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THE LIBRARY

OF

THE UNIVERSITY

OF CALIFORNIA

RIVERSIDE

Ex Libris

C. K. OGDEN

THE BRITISH EMPIRE SERIES

VOL. I

KEGAN PAUL, TRENCH, TKUBNER & CO. L™

NEW PUBLICATIONS.

THK BRITISH EMPIRE SERIES.

In Five Volmnu.s, with Twelve Maps. Large post 8vo.

VOL. I. INDIA, Ceylrm, Straits Settlements, British North Borneo, Hong-Kong. Two Maps.

VOL.

II. BRITISH AFRICA. Four Maps.

VOL. III.—BRITISH AMERICA. Two Maps.

VOL. IV.—AUSTRALASIA. Two Maps.

VOL. v.—GENERAL SURVEY. Two Maps.

The Volumes will be issxied successively at intervals of about one month.

FIRST STEPS IN INTERNATIONAL LAW. By Sir George

Shkraton lUKKR, Bart., of Lincoln's Inn, RecorJer of Bitleford anil

Barnstaple, Author of " Laws relating to Quarantine," and Translator anil

Eilitor (if " Ilalleck's International Law." Demy 8vo. 10s. Gd.

THE WOLSELEY SERIES OF MILITARY WORKS.

Edited by Captain W. H. James, late R.E.

New Volumes. Uniform. Demy 8vo.

THE CONDUCT OF WAR. By Baron von der Goltz. 10s. 6d.

CROMWELL AS A SOLDIER. By Major Baldock, R.A.

With Twelve Maps and Plans. 15s.

NAPOLEON AS A GENERAL.

WAKTENnuKG. Two Vols. GOURKO'S RAID. By Colonel Epauchin, of the Russian Staff.

By Count Yorck

von

London : Paternoster House, Charing Cross Road, W.C.

IN D I A

CEYLON

STRAITS SETTLEMENTS

BRITISH NORTH BORNEO

HONG-KONG

WITH TWO MAPS

LONDON

KEGAN PAUL, TRENCH, TRUBNER & CO. L-^^

PATERNOSTER HOUSE, CHARING CROSS ROAD

1899

Tlu rifihts of trandation and of rrproduciion are reserved

Piinteil by Ballantyne, Hanson 6r' Co.

At the Ballantyne Press

PEEFATOKY NOTE

The papers comprised in these volumes were most of

them given originally as lectures in the Sunday After-

noon Course at the South Place Institute, Finsbury, from

1895 to 1898, with the object of affording trustworthy

information concernino- the various colonies, settle-

ments, and countries scattered over the world which

go to form the whole known as " The British Empire."

It was thought that a wider and deeper knowledge of

the growth; present condition, and possibilities of each

integral part of our Empire would tend to strengthen the sympathetic, material, and political ties which

unite the colonies to the mother country.

The generous response to the invitation to lecture

was very gratifying ; travellers, natives, and those to

whom had been given the onerous task of governincf the various provinces of our Empire, vied with one another

in their willingness to impart the special knowledge which they had acquired. The lecturers were asked, when possible, to give a short account of the country prior to its incorporation,

its colonial history, the effect of the British connection

on the country and the natives, and the outlook for

To these topics were added the conditions

the future.

for colonisation, of trade and commerce, the state and

local government, and the laws of the country, espcci-

vi

PREFATORY NOTE

ally whero there was any great difference from those of

the United Kingdom,

The task has demonstrated the many and various

interests contained in this vast subject, and has far ex-

ceeded the original limit.

It is, however, hoped that

the wider public to which the articles now appeal will

be as sympathetic as the original audiences.

South Plack Institutk,

FiNsiJUKv, London, K.C.

WM. SHEOWRING,

Hon. Sec. Institute Committee.

CONTENTS

Introduction

By Sir Raymond West, LL.D., K.C.F.E.

PAGE

ix

Our Great Dependency : A General View of India

AND its People

i

By J. A. Baines, C.S.I. {late Census Commissioner).

Madras

28

By the Right Hon. Lohd Wenlock, G.C.S.I., G.C.I, ii.

