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-

( )


x {x} , x
[x]. ,
x
{x} =
.
(.1)
[x]
, , I = 10 , {I} = 10, [I] = 1 .
(.1)
x = {x}[x].

(.2)

[x] [X] =

1
[x],

{x} {X} = {x}.

,
x = {x}[x] = {X}[X].

39, 4.1

2004

(.3)


, . ,
, , , , . , . ,

, , .
, .. , .
, , (L, M , T ),
L, M T . . . :
, , , , , , , , . ,
, .
, .
. , ,
L, M T ,
y
dim y = Lp M q T r ,
3

(.4)

p, q, r . (.4) ,
, , ,
y p q r , ,
. . , z

. (.5) ~ , E
. :

dim z = 1.

(.6) , , , . (.7)
. ,
~ . (.8) , B
( ) , . (.8) -
(. ):
~
~ = I dl ~r .
(.12)
dB
4 r3

Z
I
~
~ d~l = ~j S
B

p, q, r .
.

. , , , /, /2 . , ,
, : LT 1, M L1 T 2 .
. ,
.
:
I
S

Z
~
~
EdS = dV
I

(.5)

~ = 0,
divB

(.6)

~ S
~=0
Bd

~
B
~
dS
t
S
Z
Z ~
I L
E ~
~
~
~
~
Bdl = j dS +
dS
t
L

~ = ,
divE

~ ~l =
Ed

~ =
rotE

~
B
,
t

~
~ = ~j + E ,
rotB
t

(.7)

q1 q2
F~12 =
r12 .
3 ~
4r12

I1 I2 ,
:
dF
I1 I2
=
.
(.13)
dl
2r
, , ..
= 0 ~j = 0. (.7) (.8)

(.8)

~ =
rot rotE

2~

~ = E
rotB
t
t2

~ + q~v B,
~
F~ = q E

(.9)

~ + Id~l B.
~
dF~ = dq E

(.10)

(.11)

~ =
~ 2 E
grad divE
..

~
2E
,
t2

. (.9) (.10)
~ B.
~ (, ,
E
, , , ) , ,
(.5) (.10),
, .

~
2E
.
(.14)
2
t
(.14)

.
1/ .

1/ = c, c . ,
, = 1/c2 , c .

~ =
2 E

(.5) (.9) . f , , :
{f } f 0 , [f ] f0 , .. f 0 =

f
f0

f = f 0 f0 .

(.15)

l :
~r = ~r 0 l,

t = t0 .

(.16)

= 1,

dim

= 1,

1
.
v02

,
=

1
.
c2

~ S
~ =0
Bd

~ = 0,
divB

(.18)

R
H
~ ~l = B0 l2
E0 l Ed

~
B
t

~
dS

H
R
R
~ + E0 l 2
~ ~l = j0 l2 ~j dS
B0 l Bd

dim

dim = dim

(.15) (.16) (.5) (.9) ,

H
R
E0
~ S
~ = 0 l3 dV
~
E0 l2 Ed
(.17)
l divE = 0 ,
S

E0
l
~
E
t

~
dS

B0
l

~ = j0~j +
rotB

~ + q0 qv0 B0~v B.
~
F0 F~ = q0 qE0 E
l
, j0 = 0 v 0 .

(.17) (.21) ,

v0 =

dim = dim
dim = dim

dim

E0
,
0 l

1 E0
,
v0 B0

dim = dim

B0
,
j0 l

0 v0
0 l
j0

= dim
= dim
,
= dim

E0
E0
E0
1 B0
dim = dim
,
v0 E0

~ = B0 B ,
rotE
t
~
E0 E
t ,

(.19)
(.20)

(.21)

= 1,

1
= 1, = 2 .

(.22)

1 , ,
(.22). ,
c = 299 792 458 / (). , . , , .
c
= 3108 /.

: . , ,
, . .
.
, , . , . -,
.

