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Physical Constants and Tables

Physical Constants
SI Prefixes for Units
Conversion Factors
Periodic Table
Ionization Energies
Atomic Orbital Ionization Energies
Electronegativity and Electron Affinity
Bond Dissociation Energies
Average Bond Energies
Enthalpies of Formation
Acid Dissociation Constants
Gas Solubility Constants
Solubility Product Constants
Specific Heat
Electrochemistry, half cell potentials
Log Table

Compiled by Prof. Pawan Babel, Head of Chemistry Dept, Vidyalankar classes n Publication.
Emai : pawanbabel@gmail.com, Mob: 9819035792

Physical Constants

Constant

Symbol

Value

Avogadro's number

6.02214 x 1023 mol-1

Boltzmann constant

1.38066 10-23 J/K

Faraday's constant

96.485 kJ/volt
96,485 C/mol

Gas constant

8.31451 J/K mol


0.08206 L atm/K mol

Planck's constant

6.62608 x 10-34 J s

Speed of light

2.99792458 x 108 m/s

SI Prefixes for Units

Prefix

Symbol

10n

Decimal

Short scale

Long scale

yotta

1024

1000000000000000000000000

Septillion

Quadrillion

zetta

1021

1000000000000000000000

Sextillion

Trilliard

exa

1018

1000000000000000000

Quintillion

Trillion

peta

1015

1000000000000000

Quadrillion

Billiard

tera

1012

1000000000000

Trillion

Billion

giga

109

1000000000

Billion

Milliard

mega

106

1000000

Million

kilo

103

1000

Thousand

hecto

102

100

Hundred

deca

da

101

10

Ten

100

One

deci

10-1

0.1

Tenth

centi

10-2

0.01

Hundredth

milli

10-3

0.001

Thousandth

10-6

0.000001

Millionth

micro

nano

10-9

0.000000001

Billionth

Milliardth

pico

10-12

0.000000000001

Trillionth

Billionth

femto

10-15

0.000000000000001

Quadrillionth

Billiardth

atto

10-18

0.000000000000000001

Quintillionth

Trillionth

zepto

10-21

0.000000000000000000001

Sextillionth

Trilliardth

yocto

10-24

0.000000000000000000000001

Septillionth

Quadrillionth

Compiled by Prof. Pawan Babel, Head of Chemistry Dept, Vidyalankar classes n Publication.
Emai : pawanbabel@gmail.com, Mob: 9819035792

Conversion Factors

work:

joule

work done by accelerating 1 g at 1


cm/sec2for 1 m

1 J = 9.869 x 10-3 L
atm 1000 J = 1 kJ
1018 J = 1 EJ
(exajoule)

mass/energy

Joule

energy in mass units (for E=mc2)

1 J = 1 kg m-2 s-2

work

electron volt

eV

energy to accelerate 1 electron by


1 volt of potential difference

1 eV = 1.1602 x 1019
J

cal

heat needed to raise the


temperature of 1 g of H2O by 1
deg C

1 cal = 4.184 J
1000 cal= 1 kcal

BTU

heat needed to raise the


temperature of 1 lb of H2O by 1
deg F

1 BTU = 1.055 kJ

heat:

calorie

heat:

British
thermal unit

power:

watt

other

kilowatt
hours

kWh

1 kilowatt delivered over 1 hour

1 kWh = 3.6 x 106 J

1/wavelength of electromagnetic
radiation

1 cm-1 = 0.01196
kJ/mol

other

wavenumber

other

Hertz

s-1, Hz

frequency of electromagnetic
radiation

1 s-1 = 3.99 x 1013


kJ/mol

mass

atomic mass
unit

amu

mass of proton

1.6605 x 10-27 kg

atmospheric pressure at sea level

101.325 kilopascals
760 torr (mm Hg)
14.7 psi
1.01325 bar

pressure

atmosphere

cm

-1

rate at which the energy, in joules, 1 W = 1 J/sec


is delivered
1000 W = 1 kW

atm

Temperature:
1. Farenheit
Water freezes at 32 deg F and boils at 212 deg F (at 1 atm).