(late Governor of Madras).

Bombay

47

By Lord Harris, G.C.S.I., G.C.I.E. (late Governor c/

SiND

Bovibay).

74

By Alexander F. Baillie, F.R.G.S. (Author of "Kurra-

chec, Past, Present, and Future''^).

Bengal

94

 

By ROMESH DUTT, CLE. [Lecturer in Indian History

at University College, London ; late of thcBcnyal Civil

Service),

 

Assam

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.134

By H. LuTTMAN-JoHNSON, B.A. (late Judge and Commis-

sioner, Assam).

 

The North-West Provinces of India

 

.

.

-173

By James Kennedy (late Bengal Civil Service, N.-W.

Provinces and Oudh).

The Punjab

202

By Sir James Broadwood Lyall, K.C.S.L, G.C.I.E.

(late Lieutenant-Governor of Punjab).

Central Provinces of India

.

.

.

.

.228

By Sir Charles Grant, K.C.S.L (late Actimj-Commis-

sioner, Central Provinces, 1879).

Burjia Past and Present .

.

.

.

.

.250

By Mrs. Ernest Hart (Author of "Diet in Sickness and

Health,'' "Picturesque Burma'').

vlii

CONTENTS

The Native States of India

.

.

PAGE

.270

By "William Lek-Warnkr, C.S.I, (late Resident, Mysore).

Ancient India

295

By Trimbakrai .Tadavrai DesaI (of Limbdi State, Kathi-

xcar).

Administration of Justice in India

306

By RoMESH DUTT, CLE. (Lecturer in Indian History at

University College, London ; late of the Bengal Civil Service).

Industries in India

319

By Sir M. M. Biiownaggree, K.C.I.E., M.P.

Famines in India

344

By J. A. Baines, C.S.l. (late Census Commissioner for

India).

Hindu Women

364

By Krishnarao Bholanath Divatia (of Ahmedabad).

MoHAMEDAN WoMEN .

 

.

.

.

.

.

-375

By Mohammad Bakakatullah.

 

Parses Women

 

385

By ZuLiKKA Soralji Cavalier.

 

Indian Literature

.

.

.

.

.

-391

By Miss C. S. Hughes.

 

Ceylon

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

42

By L. B. Clarence (laic Judge of the Ceylon Supreme

 

Court).

Straits Settlements

 

449

By Lieutenant-General Sir Andrew Clarke, G.C.M.G.,

C.B., CLE. (late Qervernor, Straits Settlements).

British North Borneo

.

.

.

.

.

.462

By Sir Hugh Low, G.C.M.G. (late British Resident at

Perak).

Hong-Kong

498

By Dr. James Cantlie (late of Hong-Kong).

Appendix

533

INTRODUCTION

By sir RAYMOND WEST, LL.D., K.C.I.E.

(Lecturer on Indian Law, Cambridge Universitu ; Author of " The Bumbay

Cod^,'" " Hindu Law,^^ cCr.

It is chiefly as mistress of India that the greatness

of England is measured by foreign nations. For our- selves, familiarity has dulled the wonder with which

we should else regard the picture of our growth in empire and in imperial capacity. It has lessened the

awe with which we face our task of government, if it has not impaired our sense of responsibility. It has

given a faith strong, though unostentatious, in our

national destiny, a reliance on what we deem fauness and sound principles, a disregard, if not disdain, for pro-

phetic anticipations, and a too far-reaching policy which makes us content in a great measure to accept things

as they are, to put troublesome problems aside and

trust to the expedients which the future will suggest

All

as sufficient to meet the difficulties it will bring.

the past in its marvellous unfolding seems natural and necessary because the immediate causes are discerned.

The remoter possibilities, the influences by which they

were directed to

the precise ends of greatness and

beneficence actually attained, are wholly or almost

ignored.

The practical man is content to accept the

boons of Providence, the results of genius in states-

manship, without attempting to penetrate into their

X

INTRODUCTION

hidden working, and to the " soul of the machine/' Such

resting on the surface comports well with the English-

man's general disinclination for abstract thought. It

prevents some waste of energy in the pursuit of

specious but only half- thought-out projects.

