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2

..

25 2012 .
1. . ( )
1.1 . =
1.2 Rn ..............................................................
1.3 . .
..................................................................................
1.4 .......................................................................................................

.4
.5
.7
.8

2.
2.1 , .............................................................................................
2.2 ...................................................
2.3 ...............................................
2.4 ...........................................................................
2.5 . .
, , ...................................................
2.6 ............
2.7 .....................................................................................
2.8 ...........................................................
2.9 .....................................................
2.10 : . .................................................................

.11
.12
.12
.12
.13
.15
.15
.16
.16
.16

3. .
3.1 ........................

3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5
3.6

. .......................................................
..............................................................................................
.................................................................................................
. ......................................................................................................................
...........................................................................
3.7. ...................................................
3.8 .....................

.18
.18
.19
.20
.20
.21
.22
.22

4.
4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4
4.5
4.6
4.7
4.8
4.9

...............................................
..................................................................................................................
................................................................................... ....................
..........................................................................
, ..............................
........................
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....................................................................................... ..............................
...............................................................................................
1

.23
.23
.24
.24
.25
.25
.25
.26
.27

4.10 R3 ............................................................
4.11 ...............................................

.28
.29

4.12 ................................................
4.13 .....................

.30
.29

5. R3
5.1 ........................................................................

.32

5.2 .........................................................

.33

5.3 . .........................
5.4 .
..........................................................
5.5
.................................................................
5.6

.34

.35
.36

....................................................................
....................................................................

.36
.37

5.9 ...............................................................................................

.37
.37

5.7
5.8

5.10 .......................................................................
5.11 .

5.12 . .........................................................................................

.34

.38
.38

6. ( )
6.1 Rn

.40

6.2 ()

.41

.......................................................

6.3 .............................................................................
6.4 . ...............................

.42
.42

6.5 .............................................................................
6.6 ....................................................................................................

.44
.44

6.7 .........................................................................................
6.8 R3 .....................................................................................

.45
.46

6.9 ....................................................................
6.10 ......................................................................

.47
.48

6.11 .
..................................................................................................

.50

....................................................................................................

.51

6.12

7.
7.1 ......................................................................

7.2 .......................................................

.52
.52

7.3 ......................................................................................................................
7.4 .
.

.53
.54

7.5 .......................................

..............................................................
7.6 ................................................................

.55
.56

7.7 R3 . . ...........................

.57

8. ,

8.1 . .......
8.2 . ,
2

.58

..............................................
.59
8.3 ...............61
8.4 .............................................................
8.5 ...................................................

.63
.64

9.
9.1 ..........................................................................................

.67

9.2 .........................................................................................
9.3
........................................

.67

9.4 .....................................................
9.5 . ..................................................................

.70
.72

...........................................................................
9.7 . ..................................................

.73
.74

9.6 .

.68

10.
10.1 ..............................................................................................

.76

10.2 ................................................................................... ..........................


10.3 .........................................................................................

.76
.77

10.4 . .................................
10.5 . ................

.79
.80

10.6. ............................................................................
10.7 ...............................................................................

.82
.83

10.8 ..................................................

.85

11.

11.1 ......................................

.86

11.2 ...........................................................
11.3 ...........................................................

.87
.88

11.4 ............................................................................................................
11.5 . .............

.88
.89

11.6 . 2- .
11.7 ................................................................................ .....................................

.90
.90

1. .........................................................

.90

2. .............................................

.91

. ...........................................................................................................

.91

-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-

1. . ( )
1.1 . =
Rn . () . .
, Rn Cn , . (
.)
. L : Rk Rn (..
). : ei Rk fi Rn .
L :
y i = aij xj , 1 i n, 1 j k,

Lej = aij fi .

( )

( :
, , ,
, . , aii .)
(L) = (aij ) (i , j ) L, B = (bjj )

C = (cii ) , Bx = x, y = Cy, (L) = C(L)B 1 = (cii aij bjj ):

y i = cii aij bjj xj .


. L : Rk Rn
: Rn im L = L(Rk ), Rk ker L = L1 (0).
. : , -. . ,
.
v (u 7 u+v) , .

, .. A () VA . . ( ,
, .)
O. VO Rn .
Rn VA
, , .
Rn
VA .
n
P
. : hv1 , v2 i =
v1i v2i .
i=1

k- k ,
. k = n ( ), .
O A v,
, v .

. .
.
. (*) Rn
PL = im(L) k, (L) (..
) k n. , O.
bi , PL,b , b
bi . y = Lx + b
Rk : , y PL,b x.
4

. L ( (*) y i ) QL = kerL Rk , . (..


) k n,
k n. , Rn , (
) ,
.
, k n, im(L) = Rn , k n, ker(L) = 0.
im(L).

.
, (
xi Rk ). ( Rn ).
.
, , ?
. , Rk Rnk Rn , im(L) Rk Rnk .
: fi Rn k ei Rk .
y i = xi
1 i k
y i = aij xj + bi k + 1 i n.
l : Rk Rnk , (aij ), k+1 i n, 1 j k . L : Rk Rn ,
, x 7 (x, l(x)). L(Rk )
l. (L)


E
,
(aij )
E k k-. , L (aij ).
.
( n = 2, k = 1 y = kx + b Ox Oy.)
. im L ker L L?

? [ ( ) (
), , , . , ,
?]
1.2 Rn .
.
,
. Rn .
. , - O (x) x ( ) x .
U Rn , x U U -
O (x) , .. x > 0 , O (x) U . Rn
.
B A Rn A (
n
n
A),
T c A - R , .. U , R ,
, B = U A. ( ),
.
,
(.. ).
, .

( Rn , , ,
.)
f : X Y ( - ) : Y X (: ).
: ,
. ( f : X Y g : Y X ,
f g gf 1X 1Y .)
X Y . ,
. , , .
. Rn Rk Rnk ,
f : U Rnk U Rk Rnk . , f
, f U .
, ,
.
.
. U Rn , .
( , X A ,
, X.)
, ,
() f : X Y : Y ,
X.
,
a b, ,
(+ ), . , , () , ( , ),
10 ( ).
Rn . : U Rn ,
() , U .
, .
X , x y
[0, 1] X, 0 x, 1 y.
( X , .)
, , .
sin x1 [1, 1]
, .
. X Rn (: ),
X .
( X , X.
, - . . , ,
, ..) ,
, , Rn X.
, , f : X Y :
Y , X
Y .
. , . ( ).
. ,
(, )

Rn : .
(
, : , .)

. , . ,
, .. .
1.3 .
. . , F :
Rk Rn x0 Rk , , .. dF : Rk Rn , F (x) = F (x0 ) + dF (x x0 ) + , Rn

= 0.
x x0 , |x x0 |, .. limxx0 |xx
0|
F (x0 ) + dF (x x0 ) F (x). , y = x sin x .
, ,
.
dF F ;
y i
x
j . ( .) F (JF ).
k = n , JF .
. . . ,
, ..
.
2
. ?
,
: r r-,
, r .
. f (g(x))
: , .. H GF , dH = dG dF
. (JH ) = (JG )(JF ),
.
,
. (, G : V W, F :
U V , U Rk , V Rl W Rm , GF : U W .)
k, ,
k. , ,
.
, , ,
.. , .
, , ,
. .
:
F : U Rn , U Rk ,
(.. ) k n
x0 U (.. n). F (x0 ) = y0 .
F 1 (y0 ) c x0 (k-n)- n- .
7

( n- , (k n)-.)
, ( )
, , ( (x, f (x))).
. ,
.
. ,
, F (x, y) F (x1 , . . . , xr , y 1 , . . . , y s ). , x y
Rr+s Rr Rs .

( ).
.
fi (x1 , . . . , xm ) = yi , 1 i m, U Rm x0 ,
.
V Rm y0 = f (x0 )
gi (y1 , . . . , ym ) = xi ,
f (g(y)) = y

y V

g(f (x)) = x x g(V ),

g(y0 ) = x0 g y0 f x0 g(V ) U
x.
.
( ).
2
, f g(V ) V
, ( )
, .
. Rn
, , ,
. ( n, .. .)
: .
.
Rn ,
. , .. , ,
.
. .
1.4 .
: Rn , .. n ,
( ) Rn , .. .
.
, .

.. , . , . .
, , .
8

1).
, ( ),
.
:
,
,
,
.
, :
k ,
k .
.
f (t) () , r(t) ,
(f (t)r(t)) = f(t)r(t) + f (t)r(t).
r(t) ,
:
.
v(t) u(t) ,
hv(t), u(t)i , .

hv(t), u(t)i = hv(t),


u(t)i + hv(t), u(t)i.
R3 .

.
. ,
.
n-
n , .
.
[ . n! . nn! , .
, , ,
.
n , ,
. , , n , ..
, .]

. .
k l kl,
. t , , ,
t, ,
.
. , , .. (U V ) = U V + U V . ( !)
2)
, .. r(t) k-
, . , ,
() , :
r(t + h) = r(t) + r (t)h +

1
1
r(t)h2 + +
r(n1) (t)hn1 + Rn ,
2!
(n 1)!
9

(n)

, , Rn = r n!(t ) hn , .. t .
(n)
Rn = ( r n!(t) + )hn . , h.
, r(t)
dr. ( ) ,
r(t + h) , h.
3)
, , .
, , :
R
Z
r(t) dt
r(t)
= r(t),
dt = r(t) + const,
t
t

Zb
a

r(t)
dt = r(b) r(a),
t

.
4)
k r k
m t,
t r t. ,
n.
, .
n ( ),
.
, : ,
.
5)

1. r(t) , : (r(t), r(t))


= 0.
. .

i = 0. .. h,
i = 0 h, i = 1, l = 0, l = 0, .. l = const. ]
[ h(l), (l)i = llh,
i + l2 h,

O ,
- . , ,
.
6) , ,
. , , (
, O),
: r(t) = a(t)r(t) a(t).
[. . r(t) l(t) , l ,
. , .. .

: r(t)
= l(t)
, .. , . ,
r(t) a(t) =
.)

l(t)
.
l(t)

, r(t)
= a(t)r(t) = a(t)r(t) (t), a(t) , r r. :

ar = r(t)
= (r) = r
+ r .
.. , 1, (r(t) 6= 0), 2 = 0,
.

.. = 0: , , .

( r(t)
, .)
2]

10

, ,
.
7)
3. r(t) k 1
t, k- , P k.
(, , , ,
.)
. k-
,
k- .
. ()
.
k ( )
() .
2
. ( ) , .. -.
= [r, r ] + [r, r] = [r, r ] + c[r, r] = 0 + 0.)
( , [r, r]
-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-= 2.
2.1 ,
, .
. Rn Rn , .
,
. ,
, , . .. t 7 x(t)
r(t) (x(t) r(t)), .
-, , . ( .)
, ,
.
: , ..
- ,
, .. .
. .
, ,
: , .
( ). ,
r(t) = (t2 , t3 ) (.1).
.

. 1:
11

2.2 .
. , ..
. 1, ,
. ,
.
,
. .
. , , .
. , , .
( ,
.)
, :
, , . ( ) .
. C 1 - .
2.3 .
.
, . (..
.)
,
(n 1)- .
. v = r (t) 6= 0, , x(t)

6= 0. ,
t = t(x) . , ,
, y = y(t(x)) x,
.
, x = x( ) , t = t(x) = t(x( ))
, .. t .
= (t) . .. , .
2
, r(t) r( )
d
, .. r (t) = r ( ) d
dt dt 6= 0.
2.4 .
, , Rn , r(t) .
, .
, , (.12), ,
. Rn Rn1

, , .
:
. Rn :
1. x U (x),
V (x) Rn (U = V ) Rn1 ;
2. x U (x),
Rn ( U (x));
3. x U (x), (n 1)- .
12

. , 1. 2. 3. ,
f (x) a < x < b,
x 7 (x, f (x)) Rn ( x x 1)
. , 2. 3. .
, 3. 1. .
, ( ) y = F (t),
t Ot, y Rn1 ,
y F (t) = 0 ( n 1 n ), y F (t)
( n- n 1-) . ,
yi n 1 n 1.
2

. . R2
f (x), x I1 = (a, b). I2 = (1, 1)
f (x) + c, c I2 . , , U f (x). U (c, x), ..
I1 I2 U . , .
(x, c) 7 (x, f (x) + c),

1
f (x)

0
1

, .
, (c = 0)
, . . . ( Rn .)
2.5 . . , , .
. h : U V , U V Rn .
x U Rn y = h(x), , V
( , , h) .
. ( )
V .
R3 .
. . U (.. ) (x1 > 0, 0 < x2 < 2),
V x 0,

y1 = x1 cos x2 , y2 = x1 sin x2 .
( O, x2 .)
R2 \O U ( , , ) , :
, U . O,
.
:
x = cos , y = sin
y
.
x
O , O
( ).
2 = x2 + y 2 , tg =

. .

. r (,
) : .
13

. x, y,
( z) z. 2,
0 . Oz .
( , .. xy,
/2 /2, .)

