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1.

Introduction
Magnetic field is created due to the motion of electric charge. One example is the discovery of Oersted in 1819
which is electric current flowing in a conductor. Magnetic field is also produced by a permanent magnet. In this case
the electrons are in an orbital motion and spins within the permanent magnet material which resulted into a
magnetization between a magnetic field outside and the material.[1]
This experiment focuses on two materials that produces magnetic field which are solenoid or the slinky and bar
magnets. A solenoid is a thin conducting wire wound in a tight helical coil of many turns. This is used to produce a
homogenous, strong magnetic field in the region bounded by the loops. The magnetic field of the solenoid is the
summation of the magnetic fields generated by each turns.[2] While magnets, is known more than 2000 years ago as
a source of magnetic field. The field in a bar magnet emerges from the north pole, passes through air making a
return path to the other end which is the south pole. [1] In permanent magnets, the magnetism is cause by the
electrons inside the material who have an intrinsic magnetic field around them. The magnetic fields of the electrons
in a permanent magnet add together to produce a net magnetic field surrounding the magnet. [3] The magnetic field
lines of a solenoid is the same as the magnetic field line as the bar magnet (Figure 1).
Figur
e 1. Magnetic
field lines of
solenoid (left)
and
bar
magnet (right).
Image taken
from Physics
for Engineers
and Scientists
5th Ed.
Current I
in the solenoid
is the flow of
charge.
Because of the
motion
of
charges
the
currentcarrying wire
produces
a
magnetic field.
When
a
particle with
charge
q
moves in a constant velocity v, the magnitude of the magnetic field B at a point r is given by the equation:

B=

o qvsin
4 r2

get:

and velocity

B=0

(1)

v . [4] If we manipulate equation 1 we

(2)

Magnetic field is equal to the value of the product of the permeability of the core material , the quotient n of
solenoids number of turns N and length L, and current I flowing through the wire of the solenoid. The value of the
permeability of the core material is equal to the permeability of free space if the core material of the solenoid is a
vacuum.
This experiment aims to measure the magnetic field strength of the field inside the solenoid and to know the
effect of the number of loops and magnitude of current in the value of magnetic field. It also aims to qualitatively
describe the magnetic field of the bar magnets using field line mapping.

Acknowledgements
We would like to thank Mr. Raiseth John Fajardo for guiding us throughout the experiment. We would also like
to thank University of the Philippines Diliman specially the National Institute of Physics for lending the materials
used in the experiment.