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Pollution

It is undesirable state or change in the state of environment and surrounding particularly in air water,
soil, which has in adverse impact over human health.
Environmental Pollution
Point source

Source/factor
Mobile

Area source

Pollutant

Point source
Stationary
Area source
Pollutant

Degradable

Non-degradable

Domestic waste
organic substances

Plastic

Pollutant

Primary

Secondary

Coming directly from source

Formed from a primary pollutant

B
(Synergistic effect)
More potent than primary

Air Pollution
1. Sulphur Oxide and Nitrogen Oxide
Sulphur dioxide
Source :

Impact :

Burning of fossil fuel coal


and petroleum

Humans skin and eye


irritation.

Thermal power plants

Smelting of metal (Fe, Cu)

Plants : Destruction of
cholorphyll

Volcanic gas

Formation of black spots


on leaves is also called
chlorosis of plant

Nitrogen Oxide

Source :

Impact :

Burning of fossil fuel.

Humans :Respiratory
problem, skin irritation.

Plants : Premature
death of plant parts also
called as Necrosis,
Defoliation of plants.

Acid Rain
SOx + NOx + water vapour Acid rain (H2SO4 + HNO3)

Impact of Acid Rain :

Rainfall : Slightly acidic


(6.46.8)
PH < 5.6

(i)

(ii) Skin irritation and loss of hairs


(iii) Decolouration of the paints

Acid rain

(iv) Yellowing up of marbles

Sulphur Shower :
Temperate
Regions

Vegetation

Spuing time

Damage of cholorophyll

PINUS

Seed

(v) Metal rusting and corrosion

Yellow

(vi) Loss of paint over iron bridges


(vii) Excess bleaching of the textiles

Wide spread dispersed in forest area

(viii) Increase in the soil acidity and


loss of productivity etc.

Sulphur/Yellow shower

Methane
Impact :

Source :
(i) Coal mines
(ii)

Green House
Gas and Global
Warming

Coal mining

(iii) Urban dumpfills


(iv) Rice field
(v) Marshylands
(vi) Wetlands
(vii) Incomplete burning of fossil fuels
(viii) Cattles
(ix) Glacier breakdown or polar methane

CO2
Source :

Impact :

(i)

Burning of fossil
fuels

(i)

Green House Gas


and Global Warming

(ii)

Volcanic eruption

(ii)

Biosphere turns a net


carbon source

(iii) Tectonic release


(iv) Break down of
glaciers

(iii) Positive impact


increase in
vegetation

(v) Fracturing of rocks


and shells in
oceans

(iv) Oceanic acidification


Urban Heat Islands

Oceanic Acidification
Oceans and saline water bodies has pH range which is slightly alkaline. With the increase in
concentration of CO2 in atmosphere, the dissolution of CO2 in oceans at polar and sub-polar region
increases this decreases the pH of oceans which is called oceanic acidification.
In 2015 it is reported that the pH of the oceans on earth has reduced from 8.25 to 8.14 in the last 19
years.
Impacts of Oceanic Acidification
(i)

Decolouration and death of corals called as coral bleaching. Mass scale extinction and death of
coral due to bleaching is called as echolocation.

(ii)

Habitability of the fishes and marine life is affected adversely.

(iii) Breakdown of shells and rock which releases more CO2 in water.
(iv) Heat capture of the water is increases; hence temperature of water bodies is increases.

Urban Heat Islands


Urban Heat Islands (UHI) :
Suffocation and trapping up of CO2

Leaves

Loss of vegetation
Trap CO2

Causes heating

Stomata

Transpiration
UHI

Neutralization of heating
effect is cut down

Loss of water
(thermal balance
near plants)

Increase in temperature
of urban colonies
Localized warming

UHI : Mitigation
(1)

White paint of building and roof top.

(2)

Ventilation must be maintained.

(3)

Urban green cover must be increased.