() , z, , ..
, 2
.
, , :
x = r cos sin , y = r sin sin , z = r cos
p
y
x2 + y 2
2
2
2
2
.
r = x + y + z , tg = , tg =
x
z

, . k- k2 ,
sin k2 xk = r cos k2 .
. R3 (, ) x, y z . ,
z, .
:
x = cos , y = sin , z = z.
,
, , , .
.
.
[ ( ), . O, O.
, .
Oz,
, Oz.]

. Rn .
. , , .
, , r2 sin
.
,
. , r(a cos + b sin ) = c,
. ,
.
. ( ).
. , (
) .
, , , , , , , , (
). .

14

2.6
, . . , , ,
( ).
. x0
r(t). ( : ).
x0 = r(t0 ). , r(t0 ) + dr(t), dr(t)
, t0 (
i
n : ( dxdt(t) |t0 ) = (r i (t0 ))).
, , r (t0 ) 6= 0,
ri (t0 ) + r i (t0 )(t t0 ) ( t).
, ,
, . , i
() ( dx
dt ) .
. .
i

. r(t ) dx
dt
dt
dt
. ,
.
2
. .
:
r = r t + o(t).
, .
.
2
A = x0 = x(t0 ) x(t) ,
A , x(t)
t t0 t t0 (.. A):
. 2-
t = t t0 . .

. = x(t) A = x(t0 ).
, A, : hn, ((t) r(t0 ))i = 0. : r(t) = r(t0 ) + v(t t0 ) + R (v , R ).
r(t) hn, r(t) r(t0 )i = hn, vt + Ri = hn, vit + hn, Ri
, ,
, , n v , ..
.
2
2.7 .
, .
. , k , , k, , k .
, k-
.
: r =

(t)k .

r
(t)k

rk
0
(t)k
k!

+ , , ,

rk0 . , rk0 , , , rk0

2
( ,
.)
, .

15

2.8 .
, , .
r , .
.
t ct c 6= 0.
( , ..
. ,
y = x3 . , ,
, .)
r (t),
r(t), , : , Rn (xi )2 .
r (t0 ) r(t)
r(t0 ) t t0 , .. .
2.9
.
, , , .

, ,
1. R1 , ; dt 7 r0 dt.
2
: F (x) = y0 (y Rn1 , x
Rn ), .. n 1 n .

2. (x0 )
dF |x0 .

. x x(t)
( t0 ) F (x(t)) = y0
Rn1 . ,
F . ,
. , ..
( 1).
2
, F (x, y) = 0 Fx dx + Fy dy = 0,
(dx, dy) = (x x0 , y y0 ) , .

. , r (t) v(t) =
(Fy , Fx ). , ,
(Fy , Fx )?

r(t). r(t)
= (t)v(t).
(t)
R
. , . (t) = (t) dt.
t. : ( ) = r(t( )).

r(t)
dt
) = d
: (
= (t) = v(t).

(Fy , Fx ) () x = Fy , y =
Fx . , (
). : , . :
- ,
.

2.10 . (.1). a , . M ( ),
( ) , . , t ( ) OA ,
, A , OM . , t = 0 M
16


O. M - r(M ) = OA,

r(M ) = OA + AO + OM . :
r = (a(t sin t), a(1 cos t))

r = a((t sin t)i + (1 cos t)j)


(i, j) .
r = a((1 cos t) i + sin t j). t =
2k, .
. , :
r = aj . ,
.
. - , , , (,
).
( ),
( ), , , . 4- ,
.

: . ,
, , , e() =
cos i + sin j g() = sin i + cos j .
, . , .
(.2). ,
Oz, ,
b. , ( ). ( ) ,
= 0 . z = b. -
Oxy . ,
ae(), bk (k Oz).
, r() = ae() + bk. r () = ag() + bk, e(). , .. arctan ab .

(a)

(b)

. 2:
, , , ( k-
Rn ).
-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=17

3. . .
[3.1

.
, . , , (, , ). ,
, , .. (a, b).
, , . p
, (
P i
i
i
i 2
Rn
i (b a ) , a b ).
,
( ).
. ,
M, , , .. M
. , Rn .
Rn , .
M , , f ( M Rn ),
f ( ) A, O(A) m M ,
f , m, O(A). ( .)
, M ,
, , , N , .. , M N . . , ,
M .
. . : A B, A B.

Rn , - r(t), t [a, b].


M l : M R+ ,
l(). (
, , , .)

. r(t)
.
, . , ,
(, ), ,
(.. ) .
. , , , : > 0
> 0.
, .
. , .
. r(t) r(ti+1 ) r(ti ).
,
i )t + i t. i , t. ,
r(ti+1 ) r(ti ) = r(t
i )|t + i t, i , t.
, |r(ti+1 ) r(ti )| = |r(t
i ), ,
i , r(t
t.
(. > 0 , i
.)
P
Pi )|t

|r(t
P

|r(t)|,

ti , .. . ( ti
.) ,
Zb
a

|r(t)|
dt.

(+)
2

, -, . -, , ,
. , .. , .]

3.2 .

, = AB
r(t), a < t < b, A = r(a), B = r(b), (+).

18

. , r(t), t
, [a, b],

s(AB) =

Zb
a

|r(t)| dt.

(+)

:
. , (+), .
. , w(q) . ,
,

: t = (q), w(q) = r((q)). w(q)


= r |t=(q) (q),

dt = (q)

dq.
(, , , > 0):

s(ab) =

Zb
a

|r(t)| dt =

Z1 b

|r(t)|(q)

dq =

1 a

Z1 b

|w(q)|
dq).

1 a

3.3 . (+) , .
.
Rt
, : s(t) = |r(t)| dt.
a

,
.

ds
dt

= | dr
6 0, .. s 7 r(t(s)) Rn s
dt | =

. ,
.
(, , , . ,
.)
s, .
( ).
. ,
, |r(t)|. , , 1. - , . ,
:
1. - .
(, ().)
.
.
.
. (.. ,
, . ,
, .)
. - :
.
.
. , 1 = | | = | dr
ds | =

lim |r| .
|s|0 |s|

,
2

, ( )
, , .. .
19

, .
:
2. , , .. s = ct. ( , .)
dr
. | dr
dt | = const = c, ds = | dt |dt s = ct. .

3.4 . :
s(B)
Z

s(AB) =

ds.

s(A)

. -
, , ,
s=

Zb qX

(x i (t))2 dt.

dt , ,
:
ZB qX
(dxi )2 .
++
s=
A

( , Rn . A B .)
Rn , (++)
dxi ,
. :
. R2
Zb p
2 d2 + d2 .
a

[dx = d cos sin d

dx2 + dy 2 = 2 d2 + d2 x.]

dy = d sin + cos d,

,
s
(B)
Z

2 +

(A)

d
d

2

d.

, , Rn .
, ,
,
Rn .
. .
3.5

t = s. dr
ds .
.
, .

20

.
2
d d r
k(s) := | | = = 2 .
ds
ds

(1)

1. R .
. : !

2
: r = r0 +r s+ r s
+. . . .
2
k(s) 0, , r = , .. = 0.
, r = r0 + cs (|c| = | | = 1).
2

. , 0.
2. (
) s.
. Rn n.

r
r
s + s2 +
s3 + . . . .
1
2!
3!
, r0 m




1
1
d = |[r, m]| = [ , m]s + [r , m]s2 + [r , m]s3 + . . . .
2
6
r =

d m
r , r = 0, .. k = 0 (.. m ).
2
. r = .
. , r , .
( . R3 . , .)
k(s) 6= 0 = k1 r = k1 .
. (s) r(s). (.. h(s), i = 0), .
t r ,
d2 r
, , . k= d
ds = ds2
r =

d2 r 2 dr
s + s = k(s)s 2 + s ,
ds2
ds

()

( ).
. , , ( ). .
.
, r ( F = mr), ()
d2 r
, is 2 = hk, is 2 = kv 2 .
ds2

v = s:
,
, , .
...
i = h...
r , i = s k 2 s 3 = v k 2 v 3 , ..
, hr, i = s = v, hF, i = hr, i = s = v,
hF,
, .
hr, i = h

3.6
. :







d





= lim lim ,
k = = lim




s0 s
ds

s
21

s.
,
s, O. , ,
, . ,
:
. | (s)| .
2
x ( x) e((s)) (e()
x ). x = (s)g() (g() = e((s)) e()).
, .
(s), ..
, ( ).
R3 .
. , ,

( ).
. k(s) = lim
s ,
. ( ).
3.7. . k = d
: d = k ds.
ds
. . ( ) t ( ) .
2, t . ,
, , , ..
.
(t) ( ) s(t) ( , -
.) t , s t, t
. t 0 2, s 0 S(= ).
(s(t))
R
Rs
k(s) ds. .. d = k(s) ds, ,
d = (s(t))
0

(s(0))

(s(0)), .. s.
. t 0 2 ( s 0 S),
,
2n
H
n. k(s) ds 2n, n .

n , , , , , k(s), , ,
, .
1 ( 1 ).
. , n n.
, ,
,
( .) ,
, .

3.8
. R R2 : r() = (R cos , R sin )
= Re(). : s = R, = Rs r(s) = R(cos Rs , sin Rs ) = Re( Rs ).

s

s
s
s
s
1 s
= sin , cos
=g
, = cos , sin
= e
.
R
R
R
R
R
R
R


, = e Rs = cos Rs , sin Rs , k = R1 . ,
(.. ) , .. r().
. k 6= 0, R = k1 (
). R ,
R , .
1. s. .
22

. r0 . k
r0 , k .
1
1
r = r0 + s + k(s)2 + r (s)3 + . . . ,
2
6

1
1
(s)2 + r (s)3 + . . . .
r = r0 + s + k
2
6
r r:
1
1
)(s)2 + r r (s)3 + . . . |.
d = |( )s + (k k
2
6

.
, = k = k
, , k = k .
2
.
. ,
( ).
2. = r(t) A = r(t0 )
, , s.
. n, r0 .




1
1
2

3

d = |hn, ri| = hn, is + khn, i(s) + hn, r i(s) + . . . .
2
6
hn, i = 0 = hn, i, ( ).
-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-= 4. .
4.1
- Rn , ei . . .
.
R3 (..
, ).
. : = [ , ]
.
. , r(t) (fi (t)) ,
, . ,
( ) . Rn : ,
O, .
4.2
. ( , , ) .
,
. .. = [ , ],
R3 (.. i, j, k).
(. ).
. () , ,
, . .
23

4.3 .
, - ,
. R3 . (r , r , r )
(, ) ,
.
.
.
. k (s) k (s)
r(s) ,
( ), .
. -, : k, k
.
-, , (A) , ..
A = AT (T ) . , .
. :
=
= k +
=

k,
,

()

( .)
:

0
k
0

k
0

0
.
0

. s = 0 s. , ,
T = E (E ). s E.
. : T + (T ) = 0 ( ). s = 0 E + E(T ) = 0 + ( )T = 0 .
, , . ,
. , .
.
2
. (s) .
,
.
. .
1. .
, .
aij = aji : 0 = h i , j i = h i , j i + h i , j i =
aij h j , j i + aji h i , i i = aij + aji .

2.
,
, .. r(s0 ).
, , , , ,
(.. ).
4.4 .


- . , r(p+1) = (r(p) ) .

24

r(p) . ,
.
: r = , r = k(s), r = k (s) k(s)2 + k(s)(s), rIV = (r ) = . . . .
4.5 ,
, .. , , .
,
( k = 0),
( ).
, , ,
, . (
.)
, ( )
. , ,
, ( ) .
R3 . , :
. (.. ) . .
. A B
B A. s r.

, = lims0 r
s . s .
, , ,
. . .. , ,
.
2
. .
. , .. . . ,
. , ,
. .
, -
. h , i = .
2

. R3 ( ) .
.
( , .
. ,
, . .13.)
. .
4.6

. = 0 , = r 6= 0,
, .
. = 0, . , , . = 0 ( ).
, r = = k = r , , , (..1.4).
2
. , .
. r0 s.

. (.. ), : v = a + b + c
v = a + b + c = ak + b(k + ) c = bk + (ak c) + b.

25

w, , .. w = 0.
. , , : b = 0 akc = 0.
w ( ) (, 0, k). ,
.
, (, 0, k).
2
.
, .
, a = b = 0, = 0 k
( ). , , k = 0
( ).

, w k 2 + 2 .
. ,
?
4.7 .
. R2 d
, d
ds = k ds = k .
.. k , (.. ) ,
, .. .
. , . :
= r = r t ,

t =

1
|r|

k = = r(t )2 + r t

k[ , ] = [ , ] = [r, r]t3 .

k=

|[r, r]|
.
|r|3

R3 .
(r = (x(t), y(t))):
x
y y x

k=
3 .
(x 2 + y 2 ) 2
.3.7 R = k1 .
3

: R =

(x 2 +y 2 ) 2
(x
yy x
)

. ,
F (x, y) = 0 y = f (x), t = x.
, (Fy , Fx ). .

