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CIRCUIT BREAKER

Abdullah Asuhaimi Mohd.Zin

INSPIRING CREATIVE AND INNOVATIVE MINDS

Introduction
A power system network needs a switchgear
for its switching and or isolation under
normal or abnormal operation conditions.
Two functions of switchgear :

1. To permit plant and distributors (transmission lines)


to be conveniently put into and taken out of service.
2. To enable the same plant and lines when these
become faulty to be rapidly and safely isolated by
automatic means.

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Introduction
The function of a circuit breaker is to isolate
the faulty part of the power system in case of
abnormal conditions.
A protective relay detects abnormal
conditions and sends a tripping signal to the
circuit breaker.
After receiving the trip
command from the relay, the circuit breaker
isolates the faulty part of the power system

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Introduction
A circuit breaker has two contacts a
fixed contact and a moving contact.
Under normal conditions these two
contacts remain in closed position.
When the circuit breaker is required to
isolate the faulty part, the moving
contact moves to interrupt the circuit.

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Introduction
On the separation of the contacts, the
flow of current is interrupted, resulting in
the formation of arc between the
contacts, as shown in Figure 5.1. The
contacts are placed in a closed
chamber containing some insulating
medium
(liquid
or
gas)
which
extinguishes the arc.
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Introduction

Figure 5.1 Separation of the contacts of circuit breaker

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Arc Voltage
Figure 5.2 shows the wave shape of arc voltage. The
voltage drop across the arc is called arc voltage.
As the arc path is purely resistive, the arc voltage is
in phase with the arc current.

The magnitude of the arc voltage is very low,


amounting to only a few per cent of the rated voltage.
A typical value may be about 3 per cent of the rated
voltage.

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Arc Voltage

Figure 5.2 Short circuit current and arc voltage


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Arc
Interruption
There are two methods of arc
interruption:
1. High Resistance Interruption
2. Current Zero Interruption

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1. High Resistance
Interruption

In this method of arc interruption, its


resistance is increased so as to
reduce the current to a value
insufficient to maintain the arc.
The arc resistance can be increased
by cooling, lengthening, constraining
and splitting the arc.
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1. High Resistance
Interruption

When current is interrupted the energy


associated with its magnetic field
appears in the form of electrostatic
energy.
A high voltage appears across the
contacts of the circuit breaker.

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1. High Resistance
Interruption
If this voltage is very high and more than
the withstanding capacity of the gap
between the contacts, the arc will strike
again.

Therefore, this method is not suitable for a


large-current interruption.
This can be
employed for low power arc and dc circuit
breakers.
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2. Current Zero
Interruption

This method is applicable only in case


of ac circuit breakers.
In case of ac supply, the current wave
passes through a zero point, 100
times per second at the supply
frequency of 50 Hz.

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2. Current Zero
Interruption

This feature of ac is utilised for arc


interruption. The current is not interrupted
at any point other than the zero current
instant, otherwise a high transient voltage
will occur across the contact gap. The
current is not allowed to rise again after a
zero current occurs.

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2. Current Zero
Interruption

There are two theories to explain the


zero current interruption of the arc.
1. Recovery rate theory (Slepains
Theory)
2. Energy balance theory (Cassies
Theory)
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2. Current Zero
Interruption
Recovery rate theory
The arc is a column of ionised gases.
To extinguish the arc, the electrons and ions are to
be removed from the gap immediately after the
current reaches a natural zero.
Ions and electrons can be removed either by
recombining them into neutral molecules or by
sweeping them away by inserting insulating
medium (gas or liquid) into the gap.

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2. Current Zero
Interruption
Recovery rate theory (cont.)
The arc is interrupted if ions are removed from the
gap at a rate faster than the rate of ionisation.

In this method , the rate at which the gap recovers


its dielectric strength is compared with the rate at
which the restriking voltage (transient voltage)
across the gap rises.

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2. Current Zero
Interruption
Recovery rate theory (cont.)
If the dielectric strength increases more rapidly
than the restriking voltage, the arc is extinguished.
If the restriking voltage rises more rapidly than the
dielectric strength, the ionization persists and
breakdown of the gap occurs, resulting in an arc
for another half cycle.

Figure 5.3 explains the principle of recovery rate


theory.
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2. Current Zero
Interruption
Recovery rate theory (cont.)

Figure 5.3 Recovery rate theory


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2. Current Zero
Interruption
Energy balance theory
The space between the contacts contains some
ionised gas immediately after current zero and
hence, it has a finite post-zero resistance.
At the current zero moment, power is zero
because restriking voltage is zero.
When the arc is finally extinguished the power
again becomes zero, the gap is fully de-ionised
and its resistance is infinitely high.
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2. Current Zero
Interruption
Energy balance theory (cont.)
In between these two limits, first the
power increases reaches a maximum
value, then decreases and finally
reaches zero value as shown in Fig. 5.4.
Due to the rise of restriking voltage and
associated current, energy is generated
in the space between the contacts.
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2. Current Zero
Interruption

Energy balance theory (cont.)

Figure 5.4 Energy balance theory


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2. Current Zero
Interruption
Energy balance theory (cont.)
The energy appears in the form of heat. The
circuit breaker is designed to remove this
generated heat as early as possible by cooling the
gap, giving a blast of air or flow of oil at high
velocity and pressure.

If the rate of removal of heat is faster than the rate


of heat generation the arc is extinguished. If the
rate of heat generation is more than the rate of
heat dissipation, the space breaks down again
resulting in an arc for another half cycle.

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5.3 Restriking Voltage and Recovery Voltage

The voltage across the contacts of the circuit breaker is arc


voltage when the arc persists.
This voltage becomes the system voltage when the arc is
extinguished. The arc is extinguished at the instant of current
zero.
After the arc has been extinguished, the voltage across the
breaker terminals does not normalise instantaneously but it
oscillates and there is a transient condition.
The transient voltage which appears across the breaker
contacts at the instant of arc being extinguished is known as
restriking voltage.

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5.3 Restriking Voltage and Recovery Voltage (cont.)

The power frequency rms voltage,


which appears across the breaker
contacts after the arc is finally
extinguished and transient oscillations
die out is called recovery voltage.

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5.3 Restriking Voltage and Recovery Voltage (cont.)

The instantaneous recovery voltage at the instant of


arc extinction is called active recovery voltage.
The instantaneous recovery voltage is given by :
Var = kVm sin
Where k=1 if the three-phase fault is grounded and
k=1.5 if the three-phase fault is isolated. Vm is peak
recovery voltage and is the power factor angle.

Figure 5.5 shows the restriking and recovery voltage.

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5.3 Restriking Voltage and Recovery Voltage (cont.)

Figure 5.5 Restriking and recovery voltage

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5.3.1 Expression for Restriking Voltage and RRRV

Figure 5.6(a) shows a short circuit on a


feeder beyond the location of the circuit
breaker.
Figure 5.6(b) shows an equivalent electrical
circuit where L and C are the inductance and
capacitance per phase of the system up to
the point of circuit breaker location,
respectively.
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5.3.1 Expression for Restriking Voltage and RRRV

Figure 5.6 (a) Fault on a feeder near circuit breaker


(b) Equivalent electrical circuit for analysis of
restriking voltage
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5.3.1 Expression for Restriking Voltage and RRRV (cont.)

When the circuit breaker is closed, the short


circuit current flows through R, L and the
contacts of the circuit breaker, the
capacitance C being short-circuited by the
fault.
When the circuit breaker contacts are opened
and the arc is extinguished, the current is
diverted through the capacitance C, resulting
in a transient condition.
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5.3.1 Expression for Restriking Voltage and RRRV (cont.)

The inductance and the capacitance form a


series oscillatory circuit. The voltage across
the capacitance which is restriking voltage,
rises and oscillates, as shown in Fig. 5.5.

The natural frequency of oscillation is given


by
1
fn

2 LC

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5.3.1 Expression for Restriking Voltage and RRRV (cont.)

The voltage across the capacitance


which is the voltage across the contacts
of the circuit breaker can be calculated
in terms of L, C, fn and system voltage.
The mathematical expression for
transient
condition
(neglecting
resistance) is as follows.
di 1
L i dt E
dt C
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5.3.1 Expression for Restriking Voltage and RRRV (cont.)

Where E is the system voltage at the


instant of arc interruption.
As the
transient
oscillation
is
a
fast
phenomenon, E can be regarded as a
constant for a short duration.

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5.3.1 Expression for Restriking Voltage and RRRV (cont.)

dq d(cv c )
i

dt
dt

Where vc = voltage across the capacitor


Therefore

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5.3.1 Expression for Restriking Voltage and RRRV (cont.)

Substituting these values in the equation


given above, we get
2

d vc
LC 2 v c E
d t
Taking Laplace Transform of both sides of
the equation, we get
Where (S) is the Laplace Transform of
E
LC S vc ( S ) v c ( S )
S
where vc(S) is the Laplace Transform of vc
2

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5.3.1 Expression for Restriking Voltage and RRRV (cont.)

Other terms are zero as initially q = 0 at t = 0,

or

wn

1
LC

, therefore

1
2n
LC

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5.3.1 Expression for Restriking Voltage and RRRV (cont.)

or

2n E
n E
n
Vc (s)

( 2
)
2
2
2
S(S n )
S (S n
Taking the inverse Laplace, we get
t

Vc (t) n E sin n t
0

cos n t
Vc (t) n E

0
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5.3.1 Expression for Restriking Voltage and RRRV (cont.)

