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8.

417-2002
53.081:006.354

80



State system for ensuring the uniformity of measurements.
Units of quantities
17.020
0008
2003-09-01

1
- . .. ( .
.. ), 206


2 ,
( 22 6 2002 .)
:

( 3166) 004-97


( 3166) 004-97
AZ
AM
BY
GE
KZ
KG
RU
TJ
TU
UZ

3
4 2003 . 38- 8.4172002

1 2003 .
4 8.417-81
1
( ),
: , ,

.
,
1), ,
( 8.430).
________________
1)

, , , ,
.

2
:
8.43088 .

3
[1].
4
4.1 2),
( 5 7).
_______________
2)

( SI,
) 1960 . XI ()
[2].

4.2 4.1 ,
, 6.1 6.2, ,

.
4.3 4.1 ,
, 6.3,
4.1 4.2.
4.4 ,
, ,
() , 4.2.
6.3,
.
4.5
,
, 4.2 4.3.
4.6
, ,
.
4.7 ( )
4.14.3.
4.8 -
, (
)
.
, ,
.
4.9 , ,
.
,
, ,
.
4.10 ,
.
, .

4.11 , ,
, , .
4.12 , ,
, .
5. ()
5.1. 1.
1 -

,

1/299 792 458 s
[VII (1983 .)
1]


kg

,

[I
(1889 .) III (1901 .)]

, 9 192
631 770 ,


-133 [XIII (1967
.), 1]



,

1 m ,

1 m
, 210-7 N
[ (1946 .), 2,
IX (1948 .)]

1/273,16


[XIII
(1967 .), 4]

mol

,
,
-12
0,012 kg.


, ,
,

cd


[XIV (1971 .),
3]

,

Hz,

5401012


1/683 W/sr [XVI
(1979 .), 3]

:
1. ( )
( t), t = T - T0, 0 = 273,15 .
, .
. - ,
"".
2. .
, .
3.
1990 ., ,
90 (, 90 t90) [3].

5.2.
5.2.1
( ).
5.2.2 ,
, 2.
2 - ,

L2
L3
LT-1
LT-2
L-1
L-3M
L3M-1
L-2I



m2
2
3

m
3

m/s
/

m/s2
/2

m-1
-1
3

kg/m
/3
3

m /kg
3/

/m2
/2

L-1I

/m

L-3N

mol/m3

/3

L-2J

cd/m2

/2

5.2.3 , ,
3.
( 4).
5.2.4
.
0 , , 4 10-7 /m

12,566 370 61410-7 /m ().


XVII
(1983 .)
0 299 792 458 m/s ().
0 ,
8,854 187 81710-12 F/m ().
5.2.5

() 1 1990 . KJ-90 = 4,835979
1014 Hz/V () [, 1, 1988 .] R-90 = 25812,807
() [, 2, 1988 .].
1 2 ,

.

3 - ,

,
,

,

,
,


rad

mm-1=1
sr

m2m-2=1
Hz

s-1
N

mkgs-2

m-1kgs-2
J

m2kgs-2

l
l
-1
LMT-2
L-1MT-2
L2MT-2

L2MT-3
TI

m2kgs-3
sA

L2MT-3I-1

m2kgs-3A-1

L-2M-1T4I2
L2MT-3I-2

m-2kg-1s4A2
m2kgs-3A-2

L-2M-1T3I2

m-2kg-1s3A2

L2MT-2I-1

Wb

m2kgs-2A-1

-2I-1

kgs-2A-1

L2MT-2I-2

m2kgs-2A-2

lm
l
Bq

cdsr
m cdsr
s-1

J
L-2J
-1

-2

( )

,
)

L2T-2

Gy

m2s-2

L2T-2

Sv

m2s-2

NT-1

kat

mols-1

1 3 .
2 1960 . XI ( 12)
: , ( ).
, ,
.
1980 . ( 1)
,

. 1995 . XX ( 8)
, (
),
( ).
3 12 XXI [4].

