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eld during continuous casting of steel

Yanmin Xie a,b, , Huping Yu b , Xueyu Ruan b , Baofeng Wang c , Yonglin Ma c

a

b

c

Institute of Engineering and Science, Southwest Jiao Tong University, Chengdu 610031, China

National Die and Mold CAD Engineering Research Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200030, China

Inner Mongolia University of Science & Technology, Baotou 014010, China

a r t i c l e

i n f o

a b s t r a c t

In this paper, the three-dimensional transient model of the mould temperature is estab-

lished and the temperature variation is analyzed with the consideration of different mould

wall thickness and cooling water rates. For the numerical computation, a corresponding

28 July 2007

AC

Article history:

nite element method (FEM) program is developed with FORTRAN language, and 6-face and

8-node isoparameter elements are applied; the Newton method is used to solve the heat

equations. The experimental data have been used to validate the model. According to the

calculated temperature distribution, the appropriate mould wall thickness is 10 mm and

the different parts of the mould should be equipped with cooling water of different rates in

Keywords:

Mould

Continuous casting

Temperature eld

1.

ET

Billet

Introduction

during continuous casting of steel. The mould extracts from

the billet the heat of superheat, latent heat of fusion and sensible heat from solid steel (Brimacombe et al., 1984). Next, the

heat is transferred to cooling water. A schematic drawing of

continuous casting machine is shown in Fig. 1 (Zanoni and

Zavanella, 2005). The mould produces a layer of solidied steel

with sufcient thickness and strength. Otherwise, there would

be a breakout and outow of liquid steel (Janik and Dyja, 2004).

Here, numerous research has been done by Brimacombe

and coworkers whose studies go from thermomechanical

mould analysis to the analysis and prediction of oscillation

marks (Samarasekera and Brimacombe, 1982; Takeuchi and

quite extensive in this eld (Kelly et al., 1988; Voller et al., 1990;

Thomas et al., 1995).

However, most of the above research is done on the billets.

The simulation of the mould is rarely reported. Here, the aim

of the article is to investigate the effect of different geometric and processing parameters on mould temperature. Most

of surface defects originates from the mould and spreads into

secondary cooling section. It is very signicant that the temperature variation of the mould and its inuencing factors are

analyzed theoretically and experimentally. Good temperature

uniformity is helpful to improve billet quality and turnout as

well as prolonging the longevity of the mould (Samarasekera

et al., 1982; Mahapatra, 1989; Brimacombe, 1991; Chandra et

al., 1993; Pinheiro Carlos, 1997). In the present investigation,

Corresponding author at: 133# Mailbox Southwest Jiao Tong University, The North First District 111 of The Second Ring Road, Chengdu

610031, China. Tel.: +86 28 87600770.

E-mail address: xie yanmin@163.com (Y. Xie).

0924-0136/$ see front matter 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

doi:10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2007.07.043

50

AC

machine.

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j o u r n a l o f m a t e r i a l s p r o c e s s i n g t e c h n o l o g y 1 9 9 ( 2 0 0 8 ) 4955

thickness and cooling speed are determined which will provide suitable windows for the process.

Mathematical model

2.1.

Basic assumptions

2.

ET

In order to simulate the heat conduction of the mould conveniently, the following assumptions are made in Eqs. (1)(9):

2. The material of mould copper is isotropic.

3. Some coefcients such as thermal conductivity, thermal

capacitance, and density are simplied to be constant.

4. The fact that heat conductivity is affected by the mould and

steel vibration has been ignored.

5. The cooling water is forced to be convective.

2.2.

Based on of the above assumptions, a three-dimension geometrical model of the mould during continuous casting is

shown in Fig. 2, as well as the coordinate system (x,y,z). The

three-dimensional unsteady-state heat conduction equation

of the mould can be described as follows:

T

kx

T

ky

T

kz

= c

T

t

fourth), where the plane ABCD is the upper surface of the

mould and EFGH is the bottom plane. ADHE and CBFG are

the symmetry planes, the lines AE and BF are the

symmetry centerline of the cooling face, DH and CG are that

of the hot face. DMNCGH is the hot surface, and MKN is the

corner region of the hot surface. (b) A random hexahedron

element for computation.

The mathematical model is developed based on the above

three-dimensional heat conduction equation. At the same

time, a nite difference technique is used.