CO
Source :
Incomplete combustion
of fossil fuels and
biomass.

Impact :
CO + heamoglobulin
(Hb) = Carboxy-Hb
causes suffocation and
death due to
asphyxation

Chloro Fluro Carbon


CFC (Chloro Fluro Carbons) :
R8/R10 gases Freons Coolent + Fire extinguisher
Refrigerator
AC
Jet engines

Leakage

Movement towards poles


Accumulation at poles
Sun light = CFC + VOC (Volatile organic compound) Cl nascent
Polar spring
O3 + Cl OCl
+ O3

O + OCl

+ O3

O2 + OCl

Ozone depletion
Ozone hole

Effect : UVB and C escapes

Skin cells
damage
Skin cancer

Plants
chlorophyll
damage

North pole
50 km diameter

Decrease in productivity

South pole
200 km diameter

Vienna Convention
It was a global initiation to protect the state of ozone layer.
Montreal protocol
It was signed under the venna convention to restrict the use of ozone depleting substance.
Hydro Fluro Carbon (HFC) and Per Fluro Carbon (PFC)
HFC and PFC are the chemical which were introduced as non-zone depletion agent but are more
potent Green House Gases.
Kigali Amendment (2015)
It is signed to phase out HFC and PFC.
Particulate Matter
Gaseous Aerosols
Liquid Smog
Solids Dust, Dirt, Gravel, Shoot
Particulate Matter :

Suspended

Settlable
10m size

PM 10

PM

PM 2.5
1m3m

510m
1week10days
settle within
2448 hrs
Sources :
(1) Dust, mist, silica particles

10
2.5

52%

(2) Biomass and coal burning (Soot)


(3) Petroleum products

Diesel
Kerosene
Petrol

(4) House hold activities

4%

1 m or less

Aerosol

Fossil fuel burning


SO2 mixed sulphur aerosol
Biomass

SOOT
CO

(incomplete combustion)
Ash

CO2
SOOT

Carbon Black carbon

Fly ash
11.7 m

27%
12%

Impact of Particulate Matter


1. Classical Smog or London Smog or Grey Air
(London smog)

Smog Smoke + Fog


Classical smog
(Grey air)
Impact
Visibility
reduction

Suffocation
Breathing
problems

Accidents
2. Photo Chemical Smog

PM
(Smoke)

NOx

Aldehydes and Ketones


Per Acyl Nitrates (PAN)
Per Benzyl Nitrates (PBN)
Sunlight

Condensation

Forms brown cloud or Air


Photochemical smog or Tropical smog
or Los Angeles smog
Impact

Corrosive in nature

Increase in Albedo
(Reflection of light)