But in

the presence of any great moral movement, of any

great disturbance of physical or economical conditions,

it is well-nigh helpless. Its inductions are too meagre,

its grasp of principles too weak, for aught but a repeti-

tion of processes which no longer suit the enlarged

needs of a new generation.

The foreigner meanwhile, as he looks on the work

achieved by our countrymen in India, is struck with a

kind of bewilderment.

The Englishmen he meets are

too often rather narrow-minded, dogmatic, and disdain-

Indi-

ful of strange views, and creeds, and manners.

vidually so poor as a rule in mental endowment, how

have they as an aggregate risen so nearly to the height

of their great destiny, succeeding so often when others

seemingly more highly gifted have failed ? The answer is to be found partly in that very narrowness which at an advanced stage becomes an embarrassment. The

typical Briton is so little troubled with far-reaching

speculations, that he can find a satisfying and intense

interest in the work that stands immediately before

him.

In details that

call for

close and

continued

attention he is more patient and precise than ordinary

men.

The answer is to be found still more in his

tolerance, his aloofness, and his general good faith.

These qualities, as they have become historical, have

boconie also, we may trust, more deeply rooted in the

national character, and united with steadfastness of

purpose, will

pretensions.

long form a warrant for our imperial

But whereas in the past the necessities

of our situation, and the impulses of a courageous

temperament, have carried us on from point to point,

in a half-blind, instinctive perception of what was

INTRODUCTION

xi

advantageous and practicable, we have now reached

the stage at Avhich a larger and deeper consciousness of

individual and corporate life has been awakened in our

Eastern fellow-subjects ; and the moral as well as the

physical problems that

lie before us have become

immensely more complicated than heretofore.

The

child we have reared, though not robust, has grown

mature and active and exacting. The new conditions of existence require at least a partial readjustment of

relations ; the achievements by which we have built

up a splendid fabric of civil freedom and material prosperity on the decay and chaos of a century ago, prove that our motives and methods have in the main

been right. We must not halt in our onward march,

or waver in that continual process of adaptation b}' which we have won, rather than commanded, co-opera- tion and obedience. Our typical organisers have

swayed the masses in India by wonder, fear, and

sympathy. The wonder and the fear have diminished

as novelties have grown familiar,

and system has

superseded personal greatness ; but sympathy, the

magic of influence, remains, and if to strength we add

look for a blessing on our

intelligence, we may still

task of empire.

The

articles which follow in

this volume are

evidence at once of the vast variety of the problems

physical, ethnological, and political presented by India,

and of the intense and penetrating interest which these

excite in the men who have actually to carry on the

work of government in that country.

The essays,

though somewhat unequal in range and grasp, are all animated with first-hand knowledge and observation.

it presents itself in

They picture

India to

us

as

kaleidoscopic variety to those who have given it their

energies, who have guided its development, and lived

in its life from the dim ages of antiquity down to the

transformation scene presented by our present genera-

xii

INTRODUCTION

tion.

The widely difterent standpoints taken by the

several writers, their different experience and almost

clashing purposes, have resulted here and there in just

that want of harmony to which we are accustomed in

the manifold views expressed at home of our own con-

stitution, politics, and progress. Beneath such super-

ficial discrepancies the thoughtful reader will discern

the outlines, incomplete, but mightily suggestive, of a

volume of marvellous amelioration spreading tentatively,

yet with no lack of boldness, over the whole field of

national evolution. If the result is to induce some

hesitation in meddling with so complex a work, some

misgiving as to the ability gained by ordinary experi-

ence for dealing with the science of Oriental adminis-

tration, neither India nor England will suffer from this

modesty. Yet ultimately the relations of Englishmen

to the natives of India, the views they take of their

duties, the theory of government, and the gradual

relaxation of the bonds of tutelageall must depend on the dominating ideas and feelings of the British

public. This makes it immensely important that sound

views should be diffused and accepted on all the chief

elements of our future polity.