2.3.

(1)

rectangular coordinates (m); kx , ky , kz the heat conductivity

(kW/(m C)); c the specic heat (kJ/(kg C)); is the density

(kg/m3 ).

uniform and be equal to ambient temperature, that is

T(x, y, z)t=0 = T0

where T0 is the ambient temperature.

(2)

51

j o u r n a l o f m a t e r i a l s p r o c e s s i n g t e c h n o l o g y 1 9 9 ( 2 0 0 8 ) 4955

of the mould is modeled. The initial conditions of the coordinate are as follow:

x 0,

y 0,

z0

2.4.

(3)

Because of the mould symmetry, heat is transferred

symmetrically at the symmetry planes. The boundary

conditions of the symmetry planes can be expressed as

follows:

T

= 0;

x X=0

T

=0

y y=0

(4)

T

= qS

x X=A

T

= qS

y Y=A

(5)

(6)

ET

(kW/m2 ). The heat ux density extracted between the

mould and the billet can be described by

qs =

mould and the billet for austenitic stainless steel (kW/m2 ).

The following effective value of heat convection coefcient is specied in the model:

AC

(ii) Hot surface of the mould:

As the mould contacts with liquid steel, solid billet

and air at the hot surface of the mould, the conducted heat between the mould and the steel (Wang and

Samarasekera, 2001) is expressed as follows:

TE

D

The mould has cross and longitudinal sections with two symmetry axes. That is the reason that only one fourth is used

for analysis, thus making the calculation time is shorter. The

following boundary conditions are applicable to the model:

d

ds

(7)

T

= hw (Tm Tw )

x X=A+B

T

= hw (Tm Tw )

y Y=A+B

(8)

(9)

0.8 C 0.4

w w

kw

(10)

the mould wall (m); Tw the initial temperature of cooling

water ( C); Tm the temperature of the mould ( C); hw the

heat convection coefcient between the cooling water and

the mould wall kW/(m2 C); kw the heat conductivity of

cooling water kW/(m C); Dw the equivalent diameter of

cooling water slot (m); Vw the speed of cooling water (m/s);

w the density of cooling water (kg/m3 ); w the viscosity

of cooling water (Pa s); Cw is the specic heat of cooling

water kJ/(kg C).

(iv) Upper and lower planes of the mould:

As the mould contacts with air at the upper and lower

planes of the mould, heat is transferred by radiation

(Zhang, 1995). The heat is expressed as follows:

surface between the mould and the billet (m2 ).

The variation of the heat ux is shown in Fig. 3. The heat

ux is gained by the INVERSE mode using the measured

temperature data (Wang and Samarasekera, 2001). It is

assumed to be constant during the casting. For numerical computation, it has been t into the temperature

program.

(iii) Cooling surface of the mould:

As the mould contacts with cooling water at the cooling

surface of the mould, heat is transferred by convection

between the outer surface of the mould and the cooling

water (Lu and Xiong, 1999). The transferred heat can be

expressed as follows:

hw Dw

Dw Vw w

= 0.023

kw

w

T

4

4

= b [(Tm + 273) (Te + 273) ]

z z=0

T

4

4

= b [(Tm + 273) (Te + 273) ]

z z=780

(11)

(12)

where is the radiation ratio of the mould; b the Stefan Boltzmann constant (5.67 1011 kW/(m2 K4 )); Te the

environment temperature ( C); Tm is the temperature of

the mould ( C).

2.5.

described by the following:

[K] +

1

[N]

t

{T}t = {P}t +

1

[N]{T}t t

t

(13)

52

j o u r n a l o f m a t e r i a l s p r o c e s s i n g t e c h n o l o g y 1 9 9 ( 2 0 0 8 ) 4955

CuCrP

780 mm

6 mm

135 mm

10 mm, 13 mm, 15 mm

Austenitic stainless steel

150 mm 150 mm

2.40 m/min

4 mm

1510 C

7 m/s, 10 m/s, 12 m/s

25 C

matrix.

In order to gain the above discrete equation, the backward

difference method is used. By iterating the discrete nite element equation, the temperature of the mould is obtained.

3.

temperature on the mould wall hot surface symmetry

centerline for an austenitic stainless steel. The casting

speed is 2.40 m/min (C, Mn, S, and Cr are ingredients of the

steel).