2. Celsius or centigrade
Water freezes at 0 deg C and boils at 100 deg C (at 1 atm).
(Tdeg C x 9/5) + 32 = Tdeg F

3. Kelvin
This is the absolute scale. At 0 K, molecular motion is zero. TK = Tdeg C + 273.15

Compiled by Prof. Pawan Babel, Head of Chemistry Dept, Vidyalankar classes n Publication.
Emai : pawanbabel@gmail.com, Mob: 9819035792

Periodic
Table

Compiled by Prof. Pawan Babel, Head of Chemistry Dept, Vidyalankar classes n Publication.
Emai : pawanbabel@gmail.com, Mob: 9819035792

Ionization Energies
Electron configuration

Ionization Reaction

[He]2s1

Li

[He]2s2

Be

[He]2s22p1

B+ + e-

800 kJ/mol

[He]2s22p2

C+ + e-

1090 kJ/mol

[He]2s22p3

N+ + e-

1400 kJ/mol

Li+ + e-

Be+ + e-

Energy Required

520 kJ/mol

899 kJ/mol

[He]2s22p4

O+ + e-

1310 kJ/mol

[He]2s22p5

F+ + e-

1680 kJ/mol

[He]2s22p6

Ne

Ne+ + e-

2080 kJ/mol

Compiled by Prof. Pawan Babel, Head of Chemistry Dept, Vidyalankar classes n Publication.
Emai : pawanbabel@gmail.com, Mob: 9819035792

Atomic Orbital Ionization Energies

Compiled by Prof. Pawan Babel, Head of Chemistry Dept, Vidyalankar classes n Publication.
Emai : pawanbabel@gmail.com, Mob: 9819035792

Electronegativity and Electron Affinity


The electron affinity is the heat released (negative energy term) when a free
electron combines with a neutral atom to make a negatively charged ion.

F + e-

F-

-328 kJ/mol

Cl + e-

Cl-

-349 kJ/mol

Br + e-

Br-

-324 kJ/mol

I + e-

I-

-295 kJ/mol

Here is a periodic table that includes the electron affinities. Note that the
numbers are in kJ of energy released and should be negative numbers. By
convention, energy added to a system has a positive value and energy released
from a system has a negative value.

Electronegativity is a property of atoms within molecules rather than free atoms.


It measures the tendency of that atom to draw bonding electrons towards itself.

Compiled by Prof. Pawan Babel, Head of Chemistry Dept, Vidyalankar classes n Publication.
Emai : pawanbabel@gmail.com, Mob: 9819035792

Bond Dissociation Energies

O2

498 kJ/mol

ON-O

300 kJ/mol

O3

364 kJ/mol

O2N-O

190 kJ/mol

HO-OH

142 kJ/mol

Cl-Cl

253 kJ/mol

HO-H

459 kJ/mol

H2N-NH2

160 kJ/mol

H3C-H

435 kJ/mol

N2

941 kJ/mol

Average Bond Energies


molecule

kJ/mol

molecule

kJ/mol

molecule

kJ/mol

molecule

kJ/mol

HF

565

NN

160

ICl

208

CC

839

HCl

427

NF

272

IBr

175

O=O

495

HBr

363

NCl

200

C=O in CO2

799

C=O

745

HI

295

NBr

243

SH

347

CO

1072

NO

201

SF

327

N=O

607

CH

413

OH

467

SCl

253

N=N

418

CC

347

OO

146

SBr

218

NN

941

CN

305

OF

190

SS

266

CN

891

CO

358

OCl

203

C=N

615

CF

485

OI

234

C=C

614

CCl

339

SiH

393

CBr

276

FF

CI

240

CS

259

SiSi

340

154

SiC

360

FCl

253

SiO

452

FBr

237

ClCl

239

ClBr

218

BrBr

193

Enthalpies of Formation
molecule

kJ/mol

molecule

kJ/mol

molecule

kJ/mol

249.17

O3

142.7

H2O(g)