.2.9.

4.8 .
, .
. ( ,
, .)
a. .
y = a sin . , = /2,
.
. , dy = tg dx ,
2

, dx = a cos
d.
sin
:
x = a (cos + ln tg 2 )
y = a sin .
26

[]
. 3:
, , x = 0 = /2
( 0 /2,
/2 ). x = 0 x = 0 :
= 2 x
|= 2 = 0, y|= 2 = a. ( , x|
= 2 = ( sin + sin1 )|= 2 = 0 = y|
, ,
.)
.
, ( )
2
. ds2 = dx2 + dy 2 = tga d2 ,
1
d
tg
y
=k=
=
= 2
R
ds
a
a cos
(R ). cosy . N , RN =
a2 . , a R N .
sin
( d
dx = cos2 > 0 ),
:
( ,
).
(. .. , 48 ):
,
y = a ch xa .
, R
.
, .
, (. . ).
4.9
.
1. , = r(s) (s
), , .. .
2. .
3. ,
( ) .
. 1) : (s) = r(s) + k1 (s),
= r(s). + ( k1 ) ( k1 )k = ( k1 ).
, .
2) s
= r(
s) : r(
s) = (
s) + R(
s)
(
s), R ,
. r = + R + R (

). ,
i = 1 + R.
:
,
: 0 = hr, i = 1 + R + Rkh
Rs
R(
s) = R(
s0 ) s0 ds = R(
s0 ) (
s s0 ) = R(
s0 )
s.
27

s = 0 , ,
.
3) ,
.
2
. , , ,
.
. , , .
4.10 R3
R3 .
. , () .
, , . , , . , ,
, , ( ). .
.
. .
. [r, r], r(t) = (x(t), y(t), z(t))
h[r, r], ( r)i = 0 :

x y z
y
z = 0.
(r, r, ( r)) = x
x
y
z

( ,
, .)
. r hr, ri = 0,
- , r - , .
. (
) h r, i = 0. ,

1
r, r ir), (.. = |rr|
(.4.8), k s 2 = r s, s = hr, i = k1s2 (r hr, i ) = k1s2 (r |r|
2 h
).
, :
h r, |r|2 r (r, r )ri = 0.
. : k =
, :
p
(y z z y)2 + (z x
x
z )2 + (x
y y x
)2
k=
.
3
2
2
2
(x + y + z ) 2

r]|
|[r,
3 .
|r|

R3

. ,
, , (r = r t , r = r(t )2 + r t )
:
...
r = r (t )3 + 3
rt t + rt
.

(r , r , r ) = ([r , r ], r ) = (k, k 2 + k + k) = k 2 .
...
k 2 = (r, r, r )t6 . , t =
=

|r|

k=

r]|
|[r,
3 ,
|r|

...
...
(r, r, r )
(r, r, r )
=
.
k 2 |r|6
|[r, r]|2

. .
28

. :
, r
r (, , ),
, ,
(r , , )

.
4.11 .
r(s) M0 = r0 = r(s0 ), s0 = 0.
, hn, r0 i = 0,
l = hn, r r0 i. l , ,
n.
3
l r = r0 + r0 s + 21 r0 s2 + 16 r
0 s + ...
(.. 5, .3). 4-
1
1
3
4
l = (n, r0 )s + (n, r0 )s2 + (n, r
0 )s + As .
2
6
, ( 0 ):
l = (n, )s +

k
1
(n, )s2 + (n, k 2 + k + k)s3 + As4 .
2
6

. , M0 , ,
(n, ) 6= 0, .. ( ), M ,

M0 , , M M0
M0 .
. M0 ,
, , (n, ) = 0 , ,
. ,
M0 , , ,
, .. (n, ) 6= 0, , .
((n, ) = 0 (n, ) = 0) , M0
( , k = 0 k = 0).
4.12
. s l
. M0 , s ,
, . l ,
.
, , , , ,
. (, .)
.
, , x, y, z,

M :
x
y
z

s
k 2
2s
k 3
6 s .

. , . (
.)
z,
: x = s, y = 21 ks2 .
, .
29

z = 61 kx3 . , . (
.)
: y = 12 ks2 , z = 16 ks3 .
M0 , .
(. .9 .1).
4.13
R3 k(s) (s). ( , k(s)).
. ( , (), .)
. k(t) > 0, (t), t (a, b).
, .
. 3 3-,
( ).
, ( 0 , 0 , 0 ). (t), (t), (t). , t0 = 0.
, .. t (t), (t), (t) .
, t . ,
.
.
. X(t) n n , ,
t = 0 . :
(i) X(t) t;

.
(ii) t X(t)1 X(t)

. A(t) = X T (t)X(t), B(t) = X(t)1 X(t).


A = X T X + X T X = X T ((X T )1 X T ) X + X T (XX 1 ) X = B T A + AB.
X(t) , A(t) = X T (t)X(t) = E . A(t) = E t, , B T (t) + B(t) = 0, .. B(t)
t.
t B(t) A(0) = E, A(t) = E A = B T A + AB .
, , B(t) X(t). 2
, k(t) > 0 (t) ,
,
t ,
.
:
. k(t) > 0) (t)
P ( 0 , 0 , 0 ) , .
r(t), t,
t0 r(t0 ) = P , P
( 0 , 0 , 0 ), t r(t)
k(t) (t).
. , P O R3 t0 = 0.

30

,
:
=
k,
= k +
,
()
=
.

.
( (t), (t), (t)),

(xx)

t ( ) , ,
t.
Rt
r(t) = r0 + (t) dt, , r(0) = O.
0

, O, r (t)
t (t). , , t .
, ,
( (t), (t), (t)).

(t) = (t) =
k(t)
.
k(t)
k(t)(t) ( , ,
= k(t)
(t) = (t).
). , k(t)

: k(t) (t) + (t)


(t) = (t) = k(t) (t) + (t)(t).

, (t)
(t)
= (t)(t). ,

|(t)|

= |(t)|, (t)
= (t).

( (t)
(t) , :
,
.)
, , (xx), (), (xx), .
, ()
, .
2
.
.
.
, . ( , .. , .).
,
, .
. ,
, .
2
, . ,
. , ,
, , , .
. , . .2.10.
. .

= k
= k .
r(s) = (x(s), y(s)) (s ).
(s) = (x (s), y (s)) (s) = (y (s), x (s)), .. ( , ) = 0.
. :
x (s) = k(s)y (s)
y (s) = k(s)x (s).
31

, .. x + y = 1, x + y =k 2 .
2
x (s) = u(s). u + k 2 u2 = k 2 , .. u = k 1 u2 . :
Z s

u(s) = sin
k(s)ds .
s0

x(s) y(s).
2
1
, , k(s) = s. u(s) = sin( s +c
2 ),
x(s) =

s2 + c1
sin(
)ds + c2 ,
2

y(s) =

cos(

s2 + c1
)ds + c3 .
2

-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-= 5. R3 . .
5.1
. M R3 ,
x M : V R3 , V R2 , ,
(V ) = U x M V U .
, (U, )
x ( ).
M : x U 1 x.
.
M . R3 x, y, z.
. 1 : V1 R3 2 : V2 R3
(1 (V1 ) = U1 M, 2 (V2 ) = U2 M )
1
1

(x0 , y0 , z0 ), = 1
2 1 : V1 V2 , V1 = 1 (U1 U2 ) V2 = 2 (U1 U2 ),
.
2
1 ( V2 ,
V2 V1 .)
(. .2.3) V1 (u1 , v1 ), V2 (u2 , v2 ).
.. 1 : V1 R3 , 22- ,
1 p , , Oxy, ,
, O1 (u10 , v10 ) = 1
1 (x0 , y0 , z0 ) V1
W (x0 , y0 ) .
O1 W g1 .
p2 , , , . g 1
(u20 , v20 ) = 1
2 (x0 , y0 , z0 ) (u10 , v10 ). , , . ,
.
(u10 , v10 ) (u20 , v20 ).
2
. M .
, 1 g11 W R3 , M Oxy.
, W z(x, y), (x0 , y0 , z0 ) M .
2

32

5.2 .
, , , R3 , (u, v)
. ()
.
, , ,
. F : G R1 , G R3 , .. , .
z = f (x, y) (, Oxy) . , : (x, y) 7 (x, y, f (x, y)).
:
. M R3 :
1. x M M U (x),
G(x) R3 (U (x) =
G(x) M ) R1 ;
2. x M U (x) ,
(u, v) V R2 R3 (
U (x));
3. x M U (x) ,
W
.
. , 1. 2. 3. ,
M z = f (x, y) V Oxy,
(x, y) 7 (x, y, f (x, y)) R3 (?)
.
, 2. 3. .
, 3. 1. .
, M ( !) z =
F (x, y), (x, y) O xy, z
.
z F (x, y) = 0, M (x, y, z) = z F (x, y) ( (x0 , y0 , z0 =
F (x0 , y0 )) R3 ) . , z . 2
,
( ).
. . M R3
z = f (x, y), (x, y) U = I1 Oxy.
U f (x, y) + c, c (1, +1) = I2 .
, , V f (x, y) R3 . V ((x, y), c), (x, y) U =
I1 , c I2 , .. I1 I2 V . , .
, .
. , , , .
, R3 . ,
R3 ( ).

33

5.3 .
.
, , .
(, ). ,
, ,

.
M R3 .
: V R3 , V U A M
( ).
, M M U M
: V U , V R2 , R3 . z V ()
x = (z) M .
(h) =
r(u, v).
. A M A M R3 L , .. L(h) = A + d (h). h R2 O, d
, , A.
, , () .
, , , , VA (VA R3 A).
() M A,
A M .
A M M A.
, , e1 e2
R2 , 3 2-
2 ().
: ru = (xu , yu , zu )T rv = (xv , yv , zv )T ( , T
.)
A ru du + rv dv, :
xu du + xv dv, yu du + yv dv, zu du + zv dv. 1 A.
.
: r(u0 , v0 ) + (J )(u u0 , v v0 )T , (J ) .
, x(u, v) = x0 + xu (u u0 ) + xv (v v0 ), .
.
[ru , rv ]. hn, r0 i = 0, = (x, y, z) .
[ru ,rv ]
n = |[r
.
u ,rv ]|
,
, , A, ( d) R2 . du, dv
2- (ru , rv ) R3 .

5.4 .
.
.
.
. 2 = 1 .
d2 d (d(2 ) = d1 ), (, d ), :
d2 (R22 ) = d1 (R21 ) (R21 R22 ).
2
34

, , .
, d1 = d2 d, : (J1 ) = (J2 )(J ).
() :
. A , () (
) , , .
5.5 .
Rn n ,
A .
:
. A,
A.
, .
, A , ,
A
(, ).
, ,
.
. r(t) r(t) A,
|r(t) r(t)| , t.
(, t , , , |r(t) r(0)|
|r(t) r(0)|.)
. r(t) r(t) A ,
.
= v =
. v . limt0 r(t)r(0)
t

r(t)
r(0)
r(t)
r(t)
limt0
. r(0) = r(0), , , limt0
= 0. .
2
t
t
. .
, A . , . ,
. ( :
).
. ,
, .
. ,
A, .
. A A.
,
t 6= 0 t = 0.

, ,
-.
. ( ). , .
, A,
.
. R3 (), . ,
. , .

35

. A M R3 .
r(t) r(t), M , A , ( ) : V M, V R2 , A 1 r(t)
1 r(t) R2 .
, , .
2
, , , ,
.
.
. A M R3 . A A
, M . M R3
.
. , , ,
, .
5.6 .
, .
,
( , ). :
. , A M A ,
F (x, y, z) = 0, dF F (x, y, z) = t ( A), .. Fx dx + Fy dy + Fz dz = 0. (
.)
(dx, dy, dz) dF = Fx dx + Fy dy + = 0 (
,
. , .

,
, ( , F ).
( ),
.
. , z = f (x, y).
5.7
.
Rn , ,
r(t) x0 = r(t0 ), . ,
, .. n
.
, ,
. ,
( ).
R3 , ,
, ,
(x0 , y0 , z0 ).
, . 4- (
: 3 ).
( ), .
, .
, , k ,

F (x, y, z; cj ) = 0, 1 j k,
+
R3 , k .
k , k k cj
, . , , , ,
, , .

36

,
k (x0 , y0 , z0 ) .
, , , . , , k 1, ,
.
5.8 .
, cj , (+)
t = (x(t), y(t), z(t)):
f (t, cj ) = F (x(t), y(t), z(t); cj ).
. , , , t1 t2 , ,
. k , k 1
, , k 2 ,
... , , k 1.
k t,
t0 , t0 ,
f (t). , t0 ,
k :
f (t0 , c0j )
f(t0 , c0j )
.........
f (k1) (t0 , c0j )

=0
=0
......
= 0.

, k cj , ,
, .. ( ).
5.9 .
, r(t0 ) . , (.),
, f (t, c0j ) = F (r(t), c0j ) .
f (t, c0j ) . .. k 1 r(t0 ) ,
k- , , k 1.
,
,
, . .