4.

ET

AC

Regarding the symmetry, one forth of the mould is modeled, and a nite-element method program is developed to

calculate the temperature eld of the mould with FORTRAN

language; the Newton method is used to solve the equation. In order to reduce the size of the factor matrix, the

one-dimension variable-bandwidth technique is employed.

Eight-node hexahedron-isoparameter elements are used to

calculate the mould. The mould wall is divided into ve layer

elements. The total elements are 21,840 and the total nodes

are 27,318.

The temperature model is validated under the process conditions that the cooling water rate is 10 m/s and the mould

wall thickness is 10 mm. The process parameters are listed in

Table 1. The measured values of the symmetry centerline on

the hot surface are in Fig. 4. The calculated temperatures and

the measured temperatures of key spots on the hot symmetry

centerline are listed in Table 2.

In Table 2, the calculated temperatures are found to be

consistent with the measured ones. The model is valid.

TE

D

Mould material

Mould length (mm)

Mould corner radius (mm)

Meniscus height (mm)

Mould thickness (mm)

Casting steel material

Billet sizes

Casting speed

Water slot width

Poured temperature

Cooling water speed

Mould initial temperature

speed is 2.40 m/min.

(i) The temperature variation of the cross-section (xy):

and measured values on the hot surface symmetry

centerline

Temperature

Calculated temperature ( C)

Measured temperature ( C)

Relative error (%)

Position

Top

Meniscus

Bottom

61.984

60.0

212.411

194.0

134.554

125.0

3.2

8.7

7.1

The temperature of the hot surface is high. The temperature decreases from the hot surface to the cooling surface

and reaches its lowest point on cooling surface, as seen

in Fig. 5a, which is the temperature distribution of 10 mm

mould wall thickness (MWT) at the bottom. At the same

time, the temperature of the symmetry center is high and

that of the corner is lower.

(ii) The temperature variation of the longitudinal section (yz):

The mould temperature on the longitudinal section is

uneven too. The temperature of the top is lower. The temperature begins to ascend near the liquid steel level. The

highest temperature occurs about 3550 mm below the

meniscus. This can be attributed to two-dimensional heat

conduction in the upper part of the mould and no air gap.

The temperature is lower at the bottom and uctuates in

the middle. The temperature uctuation can be attributed

to the air gap in the middle as shown in Fig. 6a, which represents the temperature distribution of 10 mm MWT on

the symmetry plane.

(iii) The temperature variation of different MWT with the

cooling water rate at 10 m/s:

The temperature of the overall hot surface increases

with the increasing of the mould thickness, as can

be seen in Fig. 7. The temperature of 15 mm MWT is

greater than that of 13 and 10 mm MWT on the hot surface symmetry centerline. The highest temperature of

15 mm MWT is 239.646 C on the hot surface, and the

one of 10 mm MWT is 212.411 C. However, the temperature of the cooling surface decreases as the thickness

increases, as is shown in Fig. 8. The temperature of

15 mm MWT is lower than the ones of 13 mm MWT and

10 mm MWT on the cooling surface. The highest tem-

53

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j o u r n a l o f m a t e r i a l s p r o c e s s i n g t e c h n o l o g y 1 9 9 ( 2 0 0 8 ) 4955

AC

Fig. 5 Temperature eld of the mould cross-section (xy) at the bottom ( C).

For 10, 13 and 15 mm MWT, the temperature variation is the same down the height of the mould.

These variations of different MWT are reected in

Figs. 5b and c and 6b and c.

(iv) Temperature variation with cooling water rate:

The mould temperature descends as the cooling water

rate increases, as shown in Fig. 9. On the hot surface,

ET

surface, and the one of 10 mm MWT is 125.742 C. This

is because of heat resistance. Heat resistance increases

as the mould thickness increases. Once heat resistance

becomes greater, the heat that is transferred to the cool

surface is less, and the temperature is lower on the cooling

surface.

Fig. 6 Temperature eld of mould symmetry plane (yz) with cooling water at 10 m/s ( C).