= 0 at t = 0, constant = 0

As
(t)

= E(1 cos wnt ) , or

= Restriking voltage

The maximum value of restriking voltage = 2 Epeak


= 2 x peak value of the system voltage
The Rate of Rise of Restriking voltage (RRRV)
=
(1 - cos wn t) = wn E sin wnt
The maximum value of RRRV = wnE
= wn Epeak
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Assignment

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Example 5.1

Example 5.1 For a 132 kV system, the reactance and


capacitance up to the location of the circuit breaker is 3 ohms
and 0.015 F, respectively. Calculate the following:
a. The frequency of transient oscillation.
b. The maximum value of restriking voltage across
the contacts of the circuit breaker
c. The maximum value of RRRV

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Example 5.1
Solution
(a)The frequency of transient oscillation

L =

, f = 50, the system frequency

= 0.00954 H

=
=

= 13.291 kHz

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Example 5.1

(b) The restriking voltage


= E [ 1 - cos wnt ]
The maximum value of the restriking voltage = 2 Epeak
= 2x
= 215.56 kV
(c) maximum value of RRRV = wn Epeak

2f n x

132
3

x 2 x1000

2 x13.291x100 0 x

132
3

x 2x1000 V/s

9010.45 x 10 6 V/s 9.01045 kV/V


sec
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Example 5.2

Example 5.2 : In a short circuit test on a 132


kV 3-phase system, the breaker gave the
following result : p.f. of the fault 0.4, recovery
voltage 0.95 of full line value, the breaking
current is symmetrical and the restriking
transient had a natural frequency of 16 kHz.
Determine the rate of rise of restriking voltage.
Assume the fault is grounded.
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Example 5.2

Solution :
The peak value of line to neutral voltage =
132
3

2 107.75 kV

Var 0.95 x107.75 x sin cos 1 0.4

102.4 x 0.916 93.85 kV


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Example 5.2

The maximum restriking voltage = 2 x 93.85


= 187.7 kV
3

V
1
10
RRRV
where t

sec
t
2f n 2 x 16
187.7 x 2 x 16
3
RRRV

32
x
187.7
x
10
kV/sec
-3
10
sec
6.0 kV/V/

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Determination of Recovery Voltage

The recovery voltage is an indication of


the severity of the test.
Less than the normal system voltage
due to voltage drop.
A typical recovery voltage oscillogram is
shown in the figure

YELLOW PHASE V

Determination of Recovery voltage

In this oscillogram, Line LL is drawn through the point


of final arc extinction, this point being determined
from an examination of the three corresponding
current waveforms.
Line MM and NN are drawn at half-cycle intervals
from LL.
The peak to peak recovery voltage (V1,V2, etc) are
measured during the second complete half-cycle
after final arc extinction, that is between the lines MM
and NN.
If a peak to peak voltage occurs exactly on these
lines, it is measured on NN, as shown.

The above measurements are made during the


second half-cycle so as to allow a reasonable time for
the high frequency restriking transients to disappear
and for the voltage recovery to commence.
The rms recovery voltage for any phase is obtained
by dividing the peak to peak value by 22.
Average recovery line voltage for a three-phase
breaker is

(V1 V2 V3 )
2 2 x3

5.4 Resistance Switching

To reduce the restriking voltage, RRRV and severity of


the transient oscillations, a resistance is connected
across the contacts of the circuit breaker.
This is known as resistance switching. The resistance is
in parallel with the arc.
A part of the arc current flows through this resistance
resulting in a decrease in the arc current and increase in
the deionization of the arc path and resistance of the
arc.
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5.4 Resistance Switching

This process continues and the current through the


shunt resistance increases and arc current decreases.
Due to the decrease in the arc current, restriking voltage
and RRRV are reduced.

The resistance may be automatically switched in with


the help of a sphere gap as shown in Fig. 5.7.
The resistance switching is of great help in switching out
capacitive current or low inductive current.
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5.4 Resistance Switching

Figure 5.7 Resistance switching


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5.4 Resistance Switching

The analysis of resistance switching can be made to find


out the critical value of the shunt resistance to obtain
complete damping of transient oscillations. Figure 5.8
shows the equivalent electrical circuit for such an
analysis.

Figure 5.8 Circuit


for analysis of
resistance switching

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5.4 Resistance Switching

The voltage equation is given by


di 1
L i C dt E and i i C i R
dt C

Therefore, the above equation become


d(i C i R )
L
C E
dt
di C
di R
L
L
C E
dt
dt
dq d(C c )
iC
dt
dt
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5.4 Resistance Switching

Therefore,

di c d 2 (C c )
d2 c

C 2
2
dt
dt
dt

di R d ( c /R) 1 d c

dt
R dt
dt
Substituting these values in the main equation, we get
d 2 C L d c
LC 2
C E
dt
R dt

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5.4 Resistance Switching

Taking Laplace Transform, we get

Other terms are zero, as

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5.4 Resistance Switching

For no transient oscillation, all the root of the equation should


be real. One root is zero, i.e. S = 0 which is real. For the
other two roots to be real, the roots of the quadratic equation
in the denominator should be real. For this, the following
condition should be satisfied.

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5.4 Resistance Switching

Therefore, if the value of the resistance connected across the


contacts of the circuit breaker is equal to or less than L / C
there will be no transient oscillation.
If R >

there will be oscillation. R =

is known as critical resistance.

Figure 5.9 shows the transient conditions for three different values of
R. The frequency of damped oscillation is given by

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5.4 Resistance Switching

Figure 5.9 Transient oscillations for different value of R


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5.4 Resistance Switching

Example 5.3 In a 220 kV system, the reactance and


capacitance up to the location of circuit breaker is 8
and 0.025 F, respectively. A resistance of 600 ohms
is connected across the contacts of the circuit breaker.
Determine the following:
1. Natural frequency of oscillation
2. Damped frequency of oscillation
3. Critical value of resistance which will give no
transient oscillation
4. The value of resistance which will give damped
frequency of oscillation, one-fourth of the natural
frequency of oscillation.
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5.4 Resistance Switching

(ii)

Frequency of damped oscillation is given by

f =

1
2

1010 1010

3.413 kHz
6.36
9

f = 3.413 kHz

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5.4 Resistance Switching

(iii) The value of critical resistance


R

1 L 1
0.02544

504.35
-6
2 C 2 0.025 x 10

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5.5 Current Chopping

When low inductive current is being interrupted and


the arc quenching force of the circuit breaker is more
than necessary to interrupt a low magnitude of
current, the current will be interrupted before its
natural zero instant.
In such a situation, the energy stored in the magnetic
field appears in the form of high voltage across the
stray capacitance, which will cause restriking of the
arc.
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5.5 Current Chopping

The energy stored in the magnetic field is Li2, if i is the


instantaneous value of the current which is interrupted. This
will appear in the form of electrostatic energy equal to cv2.
As these two energies are equal, they can be related as
follows.

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5.5 Current Chopping


Figure 5.10 shows the current chopping phenomenon.

If the value of v is more than the withstanding capacity of the


gap between the contacts, the arc appears again.
Since the quenching force is more, the current is again
chopped.
The phenomenon continues till the value of v becomes less
than the withstanding capacity of the gap.
The theoretical value of v is called the prospective value of the
voltage.
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5.5 Current Chopping

Figure 5.10 Current chopping


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5.5 Current Chopping

Example 5.4 A circuit breaker interrupts the magnetising


current of a 100 MVA transformer at 220 kV.
The
magnetising current of the transformer is 5% of the full load
current. Determine the maximum voltage which may appear
across the gap of the breaker when the magnetising current
is interrupted at 53% of its peak value.
The stray
capacitance is 2500 F. The inductance is 30H.

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5.5 Current Chopping


Solution
The full load current of the transformer
=
= 262.44 A

Magnetising current =

x 262.44 = 34.44 A

Current chopping occurs at 0.53 x 34.44

= 25.83 A

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5.6 Interruption Capacitive Current


The interruption of capacitive current produces high voltage
transients across the gap of the circuit breaker.
This occurs when an unloaded long transmission line or a
capacitor bank is switched off.
Figure 5.11(a) shows an equivalent electrical circuit of a
simple power system. C represents stray capacitance of the
circuit breaker. CL represents line capacitance. The value of
CL is much more than C.
Figure 5.11(b) shows transient voltage across the gap of the
circuit breaker when capacitive current is interrupted
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5.6 Interruption Capacitive Current

(a)Electrical circuit of a simple power system

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5.6 Interruption Capacitive Current

Figure 5.11 Interruption of capacitive current


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5.6 Interruption Capacitive Current

At the instant M, the capacitance current is zero and the


system voltage is maximum. If an interruption occurs, the
capacitors CL remains charged at the maximum value of the
system voltage. After instant M, the voltage across the breaker
gap is the difference of Vc and VCL. At instant N, i.e. half-cycle
from A, the voltage across the gap is twice the maximum value
of Vc. At this moment, the breaker may restrike.

If the arc restrikes, the voltage across the gap becomes


practically zero. Thus, the voltage across the gap falls from
2Vcmax to zero. A severe high frequency oscillation occurs.
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5.6 Interruption Capacitive Current


The voltage oscillates about points between R and N, i.e.
between -3emax and emax.
When restriking current reaches zero, the arc may be
interrupted again. At this stage, the capacitor CL remains
charged at the voltage -3emax.
At instant P, the system voltage reaches its positive
maximum shown by the point T in the figure, and at this
moment the voltage across the gap becomes 4emax. The
capacitive current reaches zero again and there may be an
interruption.
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5.6 Interruption Capacitive Current


If the interruption occurs at this moment, the transient
voltage oscillates between P (-3emax) and Q (+5emax).
In this way, the voltage across the gap goes on increasing.
But in practice, it is limited to 4 times the peak value of the
system voltage.
Thus, it is seen that there is a problem of high transient of
high transient voltage while interrupting a capacitive
current.

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5.7 Classification of Circuit Breaker

The classification of circuit breakers has been made


on the basis of insulating medium employed in the
circuit breakers to extinguish the arc. Depending
on the arc quenching medium employed, the
following are important types of circuit breakers.
(i)
Oil Circuit Breakers
(ii) Air Blast Circuit Breakers
(iii) Sulphur Hexafluoride (SF6)
Circuit Breakers
(iv) Vacuum Circuit Breakers
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5.8 Oil Circuit Breaker

Mineral oil has better insulating properties


than air. Due to this very reason it is
employed in many electrical equipment
including circuit breakers.
Oil has also good cooling property. In a
circuit breaker when arc is formed, it
decomposes oil into gases. Hence, the arc
energy is absorbed in decomposing the oil.
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5.8 Oil Circuit Breaker

The main disadvantage of oil is that it is


inflammable and may pose a fire hazard.
Other disadvantages include the possibility of
forming explosive mixture with air and the
production of carbon particles in the oil due to
heating, which reduces its dielectric strength.

