max, 164
Bruckner, Anton, 163, 164

149,

Esterhazy, Prince, 28

Boccherini, 20

B^tlioz, 133, 136, 138, 168, 185

144,

EUerton, 147

Niels

W.,

131

151
Glazounoff, 157, 169, 177
Glinka, 169

Gluck, 13
Goetz, 131

Goldmark, Carl, 137


Carissimi, 9
Cavalieii, Emilio del, 9
Chadwick, George Whitfield, 165
Charpentier, Gustav, 163
Cowen, Sir Frederick, 149

Gossec, 20, 174

Handel,
Haydn,

5,

10, 18, 27,

3i 32. 35. 37,

237

145

18, 19, 22, 25, 28, 30,

38, 43. 44. 45>

Symphony

Story of
46, 52, 64, 82, 179,
184, I 86

180,

182,

Parry, Sir Hubert, 45, 144, 148


Peri, 3, II

Philharmonic Society of London,

Ferdinand, 164
Holbrooke, Josef, 187
Hiller,

102, 124, 154

Programme symphony, 132


Purcell, 145

jAHN, Otto, 37

Rachmaninoff, 158
Leslie, 147
Lis^'t,

100, 136, 138, 168, 183

Lully, II, 13

MacDowell,

165
Macfarren, George and Walter,
148
Mahler, Gustav, 164, 183
Martucci, Giuseppe, 165

Mendelssohn, 100, 122, 124, 125,


126,

128,

129,

130,

145,

174,

Raff, 130, 137, 138, 174


Reger, Max, 165
Rimsky-Korsakoff, 157
Ritornelli, 2, 6, 8, 9, 10
Romantic School, 116, 131
Romberg, 182

Rossini, 96

Anton,

Rubinstein,
152

Saint-Saens, 162,
Salomon, 30, 31

137,

166, 169

Scarlatti, Alessandro, 13, 17, 18

184, 185

Monodic School, 25

Schopenhaner, 72

Monteverde, 11, 12
Mozart, 19, 25, 28, 30, 32, 34-41,

Schubert,
178

'is, 44, 45, 46, 52, 64, 186


Leopold, 20

130,

119,

120,

Schumann, Robert,

122,

l:

122, 127, i:

174
Schwindl, 20
Scriabine, 158, 170, 171

Napravnik, 162

Sgambati, 144

Neate, 74
Nicolaus, Prince, 181
Niecks, 184

Sibelius, Jean, 159


Sinding, Christian, 163
Smart, Sir George, 102

Noskowski, 169

Smelana, 160, 161


Spohr, 118, 119, 185, 186
Stamitz, J. K., 19, 21

Olsen, Ole, 163


Orchestras, early, 21
" Organistrum," 2

Stanford, Sir Charles, 144, 149


Strauss, 165, 166, 169, 170
Stringed instruments, 17
Suite and Sonata, 16

Svensden, 163

Paderewski, 159

Symphony,

uses of the term, I -3;


derivation, 3 ; use as interlude,

Paine, John Knowles, 165

338

\Photo iy

DVORAK.

Draycott.

;;

Index
4

meaning of the word,

6; its evolution,
its rapid developnaent, 8
7
early use of the term, 8
interesting example, 9
use in
church music, 9
interlude in
and dance measures,
song, 10
is
there a
17 ; modern, 24
future ? 172
its

offshoots,

"Toy" symphonies, 182


Turkish music, 112

volkmann,

164

Tchaikovsky,

32, 152, 153, 155,


156, 157, 169, 1S4, 185

Wagenseil, 20
Wagner, 32, 172, 173
Wallace, William, 151
Weber,

17

Weingartner,"l65, 177
Williams, Vaughan, 151
Wind instruments, 26
Wranitzky, 20, 174

239

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