3.
k- n- (
, ).
.
5.10
, . 3-
3-. (, ax+by+cz = d 4 ,
. - , ,
, -,
).
, , 2. ( , ) .
, , ,
, , 2
.
, .
() hN, i + D = 0, - ,
N , D .
r(t) x0 , .. , n x0 ,
:
(hN, r(t)i + D)|t=t0
d
(hN, r(t)i + D)|t=t0
dt
d2
(hN, r(t)i + D)|t=t0
dt2
:
hN, r0 i + D

=0

hN,
r0 i

= 0.

hN, r 0 i

37

=0

=0
=0
= 0.

, .
, (
).
hN, r0 i = 0, - ,
, N, .. ,
. , , , .
: ( r0 , r 0 ,
r0 ) = 0.
, r0 .
. , ,
.

5.11 . .
[(..3.8)
. .
, ,
.
. r(s), s ,
A0 = r0 = r(s0 ). . , ..
. k, . = k. , k
.
h c , c i = R2 , A0 ,
(.. ). - c R
. :
(r(s0 ) c , r(s0 ) c ) = R2
2((r(s0 ) c ), ) = 0

2((s0 ), (s0 )) + 2((r(s0 ) c ), k(s0 )) = 0.


, , , ,
|r c | R (, , ).
, r c , , .
1 + k((r(s0 ) c ), (s0 )) = 0, ,
k1 , , , k1 , .. R = k1 . k
.
( , r c , ..
, .)
. ,
.
. ( ..)
. .]

5.12 .
, , .
.

. , .
, .
. M k Rn k- Rn , A M k U (A) M k (U = M k G,
G Rn ) : V Rn , V Rk ,
V Rk U .
M k . ,
M k (, U ). x U
1 x Rk .
1. i : Vi Rn , i = 1, 2,
1
Ui M n A M k , = 1 1
2 : Z1 Z2 , Zi = i (U2 U2 )
.
2. M k Rn . :

38

1. M k k- Rn .
2. A M k G(A) Rn
F : G Rnk , F 1 (B) = M k G, B = F A. (
M k .)
3. A M k U (A) M k ,
nk , W R
k R
nk , R
k
f : W R
n nk
k
n

R (R
R = R ).
( 1. 2. 3. ,
, . 3. 1., ..
x 7 (x, f (x)) , , Rn .
, 3. 2., : W D Rn ,
D Rnk , : (x, y) = (x, f (x) + y).
, , Rn
f , W O, O
D.)
c , :
. A M k G Rn :
G Rn , M k G k- . (
M k G n k
.)
. () : V Rn , (V ) = U M k A M k , V
Rk .
. A M k A M k Rn L(Rk )
L(h) = A + d (h) . h Rk O, d
, , A.
, , , VA (VA n- A). (k-) M k A,
A M k .
A M M A.
Rn ei , xi , 1 i n.
Rk j , uj , 1 j k.
, A M k k-, ,
j



d ,

xi
uj

k (). .
xi
rj , xij = u
j .
.
k : (h)= r(uj ).
i

x
: r(uj )i = ri (u10 , . . . , uk0 ) + u
(uj ), 1 i n, 1 j k.
j
,
, , A, ( d) Rk .
k- (ruj ) n-.

.
, () F (xi ) = 0 . Fxi dxi = Fxi (xi xi0 ) = 0.

39

,
.
1. A M k Rn
, A k ,
.
2. A M k Rn
M k , A ,
, A.
( ,
A .)
,
Rn .
- , .
Rk .
-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-= 6. ( )
6.1 Rn
, ,
Rn ,
.
Vx x.
, :
, , . ,
.
U Rn ,
: W U , W Rn . ,
. , (ui ) = (JA )(wj ) ((ui ) (wj ) , (JA )
d B = 1 A.)
. , A1 A2
, ()
A1 A2 (JA1 )1 (JA2 ).
, ,
, () .
:
U , .
R3 , ,
.
u
hu, ui = (u1 )2 + (u2 )2 + (u3 )2 ,
u, v hu, vi = u1 v 1 + u2 v 2 + u3 v 3 ,
(u)T (v) ( (u), (v) , T ,
, ).
, A : W U .
, .
, ,
.
. A U
B = A. u1 , u2 , A,
v1 , v2 , B = 1 A, : u1 = d(v1 ), u2 =
d(v2 ).
40

, ui , .. vi . : (J)(vi ) = (ui ), i = 1, 2.
((J) B, (ui ), (vi ) .
.)


hu1 , u2 i = uT1 u2 = v1T (J)T ((J)v2 ) = v1T (J)T (J) v2 = v1T Gv2 .
:

g11
hu1 , u2 i = u11 u12 + u21 u22 + u31 u32 = (v11 v12 v13 ) g21
g31

g12
g22
g32

1
g13
v2
g23 v22 = gij v1i v2j .
g33
v23

( , .)
, ui A G = (J T )(J) G,
( ) (x1 , x2 , x3 ) A:
hu1 , u2 i |A = gij (x1 , x2 , x3 )v1i v2j .
vkj uk .
. G , .
. (J) . G . . .. v T Gv = v T (J)T (J)v = ((J)v)T (J)v
u = (J)v, , v 6= 0, G .
2
. , , (J1 )T G(J1 ), (J1 ) .
6.2 ()
, , .. ,
, . :
Rn , A Rn ( U Rn )
VA .
,
- ( ) (, ).
,
, .
n n. 2
. n+ Cn2 = Cn+1
(
). Qn . ,
.
. .
U Rn U Qn . (
U ).
P
q(x) U
qij (x) dv i dv j , qij (x).
.
, (xi ) (dv i ). :
. , (
). : , , , .
, .

( ), .
41

d
, gij (x1 , . . . , xn ) dx1 . . . dxn
.
. dx2 +
2
dy + dz 2 , . :
? : ,
.
. , , .
.
, : ?
, . ,
(!). ,
, , .
, .
6.3
-, , ,
( ),
( ). : , q(u, v) Q(v) = q(v, v), :
q(u + v, u + v) = q(u, u) + q(v, v) + 2q(u, v), .. q(u, v) = 12 (Q(u + v) Q(u) Q(v)).
. -, gij (x)dui dv j ,
, . (
.)
.
, . , , .
dx2 dy 2 . (, : ,
Cn .)

.
. , .. ,
, .
,
. , , ,
.
6.4 .
.
x, y, z i, j, k.
R3 R3 .
. M R3 . M gx (u, v) x (M ) x M .
, , .
. . .
M : V R3 U = V
M, V R2 . u, v
R2 U .
, - (u, v) ( (u, v)
) r(u, v).
42

e1 , e2 . A U
d B = 1 A A .
. ,
d(e1 ), d(e2 ) A , .. , .. .

xu xv
yu yv .
zu zv

ru , rv e1 , e2 , .. . du, dv,
u1 , u2 .
(, . , ..
. .)
.
, .
,
R3 .
,
.
a b A A.
. dx1 , dy1 , dz1 dx2 , dy2 , dz2 . , du1 , dv1 du2 , dv2 .
. , dx1 = xu du1 + xv dv1 ..
,
:
ha, bi = dx1 dx2 + dy1 dy2 + dz1 dz2 =
(xu du1 + (xv dv1 )(xu du2 + xv dv2 ) + (yu du1 + yv dv1 )(yu du2 + yv dv2 ) + (zu du1 + zv dv1 )(zu du2 + zv dv2 ) =

(xu xu + yu yu + zu zv )du1 du2 + (xu xv + yu yv + zu zv )du1 dv2 + (xv xu + yv yu + zv zu )dv1 du2 + (xv xv + yv yv + zv zv )dv1 dv2 .

R3 , ..
ru , rv .
:
hru , ru idu1 du2 + hru , rv idu1 dv2 + hrv ru idv1 du2 + hrv rv idv1 dv2

a du, dv , .. a
hru , ru idu2 + 2hru , rv idu dv + hrv rv idv 2 .



hru , ru i hru , rv i
G=
hru , rv i hrv rv i
ru , ru . : G = (J)T (J).
: gij , i, j = 1, 2 E = hru , ru i = g11 , F =
hru , rv i = g12 = g21 , G = hrv rv i = g22 . ,
du1 , du2 , du, dv.
:
Edu2 + 2F du dv + Gdv 2 .
( G
, .)
43

, R2 , , ,
. , R3 ,
M , , R2 .
, , .
, , , , , .
.
(J1 ) (J ) (J) = (J1 )(J ) G = ((J1 )(J ))T ((J1 )(J ) = (J )T (J1 )T (J1 )(J ) =
(J )T G1 (J ). , G .
, .. ,
M ,
.
6.5 .
.
,
p
: |w| = gij (A)wi wj , w A M
gij (A)w1i w2j

q
cos w1 w2 = q
j
i
gij (A)w1 w1 gij (A)w2i w2j

. , n


R 1 R2 , 3 .
|r(t)| dt, r(t) = (x , x , x ) r (t) = (x 1 , x 2 , x 3 ) .
:
3

pP
R 2
i
i
|r| =
x (t)x (t) = Edu + 2F du dv + Gdv 2 .
.. |ds| = |dr|,
ds2 = Edu2 + 2F du dv + Gdv 2 = (E u 2 + 2F u v + Gv 2 )dt2 .
. x(t) M A1 = x(t1 ) A2 = x(t2 )

ZA2 p
Zt2 p

s(A1 A2 ) =
Edu2 + 2F du dv + Gdv 2 =
E u 2 + 2F u v + Gv 2 dt
t1

A1

,
Rn .
. .
, , w1 = (du, dv) w2 = (u, v) (
d , ) :
p
Eduu + F (duv + dvu) + Gdvv

cos w1 w2 =
.
2
Edu + 2F dudv + Gdv 2 Eu2 + 2F uv + Gv 2
, , ..
, .
. ,
- .
44

6.6
, , , , ,
. . , , .
c -, .
, .. .
M . g(x) = gij (x)dxi dxj M .
s(x, y) M ,
. ,
.
.
, , .
.
. U Rn g(x)
. x0 U U0 c , 0 (x1 ) > c r0 (x1 )
x1 U0 , r0 (x1 ) x0 x1 Rn (.. l = [x0 , x1 ]), 0 (x1 )
( g) , x0 x1 U0 .
. g c > 0 , g(r) =
gij (x0 )dxi dxj > c 2 r = (dxi ) x0 . g,
U0 x0 . r = (dxi ) |r|
A gA (r) = gij (A)dxi dxj > c 2 |r|2 = c 2 i (dxi )2 . U0
.
, x0 x1 U0 , l = [x0 , x1 ]
x0 x1 .
Z q
Z q
gij dxi dxj > c
(dxi )2 c r0 (x1 ).
2
=

, x0 x1 , > c r0 (x1 ),
0 (x1 ) > c r0 (x1 ), c = 12 c.
. M .
. x0 x1 M . - : V U Rn , x0 V .
U1 U Rn (x0 ) V x1 . , (x0 ) U1
, U (x0 ) U , (
V , U ) , c r0 > 0, r0 U1 .
2
s(x, y) ( , x
y), , , , , x = y.
. , z x y , ,
, x y z.
, , z.
, .
.
, M
, M , . (
.)

6.7
, .
F

1. M1 M2 q M2
q M1 :
q(u, v) = q(dF |A (u), dF |A (v))
. , q q q.
. , A (M ). J T GJ, J F A, G
q, A F (A).
q q F .
2
. , ,
! , ,
:
45

2. , , .. , ,
. , .
2
. (..
, , ),
.
( ) ,
.
2
6.8 R3
M R3 R3 , R3 .
. 6.4, , R3 .
M .
. .6.4.
. , F (x, y, z) = 0, , F , , F
z = Fz
.
Fx
Fy
dz = dx
dy.
Fz
Fz
,
ds2 = dx2 + dy 2 + dz 2 = dx2 + dy 2 + (

Fz2 + Fy2 2
Fx
Fy
F2 + F2
Fx Fy
dx +
dy)2 = z 2 x dx2 + 2 2 dx dy +
dy ,
Fz
Fz
Fz
Fz
Fz2

:
E=

ds2 =

Fz2 + Fy2
Fz2 + Fx2
Fx Fy
,
F
=
,
G
=
,
Fz2
Fz2
Fz2

(Fz2 + Fy2 )dx2 + 2Fx Fy dx dy + (Fz2 + Fy2 )dy 2


Fz2

. z = f (x, y), .. F = z f (x, y),


Fz = 1
E = 1 + fx2 , F = fx fy , G = 1 + fy2 .
: fx = p, fy = q. E = 1 + p2 , G = pq, F = 1 + q 2 ,
ds2 = (1 + p2 )dx2 + 2pq dxdy + (1 + q 2 )dy 2 .
. , R3 . R3 . ( .)
gij (x1 , . . . , xn ) dxi dxj
, gij .
.
. , , , ( ) . .
E G g = EG F 2 . . E G ,
ru , rv . ,

46

( ). , , . , ,
:

h[ru , rv ], [ru , 
rv ]i =
hru , ru i
hru , ru ihrv , rv i hru , rv i2 =
hru , rv i

hru , rv i
hrv , rv i

g = EG F 2 .
, , , ru rv , , ,
(!).
(,
. , .)
. . (. .13
.)
g = EG F 2 = |[ru , rv ]|2 .
. , , , -,
(
).
:

EG F 2

.
sin =
EG
, ,
, .
(, , .)