There are various types of oil circuit breakers


developed for use in different situations. Some
important types are discussed below.
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5.8.1 Plain-break Oil Circuit Breakers

In a plain-break oil circuit breaker there is a fixed and a


moving contact immersed in oil. The metal tank is strong,
weather tight and earthed.

Figure 5.12 shows a double break plain oil circuit breaker.


When contacts separate there is a severe arc which
decomposes the oil into gases. The gas obtained from
the oil is mainly hydrogen.
The volume of gases
produced is about one thousand times that of the oil
decomposed. Hence, the oil is pushed away from arc and
the gaseous medium surrounds the arc.
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5.8.1 Plain-break Oil Circuit Breakers

Figure 5.12 Plain-break oil circuit breaker


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5.8.1 Plain-break Oil Circuit Breakers

The arc quenching factors are as follows:

(i) Elongation of the arc


(ii) Formation of gaseous medium in between the
fixed and moving contacts. This has a high
heat conductivity and high dielectric strength.

(iii) Turbulent motion of the oil, resulting from the


gases passing through it.
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5.8.1 Plain-break Oil Circuit Breakers

A large gaseous pressure is developed


because a large amount of energy is dissipated
within the tank.

Therefore, the tank of the circuit breaker is


made strong to withstand such a large
pressure.
When gas is formed around the arc, the oil is
displaced.
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5.8.1 Plain-break Oil Circuit Breakers

To accommodate the displaced oil, an air


cushion between the oil surface and the tank is
essential.
The air cushion also absorbs the mechanical
shock produced due to upward oil movement.
It necessary to provide some form of vent fitted
in the tank cover for the gas outlet.
A sufficient level of oil above the contacts is
required to provide substantial oil pressure at
the arc
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5.8.1 Plain-break Oil Circuit Breakers


Certain gap between the contacts must be created
before the arc interruption occurs.
To achieve this, the speed of the break should be as
high as possible.
The two breaks in series provide rapid arc elongation
without the need for a specially fast contact. The
double break also provides ample gap distance before
arc interruption.
But this arrangement has the disadvantage of unequal
voltage distribution across the breaks.
INSPIRING CREATIVE AND INNOVATIVE MINDS

5.8.1 Plain-break Oil Circuit Breakers

Figure 5.13 shows voltage distribution across


breaks. C is the capacitance between the fixed
contact and moving contact, C is the
capacitance between the moving contact and
earth. V1 is the voltage across the first contact
and V2 across the second contact. Suppose
the fault current is i.
The voltages V1 and V2 will be expressed as follows :

INSPIRING CREATIVE AND INNOVATIVE MINDS

5.8.1 Plain-break Oil Circuit Breakers

Figure 5.13 Voltage


distribution across
breaks

INSPIRING CREATIVE AND INNOVATIVE MINDS

5.8.1 Plain-break Oil Circuit Breakers

The capacitance between the moving contact and


earth C is in parallel with C, the capacitance of
the second break.

Taking C = 8 pF and C = 16 pF, we get


V1 + V2 = V = system voltage
V2 = 25% of the system voltage
and
V1 = 75% of the system voltage
INSPIRING CREATIVE AND INNOVATIVE MINDS

5.8.1 Plain-break Oil Circuit Breakers

To equalise the voltage distribution across the breaks,


non-linear resistors are connected across each break.

The plain break circuit breakers are employed for breaking


of low current at comparatively lower voltages. They are
used on low voltage d.c. circuits and on low voltage a.c.
distribution circuits. Their size becomes unduly large for
higher voltages.
Also, they require large amount of transformer oil. They
are not suitable for autoreclosing. Their speed is slow.
They can be used up to 11 kV with an interrupting capacity
up to 250 MVA.
INSPIRING CREATIVE AND INNOVATIVE MINDS

5.8.2 Self-generated Oil Circuit Breakers

In this type of circuit-breakers, arc energy is


utilised to generate a high pressure in a
chamber known as explosion pot or pressure
chamber or arc controlling device.
The contacts are enclosed within the pot.
The pot is made of insulating material and it is
placed in the tank. Such breakers have high
interrupting capacity.
The arcing time is
reduced.
INSPIRING CREATIVE AND INNOVATIVE MINDS

5.8.2 Self-generated Oil Circuit Breakers


Since the pressure is developed by the arc itself, it
depends upon the magnitude of the current. Therefore,
the pressure will be low at low current and high at high
values of the current. This creates a problem in
designing a suitable explosion pot.
At low current, pressure generated should be sufficient
to extinguish the arc.
At heavy currents, the pressure should not be too high
so as to burst the pot. Various types of explosion pots
have been developed to suit various requirements. A
few of them have been discussed below.
INSPIRING CREATIVE AND INNOVATIVE MINDS

5.8.2 Self-generated Oil Circuit Breakers

Plain explosion pot


Figured 5.14 shows a plain explosion pot.
This is the simplest form of an explosion pot.
When the moving contact separates a severe arc is
formed. The oil is decomposed and gas is produced. It
generates a high pressure within the pot because there
is a close fitting throat at the lower end of the pot.
The high pressure developed causes turbulent flow of
streams of the gas into the arc resulting in arcextinction.
INSPIRING CREATIVE AND INNOVATIVE MINDS

5.8.2 Self-generated Oil Circuit Breakers

Plain explosion pot (cont.)

Figure 5.14 Plain explosion pot


INSPIRING CREATIVE AND INNOVATIVE MINDS

5.8.2 Self-generated Oil Circuit Breakers


Plain explosion pot (cont.)
If the arc extinction does not occur within the pot, it occurs
immediately after the moving contact leaves the pot, due
to the high velocity axial blast of the gas which is released
through the throat.
Since the arc extinction in the plain explosion pot is
performed axially, it is also known as an axial extinction
pot. This type of a pot is not suitable for breaking of heavy
currents. The pot may burst due to very large pressure.
At low currents, the arcing time is more. Hence, type of an
explosion pot is suitable for the interruption of currents of
medium range.
INSPIRING CREATIVE AND INNOVATIVE MINDS

5.8.2 Self-generated Oil Circuit Breakers

Cross-jet explosion pot


Figure 5.15 shows a cross-jet explosion pot.
It is suitable for high current interruptions. Arc splitters
are used to obtain an increased arc length for a given
amount of contact travel. When the moving contact is
separated from the fixed contact, an arc is formed, as
shown in Fig. 5.15(a).
The arc is pushed into the arc splitters as shown in Fig.
5.15(b), and finally it is extinguished, as in Fig. 5.15 (c).
In this type of a pot, the oil blast is across the arc and
hence it is known as a cross-jet explosion pot.
INSPIRING CREATIVE AND INNOVATIVE MINDS

5.8.2 Self-generated Oil Circuit Breakers

Figure 5.15
explosion pot

Cross-jet

INSPIRING CREATIVE AND INNOVATIVE MINDS

5.8.2 Self-generated Oil Circuit Breakers


Self-compensated explosion pot
This type of a pot is a combination of a cross-jet explosion pot
and a plain explosion pot.
Figure 5.16 shows a self-compensated explosion pot. Its upper
portion is a cross-explosion pot, and the lower portion a plain
explosion pot.
On heavy currents the rate of gas generation is very high and
consequently, the pressure produced is also very high.
The arc extinction takes place when the first or second lateral
orifice of the arc splitter is uncovered by the moving contact.
The pot operates as a cross-jet explosion pot.
INSPIRING CREATIVE AND INNOVATIVE MINDS

5.8.2 Self-generated Oil Circuit Breakers


Self-compensated explosion pot (cont)

Figure 5.16 Self-compensated explosion pot


INSPIRING CREATIVE AND INNOVATIVE MINDS

5.8.2 Self-generated Oil Circuit Breakers


Self-compensated explosion pot (cont)
When the current is low, the pressure is also low in the
beginning. So the arc is not extinguished when the tip of the
moving contact is in the upper portion of the pot.

By the time the moving contact reaches the orifice at the


bottom of the pot, sufficient pressure is developed.
The arc is extinguished by the plain explosion pot action.
Thus, it is seen that the pot is suitable for low as well as high
current interruptions.

INSPIRING CREATIVE AND INNOVATIVE MINDS

5.8.3 Double Break Oil Circuit Breakers

To obtain high speed arc interruption, particularly


at low currents, various improved designs of the
explosion pot have been presented.
Double break oil circuit breaker is also one of
them.
It employs an intermediate contact
between the fixed and moving contact. When
the moving contact separates, the intermediate
contact also follows it.
INSPIRING CREATIVE AND INNOVATIVE MINDS

5.8.3 Double Break Oil Circuit Breakers

The arc first appears between the fixed contact


and the intermediate contact. Soon after, the
intermediate contact stops and a second arc
appears between the intermediate contact and
the moving contact.
The second arc is extinguished quickly
employing gas pressure and oil momentum
developed by the first arc. Figure 5.17 (a) shows
an axial blast pot and Fig. 5.17(b) shows a cross
blast pot.
INSPIRING CREATIVE AND INNOVATIVE MINDS

5.8.3 Double Break Oil Circuit Breakers

Figure 5.17 Double break oil circuit


breakers
INSPIRING CREATIVE AND INNOVATIVE MINDS

5.8.4 Bulk Oil and Minimum Oil Circuit


Breakers

In bulk oil circuit breakers, oil performs two


functions.
It acts as an arc extinguishing medium and it also
serves as insulation between the live terminals and
earth. The tank of a bulk oil circuit breaker is
earthed.
Its main drawback is that it requires a huge amount
of oil at higher voltages. Due to this very reason it is
not used at higher voltages.
INSPIRING CREATIVE AND INNOVATIVE MINDS

5.8.4 Bulk Oil and Minimum Oil Circuit


Breakers
A minimum content oil circuit breaker does not employ a
steel tank. Its container is made of porcelain or other
insulating material.
This type of a circuit breaker consists of two sections namely
an upper chamber and a lower chamber.