-241.82

H2O(l)

-286

H2O2(l)

-187.78

217.97

472.70

NO(g)

90.25

N2O(g)

82.05

NO2(g)

33.18

NO3(g)

78.9

HNO3(g)

-124.2

SO2(g)

-296.83

SO3(g)

-395.72

H2SO4

-719

H2S(g)

-20.63

SF4(g)

-753.0

SF6(g)

-1209

Cl

121.68

HCl(g)

-92.31

HOCl

-71.5

ClO2(g)

99.0

C(g)

716.68

CO(g)

-110.53

CO2(g)

-393.51

CH4

-78.81

CH3

145.69

C2H6

-84.68

C2H4

52.26

C2H2

226.73

C3H8

-82.4

C3H6

52.3

C4H10

-126.5

1-butene
C4H8

20.4

butadiene
C4H6

175.8

C5H12

-114.9

C6H14

-130.1

CH3OH

-190.1

CH3CH2OH

-217.1

CH2O

-104.9

glucose
C6H12O6

-1271

sucrose
C12H22O11

-2226

ribose
C5H10O5

-1051

arabinose
C5H10O5

-1058

Acid Dissociation Constants


For all acids (HA) listed here, the dissociation reaction is:

HA + H2O

H+(aq) + A-(aq)

Ka = [H+(aq)] [A-(aq)]/ [HA]

Name

Formula

pKa

Perchloric acid

HClO4

-10

Hydroiodic acid

HI

-10

Hydrobromic acid

HBr

-9

Hydrochloric acid

HCl

-7

Hydrofluoric

HF

3.17

Sulfuric acid

H2SO4

-3

pKa = -log Ka

Bisulfate ion

HSO3-

1.99

Nitric acid

HNO3

-1.5

Trifluoroacetic acid

CF3C(O)OH

0.5

Fluoroacetic acid

CFH2C(O)H

2.6

Trichloroacetic acid

CCl3C(O)OH

0.77

Dichloroacetic acid

CCl2HC(O)OH

1.25

Chloroacetic acid

CClH2C(O)OH

2.86

Benzoic acid

PhC(O)OH

4.2

Formic acid

HC(O)OH

3.75

Acetic acid

CH3C(O)OH

4.8

Phenol

PhOH

10.0

Water

H2O

15.7

Hydronium

H3O+

-1.7

Methanol

CH3OH

15.5

Ethanol

CH3CH2OH

15.9

1-methylethanol

(CH3)2CHOH

17.1

1,1-dimethylethanol

(CH3)3COH

18

Hydrogen sulfide

H2S

7.0

Ammonium

NH4+

9.24

Ammonia

NH3

38

Protonated acetone

(CH3)2C=O-H+

-7

Carbonic acid

H2CO3

3.6

HCO3-

Bicarbonate ion

10.3

Compiled by Prof. Pawan Babel, Head of Chemistry Dept, Vidyalankar classes n Publication.
Emai : pawanbabel@gmail.com, Mob: 9819035792

Acid Dissociation Constants for Polyprotic Acids


Acid Name

Carbonic, H2CO3

Hydrogen sulfide, H2S

Phosphoric acid, H3PO4

Sulfuric acid, H2SO4

Telluric acid, H6TeO6

Ka

pKa

1st

4.5 x 10-7

6.35*

2nd

4.7 x 10-11

10.33

1st

9.5 x 10-8

7.02

2nd

1.0 x 10-19

19.0

1st

7.1 x 10-3

2.15

2nd

6.3 x 10-8

7.20

3rd

4.5 x 10-13

12.35

1st

large

2nd

1.2 x 10-2

1.92

1st

2.0 x 10-8

7.7

Sulfurous acid, H2SO3

Selenous acid, H2SeO3

Tellurous acid, H2TeO3

Ascorbic acid, H2C6H6O6

Citric acid, H3C6H5O7

2nd

1.0 x 10-11

11.0

3rd

3.0 x 10-15

14.5

1st

1.2 x 10-2

1.92

2nd

6.6 x 10-8

7.18

1st

3.5 x 10-3

2.46

2nd

5.0 x 10-8

7.3

1st

3.0 x 10-3

2.5

2nd

2.0 x 10-8

7.7

1st

7.9 x 10-5

4.10

2nd

1.6 x 10-12

11.79

1st

7.1 x 10-4

3.15

2nd

1.7 x 10-5

4.77

3rd

6.4 x 10-6

5.19

* Includes the hydration equilibrium between CO2(aq) and H2CO3.