. .
u1 ru + v1 rv u2 ru + v2 rv (u1 v2 v1 u2 )[ru , rv ]. ,
p
|[u1 ru + v1 rv , u2 ru + v2 rv ]| = (u1 v2 v1 u2 ) EG F 2 .

(u1 v2 v1 u2 ) EG F 2
p
sin = p 2
.
Eu1 + 2F u1 v1 + Gv12 Eu22 + 2F u2 v2 + Gv22

. , .
6.9
. ,
, ,
, .. ,
. , ..
,
.

, .
, .
, . .
! ,

47

, , . .
, .
, , ,
, .
. .
. , ,
(..
.) . .
.
. . .
.
,
. .
, .
, .
, , , (
) . ,
, , ., A,
, , p q. ((p, q)) x
A
, x:
. ,
, .
. , A. , A R2 , .
( R3 )
ds2 = Edu2 +Gdv 2 . , -
.
,
, E G
. ,
(.10.5).
. ,

p
2
. ds2 = ( Edx + F/2dy)2 + (G F4 )dy 2 . T (x),

Edx+ F /2dy

dz ( ).
T

ds2 = T dz 2 +(G F4 )dy 2 . ,


, .

. . O , , . ,
.
6.10
, . , , .
. ( .)
48

( , . ) , .
.
.
, .
, , , .. , . , ,
.
. , - , ru du rv dv.
|[ru , rv ]|dudv. ,
, , . . , U
, ,
ZZ p
ZZ
ZZ

g dudv =
EG F 2 dudv.
S=
|[ru , rv ]| dudv =
U

. ,
: . .
.

,
p
2 =
:
E
G

F
EG F 2 |J|.
1
1
1
RR
RR
:
f (u(u1 , v1 ), v(u1 , v1 ) du1 dv1 =
f (u, v)|J| dudv.
p
RR
E1 G1 RR
F12du1 dv1 =
S1 =
RR
2
=
EG F |J| du1 dv1 =
EG F 2 dudv = S.
J ( u, v u1 , v1 ).
2

( g dudv () .)
. , , ,
,
, . . , :
.
.
, . , . ,
, , , .
, .
2-, ,
. , , , . (,
.)
, , -
, , ,
.
,
.
, ,
. , , . ,
.

49

. , .

. EG F 2 |[ru , rv ]|.
. F = 0,
Fz 6= 0, , ,

s
ZZ
ZZ
Fx2 + Fy2 + Fz2
|F |
|F |
|F |
=
S=
dxdy S =
dxdz . . .
2
Fz
|Fz |
|Fz |
|Fy |
. z = f (x, y),

ZZ p
q
p
1 + fx2 + fy2 = 1 + p2 + q 2 S =
1 + p2 + q 2 dxdy.
6.11 . .
. , ,
, F = 0, E = G, ..
( ): ds2 = E(u, v)(du2 + dv 2 ).
. , ,
.
.
. , ,
E,
, .
RR
S =
E(u, v)dudv.
,
(. ... ..
, .. , .. , 2004, 19.28, .337-339).
, , .
{e, g}. e() , .
, e() = cos i + sin j, i, j, k R3 .

e()
= sin i + cos j g(). g()
= e().
. Oxz, x > 0 :
x = (t), z = (t). . z k,
, Oz
, r = (t)e()+(t)k. ,
, (t, ).
, > 0 2 + 2 > 0. ,
.
, ,
, , ,
. . -.

ds2 = (dr, dr) = = ((t)e()dt+(t)gd+

(t)kdt, (t)e()dt++(t)gd+

(t)kdt)
= = 2 d2 +( 2 + 2 )dt2 .
, ( , ..
, , -).
l ( s ), 2 + 2 = 1
 2
ds2 = 2 d2 + dl2 = 2 (d2 + dl
).

50

u =

dl
(l) ,

v =
ds2 = 2 (l(u))(du2 + dv 2 ).

. .
( , , ) .
, , , Oz.
, , l
a = 1. sin (l).
dl = ctg d, l = ln sin sin = el
, :
 2 !
dl
ds2 = (sin (l))2 d2 + dl2 = e2l d2 +
.
el

dl
el

= du, u = el , e2l = u2
ds2 =

d2 + du2
.
u2

( a 6= 1, a2 .)
[

6.12

. R3 : a, b u, v.


(u, a) (u, b)
([u, v], [a, b]) = det (v, a) (v, b)

. R3 : a, b u, v.
[a, ,b] = m m1 , m2 , m3 , [u, v] = n n1 , n2 , n3 .
(, ,
, , ,
.)
:

a1 a2 a3
u1
u2
u3
ha, ui ha, vi ha, mi
b1
b2 b3 v1
v2
v3 = hb, ui hb, vi hb, mi
n1 n2 n3
hn, ui hn, vi hm, ni
m1 m2 m3

( T .) . ( .)

ha, ui ha, vi
0
hb, ui hb, vi

0
0
0
hm, ni

, , :

ha, ui
hm, ni2 = det
hb, ui

ha, vi
hb, vi

hm, ni,

( , m n ), .

. , m n ?
(. .8). R3 u v.
R = {u, v, z} z, u v,
A : R3 R3 , R0 = {e1 , e2 , e3 } R. (A)
R.
u, v, z, .., , R , ,
, u v, .. |[u, v]|. , ,

F
, (.. E
F G )
2
. g EG F .
, g [u, v].
. , g u v.]

-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-

51

7.
7.1 . , .. . , :
, , .. , , ,
. .
, .
, . ,
. : . (, ,
.)
(
) ,
, , R3 . , , ,
.
, , . , , (
) , , , .., , .
.
, ,
, . ,
, ,
.
. ( .) , , ,
. ( ) ,
, , ,
.
. , - . , ,
, . (, .)
, , , .

7.2
. - .
M R3 M . O
M .
z = f (x, y), O , ..
.
, ,
. ,
, .
(
, .)
. 2- , .. df + 12 d2 f .
. ( , 1800 ) p, q, r, s, t f :
p = fx , q = fy ,

r = fxx , s = fxy , t = fyy .

rdx2


+ 2sdx dy + tdy 2 . , , .. , .
2 .
,
, .

. M
(u, v) A r(l) M ,
(l = 0 A). r(l) (l) = r (l).
: n(l) (n(0) = n).
l : h (l), n(l)i = 0. ( n , ru , rv , n , ..
n [ru , rv ].)
52

, : hk, ni + hr , n i = 0 ( , k ,

n i ds2
dni
A); kh, ni = hr , ds
= hdr,
2
ds2 . .
A k
R = 1/k.
hdr, dni
cos
=
.
hi
R
ds2
dr = ru du + rv dv. n(s) ,
, , A. dv

n = nu du
ds + nv ds , , dn = n ds = nu du + nv dv.
:
hdr, dn) = h(ru du + rv dv), (nu du + nv dv)i =
= hru , nu idu2 + (hru , nv i + hrv , nu i)du dv + hrv , nv idv 2 .

(du, dv)
. , , . , -
. .
hdr, dni,
. ,
drT Gdn. ( dr dn , G , T .)
(J)

n = hdrT , d
hdr, dni = drT Gdn = drT ((J)T G(J))dn
= ((J)dr)T G((J)dn)
= d
r Gd
ni.
( .)
() dr = (du, dv) .
. () , .
2
hdr, dni, , ,
.
7.3 .
, : hruv , ni =
hrvu , ni.
hru , ni = 0 = hrv , ni,
, n :
hruu , ni + hru , nu i = 0 = hruv , ni + hru , nv i
hrvu , ni + hrv , nu i = 0 = hrvv , ni + hrv , nv i.
2- : hr, ni = h(ruu u 2 + 2ruv u v + rvv v 2 , ni. (
.)
, ,
: L, M N ( u, v) bij ( ui , i =
1, 2). :
L(u, v)du2 + 2M (u, v)du dv + N (u, v)dv 2 = bij dui duj .
,
L
M
N

[r ,r ]
u v
EGF 2

= hru , nu i

= hrv , nv i

= hru , nv i = hrv , nu i =

53

hruu , ni =
hruv , ni =
hrvv , ni =

(ruu ,ru ,rv )

EGF 2
(ruv ,ru ,rv )

EGF 2
(rvv ,ru ,rv )

.
EGF 2

I, II:
I(du, dv) = E du2 + 2F du dv + G dv 2 ;

II(du, dv) = L du2 + 2M du dv + N dv 2 .

. z = f (x, y),
: E = 1 + p2 , F = pq, G =
1 + q 2 EG F 2 = 1 + p2 + q 2 .
:
r
,
L= p
1 + p2 + q 2

s
M= p
,
1 + p2 + q 2

t
N= p
.
1 + p2 + q 2

(x, y) f , ..
, p = q = 0 EG F 2 = 1. L = r, M = s, N = t, ..
II(du, dv) = df .
. (
).
. F (x, y, z) = 0.
[ ( , Fz 6= 0):
L=

M=

Fz2 Fxx + 2Fx Fz Fxz Fx2 Fzz


q
Fz2 Fx2 + Fy2 + Fz2

Fz2 Fxy + Fx Fz Fyz + Fy Fz Fxz Fx Fy Fzz


q
2Fz2 Fx2 + Fy2 + Fz2
N=

Fz2 Fyy + 2Fy Fz Fyz Fy2 Fzz


q
]
Fz2 Fx2 + Fy2 + Fz2

. n,
.
. , -,
( , ), -, , . ,
.
7.4 , .
.

.
k cos =

cos
II(du, dv)
L du2 + 2M du dv + N dv 2
=
=
.
R
I(du, dv)
E du2 + 2F du dv + G dv 2

, , du, dv . , ..
du, dv. , dv
, .. du
dv ( du ).
. :
. ,
, .
2
. , , .
2

54

.
. M , A,
A , A .
(F (x, y, z) = 0 hn, (r
r0 ) = 0), , .. (F = (Fx , Fy , Fz ) n)
. , , .
2
,
. , .. .
1 :

. kn
.
2
. , , . ( , .. .) ,
.
, k > 0, kn :
,
hr, ni.


(Jean Baptiste Meusnier).
,
.

. , R1n = cos
R , .. R () Rn
. R = Rn cos ,
. .
2

. (r (s))
?
,
. ? z = x2 y 2 .
.
. , :
. kn = kn (u, v, du, dv)
.
. . .
. , .
, , .. ,
. , (,
). , ,
( ), .
7.5
.
, z = f (x, y), z = 0
, .
, , rdx2 + 2sdx dy + tdy 2
() , . ,
( ) , . ,
, .
. , ,
. ,

55

z = 1 z = 0. ( !)
: .
, ,
( ).
. ,
. , , ..
.
, , 1.
, .
, ,
. .
,
. ,
: 1) ,
2) -
, .
1/Rn =

II(, )
.
I(, )

II(, ) = 1 L 2 + 2M + N 2 = 1. ,
, .
( , ,
.)

7.6
. A M
A . ru , rv
. G
A hu, vi = gij ui v j ( ).
B ( )
bij ui v j .
. ,
() A , .
G , , .
m1 , m2 , u u
1 , u
2 .
1 2
2 2
u (
u ) +(
u ) , u
1 v1 + u
2 v2 .
1 2
2 2
II(u) = a(
u ) + b(
u ) . :
a b.
, , A. ,
A.
, .
. A,
A L (.. A L).
, m1 , m2 A B, a b .
. m1 , m2 A .
A , m. , cos , sin ,
m1 m. kn = II(m)
I(m) :
kn = a cos2 + b sin2 .
kn m. ,
1.
( (1,0) (0,1)).
: k1 = a k2 = b, k1 k2 .

56

,
:
kn = k1 cos2 + k2 sin2 .
. .
A.
.
. .
. :
kn = k1 cos2 + k2 sin2 = k1 cos2 + k2 k2 cos2 = (k1 k2 ) cos2 + k2 .

cos2 0 1, k1 > k2 , k1 , k2 , , k2 > k1 . ,


.
( , , . .)

.
:
1. k1 = k2 , ( );
.
2. , ;
, ..
.
3. , ;
. , ,
.
4. , , ; . ,
, , .
.
5. , .
,
. .
. ( ) ( ) K = k1 k2 . ( )
2
H = k1 +k
2 .
, k1 , k2 .
7.7 R3 .
, k1 k2
B det (B G) = 0.

LE MF
R3 det MF
N G = 0.