The upper chamber contains an arc control device, fixed and


a moving contact. The lower chamber acts as an insulating
support and it contains the operating mechanism.
These two chambers are filled with oil but they are physically
separated from each other.
INSPIRING CREATIVE AND INNOVATIVE MINDS

5.8.4 Bulk Oil and Minimum Oil Circuit


Breakers

The arc control device is placed in a resin bounded


glass fiber cylinder (or backelised paper encloser).
This cylinder is also filled with oil. The fibre glass
cylinder is then placed in a porcelain cylinder. The
annular space between the fibre-glass cylinder and
the porcelain insulator is also filled with oil.
Minimum oil circuit breakers arc available in the
voltage range of 3.3 kV to 420 kV. Now-a-days they
are superseded by SF6 circuit breakers
INSPIRING CREATIVE AND INNOVATIVE MINDS

5.8.4 Bulk Oil and Minimum Oil Circuit


Breakers

One of the important advantages that the bulk


oil circuit breaker has over both the low
content oil circuit breakers and air blast circuit
breakers is that the protective current
transformers can be accommodated on the
bushings instead of being supplied as a
separate piece of apparatus
INSPIRING CREATIVE AND INNOVATIVE MINDS

5.8.4 Bulk Oil and Minimum Oil Circuit


Breakers

The number of interrupter units contained in a tank


depends upon the fault current to be interrupted,
and the system voltage. Up to 11kV voltage, the
minimum oil circuit breakers generally employ a
single interrupter per phase.
The typical figures for higher voltages are, two per
phase at 132 kV, and six per phase at 275 kV. Each
interrupter has a provision of resistance switching (a
typical value being 1200 , linear wire wound
resistor) to damp restriking voltage.
INSPIRING CREATIVE AND INNOVATIVE MINDS

5.9 Air Blast Circuit Breakers

In air blast circuit breakers, compressed air at a pressure of


10-30 kg/cm2 is employed as an arc quenching medium.
Air blast circuit breakers are suitable for operating voltages of
132 kV and above. They have also been used in 11kV-33 kV
range for certain applications.

At present, SF6 circuit breakers are preferred for 132 kV and


above. Vacuum circuit breakers are preferred for 11 kV 33
kV range.
Therefore, the air blast circuit breakers are becoming
obsolete.
INSPIRING CREATIVE AND INNOVATIVE MINDS

5.9 Air Blast Circuit Breakers

The advantages of air blast circuit breakers over oil circuit


breakers are:

1. Cheapness and free availability of the interrupting


medium, chemical stability and inertness of air.
2. High speed operation
3. Elimination of fire hazard
4. Short and consistent arcing time and therefore, less
burning of contacts.
5. Less maintenance
6. Suitability for frequent operation
7. Facility for high speed reclosure
INSPIRING CREATIVE AND INNOVATIVE MINDS

5.9 Air Blast Circuit Breakers

The disadvantages of an air blast circuit breaker are as


follows.
1. An air compressor plant has to be installed and
maintained.
2. Upon arc interruption the air blast circuit breaker
produces a high-level noise when air is discharged to the
open atmosphere. In residential areas, silencers need to
be provided to reduce the noise level to an acceptable
level.
3. Problem of current chopping
4. Problem of restriking voltage
INSPIRING CREATIVE AND INNOVATIVE MINDS

5.9 Air Blast Circuit Breakers

Switching resistors and equalising capacitors are


generally connected across the interrupters. The
switching resistors reduce transient overvoltages
and help arc interruption. Capacitors are employed
to equalise the voltage across the breaks.
The number of breaks depends upon the system
voltages. For example, there are 2 for 66 kV, 2 to 4
for 132 kV, 2 to 6 for 220 kV, 4 to 12 for 400 kV, 8 to
12 for 750 kV.
INSPIRING CREATIVE AND INNOVATIVE MINDS

5.9 Air Blast Circuit Breakers

The breaking capacities are, 5000 MVA at 66


kV, 10,000 MVA at 132 kV, 20,000 MVA at
220 kV; 35000 MVA at 400 kV, 40,000 MVA at
500 kV; 60,000 MVA at 750 kV.
Circuit breakers for higher interrupting
capacity have also been designed for 1000
kV and 1100 kV systems.
INSPIRING CREATIVE AND INNOVATIVE MINDS

5.9 Air Blast Circuit Breakers

An air-blast circuit breaker may be either of


the following two types.
1. Cross-blast Circuit Breakers

2. Axial-blast Circuit Breakers

INSPIRING CREATIVE AND INNOVATIVE MINDS

5.9.1 Cross-blast Circuit Breakers

In a cross-blast type circuit breaker, a high-pressure blast of


air is directed perpendicularly to the arc for its interruption.
Figure 5.18 (a) shows a schematic diagram of a cross-blast
type circuit breaker.
The arc is forced into a suitable chute. Sufficient lengthening
of the arc is obtained, resulting in the introduction of
appreciable resistance in the arc itself. Therefore, resistance
switching is not common in this type of circuit breakers.
Cross-blast circuit breakers are suitable for interrupting high
current (up to 100 kA) at comparatively lower voltages.
INSPIRING CREATIVE AND INNOVATIVE MINDS

5.9.1 Cross-blast Circuit Breakers

Figure 5.18 (a) Cross-blast circuit breaker (b) Single blast type axial-blast
circuit breaker (c) Double blast type ( or radial-blast type) axial-blast circuit
breaker
INSPIRING CREATIVE AND INNOVATIVE MINDS

5.9.1 Axial-blast Circuit Breakers

In an axial-blast type breaker, a high-pressure


blast of air is directed longitudinally, i.e. in line
with the arc. Figure 5.18 (b) and (c) show
axial-blast type circuit breakers.
Figure 5.18(b) shows a single blast type.
Whereas Fig. 5.18(c) shows a double blast
type or radial blast type.
INSPIRING CREATIVE AND INNOVATIVE MINDS

5.9.1 Axial-blast Circuit Breakers

Figure 5.18
(d) : axialblast type
circuit
breakers.

INSPIRING CREATIVE AND INNOVATIVE MINDS

5.9.1 Axial-blast Circuit Breakers

Axial blast circuit breakers are suitable for EHV and


super high voltage application. This is because
interrupting chambers can be fully enclosed in
porcelain tubes. Resistance switching is employed
to reduce the transient overvoltages.
The number of breaks depends upon the system
voltage, for example, 4 at 220 kV and 8 at 750 kV.
Air-blast circuit breakers have also been
commissioned for 1100 kV system.
INSPIRING CREATIVE AND INNOVATIVE MINDS

5.10 Air-break Circuit Breakers

Oil circuit breakers are not suitable for heavy


current interruption at low voltages due to
carbonisation of oil, whereas air-break circuit
breakers are quite suitable for high current
interruption at low voltages.

In this type of a circuit breaker, air at


atmospheric pressure is used as an arc
extinguishing medium.
INSPIRING CREATIVE AND INNOVATIVE MINDS

5.10 Air-break Circuit Breakers

Figure 5.19 shows an air-break circuit breaker. It


employs two pairs of contacts main contacts and
arcing contacts.
The main contacts carry current when the breaker is in
closed position. They have low contact resistance.
When contacts are opened, the main contacts separate
first, the arcing contacts still remain closed. Therefore,
the current is shifted from the main contacts to the
arcing contacts. The arcing contacts separate later on
and the arc is drawn between them.
INSPIRING CREATIVE AND INNOVATIVE MINDS

5.10 Air-break Circuit Breakers

Figure 5.19 Air-break


circuit breaker

INSPIRING CREATIVE AND INNOVATIVE MINDS

5.10 Air-break Circuit Breakers

Figure 5.19 Air-break


circuit breaker
INSPIRING CREATIVE AND INNOVATIVE MINDS

5.10 Air-break Circuit Breakers

In air-break circuit breakers, the principle of


high resistance is employed for arc
interruption. The arc resistance is increased
by lengthening, splitting and cooling the arc.
The arc length is rapidly increased employing
arc runners and arc chutes. The arc moves
upward by both electromagnetic and thermal
effects. It moves along the arc runner and
then it is forced into a chute. It is splitted by
arc splitters.
INSPIRING CREATIVE AND INNOVATIVE MINDS

5.10 Air-break Circuit Breakers

A blow-out coil is employed to provide


magnetic field to speed up arc movement and
to direct the arc into arc splitters. The blowout coil is not connected in the circuit
permanently. It comes in the circuit by the arc
automatically during the breaking process.
The arc interruption is assisted by current
zero in case of ac air break circuit breakers.
High resistance is obtained near current zero.
INSPIRING CREATIVE AND INNOVATIVE MINDS

5.10 Air-break Circuit Breakers

AC air-break circuit breakers are available in the


voltage range 400 to 12 kV. They are widely
used in low and medium voltage system.
They are extensively used with electric furnaces,
with large motors requiring frequent starting, in a
place where chances of fire hazard exist, etc.
Air-break circuit breakers are also used in dc
circuit up to 12 kV.
INSPIRING CREATIVE AND INNOVATIVE MINDS

5.11 SF6 Circuit Breakers

Suphur hexafluoride (SF6) has good dielectric


strength and excellent arc quenching property.
It is an inert, nontoxic, nonflammable and heavy
gas.
At atmospheric pressure, its dielectric strength is
about 2.5 times that of air.
At 3 atmospheric pressure its dielectric strength is
equal to that of transformer oil.
INSPIRING CREATIVE AND INNOVATIVE MINDS

5.11 SF6 Circuit Breakers

It is an electronegative gas, i.e. it has high affinity for


electrons.
When a free electron comes in collision with a neutral
gas molecule, the electron is absorbed by the neutral
gas molecule and a negative ion is formed.

As the negative ions so formed are heavy they do not


attain sufficient energy to contribute to ionization of the
gas. The property gives a good dielectric property.
INSPIRING CREATIVE AND INNOVATIVE MINDS

5.11 SF6 Circuit Breakers

Besides good dielectric strength, the gas has an


excellent property of recombination after the
removal of the source which energizes the arc.
This gives an excellent arc quenching property.