4 - ,
,
3



L2MT-2
-
Nm

m2kgs-2
2

N/m
H/
kgs-2

L-1MT-1

Pas

m-1kgs-1

/3
m-3sA
L-3TI
C/m3

L-2TI

/2
m-2sA
C/m2

LMT-3I-1

V/m
/
mkgs-3A-1

L-1M-1T4I2

F/m
/
m-3kg-1s4A2

LMT-2I-2

H/m
/
mkgs-2A-2


L2T-2

J/kg
/
m2s-2

J/K
/
m2kgs-2K-1

L2MT-2-1

J/(kgK)

/()
m2s-2K-1
L2T-2-1
,

-3

W/m2
/2
kgs-3

LMT-3-1


L2MT-2N-1

, L2MT-2-1N-1


M-1TI

(

L2T-3


-1

-2

L2MT-3

-3

W/(mK)

/()

mkgs-3K-1

J/mol

m2kgs-2mol-1

J/(molK)

/( m2kgs-2K-1mol-1
)

C/kg

kg-lsA

Gy/s

m2s-3

s-1

/2

s-2

m2kgs-3sr-1

/(2)

kgs-3sr-1

rad/s

rad/s2

W/sr

W/(srm2)

-
( 3), () .

( ) .

5.2.6 , ,

, :
:
A/kg; /
m; .

:
C/(kgs);
Vm/A;
m3kg/(s3A2);

/()
/
3/(32).

6 ,
6.1 , 5,
.
6.2
.
6.
6.3 , 7,
.
6.4
.
.

5 ,

2), 3)
2)

1103 kg

u
a.. 1,660540210-27
kg
1), 2)
()

min
60 s

3600 s

86400 s
2), 4)

(/180)
rad
=
1,74532910-2 rad
2), 4)
'
'
(/18000)
rad
=
2,90888210-4 rad
2), 4)
''
''
(/648000)
rad
=
4,84813710-6 rad
()
gon
(/200)
rad
=
1,5708010-2 rad

5)
l

110-3 m3

1,495981011
()
. 9,46051015
()

3,08571016
()
1m-1

ua

pc

ha

1104 m2

eV

kWh

1,6021810-19J
()
3,6106 J

-
,

_________________

VA

var

Ah

1)

ly

3,6103

m
m

. 1-87 [5].
(, , ), (, ,
), ,
.
3)
, ,
, , , , .
4)
.
5)
. l
("") 1 L.
2)

1
(

,
):
;

;
;

;
. .
2
(

,
):
;
, . .2)

3
(

,
):

4
(

,
):

5
(

,
)

1
1

%
%


ppm
-1

1)

dB
phon

Np

1
110-2
110-3
110-6

1 = lg(P2/P1)
2 = 101
1 = 2 lg(F2/F1)
F2 = 10 F1 ,

P1,
P2

(,
,
. .);
F1,
F2


(,

,
. .)
0,1
1 phon
,



1000
Hz 1 dB
1 log2
(f2/f1) f2/f1 = 2;
1 lg
(f2/f1) f2/f1 = 10
f1, f2
1 Np = 0,8686 ... =
8,686 ... dB


1

,
Z, . .

F22 F12
/
= F22 / F12 = P2 / P1.
Z Z

F/F.

. ,

, :
1 = lg (/) = 10 ,
1 = 2 lg (F/F) F = 10 F,
, ,
.
2 27-3
,
: Lp (re 20 ) = 20 dB; L (. 20 ) = 20 (re
reference, . . ).
, 20 dB (re 20 ) 20 (. 20 ) [6].

7 - ,


n mile

1852 m ()

210-4 kg ()

tex

110-6 kg/m

()

kn

0,514(4) m/s

Gal

0,01 m/s2


r/s
/
1 s-1


r/min
/
1/60 s-1 =
0,016(6) s-1

bar

1105 Pa

7.