, k1 k2 .
2 2H + K,

57

H , K . , :
EN 2F M + GL
LN M 2
, K=
.
2H =
2
EG F
EG F 2
.
.
: z = f (x, y)
, Oxy O
. x2 + y 2 , : fxx x2 + 2fxy dx dy + fyy dy 2 . ,
2
fxx fyy fxy
= rt s2 .
, z = x2 y 2 O 4.
. , 1 1 .
r?
-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-= 8. ,

8.1 .
. , , , ,
, .. .
, E, F, G
. , ,
. , K,
. .
. K = k1 k2 . K > 0,
k1 k2 , K < 0, k1 k2 , K = 0,
. , ,
. ,
. , .. ,
.
.
: K > 0, K < 0
K = 0, H 6= 0.
: k1 2 + k2 2 = 1, k1 2 k2 2 = 1, k1 2 = 1.
( , , , ,
.)

, K > 0,
, .. , . ,
.
( : , ,
. , ,
, ... .)
, . .
. , ,
H 2 = 4K.
. , , .
(. , . 198-199).
, K < 0, .
,
58

, , , . ,
. . ,
, H = 0.
, ,
.
, K = 0, k1 6= 0,
. () ,
, , , .
, ,
, ,
.
.
,
, , . , f (x, y) = (x + iy)3 = x3 3xy 2 .
.
( ) .
.
, ,
(.. ), ,
, , , .
K = 0, LN M 2 = 0.
. K = 0 , . ( .)
[, , .]
8.2 . ,
.
. , ,
. rt s2 = 0
. , , ,
: , .
.
, .
z = f (x, y) Oxy
2f
2f
r + t = u
2 + v 2 = f , ..
f .
, , H , :
(, ) .
. ( , .)
, ,
.
(u, v), r(u, v) r = 0, .. :
2
2 x(u,v)
+ x(u,v)
= 0 ( .) u2
v 2
,
59

.png

. 4:

(a)

(b)

. 5:
, .
. .
.
, , ,
: , , ,
, .
. , .. , . , , . , ,
, , , , , , .
.
.
.
?
. , Oz ,
Oxz x = 2 Ox 1.
, Oz.
. ,
Ox ( ). .
, , (
.)
[ a ( ) N
R : RN = a2 . , ..
, . , : K = k1 k2 = a12 .
, ..
.]

60

. 6:
8.3 .

.
C . n(u, v), M 2 ,
R3 , S 2 ,
n : M 2 S 2 . (
.) .
. , F (x1 , x2 , x3 ) = 0 F ,
F . n
, ( , F ).
, F , ..
C 2 , .
. ,
( )
, ..
. ,
.
.
, :
1. A M 2
A.
. . n A M 2 , .
, U n
U V = n(U ).
, ..
, A
B = n(A) .
. B = n(A) u, v,
A M 2 . , , u, v U (A) V (B)
. n(r(u, v)) = n(u, v) (
- ).
U W , ,
,
ZZ
S=
|[ru , rv ]| du dv,
W

61

W . - M 2
. V U
ZZ
S0 =
|[nu , nv ]| du dv,
W

.
, .. , n.
, [nu , nv ] = [ru , rv ]. .
(. . 6.12, .50):
, .
[ru , rv ] [nu , nv ] = [ru , rv ] , , :




hnu , ru i hnu , rv i
hru , ru i hru , rv i
det
= det
.
hnv , ru i hnv , rv i
hrv , ru i hrv , rv i
, ,
, = LN M 2 , g = (EG F 2 ).
, K.
, , :
RR
|K||[ru , rv ]| du dv
.
S
U A,
, K A. 2
. ,
A (),
A ,
A.
, , , . , , ,
( ), , . , ,
, ,
. , n(x) , ,
.
( , ),
, ,
( ) (
).
2. A M 2 .
. A M B A B = n(A).
. .
A B: A B . , U M
V , : U
e A , V Ve B .
U
V : U
U
n
:U

, n : U V V V .
62

Q. Q
=n
P U , P , Q = n(P ) Q
(P ).
X ( ) X.
,
. ,
M U A , ,
P U : c P < P , 0 < c < cos . :
Q P

Q
Q P
1 Q
Q
=
<
<
.

Q P P
P P
c P
P
, n
R3
, :
n
.
A K(A). , P A,

c 1, ( c P < P < P , Q Q):


lim

Q
Q
= lim
= K.

P
P

U V , , K
A ,
, , A.
2
8.4
, , . (
), ..
.
- , .
(u, v)
n(u, v). nu nv .
. , , .. K = 0. ,
K () .
2
. M 2 R3
, .
2
, , ,
U , , ( ).
. (A),
A .
. n
(x). n
, n
U . , n
P .
n
. n , ,
, , 1 (, ) U . , n
. , n

V . , n(x)
.
, .. ( ), ., , n(P ) .
2
. f : M m
N n , k ,
(?!) (. , .1, .216, .7, 1969 ., , .1...,
).
[. , N = Rn , , f (M ) Rn
f (x0 ) x0 M . .]

63

( )
.
, , x =
f
6= 0. u = (x, v).
f (u, v), y = g(u, v), u
x, v, f ((x, v), v) x = 0 v. :

f
u v

f
v

= 0. , ,

f g , f
g. , v , g (x, v) u, , ..
v. , y x. ,
.
2

.
1. . , , ,
.
, , ,
( ). , ( ),
. ,
( ) .
, , ,
.. , .
2. .
, .. , , , , ,
, .. . , .
2
. ,
, .
. curvatura integra, . K, ,
. .
R3 M , n : M S 2 ( M ).

, ,
, .. 4. , , . , , ,
, , .
, ( C 2 ) 4.

8.5 .
, , ,
, . , c Pc ,
. c . nc
.
. , , , ( , ,
).
, , ..
( c ), ,
. , , ,
, , .. .
. , lu . lu .
= (u), u, (u) lu ,
.
64

1. ,
.
. Pt , t, t . Pt+t .
Pt lt . t lt t (!).
.
2
:
2. ( ),
, . 2
, , ,
1 , : ,
.
, () :
3. , , : 1. , 2.
, 3. .
, , ,
. ,
, .
. A , .
( A ,
, , ,
A.)

(l) r(l, v) = (l) + vm(l)


. [rl , rv ] = [ (l) + vm (l), m(l)] = [ (l), m(l)] +
v[m (l), m(l)].
v, , [ (l), m] [m (l), m] .
, , , , m (l) , ..
. m, .

. , (l)
(l) = (l) + x(l)m(s), x , ,
.
hm, i = 0 ( ), : hm , i = hm, i = kg .
.. m , m , kg (s) , ..
(. 7.4, .54). m , ..
, m .
kg = 0, , m , ..
. .
, , .. (
A) . .
kg 6= 0,
, x k1g (l) = (l) + kg1(l) m(l). ,

(l) = +
[ , m] = n + 0 +

1
kg (l)

m+

1
m (l).
kg (l)

1
1
[m , m] = n
kg (l)[ , m] = n n = 0,
kg (l)
kg (l)

.. m , , , ,
. , .
2
65

, :
4. , .. .
,
,
.
. 1. .
r(l, v) = (l) + vm, m . dr = dl + mdv , ,
, ds2 = dl2 + dv 2 .
2. . : vm(l) (,
). , m m(l)
, l . dr = m(l)dv + vm (l)dl ds2 = dv 2 + v 2 dl2 .
.
3. . r(l, v) = (l)+vm(l). l ,
, m , l,
, .. , v ,
.
: rl = (l) + v (l); rv = (l). [rl , rv ] = [v (l), (l)] = vk[, ] = vk
v, .. , l, , , . . :
ds2 = dr2 = (1 + k 2 v 2 )dl2 + 2dl dv + dv 2 .
, , , , , .
, , , .. . ,
, , , ,
.
( ,
.)
2
. , ,
(m, mu , ).
[
r = (u) + vm(u);

dr = ((u)
+ vm(u))du
+ m dv.

u = l m(s) .
ds2 = hdri2 = (1 + 2h, mi + v2 )dl2 + 2(h, mi + v)dl dv + dv2 .
m], . [, m] [m,
m].
, [rl , rv ] = [, m] v[m,
[, m], .. (, m, m)
. ,
, , m
, , .. , m, m
. ]

, , (, , Oz ).
.
.
, .
. ? ?
. , , .
( ) , , . ,
, ,
, .

66

, ,
.
. , ,
() : rt s2 = 0.
, , .
, .

9.
, (
Disquisitiones generales circa supercies curvas) 1828 .
theorema egregium. (
) . ,
. :
. K R3 1- 2- .
, ( ) . C
.
. , ,
, R3 . ,
.
9.1 .
: , , ,
, . ,
(, , - ).
, , , ,
.
,
,
, . , ( ). , ..

, , .
, .
,
, . , .
, , ,
M 2 R3 . : V U M 2 , , , V R2 (u, v), U M 2 , .. M 2
W R3 . R3 (x, y, z),
r(u, v). ,
A M 2 (ru , rv , n), n , M 2 (.. A M 2 ),
ru , rv , , ,
(e1 , e2 ) R2 ([ru , rv ]
d) A M 2 . , n ru , rv n = |[r

u , rv ]|
ru , rv .
67

9.2
, , ,
ru
rv . ,
. .
.
u v.
R3 ,
. u 1, v 2, ,
ru = r1 rv = r2 , ruu = r11 ..:
r11 =
r21 =
n1 =

111 r1 + 211 r2 + b11 n


121 r1 + 221 r2 + b21 n
b11 r1 b21 r2

r12 =
r22 =
n2 =

112 r1 + 212 r2 + b12 n


122 r1 + 222 r2 + b22 n
b12 r1 b22 r2

()

bij
: n
(rij , n) = bij .
. n ,
. .
ni = bji rj , () .
bij . ri , : hnj , ri i = b1j hr1 , ri i + b2j hr2 , ri i.
: hnj , ri i = hrij , ni = bij . C hri , rj i
gij . bij :
bij = b1j g1i + b2j g2i .
: bij = bkj gki . g. g ij
. bij = g ki bkj .
, (bij ) (g ki )(bkj ), g1 det(bkj ), .. K.
, , K
n r , , :
|[n1 , n2 ]| = |bi1 bk2 [ri , rk ]| = |b11 b22 b21 b12 | |[r1 , r2 ]| = | det(bji )| |[r1 , r2 ]|.
.
( r1 (u1 , u2 ), r2 (u1 , u2 ) ), r21 =
r12 , : 121 = 112 , 221 = 212 b12 = b21 .
9.3 .
kij . (
) .
,
M 2 M 2 . ,
,
.
.
( ) m(u, v) , :
m(u, v) = m1 (u, v)r1 + m2 (u, v)r2
(m1 m2 m r1 , r2 ). M 2
r(u(t), v(t)), , ,
68

(
R3 ):
dm
= m1 u + m2 v,

(+)
dt
m1 =

m
u

m2 =

m
v

mj = m1j r1 + m1 r1j + m2j r2 + m2 r2j ,

(++)

m1j m2j m1 m2 . : mj = mij ri + mi rij .


r1j r2j :
mj = mij ri + mi (kij rk ) + mi bij n.
, , , , , .. . ,
.
( XX `-`
)
, .. .

M 2 , ( M 2 ) R3 . , , .
, , .. () ,
n:
111 r1 + 211 r2
112 r1 + 212 r2
.
()
1
2
21 r1 + 21 r2
122 r1 + 222 r2
, u, v x1 , x2 m mi .
, .. , kij rk . ,
dm
= (mij ri + mi kij rk )x j + mi bij nx j .
dt
, , .
, t (+)
.
, x 1 , x 2 .
.
,
w : (mij ri + mi kij rk )wj .
, , , w m(u, v) (: ):
w m(u, v) = (mij ri + mi kij rk )wj .
() m(x) () w(x) x M 2 . m ,
t m = m; j- , .. rj ,
j m.
, , , t m
m (x j ) = (+), .. t m = j m x j .
j m (++),
rij kij rk : j m = mij ri + mi kij rk .
69

: j ri = rj ri ri (x)
rj . ():
j ri = kij rk ,

( )

.., R3 . .
. j m , .. (++),
( ) () (
):
j m(x) = j (mi ri ) =

mi
ri + mk j rk = mij ri + mi kij rk = mij ri + mp ipj ri = (mij + mp ipj )ri .
xj

( , ri .)
, m(u, v)
w wj :
w m = j m wj .
, m
1 m(x(t)) u(t)
+ 2 m(x(t) v(t))

. t m
R3 ).

Dm
dt




mi
p i
i
i
j
i
p i
j
w m = wj rj (m ri ) = j (m ri )w = (mj + m pj )ri w =
+ m pj ri wj .
uj
i-
j- .
9.4 .
1. .
2
( ,
.) ,
.
.
w (f m) = w (f )m + f w m
f
i
, w f = x
i w , :
f
i
i
p i
j
i
i
p i
j
i
p i
((f m)j + (f m) pj )wj = ( x
j m + f mj + f m pj )w = w f m + f (mj + m pj )w .