The gas has also an excellent heat transfer


property. Its thermal time constant is about 1000
times shorter than that of air.
INSPIRING CREATIVE AND INNOVATIVE MINDS

5.11 SF6 Circuit Breakers

Under normal conditions, SF6 is chemically inert and it does


not attack metals or glass. However, it decomposes to SF4,
SF2, S2, F2, S and F at temperatures of the order of 1000oC.
After arc extinction, the products of decomposition recombine
in a short time, within about 1 microsecond.

In the presence of moisture, the decomposition products can


attack contacts, metal parts and rubber sealings in SF6 circuit
breakers. Therefore, the gas in the breaker must be
moisture-free. To absorb decomposition products, a mixture
of soda line (NaOH + CaO) and activated alumina can be
placed in the arcing chamber.
INSPIRING CREATIVE AND INNOVATIVE MINDS

5.11 SF6 Circuit Breakers

One major disadvantage of SF6 is its condensation at low


temperature.
The temperature at which SF6 changes to liquid depends on
the pressure. At 15 atm. Pressure, the gas liquefies at a
temperature of about 100C.
Hence, SF6 breakers are equipped with thermostatically
controlled heaters wherever such low ambient temperatures
are encountered.
INSPIRING CREATIVE AND INNOVATIVE MINDS

5.11 SF6 Circuit Breakers

SF6 circuit breakers are manufactured in the voltage range


3.6 kV to 765 kV. However, they are preferred for voltages
132 kV and above.
The dielectric strength of SF6 gas increases rapidly after final
current zero. SF6 circuit breakers can withstand severe
RRRV and are capable of breaking capacitive current without
restriking. Problems of current chopping are minimised.

Electrical clearances are very much reduced due to high


dielectric strength of SF6.
INSPIRING CREATIVE AND INNOVATIVE MINDS

5.11.1 Types of SF6 Circuit Breakers

Double-pressure SF6 circuit breakers


This is the early design of SF6 circuit breakers. Its operating
principle is similar to that of air-blast circuit breakers.
In this type of a circuit breaker, the gas from a high-pressure
compartment is released to the low pressure compartment to
extinguish the arc.

Because of its complicated design and construction, and its


need for various auxiliaries such as gas compressors, filters
and control devices, this type of circuit breakers have
become obsolete.
INSPIRING CREATIVE AND INNOVATIVE MINDS

5.11.1 Types of SF6 Circuit Breakers

Puffer-type SF6 circuit breakers

This type of circuit breakers are also sometimes


called single-pressure or impulse type SF6 circuit
breakers.
In this type of breakers, gas is compressed by a
moving cylinder system and is released through
a nozzle to quench the arc. This type is
available in the voltage range 3.6 kV to 765 kV.
INSPIRING CREATIVE AND INNOVATIVE MINDS

5.11.1 Types of SF6 Circuit Breakers

Puffer-type SF6 circuit breakers (cont.)

Figure 5.20 (a) shows a puffer-type breaker in


closed position. The moving cylinder and the
moving contact are coupled together.

When the contacts separate and the moving


cylinder moves, the trapped gas is compressed.
The trapped gas is released through a nozzle and
flows axially to quench the arc as shown in Fig.
5.20(b).
INSPIRING CREATIVE AND INNOVATIVE MINDS

5.11.1 Types of SF6 Circuit Breakers

Figure 5.20 Puffer-type SF6 circuit breaker


INSPIRING CREATIVE AND INNOVATIVE MINDS

5.11.1 Types of SF6 Circuit Breakers

Puffer-type SF6 circuit breakers (cont.)

There are two types of tank designs.


tank design and dead tank design.

Live

In live tank design, interrupters are supported


on porcelain insulators. In the dead tank
design, interrupters are placed in SF6 filledtank which is at earth potential. Live tank
design is preferred for outdoor substations.
INSPIRING CREATIVE AND INNOVATIVE MINDS

5.11.1 Types of SF6 Circuit Breakers

Puffer-type SF6 circuit breakers (cont.)

A number of interrupters (connected in series) on


insulating supports are employed for EHV systems up to
765 kV. Two interrupters are used in a 420 kV system.
Breaking time of 2 to 3 cycles can be achieved.
In the circuit breaker the steady pressure of the gas is
kept at 5 kg/cm2. The gas pressure in the interrupter
compartment increases rapidly to a level much above its
steady value to quench the arc.
INSPIRING CREATIVE AND INNOVATIVE MINDS

5.12 Vacuum Circuit Breakers

The dielectric strength and arc interrupting ability of high


vacuum is superior to those of porcelain, oil, air and SF6 at
atmospheric pressure.

SF6 at 7 atm. pressure and air at 25 atm. pressure have


dielectric strengths higher than that of high vacuum. The
pressure of 10-5 mm of mercury and below is considered to
be high vacuum.
Low pressures are generally measured in terms of torr; 1 torr
being equal to 1 mm of mercury. It has now become
possible to achieve pressures as low as 10-8 torr.
INSPIRING CREATIVE AND INNOVATIVE MINDS

5.12 Vacuum Circuit Breakers

When contacts separate in a gas, arc is formed due to the


ionized molecules of the gas.
The mean free path of the gas molecules is small and the
ionization process multiplies the number of electrons to form
an electron avalanche. In high vacuum, of the order of 10-5
mm of mercury, the mean free path of the residual gas
molecules becomes very large. It is of the order of a few
meters.
INSPIRING CREATIVE AND INNOVATIVE MINDS

5.12 Vacuum Circuit Breakers

Therefore, when contacts are separated by a few


mm in high vacuum, an electron travels in the gap
without collision. The formation of arc in high
vacuum is not possible due to the formation of
electron avalanche.
In vacuum arc electrons and ions do not come from
the medium in which the arc is drawn but they come
from the electrodes due to the evaporation of their
surface material.
INSPIRING CREATIVE AND INNOVATIVE MINDS

5.12 Vacuum Circuit Breakers

The breakdown strength is independent of gas


density. It depends only on the gap length and
surface condition and the material of the electrode.

The breakdown strength of highly polished and


thoroughly degassed electrodes is higher. Copperbismuth, silver-bismuth, silver-lead and copper-lead
are good materials for making contacts of the
breaker
INSPIRING CREATIVE AND INNOVATIVE MINDS

5.12 Vacuum Circuit Breakers

The breakdown strength is independent of gas


density. It depends only on the gap length and
surface condition and the material of the
electrode.
The breakdown strength of highly polished and
thoroughly degassed electrodes is higher.
Copper-bismuth, silver-bismuth, silver-lead and
copper-lead are good materials for making
contacts of the breaker
INSPIRING CREATIVE AND INNOVATIVE MINDS

5.12 Vacuum Circuit Breakers

When contacts are separated in high vacuum,


an arc is drawn between them. The arc does
not take place on the entire surface of the
contacts but only on a few spots.
The contact surface is not perfectly smooth.
It has certain microprojections. At the time of
contact separation, these projections form the
last points of separation.
INSPIRING CREATIVE AND INNOVATIVE MINDS

5.12 Vacuum Circuit Breakers

The current flows through these points of


separation resulting in the formation of a few
hot spots.

These hot sports emit electrons and act as


cathode spots.
In addition to thermal
emission, electrons emission may be due to
field emission and secondary emission.
INSPIRING CREATIVE AND INNOVATIVE MINDS

5.12 Vacuum Circuit Breakers

Figure 5.21 shows the schematic diagram of a vacuum


circuit breaker. Its enclosure is made of insulating
material such as glass, porcelain or glass fibre
reinforced plastic.

The vapour condensing shield is made of synthetic


resin. This shield provided to prevent metal vapour
reaching the insulating envelope.
As the interrupter has a sealed construction a stainless
metallic bellows is used to allow the movement of the
lower contact.
INSPIRING CREATIVE AND INNOVATIVE MINDS

5.12 Vacuum Circuit Breakers

Figure 5.21 Vacuum


circuit breaker

INSPIRING CREATIVE AND INNOVATIVE MINDS

5.12 Vacuum Circuit Breakers

One of its end is welded to the moving contact.


Its other end is welded to the lower end flange.
Its contacts have large disc-shaped faces.

These faces contain spiral segments so that the


arc current produces axial magnetic field.
This geometry helps the arc to move over the
contact surface.
INSPIRING CREATIVE AND INNOVATIVE MINDS

5.12 Vacuum Circuit Breakers

The movement of arc over the contact surface


minimises metal evaporation, and hence erosion
of the contact due to arc.

Two metal end flanges are provided. They


support the fixed contact, outer insulating
enclosure, vapour condensing shield and the
metallic bellows.
The sealing technique is
similar to that used in electronic valves
INSPIRING CREATIVE AND INNOVATIVE MINDS

5.12 Vacuum Circuit Breakers

The vacuum circuit breaker is very simple in


construction compared to other types of circuit breaker.
The contact separation is about 1 cm which is adequate
for current interruption in vacuum. As the breaker is
very compact, power required to close and open its
contacts is much less compared to other types of
breaker.
It is capable of interrupting capactive and small inductive
current, without producing excessive transient
overvoltages.
INSPIRING CREATIVE AND INNOVATIVE MINDS

5.12 Vacuum Circuit Breakers

Vacuum circuit breakers have other


advantages like suitability for repeated
operations, least maintenance, silent
operation, long life, high speed of
dielectric recovery, less weight of moving
parts, etc..
INSPIRING CREATIVE AND INNOVATIVE MINDS

5.12 Vacuum Circuit Breakers

In a.c., when the current decreases, vapour emission


decreases. Near current zero, the rate of vapour emission
tends to zero.
Immediately after current zero, the remaining vapour
condenses and the dielectric strength increases rapidly.
At current zero, cathode spots extinguish within 10-8 second.
The rate of dielectric recovery is many times higher than that
obtained in other types of circuit breakers. Its typical value
may be as high as 20 kV/s.
INSPIRING CREATIVE AND INNOVATIVE MINDS

5.12 Vacuum Circuit Breakers

Vacuum circuit breakers have now


become popular for voltage ratings
up to 36 kV. Up to 36 kV they
employ a single interrupter.
INSPIRING CREATIVE AND INNOVATIVE MINDS

5.13 Operating Mechanism

To open and close the contacts of a


circuit breaker, one of the
following
mechanisms
is
employed
(i) Spring
(ii) Solenoid
(iii) Compressed Air
INSPIRING CREATIVE AND INNOVATIVE MINDS

5.13 Operating Mechanism

Opening and closing of a circuit breaker should be quick


and reliable. Closing is slow compared to opening.
For reliability, both operations should be independent
of the main supply.
The force for the opening of a circuit breaker may be
applied by spring or compressed air. When spring is
used for opening, it is precharged, i.e. compressed .
The precharging may be done by hand or a motor or
by the closing mechanism. The closing mechanism
may be spring, solenoid or compressed air.
INSPIRING CREATIVE AND INNOVATIVE MINDS

5.13 Operating Mechanism


If the system uses spring for both opening as well as closing,
the closing spring has a higher energy level and is
charged by motor-driven gears. Two separate springs
are employed, one for closing and the other for opening.