Radiative heat is trapped

At poles

Detoriation of paints,
vegetation and civil
structure

Global Diming

Increases temperature of
lower atmosphere

Formation polar brown


clouds

Reduction in
productivity

Localized warming

Increases heat

Disturbance in rainfall
and season cycle

Glacier melt down

Minor Pollutants
Pollutant

Source

Impact

1. Lead

Automobile exhaust
metallurgical operation

Mental retard-ness

2. Cadmium (Cd)

Mining and metallurgy, burning


of plastic, cigarette smoking

Damage to liver heart and


kidney

3. Nickel (Ni)

Combustion of fossil fuel coal


and diesel

Respiratory problem and long


cancer

4. Mercury (Mg)

Combustion of fossil fuel coal,


mining of coal and iron and gold
and smelting

Damages to nervous system


kidney and liver

5. Beryllium (Br)

Ceramic industry rocket motor


testing nuclear power plant
combustion of coal

Damages to eye or long or


Berylliosis disease

6. Asbastos

Mica industry

Damage to long or asbastos


disease

7. Cotton dust

Textile, cotton farms

Damage to lung or byssynosis


disease

8. Coal dust

Coal mine, thermal power plant

Damage to lungs or black lung


disease

9. Benzopyrene

Sigrate smoking

Lung cancer

10. Radioactive pollutant

Redon, stroncium and


ptotonium

Damage of DNA cancer

Water Pollution
Pollutant

Source

Impact

1. Papers pulp

Pulp industry

Release of suspended
particulate and substance like it,
mecaplanes and cellulose

2. Textiles

Textile industry

Release of cellulose which


causes anaerobic degradation
and eutrofication

3. Organic substance like


phenols and alcohol

Refinaries, smelter distalaries,


sugar industry

Degradation of water quality


and eutrofication

4. Flurides 1.2 mg/lit

Fracturing up of make under


ground water reserve.
Industries involved with
detergents bleaching textile etc.

Flurosis of blackning of teeths


stiffness of muscles

5. Arsinic 0.05 mg/lit

(i) Hydraulic facturing of rock

Accumulation in the skin legs


and hand cattled black foot
disease

(ii) Solvents used in plywood


industry
(iii) As solid waste from poletry
or arsinopinite
(iv) Coal mining, gold mining
and processing
(v) Insectiside and pesticide
6. Mercury 0.001 mg/l

(i) Coal mining, gold mining


(ii) Paper industries
(iii) Plastic industries, paint
manufacturing swelting of Fe
(iv) Minting of copper

Accumulation in the nervous


system dementia and minimata
disease

(v) Pharmacetical equipments


cosmatics etc.
(vi) CFLs LCD monitor
7. Cd (cadmium) 0.001 mg/l

Electroplating industries
battaries, electromic goods and
material pesticide

Accumulation in the museles


causes mascular stiffness and
disease called as Itai-Itai
disease (Ouch-Ouch disease)
and also failure of liver heart
and kidney

8. Lead (Pb) 0.05 mg/l

Battaries, di ink industry paints


cosmetic, automobile exhaust,
metal smelting pesticides, pen
and pencil

Damages to liver and kidney


breakdown of the blood cells
reduction in IQ level loss of
nervous cells

9. Selenium

Pesticides

Loss of hairs damage to skin


and cancer

10. Nickle 0.01 mg/l

Combustion of fossil fuel Fe and


steel industry burning of plastic
and vanspati ghee-industry

Damage to liver and kidney


affects lung and skin

11. Magnese

Magnese industries involving


smelting

Damage to lung and maganic


pheunonea

Eutrophication
Organic Matters
(Domestic waste
and Sewage)

Added in
water bodies

Attracts microorganisms like


Cynobacteria, Bacteria and Algae

Attracts fishes and


water animals

Biological load on water increases


Chemical oxygen demand
(Accumulative demand of
oxygen by organic and
inorganic substances)

BOD and COD


increases

Biological components demand


oxygen for metabolic processes
(BIOCHEMCIAL OXYGEN
DEMAND (BOD))

Dissolved oxygen (DO)


in water decreases

Inorganic substances
demand oxygen for oxidation

Microorganism initiate
anaerobic metabolism

Faul smelling
substance is
formed

Growth of
microorganism
prosper

Algal bloom or Pond scum is


formed which covers the
surface of water body

If sedimentation is continues

Water body becomes shallow

EUTROPHICATION

Fishy or murshy
ocour of water

Ganges and Eutrophication :