. , w . , ,
.
2.
b)
: d (a,
= (w a, b) + (a, w b).
dw
. R3 , u v, , v u .
2

70

, -
, 2
, .. .
w(x), v(x)
w . , w v. , .
w, .
w , v: :
3. f, g
f w1 +gw2 v = f w1 v + gw2 v.
.

. ,
. ,
i M12 M22 V
(.. )
, . ,
, (
) (.. , , ).
4.
: (g lk ) (gij ) (g lk gkj =
jl ),


gil
gij
1 lk gjl
k
+

.
(!)
ij = g
2
xi
xj
xl
( i ,
j , ,
( ).) x1 x2
u v.
. (), rj rji = sji rs . rl . (rji , rl ) = sji gls .

gjl
hrj , rl i
=
= hrji , rl i + hrj , rli i = sji gls + sli gjs .
i
x
xi
, :
gli
xj
gij
xl

= slj gis + sij gls


= sil gjs + sjl gis .

, , , ,
, 1- :


1 gjl
gli
gij
+

= gls sij .
2 xi
xj
xl
( i, j) (g lk ) (..
g lk l). sk sij . sk ,
, s k ( s 6= k ).
(!), 2- . 2
5. (xi ) xi
:
k xp xq
x
k 2 xp
k = r x
+
.

ij
pq
r
i
j
x x
x

xp x
i x
j
( ).
71

. : -, , -,
, . , ,
, ( , , ).
1. ,
. , ,
, , , ,
,
R3 .
, ,
. , , .. ,
( ), () .
2. u, v . , . , ( ())
:
ri rj = kji rk .
( )
, . ,
1 - m,
m- () Rn , , ,
r(u1 , . . . , um ).
, Rn gij = hri , rj i , (!) , ( )
,
.
1 (.. m = n 1) hrij , ni = bij
. , , ( !), (. ...)

, R3 .
9.5 . .
, , , 4. .
,
, .. , .7 7,
.
(
()). hr11 , r22 i hr12 , r12 i. -:
hr11 , r22 i hr12 , r12 i = b11 b22 b212 + k11 l22 gkl k12 l12 gkl .
. :
2 hri , rj i
2 gij
=
= hrik , rjl i + hril , rjk i + hri , rjkl i + hrikl , rj i,
xk xl
xk xl
,
2 g12
1 2 g11
1 2 g22

= hr11 , r22 i hr12 , r12 i.


1
2
2
2
x x
2 x x
2 x1 x1
72

K :
 2


LN M 2
b11 b22 b212
1
g12
1 2 g11
1 2 g22
k l
k l
=

gkl 11 22 12 12 .
K=
2 = g
EG F 2
g11 g22 g12
x1 x2
2 x2 x2
2 x1 x1

K
(. (!)).
2
, ,
. , , .
,
, .
9.6 .
. (. . 9 6)
A M R3 (u, v), .. ,
u = const v = const (.. ).
. , .
. , F = (ru , rv ) ,

ds2 = A(u, v)2 du2 + B(u, v)2 dv2


( , .)
, , : W U M 2 R3 (W R2 ) .
, , - r(u, v). : |ru | = A, |rv | = B.

U . h1 , h2 . h1 = rAu h2 = rBv . n ,
h1 , h2 , n .
. ( , ( ).
. h1 , h2 , ..
. , ,
, .
. , A B (?) . ( . ?)
. . ,
, , . :

h1u =
0
+ p h2 + b1 n
0
+ b2 n
h2u = p h1 +

0
nu = b1 h1 b2 h2 +

0
+ q h2 + c1 n
h1v =

h = q h

+
0
+ c n
2v

nv =

c1 h1

c2 h2

. , ,
.
, p = hh1u , h2 i = hh2u , h1 i q = hh1v , h2 i = hh2v , h1 i.
ruv
B
ABv

h2u = ( rBv )u =

1
+ (B
)u rv , , (h2u , h1 ) =

hruv ,ru i
AB

hru ,ru iv
2AB

(A2 )v
2AB

v
= 2AA
= ABv .
2AB

p =
q = BAu . : b1 = hh1u , ni b2 = hh2u , ni , , c1 = hh1v , ni c2 = hh2v , ni.
1
1
L
vu
: h1u = ( rAu )u = ruu
+ (A
)u ru , h2u = rB
+ (B
)u rv , b1 = A
, b2 = M

A
B
N
c1 = M
,
c
=
.
,
2
A
B
h1u
h2u

L
= ABv h2 + A
n
Av
M
= B h1 + B n

h1v
h2v

= BAu h2 +
= BAu h1 +

M
n
A
N
n.
B

, . :




1
A2
Au
1
A2
AAv
v
v
ruu = u
u
=
,

= 2 .
uu ru + uu rv ;
uu =
uu
2A2
u
A
2B 2
v
B


r 
ruu
Au r u
u ru + vuu rv
Au r u
u
Au
v B rv
u
uu
=

= uu

=
2 ru + uu
.
A u
A
A2
A
A2
A
A
A B

73

()

. , p =

v
uu B
A

= ABv , , .

. , , = LN M 2 E, F, G . () ,
, , , (h1u , h2v ) (h1v , h2u ) .

. , K K =
.
AB
g

g = EG F 2 A2 B 2 . , KAB = AB
.
:
hh1u , h2v i = hh1u , h2 iv hh1uv , h2 i = pv hh1uv , h2 i
hh2u , h1v i = hh1v , h2 iu hh1uv , h2 i = qu hh1uv , h2 i.

KAB =

AB

= hh1u , h2v i hh2u , h1v i =


K=

p
v

q
u

, ,

(
pv qu
=
AB

Bu
)
A u

+ ( ABv )v

AB

()
2

9.7 . .
rij = rji .
. ,
, .
. R3 (. ).
( ), Ai
1

i1 2i1 b11
Ai = 1i2 2i2 b12 :
b1i b2i
0

r1
r1

r2 = Ai r2 .
xi
n
n
,

r
r
1
1
r2
r2
=
,
x1 x2
x2 x1
n
n


r1

A2 2 A1 (A1 A2 A2 A1 ) r2 = 0,
x1
x
n

(r1 r2 n) ,

A2 2 A1 = [A1 , A2 ].
1
x
x

()

[A1 , A2 ] = A1 A2 A2 A1 .
9 ( , ..
(r1 , r2 , n), ) (.. ). . , .

, .. :
 p

b11 b22 b212
1
22
p21
p s
p s
K=
= g1p

+ s1 22 s2 21 .
()
g
g
x1
x2
.4
1- .
74

, (D. Codazzi), (k = 1, 2):


bk2
bk1
+ bi1 ik2 =
+ bi2 ik1 .
x1
x2
. (.. 1853 , (G. Mainardi) 1856, 1867 .)
, .
(. , , ). (,
,
.)
. (J. Bonnet) gij (u1 , u2 ), bij (u1 , u2 ), i, j = 1, 2,
R2 , : G = (gij ) B = (bij )
(u1 , u2 ) , G .
1. R3 M 2 :
M 2 , I = gij d ui d uj , II = bij d ui d uj ,
gij , bij (i, j = 1, 2) (*), (kij )
(gij ) (!) (.4, .70);
2. ,
R3 .
-=-=-=
1. , E =
G = b2 , F = 0:
ds2 = b2 (du2 + dv 2 )
 2


b
0
1/b2

,
0 b2
0
:
111 =

1 b2
bu
bv
bu
= ; 112 = ; 122 = ;
2b2 u
b
b
b

211 =

0
1/b2


.

bv 2
bu
bv
; 12 = ; 222 =
= (ln b)v .
b
b
b

K () (p = 1):
1
K = 4 b2 (ln b)uu (ln b)vv
b
, b =
:

1
u

bu
b

2

bv
b

2

bu
b

2

bv
b

2 !

ln b
b2

( ),



 
1
1
1
2
2
K = u ln
= u (ln u)uu = u
= u2 2 = 1.
u uu
u u
u
2

2. () ( du2 +sin2 u dv 2 ):
111 = 0 = 112 ; 122 =

(sin2 u)u
2

222 = 0 = 222 ; 212 =

(sin2 u)u
.
2 sin2 u

.9.5:
1
K=
sin2 u

(sin2 )uu

+ sin2 u
2

(sin2 u)u
2 sin2 u

2 !

cos2 u sin2 u 4 sin2 u cos2 u


+
=1
sin2 u
4 sin4 u

-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=75

10.
10.1 .
. M 2 R2
v(x). , , v . , - x0 ,
, x0 .
- x y , , v, , v(x) v(y)
.
(, R3 , , , .
.)
. , ,
, . ,
:
,
- .
. , v(x) , v = 0.
:
 i

d vi
v
k i
( v)i =
+
v

j =
+ v k ikj x j = 0.
()
kj x
j
x
dt
.
v i . v i (t).
, , ( ),
t, . ikj (x(t))
, , .

1. v0 , ,
.
2
, , ,
x0 = x(t0 ) . , , :
2. .
u)
. , d (v,
= 0, v(t) u(t)
dt
.
d (v, u)
= (t v, u) + (v, t v) = 0.
2
dt

,
. . 2
. A A m1 , m2
. ,
m1 (t), m2 (t). ,
.
3.
.
. .
2

76

, , ,
, ,
. ,
4.
.
2
. ,
.
. ( ) . ,
. ,
?
, , ,
.
, ,
, .
5. ,
.
. ,
. ,
. , ,
:
. ,
.
2
, , , .
. ,

, . [ 5.]
10.2 .
.
. : ()
. ,
. , ..
, , (
). ( , ,
, .)
,
. .
. , ,
.
.
M 2 . , R3
.
, .
, ,
( ),
(. .4 7 .5 8).
, .
. M 2 x
() x
, kg .

77

g , .
kg g . , kg g = l (l), l .
. , :
1. .
2
. ,
.
( . .
, .)
, , .
. ,
.
, ,
2.
, .
2
10.3 .
, , , .

d x i
+ x k ikj x j = 0,
dt
v
= (x i ). . :
d2 xi
+ ikj x k x j = 0.
()
d t2
(, ), ,
, . , -,
, -, , , . ( ,
.)
, ,
.
1. x1 (t), x2 (t) t
, t .
( , , , .)
. , t v(t) = 0, v(t) . (v, v) =
t (v, v) = 2(t v(t), v) = 0, .. , .. dd st = |v| = const t = cs + d
( c d ). ,
( c12 ).
2
. ,
.
.
. :
, t () ,
.
.
78

. ,
, .. . , .
. ,
. , ..
.
.
, .. . , .
.
,
, .
10.4 . .
,
.
. , , ?
,
.
.
. , , ,
ds2 = du2 + h(u)dv 2 . h = (u)
(..11 6). , v = const u
(dv = 0 du2 = ds2 ). .
1
h , h = dh
, 122 = 21 h 212 = 221 = 2h
du .
:
u
= 122 v 2 = 12 h v 2
v = 212 u v 221 v u = h1 h u v = h1 h v.

, .

. (0, 1), h,
(u,
v),
1, .. . ,

hv
cos = = h v
h

( cos ) = ( h cos ) = (hv)


= h v + h
v,

, .

. ?
. d2 + sin2 d2 , , , . (
( = 2 ).
.)
( .. ) ,
.
. q(l) . , O , - q q = q1 + q2
, , . (q(s)) q(s) |q2 |, , ,
[q1 , q2 ]. , hq , q i = 0. , q(s)
, q (
79

) , ,
, .. hq , [q1 , q2 ]i = 0.
 
 



1 ,q2 )
1 ,q2 ]i
= (q ,q
= q , qq11 , q2 =
( cos ) =
|q2 | hq|[q,[q1 ,q
|q
2 ]|
1|
 

   
 

q1
q1

= q , q1 , q2 + q , q1 , q2 + q1 , qq11 , q2 + q2 , qq11 , q2 .

, . ,
q1 /|q1 | , ,
. , q1 q1 ,
q2 . , ( cos ) = 0, .. cos .
2
. ( ), , , .
[. sin = c, . ()
2 c2 c

= (u,
v)
= (cos , sin
)=(
, 2 ). , . ]

10.5 . .
, . , () , ..
,
() .
( ).
, .
. .
, , g12 = F
, : .
, , ,
: g11 = g22 (E = G). ,
.
,
g11 = 1.
. ,
ds2 = du2 + g22 (u, v) dv 2 .
, . g22
v.
. .
[. (. . 10.4) g22 = G b2 (.. b = |rv ||). , -

, (

1
0

0
). gij ,
b2

b
i
, x
i , x u v.
2
1 b2
1
1ij 2 b
u . , 22 = 2 u .

2ij i = j = 1. 2, 222 =
1 b2
2b2 u

1
b bu

1 b2
2b2 v

ln b
v .

ln b
u .]

, 212 = 221 =
=
=
. , K =
2
ub2 /b.
[. , .3 9 ( 1- b2 ):
K=

1
b2

1 2 b2
+ b2
2 u2

bu
b

2 !