7.1.
, 8.
8 - ,

1024
2021
1018
1015
1012
109

10-1

10-2

10-3

10-6

10-9

10-12

106
103
102
101

k
h
da

10-15
10-18
10-21
10-24

z
y

7.2.
. ,
.
.
1. , - ,
- (0,001 kg),
, , (mg, ) (kg,
).
2. , .

7.3 ,
, .
7.4 ,
,
.
:
:
-
-
(kPas/m; /).
(Paks/m; /).

,
, ,
, : - (tkm; ), (V/cm; /),
(A/mm2; /2).
7.5 , ,
, . ,
,
,
: , . .
7.6 , ,

,
( ).

1 5 km2 = 5(103 m)2 = 5106 m2.


2 250 cm3/s = 250(10-2 m)3/s = 25010-6 m3/s.
3 0,002 cm-1 = 0,002(10-2 m)-1 = 0,002100 m-1 = 0,2 m-1.
7.7
.
8
8.1
(...,...', ..."), :
( ) (
).
18.
8.2 .
.
8.3 (
). ,
, , .
.
:
:
100 kW; 100
100kW; 100
80 %
80%

20
20
(1/60) s-1.
l/60/s-1.
, ,
.
:
:
20.
20 .
8.4
.
:
:
423,06 m; 423,06
423 m 0,6; 423 , 06
5,758 545,48'
5758 545',48
545'28,8".
545'28",8.
8.5


.
:
:
(100,0 0,1) kg; (100,0 0,1)
100,0 0,1 kg; 100,0 0,1
50 1 g; 50 1 .
50 g 1 g; 50 1 .
8.6
() .
1
, m3/h

, m3
, m3,
40 60
100 000
0,002
100, 160, 250, 400, 600 1 000
1 000 000
0,02
2 500, 4 000, 6 000 10 000
10 000 000
0,2
2

18
, mm:

, mm
, mm

, kW
25
37

3 080
1 430
2 190
1 090
275

3 500
1 685
2 745
1 340
640

4 090
2 395
2 770
1 823
345

8.7
. ,
,
, .
:
:
v = 3,6 s/t,
v = 3,6 s/t km/h,
v , km/h;
s , m;
s , m;
t , s.
t , s.
8.8 , ,
. .
:
:
Nm;
Nm;
Am2; 2
Am2; 2
Pas; .
Pas; .
.
, , ,
.

8.9
.
, (
).
, ,
(, s-1, m-1, K-1, c-1, -1, -1),
.
:
:
W/m2/K; /2/
Wm-2K-1; -2-1
W

W
; 2
;
2
m K
m2 2
K
8.10
, .
:
:
m
m/s; /
/s; /
W/(mK); /().
W/mK; /.
8.11 , ,
, . .
, .
:
:
80 /
80 /
80 .
80 .
8.12 : ..., ...', ...", %
, .../s.

()

.1

1)

2)
2), 3)

bit

(byte)
()

1

1 = 8

(
)

1)


, (),
, , .
2)
60027-2
( 8 7) [7].
3)
, ( 1000 = 103
1024 = 210) ( ) : 1 = 1024 , 1 = 1024
, 1 = 1024 . .
103.


()

( )

, ,
( ), 1.

.
- ,

s
v= ,
t

v ,
s ;
t
s t
[v] = [s]/[t] = 1 m/s.
, .
, 1
s 1 m.
, 1,

, , 1.
-
E=

1 2
mv ,
2

;
m ;
v , , , :
[] =

1
1
(2[m] [v]2)= (2 kg)(1 m/s)2=l kgm/s2 m = l Nm=l J
2
2

[] =

1
1
[m] ( 2[v ] )2 = (1 kg)( 2 m/s)2=l kgm/s2m = 1 Nm = l J.
2
2

, ( - ).
2 kg,
1 m/s, 1 kg, 2 m/s.

()

.1

-.