(.13). = 01c2 , = 1,
F =

1 I1 I2
l.
0 c2 2r

(.23)

B0
dim = dim v0
.

E0

, , ,

1
,

4
c2

1
c2

1
c2

1
c2

1
c2

1
c

4
c

1
c

1
c

1
c2

1
0 c2

1
c2

1
c2

1
c2

1
c2

1
c2

4c

()

1
0

()

1
1

1
1

1
1

1
0 c2

F =

4 I 2
2I 2
2I 2
= 2 = 2 105 .
2
c 2
c
c

2107 =

I = 3109 . .
,
10[I] = c[I] ,

= 4107 /.

1 1
,
0 c2 2

0 =

q
r

(),

1 q
40 r

().

q = 1 . , r = 1 , = 1 . [] .
:
(.24)


. (.23) I1 = I2 = 1 , r =
= l = 1 ,
F = 2107 .
(.25)
8

(.28)

[q] = 3109 [q] .

(.13)
4 I1 I2
l.
c2 2r

{I}  
,
{I}

(. 39).
(.27)

107
8,851012 . .
4c2

F =

c = 10


. :

1
= 4107 .
0 c2

(.27)

c = 31010 /, [I] = 1 . (.27)

[I] = 3109 [I]

, 1 , , 2107 .
, ,
.
(.23) I1 = I2 = 1 ,

..

2I 2 5
10 ,
c2

..

2107 =

(.26)

(.25) (.26),

c = 299 792 458 / ();


0 = 8,8541012 /; 0 =

(.24). I1 = I2 = I, r = l = 100 ,

9109
= 300 .
3109 102

,
[U ] = 300[U ] .

(.29)

~ =
divD
~ =0
divB

~ = 4
divD
~ =0
divB

l
m

1 ()
1 ()

102
103

t
A, W

1 ()
1 ()

1
107

~ = B
rotE
t
~
~ = ~j + D
rotH

~ = 1 B
rotE
c t
~
~ = 4 ~j + 1 D
rotH


()

~ = 0 E
~ +P
~
D

~ =E
~ + 4 P
~
D

1 ()

107

1 ()

10

1 ()

3109

~ E
~
P

~ = 0 E
~
P

~ = E
~
P

3109

~ E
~
D

~ = 0 E
~
D

~ = E
~
D

P~

3105

~ E
~
D

~ = 0 E
~
D

~ =E
~
D

~
D

~ H
~
M

~ = H
~
M

~ = H
~
M

~ H
~
B

~ = 0 H
~
B

~ = H
~
B

1 () !

1 2

!

1 2

1 ()

91011

~ = 0 H
~
B

~ =H
~
B

1 ()

91011

~ H
~
B

1 (-)

R
Dn dS = dV
S
V
H
Bn dS = 0
R ~
H S
~
El dl = tB dS
L
S
H
Hl dl =
L
R ~
R
~ + D
~
= ~j dS
dS
t

R
Dn dS = 4 dV
S
V
H
Bn dS = 0
H S
R ~
~
El dl = 1c tB dS
L
S
H
Hl dl =
L
R
R ~
~ + 1 D
~
~j dS
= 4
dS
c
c
t

1
R

1 ()




1 ()

~
B

1 ()






~
H
~
M

~
E

1 ()



1 ()

10

12105

1
9109

91011


()

9109 1
108
104
4 103
1
4

104

109
1
3

~ =
H

1
0

F =

~ =
dH



( )

1 q1 q2
40 r2
I d~l ~r
4

r3

~ = Id~l B
~
dF
~ = q~v B
~
F

104
1
300

11

~ M
~
B

c t

~ =B
~ 4 M
~
H

q1 q2
r2
I d~l ~r

F =
~ =
dH

c r3
~
~ = I d~l B
dF
c
~
~ = q ~v B
F
c

3 ()

w=

1
2

~D
~ +B
~H
~
E

~ =E
~ H
~

W =



1
~D
~ +B
~H
~
E
w = 8

~ H
~
~ = c E

4
2
1 LI
W = 2
c 2
1 ~
~
~g =
EH
4c
1
= LI
c
4N 2 S
L=
l
1
~
~ = IS
M
c

LI 2
2

1 ~
~
~g = 2 E
H
c

()

, .
, , ,
1/c2 (. 1). , c.