There must be a recog-

nition of the teachings of actual experiment, but especially of that greatest lessonthat disdain is the outcome and the sure sign of stupidity, that human nature is susceptible of amelioration and progress in

the East as in the West, and everywhere so alike,

that there is room for an infinite play of reciprocal

progress towards a far-oflf goal of

influence in our

perfection.

The English people cannot by mere indif-

ferent

quiescence, nor even by any single effort of

the will, fit themselves for

their part in this great

co-operation ; they must as occasion offers steep them-

selves in the manifold sources of knowledge and right-

thinking laid open

to

them in such works as the

present one.

Thus they will acquire not only a store

INTRODUCTION

xiii

of facts, but a turn of mind, a method, a sense of iden-

tity amid differences of detail, which may make the

popular feelingthe common-sense of mosta kind of

rightly-guided instinct in all that concerns our great

dependency.

The British rule in India has been specially dis-

tinguished from all previous governments by the inestimable blessings it has conferred in security, jus-

tice, and material development. The lawless hordes who, as armies or as dacoits, once ravaged India almost

The peaceful

husbandman has no longer to keep his spear and buckler within reach while guiding his plough or reaping his

crop. The vigilant watchman on a tower or tree pre- pared to give warning of the distant shimmer of lances

is no more needed.

The village walls with bastions

from end to end, have been suppressed.

and embrasures have become an anachronism to a

generation whose grandfathers cowered behind them for

shelter against Rohillas or Pindaris.

worst of all forms of lawlessness, the reckless and too

often homicidal caprice of the provincial governor,

shedding human blood with callous indifference as

though the sufferers belonged to an inferior species.

Organised crime is met and repressed by a higher

organisation, and responsibility, which human weak-

ness cannot spare, asserts its control most wherever

On some natures of

the baser sort it may be surmised that the entire ces-

sation of the excesses of personal power have had the effect of lowering their respect for authority ; they

could more readily worship the spirits of evil than of

power and dignity are greatest.

Gone too is that

benignity. Such cases must be counted on ; but they

They are the survivals

must also be a small minority.

of a lower order of moral

existence, just numerous

enough to warrant, for some time yet, the retention of the system of local concentration of authority in a single representative of the government, Avhich secures

xiv

INTRODUCTION

vigour and consistency and deep-reaching influence,

at the cost of free and manifold development.

The reisfn of law meanwhile has extended itself

over new and newer regions.

There are speculators in

political philosophy to whom the proper and supreme

aim of the state is the maintenance of the law.

The

purpose of the British Constitution, it was said, is to

get twelve men into a jury-box. That is an inadequate

conception; human development proceeds in many

fields, and that which but defines and controls human

relations in the coercive sphere must usually stand

lower than the emulative, expansive, creative forms out of which those relations are ultimately formed. Yet

to men in general, and most of all to men long trodden

down by tyranny, there is something stimulating and

elevating in the growth and dominance of law where

mere force erewhile was supreme. It is a triumph of our higher over our lower nature, of intelligence over brute force, of benevolence over selfish passions. No wonder,

then, that the most highly educated natives of India have been drawn in large numbers to the profession of

Here, in this sphere, they feel with a kind of

unspoken joy the blended influence of innumerable

the law

currents of thought originating amongst themselves

and their own people.

Their instinctive craving for

some standpoint of independence and free activity is in

a measure satisfied.

They can analyse, expose, censure

the acts of the mightiest, and gain a consciousness of reflected greatness in appealing to the high standards

and immutable principles which govern the interpreta-

tion of the law.

Thus, in the practice of their profes-

sion, their own moral judgment is raised and refined.

In appealing to the law they come to love the law ; they transmit their feeling to the masses, and thus one great

corner-stone of a future constitutional edifice gets firmly

planted. English law and English men know virtually

nothing of the Droit Administratif by which, on the

INTRODUCTION

xv

Continent of Europe, official acts are exempted from

In

the influence of the nation's ethical development.

India, as in England, the executive is subject com-

In this majesty of

pletely to the judicial authority.

the law the people perceive something more than the

dominance of an abstract principle.