The force of the closing spring is utilized for closing the


breaker and also for charging the spring which is used for
opening. The closing mechanism also latches the moving
contact in the closed position.
When the tripping signal is received, a small solenoid is
energised, which releases the latch and permits the
spring to exert its force to open the contact.
INSPIRING CREATIVE AND INNOVATIVE MINDS

5.13 Operating Mechanism

For large oil circuit breakers, solenoid is used for


closing and a spring is used for opening.
For medium size breakers, where provision of
battery for solenoid is uneconomical, spring is
employed for closing as well as opening.
In EHV oil circuit breakers, compressed air is used
for closing and a spring is used for opening. The
spring is charged during the closing stroke.
INSPIRING CREATIVE AND INNOVATIVE MINDS

5.13 Operating Mechanism

In air blast circuit breakers, compressed air is used for both


closing and opening.
In some cases of air blast circuit breakers, the moving
contact is held in closed position by a spring.
When compressed air enters the arc chamber and its
pressure exceeds the spring force, the contacts
automatically come in the closed position by the spring
action when the supply of compressed air is stopped.
Therefore, the supply of compressed air must be
maintained till the auxiliary circuit breaker switch is
opened.
INSPIRING CREATIVE AND INNOVATIVE MINDS

5.13 Operating Mechanism

In SF6 circuit breaker, compressed air may be used for


closing and a spring for opening or compressed air for
both closing as well as opening.
In vacuum circuit breakers, a solenoid or spring mechanism
is fixed to the lower end to move a metallic bellows
upward or downward inside the chamber during closing
or opening the contacts.
The closing mechanism must be tripfree, i.e. if a tripping
signal comes during the closing operation, the circuit
breaker must trip immediately
INSPIRING CREATIVE AND INNOVATIVE MINDS

5.13 Operating Mechanism

Spring are very good for opening as their force is large in the
beginning and gradually decreases as the distance of
travel of the moving contact increases. But it is not
suitable for closing because the closing operation must
be a smart one. However, in circuit breakers of small
capacity, it is also used for closing.
The spring which is used for closing is charged by hand or a
motor. In small circuit breakers, the spring can be
charged by hand. For large ones, it is charged by means
of a motor. The spring which is used for opening is
charged by the closing mechanism.
INSPIRING CREATIVE AND INNOVATIVE MINDS

5.13 Operating Mechanism

Solenoids are very good for closing. The force of attraction


increases when the distance between the contacts
decreases. They are not suitable for opening because
they are slow in action.
Compressed air is suitable for both closing as well as
opening as its force remains almost constant even when
the distance between the contacts increases or
decreases.

Figure 5.22 shows the characteristics of the opening and


closing mechanisms.
INSPIRING CREATIVE AND INNOVATIVE MINDS

5.13 Operating Mechanism

Figure 5.22 Characteristics of operating mechanism


INSPIRING CREATIVE AND INNOVATIVE MINDS

5.14 Selection of Circuit Breakers

Table 5.1 shows the summary of


various types of circuit breakers,
their voltage ranges and arc
quenching medium they employ.
Table 5.2 shows the choice of circuit
breakers for various voltage
ranges.
INSPIRING CREATIVE AND
MINDS
INNOVATIVE

5.14 Selection of Circuit Breakers

TABLE 5.1 Types of circuit breaker


Type

Arc Quenching Medium

Voltage Range and Breaking


Capacity

Miniature circuit breaker

Air at atmospheric pressure

400-600 V; for small current


rating

Air-break circuit breaker

Air at atmospheric pressure

400 V 11 kV; 5-750 MVA

Minimum oil circuit breaker

Transformer oil

3.3 kV 220 kV;


150 25000 MVA

Vacuum circuit breaker

Vacuum

3.3 kV 33 kV;
250 2000 MVA

SF6 circuit breaker

SF6 at 5kg/cm2 pressure

3.3 765 kV;


1000 50,000 MVA

Air blast circuit breaker

Compressed air at high pressure


(20-30 kg/cm2)

6.6 kV 1100 kV;


2500 60,000 MVA

INSPIRING CREATIVE AND INNOVATIVE MINDS

5.14 Selection of Circuit Breakers

TABLE 5.2 Selection of Circuit Breakers


Rated Voltage

Choice of Circuit Breakers

Remark

Below 1 kV

Air-break CB

3.3 kV 33 kV

Vacuum CB, SF6 CB, minimum oil CB

Vacuum preferred

132 kV 220 kV

SF6 CB, air blast CB, minimum oil CB

SF6 preferred

400 kV 760 kV

SF6 CB, air blast CB

SF6 is preferred

INSPIRING CREATIVE AND INNOVATIVE MINDS

5.14 Selection of Circuit Breakers

Earlier oil circuit breakers were preferred in the


voltage range of 3.3 kV - 66kV.
Between 132 kV and 220 kV, either oil circuit
breakers or air blast circuit breakers were
recommended.
For voltages 400 kV and above, air blast circuit
breakers were preferred.
INSPIRING CREATIVE AND INNOVATIVE MINDS

5.14 Selection of Circuit Breakers

The present trend is to recommend vacuum or SF6


circuit breakers in the voltage range 3.3 kv
33kV.
For 132 kV and above, SF6 circuit breakers are
preferred. Up to kV, air break circuit breakers are
used.
Air blast circuit breakers are becoming obsolete and
oil circuit breakers are being superseded by SF6
and vacuum circuit breakers.
INSPIRING CREATIVE AND INNOVATIVE MINDS

5.15 High Voltage DC Circuit Breakers

At present, HVDC transmission lines are used for point


to point transmission of large power over long
distance.
Such lines have many advantages over ac transmission
lines such as lower cost, less stability problems, less
corona loss and less radio interference, etc.
HVDC circuit breakers are not essential for single HVDC
transmission lines which are used for point to point
transmission.
INSPIRING CREATIVE AND INNOVATIVE MINDS

5.15 High Voltage DC Circuit Breakers

The current in HVDC lines is controlled by controlling


the firing circuits of the thyristors employed in
rectifiers and inverters.
Switching operations are performed from ac side with
the help of ac circuit breakers.
If HVDC circuit breakers are available, parallel HVDC
lines, HVDC lines with a tap-off line, closed loop
circuit, etc. can also be planned and designed.
INSPIRING CREATIVE AND INNOVATIVE MINDS

5.15 High Voltage DC Circuit Breakers

The additional circuit creates artificial current zeros which


are utilised for arc interruption as shown in Fig. 5.23.

Figure 5.23 Artificial current zeros in DC


INSPIRING CREATIVE AND INNOVATIVE MINDS

5.15 High Voltage DC Circuit Breakers

Figure 5.24 shows the schematic diagram of a


HVDC circuit breaker.
It is consists of a main circuit breaker MCB
and a circuit to produce artificial current zero
and to suppress transient voltage.

The main circuit breaker MCB may either be


an SF6 or vacuum circuit breaker.
INSPIRING CREATIVE AND INNOVATIVE MINDS

5.15 High Voltage DC Circuit Breakers

Figure 5.24 HVDC circuit breaker


INSPIRING CREATIVE AND INNOVATIVE MINDS

5.15 High Voltage DC Circuit Breakers


R and C are connected in parallel with the main circuit
breaker to reduce dv/dt after the final current zero.
L is a saturable reactor in series with the main circuit
breaker. It is used to reduce di/dt before current zero.
Cp and Lp are connected in parallel to produce artificial
current zero after the separation of the contacts in the
main circuit breaker MCB.
A non-linear resistor is used to suppress the transient
overvoltage which may be produced across the contacts
of the main circuit breaker.
INSPIRING CREATIVE AND INNOVATIVE MINDS

5.15 High Voltage DC Circuit Breakers

Switch S, which is a triggered vacuum gap, is switched


immediately after the opening of the contacts of the main
circuit breaker.
The capacitor Cp is precharged in the direction as shown
in the figure.
When S is closed, the precharged capacitor Cp
discharges through the main circuit breaker and sends a
current in opposition to the main to the main circuit
current.
This will force the main circuit current to become zero
with a few oscillations. The arc is interrupted at a current
zero
INSPIRING CREATIVE AND INNOVATIVE MINDS

5.16 Rating of Circuit Breakers

A circuit breaker has to perform the


following major duties under short-circuit
conditions.
(i) To open the contacts to clear the fault
(ii) To close the contacts onto a fault
(iii) To carry fault current for a short time
while another circuit breaker is clearing
the fault
INSPIRING CREATIVE AND INNOVATIVE MINDS

5.16 Rating of Circuit Breakers

Therefore, in addition to the rated voltage,


current and frequency, circuit breakers
have the following important ratings.

(i) Breaking Capacity


(ii) Making Capacity
(iii) Short-time Capacity
INSPIRING CREATIVE AND INNOVATIVE MINDS

5.16.1 Breaking Capacity

The breaking capacity of a circuit


breaker is of two types
(i) Symmetrical breaking capacity
(ii) Asymmetrical breaking capacity
INSPIRING CREATIVE AND INNOVATIVE MINDS

5.16.1 Breaking Capacity

Symmetrical breaking capacity


It is the rms value of the ac
component of the fault current that the
circuit breaker is capable of breaking
under specified conditions of recovery
voltage.
INSPIRING CREATIVE AND INNOVATIVE MINDS

5.16.1 Breaking Capacity

Asymmetrical breaking capacity


It is the rms value of the total current
comprising of both ac and dc
components of the fault current that
the circuit breaker can break under
specified conditions of recovery
voltage.
INSPIRING CREATIVE AND INNOVATIVE MINDS

5.16.1 Breaking Capacity

Figure 5.25 shows a short-circuit current wave.