(.29) , , (. 4.1).
, (. 2). 3.
,
. , (. ). , .

,
, .. (1831
1879) (1873 .), .
( ). , ,
.
XVIII ., , . (17361806). 1780 . . ,
.
.
.
(17451827).
, . ,
(, .).
1820 .. (17771851), , . ,

.
.-. (17751831),
.
, , . .
,
, , ,
. . (17911867).

12

13

= LI

L=


()

~ = IS
~
M

,



M
,

~ =
B

~ =
E

~ B
~ =M
~
M
0
4

~ r)
3(M~
~r
r5

~ B
~ =M
~
M

~
M
r3

~ )
~ = (M
~ B
~
F
1
40

0 N 2 S
l

3(~
p~
r)
~r
r5

C=
W =

q2
2C

qU
2

~ r)
3(M~
~r
r5

~
M
r3

~ )
~ B
~
F~ = (M

0 S
d

~ =
B

p
~
r3

~ =
E

3(~
p~
r)
~r
r5

C=
CU 2
2

W =

q2
2C

p
~
r3

S
4d
qU
2

CU 2
2

XIX . , .

.
.
- () -- ().
.
, , 4
. . .
(
4) ,
() ().
. ,
, ,
( 1 1 2 0 C).
(18501925) .
, , 4 ,
, ; 4
, , .
:
, .
, , , , , 1/, , , ,
, .
1900 . . (18571894)
. .
:
~
~ = B ,
V rotE
t
~
~ = ~j + D ,
V rotH
t
~ H
~ = 1 B
~
~ = 0 E,
D
0
.. (18531928), XIX ,
1902 .: , 14

V , 0 , 0 .
. .
1902 .
, .
, , (
) ,
, .. .
, 4.
(0 = 0 = 1). ,
,
=

1
,
V

1
,
V

= 1,

..

1
= c2 .

, , , 4 . . , .
V2 =


~ B
~
, E
:
~ B
~ =B
~ rotE
~ E
~ rotB.
~
divE
(.7) (.8)
~
~
~ E ~j E
~
~ B
~ = B
~ B E
divE
t
t

~ B
~ =
divE
t

B 2
E 2
+
2
2

(.9) ~v ,

~ ~v = q~v E.
~
F

~
~j E.

(.1)

(.2)

~ , q, (.2)
, q E
, . ,
~
, (~j E)
. , (.1)
1~
w
~ ~j E,
~
= E
B
t

15

(.3)

Z~
j
~ = rot
dV.
B
4 r
:

B
E
+
.
2
2
,
w=

rotf~a = f rot~a + gradf ~a.

~ B.
~
~ = 1E


( )
:
1 2
1 2
~ B,
~
~ = c E
E +
B

w=
8
8
4

1
1
w = 0 E 2 + 0 c2 B 2
2
2

()

w=

1 2 1 2 2
E + c B
2
2

f =

rot
..

~ = 0 c2 E
~ B,
~

~a = ~j.

~j ~r
~j
1
= grad ~j =
,
r
r
r3
Z~
j ~r
~ =
B
dV.
4
r3

~ = c2 E
~ B.
~

1
,
r

~j dV = I d~l,


.
~ = ~j.
rotB

(.4)

Z
I d~l ~r
~ =
.
(.8)
B
4
r3
(.8) .
,

~
- A:
~ = rotA.
~
B

I d~l ~r
.
4 r3

:
~ = 0.
divA

~ =
dB

(.5)

(.6)

(.4) (.5)
~ = ~j
rot rotA

(.6)

~ grad divA
~ = ~j
A
~ = ~j
A

(.7)

(.7) :
= 4,
Z

dV
=
r
r dV .
(.7):
Z~
j
~=
dV,
A
4 r
16

17

39.
:

.
: , ,
, , , , , , , ,

, ,
. , , . : , , , , . 106 (1 = 79,6 /).