Added in Ganga water

Alaknanda + Bhagirathi
Glacier

Phages

Bacterio phage
Virus against
micro organism

Cyano phage

+ Micro bacteria

Algae phage

Bolello vibrios

Thermal Pollution of Water

Water
Pollution

Thermal
Pollution
Mining up of
cold/hot water

Temperature of ocean
Biodiversity
Weather/climate
Cycle disturbance

Streams

Elnino

La nina

Temperature increases
South atlantic ocean

Peru and
ecqudor
current

Air temperature increases

Cold current

Pressure decreases

Every 4th or 5th year

Heat current
Every 3 year

Depletion of rainfall
Marine Upwelling

Near the poles

Lower layer of
water lags due
to inertia

45 lift of lower
layers due to
inertial resistance
and EKMANS
FORCE

Lower layers
exposed to
surface

Moves with
wind current

Upper layer of
water in oceans

Temperature
variation
Nutrients from bottom are
upwelled at surface

Take U turn
at poles due
to CORIOLLIS
FORCE

Negative impact

Positive impact

Marine Pollution
Causes :
(1) Oil spill
(2) Plastic
(3) Agricultural runoff
(4) Industrial effluents
(5) Municipal waste dumping or sewage
(6) Ports, shipyards
Radioactive Pollution of Water :
It is because of background, radiation of lithosphere and addition of substances thodium, radon, etc.
Nuclear processing plant and their waste compulses of deplected uranium, plutonium, strontium etc.
Nuclear power plants and their waste comprising of cranium, uranium carbide, plutonium carbide.

pharmaceutical and diagnostic processing which may release substances like cobalt 60, strontium or
odin.
Water Testing Parameters
Most Probable Number (MPN)
defines the no. of coliforms as bacteria like E-coli present the water.
With the help of MPN test the No. of coliforms e.g., E-coli can be defined which come in drinking
water due to chance mixing of sewage with drinking water.
Total Dissolved Solid (TDS)
Defines the amount of salt of solid dissolved in water.
TDS(mg/l)

Purpose of water

0-50

ideal for drinking

50-170

hard water

170-300

acceptable for industrial purposes

300-500

water coming from natural spring

500-550

mountains etc.

BOD, TOD and COD


If defines the amount of carbon present in water bodies using titrimatric quantification driven by
oxidation of dichromates.
BOD (mg/l)

Use

12

Very good eg used in water supply for drinking purposes

25

Modercitely fair can be used in industrial purposes

69
100 Eg more

Contamination e.g., pollution


Completely Eupecephoid water non use full for any human purposes.

Soil Pollution
1. Factors of soil degradation
2. Solid waste material
3. Municipal organic waste
4. Insecticides and pesticides
5. Ewaste (electronic waste) Hazardous Waste Material. Pollution of ground water reserve due
to trickling from soil.
Pollutant

Source

1. Lead and lead oxide

Printed

Impact
circuit

boards

CRT

Nervous system and brain

monitors
2. Beryllium

Motherboards and circuits

Lung and skin

3. Mercury (Hg)

Switches

Brain, skin and nervous system

4. Ozone depleting substance

and

flat

screen

monitor, LCD, CFL

problem

As a coolant in refrigerators

Respiratory system and skin

5. Cadmium (Cd)

Computer batteries

Kidney and liver

6. PCB Poly Chlorinated bi

Rubbers and plastic capacitors

Immune

phenyl

transformers

hormonal disturbance nervous

system

disturbance

system
7. Brominated flame retardants

Rubber

and

plastic,

printed

Hormonal system disturbance

circuit boards
Plastic and insulation

8. PVC (Poly Venil Choloride

Immune System Problem and


loss of fertility

Rubber and plastic coatings

9. Pthalate plasticizers

Hormonal

imbalance

cancer
10. Barium (Ba)

Displays and monitors

Heart and lung

11. Bromine (Br)

Circuit boards, solvents

Hormone disturbance

6. Bio Medical Waste

Bio Medical Waste

Non-Biodegradable

Recyclable

hard setting

Biodegradable

Pathogenic

Human organ & product

Devices instrument

Types & problems


sgring /plastic Proper sterdization & Recycling
HIV, Hepatitis-C
Hard setting : accumulation and processing
Pathogenic : Bacteria, virus ladder product
Human organ : Tissue, Blood, sputum cough
Devices : Needles, scissors, knives sterilization and Recycling, HIV and Hepatitis-C

and

Treatment
Screening isolation

Low temperature
(157C & below)

high temperature
(70C & above)
incinerate (20 kg)
hydro claving
(melt in presence of steam)