The short-circuit current contains a dc
component which dies out gradually as shown in
the figure.
In the beginning, the short-circuit current is
asymmetrical due to the dc component.
When dc dies out completely, the short-current
becomes symmetrical.
INSPIRING CREATIVE AND INNOVATIVE MINDS

5.16.1 Breaking Capacity

Figure 5.25
Short-circuit
current
waveform

INSPIRING CREATIVE AND INNOVATIVE MINDS

5.16.1 Breaking Capacity


The line X-X indicates the instant of contact separation.

AB is the peak value of the ac component of the current


at this instant.
Therefore, the symmetrical breaking current which is the
rms value of the ac component of the current at the
instant of contact separation is equal to current AB/2.

The section BC is the dc component of the short-circuit


current at this instant. Therefore, asymmetrical breaking
2
current is given by
AB
2

I asym.

BC

2
INSPIRING CREATIVE AND INNOVATIVE MINDS

5.16.1 Breaking Capacity


The breaking capacity of a circuit breaker is generally
expressed in MVA. For a three-phase circuit breaker, it is
given by
Breaking capacity = 3 x rated voltage in kV x rated
current in kA.
The breaking capacity will be symmetrical if the rated
current in the above expression is symmetrical (British
practice).
The breaking capacity will be asymmetrical if the rated
current is asymmetrical (American practice). The rated
breaking current is taken by designer as 1.6 times the
rated symmetrical current.
INSPIRING CREATIVE AND INNOVATIVE MINDS

5.16.2 Making Capacity

The possibility of a circuit breaker to be closed on shortcircuit is also considered.


The rated making current is defined as the peak value of
the current (including the component) in the first cycle at
which a circuit breaker can be closed onto a short-circuit.
Ip in Fig. 5.25 is the making current.
The capacity of a circuit breaker to be closed onto a
short-circuit depends upon its ability to withstand the
effects of electromagnetic forces.
INSPIRING CREATIVE AND INNOVATIVE MINDS

5.16.2 Making Capacity

Making current = 2 x 1.8 x symmetrical breaking


current.
The multiplication by 2 is to obtain the peak
value and again by 1.8 to take the dc component
into account.
Making capacity = 2 x 1.8 x symmetrical breaking
capacity
=2.55 x symmetrical breaking capacity
INSPIRING CREATIVE AND INNOVATIVE MINDS

5.16.3 Short-time Current Rating

The short-time current rating is based on thermal and


mechanical limitations.
The circuit breaker must be capable of carrying shortcircuit current for a short period while another circuit
breaker (in series) is clearing the fault.
The rated short-time current is the rms value (total
current, both a.c and d.c components) of the current that
the circuit breaker can carry safely for a specified short
period.
INSPIRING CREATIVE AND INNOVATIVE MINDS

5.16.3 Short-time Current Rating

According to British standard, the time is 3 seconds if the


ratio of symmetrical breaking current to rated normal
current is equal to or less than 40 and 1 second if this
ratio is more than 40.
According to ASA there are two short-time ratings; one is
the current which the circuit breaker can withstand for 1
second or less. Another is rated 4-second current which
is the current that the circuit breaker can withstand for a
period longer than 1 second but not more than 4 seconds.

INSPIRING CREATIVE AND INNOVATIVE MINDS

5.16.4 Rated Voltage, Current and


Frequency

In a power system, the voltage level at all points


is not the same. It varies, depending upon the
system operating conditions. Due to this reason
manufacturers have specified a rated maximum
voltage at which the operation of the circuit
breaker is guaranteed. The specified voltage is
somewhat higher than the rated nominal voltage.
The rated current is the rms value of the current
that a circuit breaker can carry continuously
without any temperature rise in excess of its
specified limit.
INSPIRING CREATIVE AND INNOVATIVE MINDS

5.16.4 Rated Voltage, Current and


Frequency

The rated frequency is also mentioned by


the manufacturer. It is the frequency at
which the circuit breaker has been
designed to operate.
The standard frequency is 50 Hz.
If a circuit breaker is to be used at a
frequency other than its rated frequency, its
effects should be taken into consideration.
INSPIRING CREATIVE AND INNOVATIVE MINDS

Example 5.5
The rating of a circuit breaker are as follows : 3-phase, 1500
amp, 100 MVA, 3.3 kV, 3 seconds. Calculate symmetrical
breaking current, making current and short-time current rating.

Solution :
Given
Rated voltage
Rated normal current

= 3.3 kV
= 1500 amp

So,
Rated symmetrical breaking current (rms) =

100
3 x3.3

Rated making current = 17.5 x 1.8 x 2 = 44.62 kA


Short-time current rating is 17.5 kA for 3 seconds.

= 17.5 kA

Example 5.6
The portion of the test oscillograms which were
obtained during a make-break test on a circuit
breaker is shown in the figure. Given A = 20kV, B =
30kA, X = 21kA and Y = 12kA. Determine:a) The line voltage rating of the breaker
b) The peak making current for the red phase only.
c) The AC and DC components of breaking current at
the instant of contact separation for yellow phase
only. Hence determine whether the test is
symmetrical or asymmetrical, and estimate the
breaking current.

Solution
a)

b)
c)

Peak to peak phase system voltage = A = 20 kV.


rms phase system voltage = 20/(22) = 7.07 kV
line voltage rating of breaker = 3 * 7.07 = 12.25
kV
Peak making current
= B = 30 kA.
AC component of making current = 21 kA.
DC component of making current = 12 kA.
Y/X = 12/21 = 0.578, therefore the test is
asymmetrical. (Note : greater than 0.5)
asymmetrical breaking current :

5.16.5 Rated Operating Duty


The operating duty of a circuit breaker prescribes its
operations which can be performed at stated time
intervals. For the circuit breakers which are not meant for
autoreclosing, there are two alternative operating duties
as given below:

(i) O-t-CO-t-CO
(ii) O-t-CO
Where O denotes opening operation, CO denotes closing
operation followed by opening without any intentional
time lag, and t, t and t are time intervals between
successive operations. According to IEC, the value of t
and t is 3 minute and t is 15 seconds.
INSPIRING CREATIVE AND INNOVATIVE MINDS

5.16.5 Rated Operating Duty


For circuit breakers with auto-reclosing, the operating
duty is as follows.
O Dt CO, where Dt is the dead time of the circuit
breaker, which is expressed in cycle.
According to B.S.S there in only one operating duty for
the circuit breakers not intended for auto-reclosing. It is
written as follows
B-3-MB-3-MB, where B denotes breaking and MB
denotes making followed by breaking without any
intentional time delay. Three is the time-interval in
minutes.
INSPIRING CREATIVE AND INNOVATIVE MINDS

5.16.5 Rated Operating Duty

For circuit breakers with auto-reclosing, the


operating duty is written as
B Dt MB
Dt is the dead time and it is expressed in
cycles.
INSPIRING CREATIVE AND INNOVATIVE MINDS

5.17 Testing of Circuit Breakers

There are two types of tests of circuit breakers namely


routine tests and type tests.

Routine test are performed on every piece of circuit


breaker in the premises of the manufacturer. The
purpose of the routine tests is to confirm the proper
functioning of a circuit breaker.
Type tests are performed in a high voltage laboratory;
such tests are performed on sample pieces of circuit
breakers of each type to confirm their characteristics and
rated capacities according to their design.
INSPIRING CREATIVE AND INNOVATIVE MINDS

5.17 Testing of Circuit Breakers

These tests are not performed on every


piece of circuit breaker.
All routine and type tests are performed
according to Indian Standard (IS) codes or
International Electromechanical
Commission (IEC) codes or British
Standard (BS) codes.
INSPIRING CREATIVE AND INNOVATIVE MINDS

5.17 Testing of Circuit Breakers

A few important type tests, such as breaking


capacity, making capacity, short-time current
rating tests will be discussed here.
These tests come in the category of short
circuit testing of circuit breakers.
For circuit breakers of smaller capacity, these
tests are carried out by direct testing
techniques..
INSPIRING CREATIVE AND INNOVATIVE MINDS

5.17 Testing of Circuit Breakers

Circuit breakers of large capacities are tested


by the synthetic testing method.
In addition to short circuit tests, mechanical
test, thermal tests, dielectric tests (power
frequency tests, impulse tests), capacitive
charging-current breaking test, small inductive
breaking current test, etc. are also performed.
For details see the relevant IS codes.
INSPIRING CREATIVE AND INNOVATIVE MINDS

5.17.1 Short-circuit Testing Stations

There are two types of short-circuit testing


stations.
(i) Field types testing station
(ii) Laboratory type testing station
INSPIRING CREATIVE AND INNOVATIVE MINDS

5.17.1 Short-circuit Testing Stations


In field type testing station, the power required for testing
is derived from a large power system. The circuit breaker
to be tested is connected to the power system. Large
amount of power is easily available for testing. Hence,
this method of testing is economical for testing of circuit
breakers, particularly high voltage circuit breakers. But it
lacks flexibility. Its drawbacks are :
(i) For research and development work, tests cannot be
repeated again and again without disturbing the power
system.
(ii) The power available for testing varies, depending upon
the loading conditions of the system.
(iii) It is very difficult to control the transient recovery
voltage, RRRV, etc.
INSPIRING CREATIVE AND INNOVATIVE MINDS

5.17.1 Short-circuit Testing Stations

In the laboratory type testing station, the power required for


testing is taken from specially designed generators
which are installed in the laboratory for such testing. Its
advantages are:
(i) For research and development work, tests can be
carried out again and again to confirm the designed
characteristics and capacity.
(ii) Current, voltage, restriking voltage, RRRV, etc. can be
controlled conveniently
(iii) Tests for circuit breakers of large capacity can be
carried out using synthetic testing
INSPIRING CREATIVE AND INNOVATIVE MINDS

5.17.1 Short-circuit Testing Stations

The drawbacks of laboratory type testing


stations are:
(i) High cost of installation
(ii) Availability of limited power for testing
of circuit breakers.
INSPIRING CREATIVE AND INNOVATIVE MINDS

5.17.1 Short-circuit Testing Stations


Short-circuit generator
In a laboratory, short-circuit generators are used to
provide power for testing.
The design of such generators is different from a
conventional generator. These are specially designed to
have very low reactance to give the maximum shortcircuit output. To withstand high electromagnetic forces
their windings are specially braced and rugged.
They are provided with a flywheel to supply kinetic
energy during short circuits. This also helps in speed
regulation of the set. The generator is driven by a threephase induction motor.
INSPIRING CREATIVE AND INNOVATIVE MINDS

5.17.1 Short-circuit Testing Stations


Short-circuit generator (cont.)