110-10 m
1,0020610-13
()

()

-
-

b
q

dyn
kgf
kp
gf
p
tf
kgf/cm2

/2

kp/cm2

110-28 m2
100 kg
3,046210-4 sr
110-5 N
9,80665 N ()
9,80665 N ()
9,8066510-3 N ()
9,8066510-3 N ()
9806,65 N ()
98066,5 ()
98066,5 ()

mm H2O . . 9,80665 ()
mm Hg

. . 133,322

Torr
kgf/mm2

/2

133,322
9,80665106 ()

kp/mm2

9,80665106 ()

,
erg

St

-
mm2/m 2/


Gs


Gb


, ()
cal


calth

( , 15-
15
cal15
,

),


rad, rd

,

rem

110-7 J
735,499 W
0,1 Pas
110-4 m2/s
110-6 m
110-8 Wb
110-4
(10/4) = 0,795775

(103/4) /m = 79,5775
/m
4,1868 J ()
4,1840 J
()
4,1855 J
()

0,01 G
0,01 Sv

(
)

-
,

2,5810-4 /kg ()

Ci

3,701010 Bq ()

r
t

110-6 m
2 rad=6,28 rad
1A

nt
a

1 cd/m2
100 m2

()


.1
. ,
, , ,
.
,
0,1 1000.
.1.1
, 0,1 1000, ,

.
.1.2 .
, , ,
.
.2 .1 .
.1
, ,
. ,

, .
.1
, .
.3 , .1, ,
.1.
.4
,
, 10.

.1

I

rad; ()
mrad;
... ()
rad;
' ()
'' ()

sr; cp ()

m; ()
km;
cm;
mm;
m;
nm;

m2; 2
km2; 2
dm2; 2
cm2; 2
mm2; 2
3
3
,
m;
dm3; 3
l (L); ()
cm3; 3
mm3; 3

s; ()

ks;
d; ()
ms;
h; ()
s;
min; ()
ns; c

m/s; /

m/s2; /2
II

Hz; ()
THz;

GHz;

MHz;
kHz;

s-1; -1
min-1; -1
III

kg;
Mg;
t; ()
()
g;
mg;
g;

kg/m; /
mg/m; /
g/km; /

kg/m3; /3
Mg/m3; /3 t/m3; /3 kg/l;
kg/dm3; /3
( )
/
g/cm3; /3

kgm/s; /

kgm2/s; 2/

kgm2; 2
(
)
,
N, ()
MN;
kN;
mN,
N;

MNm;
Nm;


,

-

hl (hL);
dl (dL);
cl (cL); c
ml (mL);
-

km/h; /
-

Mt;
kt;
dt;
g/ml; /
g/l; /
-

, ()

Pas;

mPas;

m2/s; 2/

mm2/s, 2/

N/m; /

mN/m; /

J; ()

TJ;
GJ;
MJ;
kJ;
mJ;
GW;
MW;
kW;
mW;
W;
;
kK;
m;
;
-

TJ;
GJ;
MJ;
kJ;
mJ;
kW;
-

kJ/; /
kJ/(kgK);
/()
kJ/K; /
kJ/(kgK);
/()
MJ/kg; /
kJ/kg; /
MJ/kg; /
kJ/kg; /

W; ()

; ()

; (

K;

-1; -1

,
J;

kNm;
mNm;
Nm,
GPa;
,
kPa;
m;
;
GPa;
,
kPa;

W;
W/(mK),
/ ()
W/(m2K);
/(2)
J/K, /
J/(kgK);
/()
J/K; /
J/(kgK);
/()
J/kg; /
J/kg; /


(
)

(
)

V
; A ()
k;
mA;
;
nA;
;
; ()
kC;
Ah;
;
(-)
n;
;
C/mm3; /3
/m3 ; /3
/m3, /3
/m3; /3
kC/m3; /3
m/m3, /3
/m3; /3
/m2; /2
/m2, /2
/mm2; /2
/m2; /2
kC/m2, /2
m/m2; /2
/m2; /2
V/m; /
MV/m; /
kV/m; /
V/mm; /
V/cm; /
mV/m; /
V/m; /
V; ()
MV; MB
kV;
mV;
V,
nV;