2
z
1

9
C .
9
b

.
]

(.
1)

+ 
P


^^
, . 7

. . 1.
().
B 0 , .. .
,
: 1 , ( ),
2 ,
( ). .
. .
18

B C B
(. 2).
,
(B 1 ), ,
(B 2 ). , .. .
( ) :
B1 =

x-

L
M

B ?
 2R

/ B 0
zB

. 2.

0 M
,
4 R3

(1)

:
B2 =

0 I
N.
2R

(2)

M , R , N , I ().
, B0 B (B1
B2 ):
(3)
B = B0 tg .
I.
B0
(. 1). 1
tg 1 =

x1
,
2L

(4)

(1), (3) (4) B0 , M .


, .

( ).
B0 ,
M = M B0 sin M B0
19

J
J
+ M B0 = 0
c
r
J
T = 2
.
MB0

(5)




 2
 r 2 
r2
ml2
l
,
(6)
+
=
1+3
J =m
12
4
12
l
m , l , r .
,
1 T , (1), (3), (4) (5) :
r
2
0 JL
B0 =
.
(7)
T R 2R x1
, ,
,
. .


.
.
1. . (. 1)
.
.
2. (. 1) x1 (. 2).
.
, . , (> 5%)
.
3. L .
20

4.
. , ,
. , , . ,
, .
, .
5. ;
.
6. B0 .
II.
c :
I I :
c = 10

{I}
.
{I}

(8)

,
(tg 2 = x2 /2L) (2) (3)
I =

2B0 R
tg 2 = A tg 2 .
0 N

(9)

A .
, B0 , - , ..
.
.

(. 3). C,
U , , q = CU . n
, CU n. ,
,
I = CU n.

21

(10)


6 6

,
C U ,

. ,

Vl
, .

C
, , ,
,
(. 4.1). , , ,

.
? ?

,
n = 50
( . 3.
),
U V , (300 = 1 . ). C U
(10).

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

6.
7.

,
;
.
, . 3.
, .
U 90
100 ( , ).
, .
, U x2 .
, .
N , C n,
.
(9) (10).
.

1. .
22

2. .
3. , ?
4. , .
?
5. , ,
.

1. .. . .III. .: , 1983, 5055.
2. .. . .: , 1970, 83, 89, 125.

4.1.
:
.
: , , , ,
.

, , .
. - , .
, .

.
()
: , . , , , , ,
, , .
.

. : . ,
23

. 0 , .
.
q E1 ,
, . F = qE1 , , ,
. E1
= q/S E1 = /20 . ,

F =

1 q2
.
20 S

R

w


?1 ?

?
3

II
2

h
6


V



(1)
. 1.

q = U C = U 0 S/d, d
.



, , ,
.
,
. .

.
(. 1),
1 . . 2
3.
, 1 ( ).

. ,
;
. 2.

, .
-
.
(3 ), , .
.
. (2), . , , ,
.
.

24

25

F =

0 SU 2
2d2

(2)

U =d

2F
0 S

( ).

(3)

(3) .
. , ,

U = 2d

2F
S

( ).

(4)

.
4, (. 1 2).
5, . R . , 1, .
, , .
.

3.


0 , .


. ,
.
1. (2)
, . d S .
2. . 1.
, , ,
.
, . .
. ( . 1
). , , .
( 10 )
.
.
, , , .
26

4.

5.
6.

,
. (
).
.
(, ,
).
. , 0,1 .
. , . .
23 , R. ,
.
,
.
F ,
U 2 .
, . ,
.
F = f (U 2 ) 0 .

.
(4), .
U ( )= f (U )
, ,
.

1. , , ,
.
2. , , .
3. ,
.
4. , ?
27