The short-circuit current has a demagnetising effect on


the field of generator. This results in reducing the field
current. Consequently, the generators emf is reduced.
Impulse excitation or super excitation is employed to
counteract the damagnetisation effect of armature
reaction.
At the time of short-circuit, the field current is increased to
about 8 to 10 times its normal value.
INSPIRING CREATIVE AND INNOVATIVE MINDS

5.17.1 Short-circuit Testing Stations


Short-circuit transformer
Such a transformer has a low reactance and it is
designed to withstand repeated short-circuits. To get
different voltages for tests, its windings are arranged in
sections. By series and parallel combinations of these
sections, the desired test voltage is obtained.
To get lower voltage than the generated voltage, a threephase transformer is generally used. For voltages higher
than the generated voltages, normally banks of single
phase transformers are employed.
As the transformer remains in the circuit for a short time,
they do not pose any cooling problem.
INSPIRING CREATIVE AND INNOVATIVE MINDS

5.17.1 Short-circuit Testing Stations


Master Circuit Breaker

It is used as a backup circuit breaker. If the circuit


breaker under test fails to operate, the master circuit
breaker opens.
The master circuit breaker is set to operate at a
predetermined time after the initiation of the short-circuit.
After every test, it isolates the circuit breaker under test
from the supply source. Its capacity is more than the
capacity of the circuit breaker under test.

INSPIRING CREATIVE AND INNOVATIVE MINDS

5.17.1 Short-circuit Testing Stations


Making Switch
This switch is used to apply short-circuit current at the
desired moment during the test.
The making switch is closed after closing the master
circuit breaker and the test circuit breaker.
It must be bounce-free to avoid its burning or contact
welding.
To achieve this, a high pressure is used in the chamber.
Its speed is also kept high.
INSPIRING CREATIVE AND INNOVATIVE MINDS

5.17.1 Short-circuit Testing Stations


Capacitors

Capacitors are used to control RRRV.

They are used in synthetic testing which will be


discussed while describing such testing.
Capacitors are also used for voltage measurement
purpose.

INSPIRING CREATIVE AND INNOVATIVE MINDS

5.17.1 Short-circuit Testing Stations


Reactors and Resistors

Resistors and reactors are used to control


short-circuit test current.
They also control power factor.
The resistor controls the rate of decay of
the d.c. component of the current.
They control the transient recovery voltage.
INSPIRING CREATIVE AND INNOVATIVE MINDS

5.17.2 Testing Procedure

During the short-circuit test, several switching operations are


performed in a sequence in a very short time. For
example, the sequence of switching operations for
breaking capacity test is a follows.
(i)

After running the driving motor of the short-circuit


generator to a certain speed it is switched off.

(ii) Impulse excitation is switched on

(iii) Master circuit breaker is closed


INSPIRING CREATIVE AND INNOVATIVE MINDS

5.17.2 Testing Procedure

(iv) Oscillograph is switched on


(v) Making switch is closed
(vi) Circuit breaker under test is opened
(vii) Master circuit breaker is opened
(viii) Exciter circuit of the short-circuit generator is
switched off
It is not possible to perform this sequence of operations
manually. There is an automatic control for the purpose.
The time of operation for the above sequence is of the
order of 0.2 second.
INSPIRING CREATIVE AND INNOVATIVE MINDS

5.17.3 Direct Testing

In direct testing, the circuit breaker is tested under


the conditions which actually exist on power
systems.

It is subjected to restriking voltage which is expected


in practical situations.
Figure 5.27 shows an arrangement for direct testing.
The reactor X is to control short-circuit current. C, R1
and R2 are to adjust transient restriking voltage.
Short-circuit tests to be performed are as follows :
INSPIRING CREATIVE AND INNOVATIVE MINDS

5.17.3 Direct Testing

Figure 5.27 Direct testing of circuit breaker


INSPIRING CREATIVE AND INNOVATIVE MINDS

5.17.3 Direct Testing

Test for breaking capacity

First of all, the master circuit breaker and the circuit breaker
under test are closed.
Then the short-circuit current is passed by closing the
making switch.
The short-circuit current is passed by closing the making
switch. The short-circuit current is interrupted by opening
the breaker under test at the desired moment.
INSPIRING CREATIVE AND INNOVATIVE MINDS

5.17.3 Direct Testing

The following measurements are taken


(i) Symmetrical breaking current
(ii) Asymmetrical breaking current

(iii) Recovery voltage


(iv) Frequency of oscillation and RRRV

INSPIRING CREATIVE AND INNOVATIVE MINDS

5.17.3 Direct Testing

The circuit breaker must be capable of


breaking all currents up to its rated
capacity.
As it not possible to test at all values of
current, tests are performed at 10%, 30% ,
60% and 100% of its rated breaking
current.
INSPIRING CREATIVE AND INNOVATIVE MINDS

5.17.3 Direct Testing

Test for making capacity


The master circuit breaker and the making
switch are closed first, then the short-circuit is
initiated by closing the circuit breaker under
test.
The rated making current, i.e. the peak value of
the first major loop of the short-circuit current
wave is measured.
INSPIRING CREATIVE AND INNOVATIVE MINDS

5.17.3 Direct Testing


Duty cycle test

The following duty cycle tests are performed


(i)

B-3-B-3-B tests are performed at 10%, 30%, and 60%


of the rated symmetrical breaking capacity.
(ii) B-3-MB-3-MB tests are performed
(a) at not less than 100% of the rated symmetrical
breaking capacity and
(b) at not less than 100% of the rated making capacity.
This test can also be performed as two separate tests.
(a) M-3-M make test,
(b) B-3-B-3-B break test
INSPIRING CREATIVE AND INNOVATIVE MINDS

5.17.3 Direct Testing

(iii) B-3-B-3-B tests are performed at not less than


100% of the rated asymmetrical breaking
capacity

Here B denotes the breaking operation and M


denotes the making operation, while MB denotes
the making operation followed by the breaking
operation without any intentional time delay
INSPIRING CREATIVE AND INNOVATIVE MINDS

5.17.3 Direct Testing

Short-time current test


The rated short-time current is passed through the
circuit breaker under test for a specified short
duration (1 second or 3 second) and current is
measured by taking an oscillograph of the current
wave.
The short-time current should not cause any mechanical
or insulation damage or any contact welding. The
equivalent rms short-time current is evaluated as
follows.
INSPIRING CREATIVE AND INNOVATIVE MINDS

5.17.3 Direct Testing

Short-time current test (cont.)


The time-interval is divided into 10 equal parts. These are
marked as to, t1, t2, t9, t10.
The asymmetrical rms values of the current at these intervals
are marked as I0, I1, I2,I9, I10.

The equivalent rms value of the short-time current using


Simpson formula is given by
I =
INSPIRING CREATIVE AND INNOVATIVE MINDS

5.17.4 Indirect Testing

The testing of HV circuit breakers of large capacity also


requires very large capacity of the testing station, which
is uneconomical.
It is also not practical to increase the short-circuit capacity of
the testing station. Therefore, indirect methods of testing
are used for the testing of large circuit breakers.
The important indirect methods of testing are:
(i) Unit testing
(ii) Synthetic testing
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5.17.4 Indirect Testing

Unit testing
Generally, high voltage circuit breakers are designed with
several arc interrupter units in series.
Each unit can be tested separately. From the test results of
one unit, the capacity of the complete breaker can be
determined.
This type of testing is known as unit testing.

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5.17.4 Indirect Testing

Synthetic testing
In this method of testing, there are two sources of power
supply for the testing, a current source and a voltage
source.
The current source is a high current, low voltage source. It
supplies short-circuit current during the test.
The voltage source is a high voltage, low current source. It
provides restriking and recovery voltage.
.
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5.17.4 Indirect Testing

Synthetic testing(cont.)
There are two methods of synthetic testing-parallel current
injection method and series current injection method.
Parallel current injection method is widely used as it is
capable of providing RRRV and recovery voltage as
required by various standards.

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5.17.4 Indirect Testing

Figure 5.27 shows a circuit for synthetic testing. It is


a circuit for parallel current injection method of
synthetic testing. The high current source is a motor
driven generator.
It injects a high short-circuit
current I1 into the circuit breaker under test at a
relatively reduced voltage, Vg. The inductance L1 is
to control the short-circuit current. The master
circuit breaker and the circuit breaker under test are
tripped before current I1 reaches its natural zero.
These circuit breakers are fully opened by the time t0.

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5.17.4 Indirect Testing

Figure 5.27 Synthetic testing of circuit breaker

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5.17.4 Indirect Testing

The capacitor C1 is a high voltage source to


provide recovery voltage. It is charged prior
to the test, to a voltage 2Vs.
This voltage is equal to the peak power
frequency voltage which will appear across
the contacts at the moment the circuit
breaker under test interrupts the current.
L2 and C2 control transient recovery voltage and
RRRV.
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5.17.4 Indirect Testing

The triggered spark gap is fired at t1, slightly before


the short-circuit current I1 reaches its natural
zero.

It is done to properly simulate the pre-current zero


zone during the test.
There is a control circuit to fire the triggered spark
gap at the appropriate moment.
Figure 5.28 shows waveforms during synthetic
testing.
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5.17.4 Indirect Testing

Figure 5.28 Waveform during synthetic testing

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5.17.4 Indirect Testing

Thank You

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