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Losartan Drug Study

In making a Drug Study, the following elements must be present: Generic Name and the
Brand name (not all brands, just the brand used by the patient), Action, Indication,
Pregnancy Category, Drug Classification, and Contraindication, Adverse Effect, Drug
interaction and Nursing Consideration/Intervention. Most clinical instructors preferred this
to be in a long bond paper in printed or handwritten with paper in landscape.

Losartan potassium
Brand Name: Cozaar
Pregnancy Category C (first trimester), Pregnancy Category D
(second and third trimesters)
Drug classes: Angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB), Antihypertensive
Therapeutic actions
Selectively blocks the binding of angiotensin II to specific tissue receptors
found in the vascular smooth muscle and adrenal gland; this action blocks
the vasoconstriction effect of the renin-angiotensin system as well as the
release of aldosterone leading to decreased blood pressure.
Indications
Treatment of hypertension, alone or in combination with other
antihypertensive agents
Treatment of diabetic neuropathy with an elevated serum creatinine and
proteinuria in patients with type 2 diabetes and a history of hypertension
Contraindications
Contraindicated with hypersensitivity to losartan, pregnancy (use during the
second or third trimester can cause injury or even death to the fetus),
lactation.

Adverse effects
Headache, dizziness, syncope, insomnia, Hypotension, Rash, urticaria,
pruritus, alopecia, dry skin, Diarrhea, abdominal pain, nausea, constipation,
dry mouth, URI symptoms, cough, sinus disorders, Cancer in preclinical
studies, back pain, fever, gout, muscle weakness
Drug Interactions:
Decreased serum levels and effectiveness if taken concurrently with
phenobarbital
Losartan is converted to an active metabolite by cytochrome P450 3A4.
Drugs that inhibit 3A4 (ketoconazole, fluconazole, diltiazem) may decrease
the antihypertensive effects of losartan
Nursing considerations
Administer without regard to meals.
Ensure that patient is not pregnant before beginning therapy, suggest the
use of barrier birth control while using losartan; fetal injury and deaths have
been reported.
Find an alternative method of feeding the baby if given to a nursing mother.
Depression of the renin-angiotensin system in infants is potentially very
dangerous.
Alert surgeon and mark patient's chart with notice that losartan is being
taken. The blockage of the renin-angiotensin system following surgery can
produce problems. Hypotension may be reversed with volume expansion.
Monitor patient closely in any situation that may lead to a decrease in blood
pressure secondary to reduction in fluid volume--excessive perspiration,
dehydration, vomiting, diarrhea--excessive hypotension can occur.