1
buu
(b2u bbuu + b2u ) =
.]
b2
b

. , R.
80

:
1. (u, v)
v = const u = u1 u = u2 u2 u1 .
. , v = const dv = 0 ds = du.
, u v = const.
2

- u = const = u0 : (u, v) 7
(u u0, v). , , u = 0. (u, v)

v = const .
, v = const
. ,
, . , ,
, -
.
2. U , (u, v). v = const = v0 , U . ( R3 .)
, .
. , p q . U ,
. U . ,
,
s
 2
Z q
dv
1 + g22
du.
du
p
Rq
, g22 > 0, , p du, .. .
dv
, du
= 0, .. v = const.
2
, .
, v = const :
3. ds2 = du2 + g22 dv 2 v = const .
, .
. , u v = const. v = const (u)
(1, 0). ,
d i
k i
j
d u + kj = 0.
( )
, 2.
: ,
, .. .
2
.
, 2. , , ,
.
, ,
. , ,
.
,
. :

81

4. (u, v) v =
const , u. u = 0 .
.
. , g11 = 1, u , ,
v = const . , g12 = 0, ..,
u = const . , u = 0
, , g12 = 0.
12
.. g11 , , 111 = g 12 g
u .
, v = const , .. = 0. 111
12
. , g 12 g
u = 0.
g12
12
g = g , g . , g12 = 0 ( ),
g12 . g12 = 0 .
2
. , , ( 3), ( 1),
. ,
, , ,
4 ,
.
,
A M 2 . ,
() v.
. v , - v,
u , , v
. (u, v) A
(.. ), u = const
, ..
.
. .
, A,
.
, A. 2 :
. A , A B , , , A B.
2
, A . .
10.6 .
, , .
.
M 2 , (gij ) : ds2 = g11 du2 + 2 g12 du dv +
g22 dv 2 . .
1. A M 2 A M 2 .
e A M 2 e , A , A 0 A
e.
te A e , x = te y e t.
V A A M 2 U M 2 , exp: V U M 2 .
exp.
82

A , , ,
.
. , te - v ,
tv t : tv = te, t =
t
. t exp(te),
|v|
v.
1 :
1 . g A .
.
, A M 2 , , , ,
. ( A (M 2 ) = A ( A (M 2 )).)
A A M 2 A M 2 , .. , ,
, .
. ,
, v, - A M 2 v M 2 v. A M 2
tv, , , ,
, v.
2
2
, g A M A. A M 2 . , A
A.
.
e A M 2 U (A),
. U
e.
U , U

. .
, z = F (x, y), x, y, z ,
F
y (x0 , y0 ), e
U z0 = F (x0 , y0 ) U x0
W (x0 , y0 ) , (x, y) : x U , Wx (x , y) W x , F Wx
e ( , W U U
e , F
U.
e
U .)
z = exp(x, v) , x
) (A, 0), .. 1
v; ( exp(x,v)
v
e M 2 x0 = A, ,
. U U
e .
, U U
A A ( .10.5), , ,
e . , (
U
e
U ) .
2

. , () +. ,
:
. , (.. , ,
).
. , M (..
, , , M

83

) ( ) (. . . .)
10.7 .
, K .
, .
, .
A 1 2 .
u 1 , v 2 . A.
2 v v , 2 .
:
ds2 = du2 + b2 (u, v) dv 2 .
(..5) K = buu /b, ..

buu + Kb = 0.
K v. K.
K = a12 > 0
u
u
b = f1 (v) cos + f2 (v) sin .
a
a
fi (u) .
, K = a12 < 0
b = f1 (v) ch

u
u
+ f2 (v) sh .
a
a

K = 0
b = f1 (v) + f2 (v)u.
u = 0 2 , v
. b2 |u=0 = 1 ( ).
2 (v).
(0, 1). , (v) (v) = 0.
, :
v (v) =

1
+ 1 112 2 + 2 122 2 = 0.
v

1 = 0, . 1,
1 b2
22
, 122 = 0. 122 = 12 g
u = 2 u ,
bu |u=0 = 0.

f1 (v) = 1; f2 (v) = 0.

:
ds2 = du2 + cos2 va dv 2 ,
K = 1/a2 > 0;
ds2 = du2 + ch2

u
a
2

dv 2 ,

K = 1/a2 < 0;

ds2 = du2 + dv ,

K = 0.

.
. ,
.
84

. . M1 M2 K, ,
, x1 M1 x2 M2 , ,
,
K.
2
R3 . K R K, R3 . K = 0 ,

. K 1/ K. K
R3 , .. R3 , .
(. .9.9).
( ) 30-
( )
. , . , , .
, , .
,
r(z), z , r
. ( !)
Z r
1
z=
1 dr.
2
c Kr2
c .
, K > 0 .

, , ,
, (
, , ). 1854 . 1868 .
, , () .
.
,
1900 .
10.8
, Rn , , , ,
( ). : ,
.
.
Rn , ()
hij p , p > 0
(n, p) Rnp Rnp,p (p ).
, ,
, , . hij = 0,
.
R1n . n = 4 , , , .

85

R31 ( R1,2 ) u1 v 1 u2 v 2 +u0 v 0


( 0). ,
, .
( ). ( , ,
, , .)
( : u0 > 0,
u0 < 0) :
u0 = ch,

u1 = sh cos ,

u2 = sh sin .

( )
:
dl2 = d2 2 (d2 + sh2 d2 ).
R R3 ,

(u1 )2 (u2 )2 + (u0 )2 = R2 .

C .
: , = R > 0.
= R, , d = 0

dl2 = R2 (d2 + sh2 d2 ).

R, , . 9.8 (buu = Kb), ,


R , R12 .
R = 1 , .. .
R12 ()
,
.
: (
, . 6.11).
2

. , ds2 = dx y+dy

2
y > 0 , .
. ds2 = dx2 dy 2 + dz 2 , x2 y 2 + z 2 = 0. , x2 + y 2 = z 2 + 1 1 .
(
, . , , . , - ).
-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-= 11.
11.1
, t v(t) = Dv
dt v(t), ,
.
. , , .. , . .
86

,
.
M R3 r(t) .
v(t) A = r(t0 ).
v(t0 + h) A. A vh (t).
. v(t) r(t0 )
Dv
vh (t0 ) v(t0 )
.
= lim
dt t0 h0
h

. , . A m1 , m2 ,
. v(t) = v i mi (t)
Dv
dv i
mi (t0 ).
=
dt t0
dt

(.. , .)
v(t0 + h) = v i (t0 + h)mi .
, vh (t0 ) = v i (t0 + h)mi
v i (t0 + h) v i (t0 )
dv i
mi (t0 ) =
mi (t0 ).
h0
h
dt
lim

11.2 .
(t) , v
(t) v(t) v
(t0 ) = v(t0 ).
r(t), v
v(t). C
v(t)
M , : v
(t0 ) vh (t0 )).
( v
. | Dv

dt | = ||.
. , r(t0 ):







h (t) v(t)
h (t) v(t)
Dv
= lim v
= lim v



h0
h .
dt h0
h

1 ,
||.

2
, .
x b x , |b| = 1, b(t)v(t), (v, b)
. b(t) v(t)
v(t) , b(t) .




Dv
Dv


||
=
, =
,b ,
dt
dt
Dv
( |b| = 1 Dv
dt k b, .. dt v).
v(t0 ):

Zt 

t0



Zt 
Dv
dv
, b dt =
, b dt
dt
dt
t0

Dv
3

, dv
dt R dt + v , v
, b 0. , ,
D
dt
, M R3 .

87

Dv
dt


, b = dv
dt , b .

, t = s v(s) = (s),

D
ds

= kg b =

Rs

kg ds

s0

11.3
r = r(t) , v ,
v ,
A0 = r(t0 ), v
. , . v v
, , ,
. , . .
:
1. v A0 ,
(. .10.1)
2. A0 , v
, A0 , .
v
v).
3. ( xv
.
4. , ,
.
: v . , v 2 , ,
, ,
, v
= 2 , , .
. , M R3 .
. M 2 + + = +

. , , , ABC, v , AB x.
,
( A B, C A), , , v
v, . , , B v ,
BC. C ,
A , v, .. ,
+ + + = 2.
2
11.4 .

v(u1 (t), u2 (t)) () v A0


, |v(t)| = 1, b v , |b| = 1, v, b
.
H
H dv
. = h Dv
dt , bi = h dt , bi.
.11.2 . ,
v, , v v
.
v
2
dr
, v A0 = ds
, v(t)
.
I
= kg ds.

88

11.5 .
v A0 . u1 , u2 m1
r
M 2 , , mi = u
i = ri . v = |m | , b 1
, ( ) m1 , m2 .
, r(t) = (u1 (t), u2 (t)) .
, v b ,
S, .
. v b
(u1 , u2 ):
 

Z Z 
v b
v b
,

,
du1 du2 .
=
u1 n2
u2 u1
S
.

dv
v du1
v du2
=
+
dt
u1 dt
u2 dt
, ,





I 
I 
dv
dv
dv
1
2
=
, b dt =
,
b
du
+
,
b
du
.
dt
du1
du2
S,





Z Z 
d
dv
d
dv
1
2
1
2
=
, b du du 2
, b du du .
1
du2
du
du1
S du
dud 1 , dud 2 R R 
v b
v b  1 2
du du .
2
=
u1 , n2 u2 , u1
S
.

g ( g du1 du2 = d ). :

 


 

Z Z
Z Z
1
v b
v b
v b
v b
1

1
2
=
,

,
g du du =
,

,
d.

g
u1 u2
u2 u1
g
u1 u2
u2 u1
S
S
, .
K(A). v b:
K1 K2 , , K1 > K2 ,
. .
2
( .)
r(u1 (t), u2 (t)), ,
v, b, ,
(t) .
R Rv ,
,H 1 =
K d. (t) S
2 = = kg ds. v
2.
,
2, (
) ( ) .)
.

Z Z
I
K d +
S

89

kg ds = 2.

11.6 . .
. R3 K(A) .
K(A), .11.5. K A.
A , Oxy , Ox, Oy . z = f (u1 , u2 ), : u1 = x, u2 = y. K(A) A = (0, 0). m1 = (1, 0, fx ), m2 = (0, 1, fy ).
Oxy , fx = fy = 0 det G = 1. .
v=

m1
1
= p
(1, 0, fx ),
|m1 |
1 + (fx )2

b m1 , m2 .

K(A). fx (A) = 0, fxx


(A) = k1 ,
v
v
=
=
u1
x

1
p
1 + (fx )2

(1, 0, fx ) + p
(0, 0, fxx
) = (0, 0, fxx
) = (0, 0, k1 ).
)2
1
+
(f
x
x

Ox Oy , fxy
= 0 (. .7.7).

v
v
1

=
=0+ p
(0, 0, fxy
)=0
u2
y
1 + (fx )2

v b
,
u2 u1

= 0.

b
y . b = m1 + m2 , , ,
.
b
m1
m2
= y m1 +
+ y m2 +
.
y
y
y
1
, m1 m2 , m
y = 0,

fxy = 0 ( ). , b
y (A) = (, , fyy )) = (, , k2 ),
A. b = m2 (A) = 1. K(A) = k1 k2 = K.

11.7 .
1. K M (..
M ), k1 , k2 . ,
( , . . 8.5 ), K = 0.
2. , K = K(A) = const, = KS, S .
3. 1 K = 1, 1 + 2 + 3 =
+ S. 1, 1 + 2 + 3 = S
4.
H 1 -
= kg ds = 2 S.
H ,
L2 = kg ds = 2 + S.
, .
-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-

.
1.
. f : H RN r H Rn . ,
x H r- RN .
[. x0 ,
x0 : r r- .
Rn = Rr1 Rnr
RN = Rr2 RNr . f f (p, q) = ((p, q), (p, q)), p Rr , q Rnr ,
(p, q) 7 (u, v), u = (p, q) Rr2 , v = (p, q) RNr x0 = (p0 , q0 ), f (x0 ) = y0 = (u0 , v0 ).

90

x0 (p, q) = u r,

u
p

. ,

q q0 (p, q) Pq p0 , q Rr1 q U u0 Rr2 . U q Q q0 , .. (p, q) q. , Pq U q. , W (p0 , q0 ),


q = const q V Pq , U . , , , W = V U , W
) u
= (p, q), q
= q .
(
u, q
) = f (q (p), q) = ((1
f (
u, q
q (u), q) (p, q)) = (u, v) ,
r r-, .
v q, f r.
) q. ( ,
, f (
u, q
, , .) , v
u, .. f
U RNr , , .
2
.

]
2. . (
11.6). , ,
. .
() , , .

.
.
1. U M 2 R3 V , (t)
(t) = n((t)) V (..
). u(t) M 2 (t) v = dn(u(t))
(t) .
, v(t) , u(t) .
( ) A.

,
, . , .233-235.
:
2. ,
( ) .
-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-= :
1. .. . .
2. .. , ... .
3... , .. . .
( ):
1. .. .
2. ..
3. . .

91