Auto claving sterilizations


121C @ 21PSI
Microwaving

Biomedical Waste Management Rules (2016)


Rules formed in 1998 and amended in 2011 and 2016
Presently bio mechanical waste is categorize in 4-categories and their separation is to be done in
containers of 4 colours.
Category

Colour

Category-1

1. Black containers

Material
Plastic

bags,

human

organs,

discarded

medicine or incinerated ash


Category-2

2. Blue and white

Solid waste cotton banded and sharp materials

Category-3

3. Red

Micro biological and solid waste

Category-4

4. Yellow

Human and animal organs and Liquid waste

Noise Pollution
It is state of disturbance due to excess sound produced.
Sound 20 to 20000 Hz is audible to human less than less than 20 infrasonic, more than 20000 Hz
ultrasonic.
2540 dB

Produced in whispering

4550 dB

Normal verbal conversation

6070 dB

Loud conversation or in area with high back ground noise

80 dB >

Termed as noise

90 dB

In busy urban streets

110 dB

Automobiles at near distances

125 dB

Automobile on thunderclap, jet take off at distance more than 150 m

130 dB

Jet take off at 100 m

150 dB

Jet at 25 m

Impacts of Noise Pollution


Anxiety and, damage to nervous system

Increased heart beat and cardiac output


Mental Retardness
High pitch voice
Loss of vision and colour blindness
Radioactive Pollution
It is release of radioactive substances like cobalt, strontium, plutonium, Raton, Uranium or Thorium.
Unit to measure radioactivity in the background Bq = Becquerel
Sources of Radioactive Pollution :
1. Cosmic interference.
2. Solar flares
3. Mining of radioactive substances.
4. Nuclear meltdown, release of radioactivity from nuclear power plant.
5. Nuclear bombs, weapons.
6. Radiotracer technique in diagnosis and signifier research
7. Unsafe disposal of nuclear material using in x-ray
8. Background radioactivity due to reserve of radioactive material
Impacts
Breakdown of body cells, blood and metabolic intermediates.
Breakdown of DNA and genotoxicity
Skin burn out and leasions which remain perpetual
Alteration in the DNA composition or mutation.
Inheratance of mutated DNA and formation of deformates in subsequent generation.
Climate Change
Global Climate Change
Natural cause

Man made (Anthropogenic cause)

Torrential impact

Global warming due to CO2, CH4, CCl4, CFC, HFC, PFC, SF6, SCl6 , SF2Cl4, SCl2F4

Change in ellipse of earth orbit

Smog due to black carbon, trophospheric ozone, fly ash etc.

Change in eccentricity of earth orbit

Urban heat island

Axial tilt

Brown carbon

Wobbling of the earth


Solar flares
Techtonic movement
Volcanic duct

Global Warming Potential


CO2

35-40 years

1 time

CH4

14 years

81 times

NOx

35-40 years

56 times

CFC

141 years

400-600 times

HFC

212 years

800-1400 times

PFC

256 years

2100 times

Major impact of global warming :


(1)

Glacier melt down / shrinkage : Polar ice sheets may melt

(2)

Increase in the water level of the ocean

(3)

Increase in temperature and heat waves :

(4)

Extinction of marine species

(5)

Frequency of flood and drought increases

(6)

Monsoon cycle may alter

(7)

Frequency of hunger, malnutrition and poverty increases

(8)

Agriculture productivity reduces by 19-24%

(9)

Frequency of vector borne diseases like malaria increases

(10) More people suffer from displacement


(11) Oceanic temperature increases
(12) Oceanic acidity may increase which may lead to coral bleaching
(13) Climatic phenomena gets alter completely
(14) Earth may enter into catastrophe or completely finish
(15) Frequency of oceanic current like Elnino may increase
(16) Chances of soil erosion due to excessive flooding may increase and acidity due to acid rain and
soil salination.
(17) Deforestation