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Emai : pawanbabel@gmail.com, Mob: 9819035792

Gas Solubility Constants

Solubility Product Constants


Mineral

Equation

calcium carbonate

CaCO3

calcium hydroxide

Ca(OH)2

Ksp

Ca+2 + CO32-

Ca+2 + 2 HO-

3.8 x 10-9

5.0 x 10-6

3 Ca+2 + 2 PO43-

1 x 10-26

calcium phosphate

Ca3(PO4)2

hydroxyapatite

Ca5(PO4)3(OH)

fluoroapatite

Ca5(PO4)3F

aluminum hydroxide

Al(OH)3

aluminum phosphate

AlPO4

Al3+ + PO43-

9.8 x 10-21

iron(II) carbonate

FeCO3

Fe+2 + CO3-2

3.1 x 10-11

iron(II) sulfide

FeS

5 Ca+2 + 3 PO43- + HO-

5 Ca+2 + 3 PO43- + F-

1 x 10-36

1 x 10-60

3 x 10-34

Al3+ + 3 HO-

8 x 10-19

Fe+2 + S-2

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Emai : pawanbabel@gmail.com, Mob: 9819035792

Specific Heat

Specific Heat at 25 deg C

For any pure substance, there is


a specific quantity of heat
energy required to increase the
temperature of 1 gram of the
substance by 1 degree. This is
called the specific heat orheat
capacity.
q=mxCx

substance C (J g-1 deg-1)


air

1.01

copper

0.385

ethanol

2.44

hydrogen

14.3

silica

0.703

water

4.18

Compiled by Prof. Pawan Babel, Head of Chemistry Dept, Vidyalankar classes n Publication.
Emai : pawanbabel@gmail.com, Mob: 9819035792

Standard reduction half cell potentials

Reductio Reaction

Potential, V

F2 + 2 e-

2 F-

2.87

Co+3 + e-

Co+2

1.82

H2O2 + 2 H+ + 2 e-

2 H2O

PbO2 + 4 H+ + SO42- + 2 e-

MnO4- + 4 H+ + 3 e-

PbO2 + 4 H+ + 2 e-

Cl2 + 2 e-

1.78

PbSO4 + 2 H2O

MnO2 + 2 H2O

Pb+2 + 2 H2O

2 Cl-

Cr2O72- + 14 H+ + 6 e-

1.69

1.68

1.46

1.36

2 Cr+3 + 7 H2O

1.33

O2 + 4 H+ + 4 e-

2 H2O

1.23

Ag+ + e-

Ag

0.800

Fe+3 + e-

Fe+2

0.77

I2 + 2 e-

2 I-

0.54

Cu+ + e-

Cu

0.52

Cu+2 + e-

Cu+

0.16

gluconic acid + 2 H+ + 2 e-

[Fe(CN)6]3- + e-

[Fe(CN)6]4-

glucose + H2O

0.050

0.436

2 H+ + 2 e-

H2

0.000

Pb+2 + 2 e-

Pb

-0.13

Ni+2 + 2 e-

Ni

-0.23

PbSO4 + 2 e-

H2O + e-

Zn+2 + 2 e-

Pb + SO42-

1/2 H2 + OH-

-0.35

-0.415

Zn

-0.76

CO2 + e-

CO2-

-1.84

Na+ + e-

Na

-2.71

Li+ + e-

Li

-3.04

Compiled by Prof. Pawan Babel, Head of Chemistry Dept, Vidyalankar classes n Publication.
Emai : pawanbabel@gmail.com, Mob: 9819035792