/m2, /2

;
F; ()

F/m; /

/m2; /2

m;

/m2; /2
kC/cm2; /2
m/m2, /2
/m2, /2
;
kC;
m;
mF;
F;
nF;
pF;
fF;
F;
pF/m; /

/m2; /2
kC/m2; /2
m/m2; /2
/m2; /2
-

/m2; /2

/m; /

/m; /

; ()
,

; ()



Wb; ()

,
; ()

H/m; /

m2; 2
/m; /

; ()
,

S; ()
,

S,

, rad; ()
,

m;

/m2; /2
A/mm2; /2
A/cm2; /2
kA/m2; /2
kA/m; /
/mm; /
/m; /c
kA/m; /
A/mm; /
A/cm; /
kA;
m;

m;
;
n;
mWb;
kTm;

T;
G,
M;
k;
m;
,

kS,
mS;
S;
nS;
pS;

kS,
mS;
S;
mrad;
rad;

()

k;
mH;
;
n;
;
/m; /
n/m; /
kA/m; /
/mm; /
m;

Gm;
Mm;

S/m; /

km;
cm;
mm;
m;
nm;
MS/m; /
kS/m, /

H-1; -1

H;

W;

TW;
GW;
MW;
kW;
mW;
W;
nW;

VA;
(-
)
var;
( -

)
eV;
(-)

J,

TJ;
kWh;
GJ;
(-)
MJ;
kJ;
VI

m;
m;
nm;
pm;

m-1; -1
cm-1; -1

J;

,
W;


W/sr; /

W/(srm);

/()

W/(srm2);

/(2)

W/(srm3);

/(3)

W/m2; /2

W/m3; /3

(
)

W/m2; /2


cd; ()

lm; ()

lms;
lmh;

cd/m2; /2

lm/m2; /2

lx; ()

lxs;
-

lm/W; /
s;

Hz;

m/s; /
m3/s; 3/
m/s; /
W;

W/m2; /2

m;
;

VII
ms;
s;
MHz;
kHz;
mm;
m;
;
mm/s; /
kW;
mW;
W;
pV;
mW/m2; /2
W/m2; /2
pW/m2; /2
-

Pas/m; /

Pas/m3; /3

Ns/m; /

m2; 2


s;
VIII

mol; ()
kmol;

mmol;
mol;

kg/mol; /
g/mol; /
l/mol; /

m3/mol; 3/ dm3/mol; 3/
(L/mol)
cm3/mol; 3/

J/mol; / kJ/mol; /

J/mol; / kJ/mol; /

J/mol; / kJ/mol; /

J/(molK);

/()

J/(molK);
/()

mol/l; /
mol/m3; /3 mol/dm3; /d3
kmol/m3; /3

(mol/L)

mol/kg; /
mmol/kg;
/
mg/l; /

kg/m3; /3
mg/m3; /3
(mg/L)

mg/dm3; /3


IX
Gy; ()
TGy;
GGy;
MGy;
kGy;
mGy;
Gy;

Bq;
EBq;

()
PBq;

TBq;
(
GBq;
)
MBq;
kBq;
Sv; ()
mSv;

.5 .2
.

.2





,

dB;
d;
dB;
dB;
dB;
dB;

210-5
10-12 W
10-12 W/m2

()

[1] 2999 . .
. : ,
, 2000
[2] (). , : , 1998
[3] 1990 . (MT-90). . ..
, 1992
[4] XXI ( 1999 .). ,
: , 1999
[5] . .
187. .: - , 1989
[6] 27-3 . :
, 1989 ( 1, 03.2000)
[7] 60027-2 . :
, 2000
: , , , ,
, , , ,
()


1
2
3
4
5 ()
6 ,
7