They dimly recog-

nise in it an inscrutable but irresistible spirit imma-

nent over their institutions and their social life, and

penetrating all their interests and activities.

This

deity they know is often harsh and inexorable, yet they

feel it is most moral when most pitiless : it brings home

to them the penalties of sinking to a lower plane of

self-respect and prevision. Those who emerge victorious

from the struggle of life have grown more manl}'

through the discipline, akin to that which the English

themselves endure.

Such is the general effect, with many exceptions in detail, of the ever-extending reign of law under the

Compare it again for a moment with

the state of things at the beginning of the British rule. When the East India Company, invested by the

Delhi emperor with the executive government of Bengal,

resolved in 1772 "to stand forth as diwan," Warren

Hastings's Commission of inquiry found that the " re- gular course of justice was everywhere suspended,"

Hastings and his colleagues set themselves to frame a

scheme " adapted to the manners and understandings

of the people and the exigencies of the country, ad-

hering as closely as possible to their ancient usages

and institutions." It was in pursuance of this object

that they seciu-ed to Hindus and Mohamedans their own laws as to family and religious institutions ; and

that wise and tolerant system has never been aban-

doned. In all relations within the spheres of personal status and succession the native of India enjoys the

benefit of his own sacred laws to a larger extent than

his European fellow- subject.

In the provinces of penal

Pax Britannica.

xvi

INTRODUCTION

law, and of contracts, where variations according to

person could not but be pernicious, all have been placed on the same level. In penal procedure the European

British subject still clings to some clumsy safeguards which the native does not desire, desiring only that the

European should not have them.

On the other hand,

India at this moment presents the curious spectacle that from end to end of the country, outside the Presi- dency towns, the administration of justice in the courts of first instance is wholly in native and non-Christian

hands.

The Englishman who is involved in litigation

must submit

to have

his

case

tried by a Hindu

judge, and, except as a matter of favour, in the native language, and should he desire to appeal against the

judgment, he has to procure a bundle of documents in

Bengah, Tamil, or Marathi as the record of the proceed-

ings.

Equality, uniformity in such matters has ap-

peared to the English as the natural and necessary

To any other dominant people it

The constitutional char-

acter gained by us through centuries of training is thus

reflected on India, and the weakling pupil is led by a

strong unwavering hand, along the path of self-asser-

tion or submission as duty may command, towards

identification of his own moral judgment with the

behests of the legislature, and " perfect freedom in the

bounds of law."

The common life and progress of a heterogeneous

society depends on mutual forbearance, while new

interests and traditions grow up to bind the jarring elements in a new organisation. In no way have the

people of India gained more by the British rule than

in mutual tolerance imposed on the adherents of

different creeds. The flames of fanaticism and reli- gious animosity are still always ready to burst forth. Hardly a year passes without some evidence of the

internecine strife that would immediately follow the

would have been intolerable.

course of things.

INTRODUCTION

xvii

substitution of native for British supremacy.

A bene-

ficent rigour saves the temples and the mosques from

retaHatory desecration.

New interests are allowed time

and space to grow up, and community of work in great

undertakings produces in those who are employed in

them some growth of a sympathy and brotherhood

that may in time burst through the severing barriers

of scorn and hate. Under the Moghul government it

was

proclaimed as a glory of Alamgir's reign that

" Hindu scribes have been entirely excluded from

holding public ofiices, and all the places of worship

and the temples of the infidels have been thrown down

and destroyed in a manner which excites astonishment

at the successful completion of so hard a task " (Mir-

at-i-'Alam, p. 159). The Moslems fared hardly better

at the hands of the Marathas when the chance arose.

It was natural that each of these great elements of

native Indian society should strive to assert itself. Their beliefs, principles, and aims being essentially

inconsistent, it was inevitable that they should come into collision again and again, until the stronger or-

ganism of a well-ordered state reduced them both to submission. This end has in a great measure been attained, but the organisation by which it has been

effected rests not on a Hindu or a Mohamedan basis.

The visible approach towards harmony and individuality

in the subordinate elements of the st