54

j o u r n a l o f m a t e r i a l s p r o c e s s i n g t e c h n o l o g y 1 9 9 ( 2 0 0 8 ) 4955

5.

vertical directions. In the vertical direction, the highest

temperature occurs at 170185 mm under the top of the

mould. The temperature uctuates in the middle and is

lower at the bottom. On the cross-section, the temperature decreases gradually from the symmetry center to the

corner, the temperature of the corner is the lowest and

decreases gradually from the hot surface to the cooling

surface.

2. The temperature of the hot surface and the surrounding

area increases as the mould thickness increases. However,

the temperature of the cooling surface and the surrounding

area decreases as the thickness increases.

3. Via comparison and validation, the appropriate thickness

of the mould is 10 mm. The temperature of the mould

decreases along with the increase of the cooling water rate.

The different parts of the mould should be equipped with

cooling water of different rates in order to cool the mould

efciently.

AC

mould wall on the hot surface symmetry centerline with

the cooling water at 10 m/s ( C).

TE

D

In this work, the usefulness of three-dimensional numerical temperature eld analysis for continuous casting process

is presented. A set of transient difference equations are

solved by using classical control theory in order to identify

and rigorously study the effects of relevant parameters on

the thermal exchange of the mould. Experimental data have

proven that the models are in accord with real situations

of mould heat exchange. Some conclusions obtained are as

follows:

wall on the cooling surface symmetry centerline with the

cooling water at 10 m/s ( C).

ET

rate is 7 m/s; 212.411 C when the water rate is 10 m/s

and 198.643 C when water rate is 12 m/s. The appropriate water rate needed to cool the mould efciently is

1012 m/s.

centerline as the cooling water rate varies and the mould

thickness is 10 mm ( C).

references

Continuous Casting Moulds. ISS, Pittsurg, pp. 153160.

Brimacombe, J.K., Samasakera, I.V., Lait, J.E., 1984. Continuous

Casting, Heat Flow, Solidication and Crack Formation. ISS,

Philadelphia.

Chandra, S., Brimacombe, J.K., Samarasekera, I.V., 1993.

Mould-strand interaction in continuous casting of steel

billets. III. Mould heat transfer and mould taper. Ironmak.

Steelmak. 20 (2), 104112.

Janik, M., Dyja, H., 2004. Modelling of three-dimensional

temperature eld inside the mould during continuous

casting of steel. J. Mater. Process Technol. 157/158,

177182.

Kelly, J.E., Michalek, K.P., OConnor, T.G., et al., 1988. Initial

development of thermal and stress elds in continuously cast

steel billet. Metall. Trans. A 19, 25892601.

Lu, Y.Q., Xiong, D.L., 1999. FE analysis of mould temperature eld

in steel billet (in Chinese). J. Anshan Inst. IS Tech. 6, 156161.

Mahapatra, R.B., 1989. Mould Behavior and Product Quality in

Continuous Casting of Slabs. UBC, Vancouver.

Pinheiro Carlos, A.M., 1997. Mould Thermal Response, Billet

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with Powder Lubrication. UBC, Vancouver.

Samarasekera, I.V., Brimacombe, J.K., 1982. Thermal and

mechanical behaviour of continuous casting billet moulds.

Ironmak. Steelmak. 9 (1), 267281.

j o u r n a l o f m a t e r i a l s p r o c e s s i n g t e c h n o l o g y 1 9 9 ( 2 0 0 8 ) 4955

techniques for phase-change problems: a review. Int. J. Num.

Methods Eng. 30, 875898.

Wang, B.F., Samarasekera, I.V., 2001. Heat ux proles of mould in

high speed casting of stainless steel billets (in Chinese). J.

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Zanoni, S., Zavanella, L., 2005. Model and analysis of integrated

production-inventory system: the case of steel production.

Int. J. Prod. Econ. 93/94, 197205.

Zhang, X.Z., 1995. Transmission Theory of Metallurgy (in

Chinese). Industry Publishing House of Metallurgy, Beijing.

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inuence of mould behavior on the production of

continuously cast steel billets. Metall. Trans. B 13, 105116.

Takeuchi, E., Brimacombe, J.K., 1984. The formation of oscillation

marks in the continuous casting of steel slabs. Metall. Trans. B

15, 493509.

Thomas, B.G., Moitra, A., Zhu, A., 1995. Coupled

thermo-mechanical model of solidifying steel shell applied to

depression defects in continuous-cast slabs. In: Modeling of

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