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UNIT 1

BASIC TERMINOLOGY AND HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE

Basic Terminology and Historical Perspective

PERSPECTIVE Basic Terminology and Historical Perspective Structure 1.0 Objectives 1.1 Introduction 1.2 Classification

Structure

1.0 Objectives

1.1 Introduction

1.2 Classification Terminology: Historical Perspective

1.2.1 Relation to other Terminologies in Library Science

1.2.2 Nature of Terms

1.3 Classification Terminology: Indian School of Thought

1.4 Sources of Classification Terminology

1.5 Definitions

1.5.1 Meaning of "Classification"

1.5.2 Universe and Entity

1.5.3 Group and Class

1.5.4 Attributes and Characteristics

1.5.5 Kinds of Library Classification

1.5.6 Disciplines and Subjects

1.5.7 Categories, Facets and Isolates

1.5.8 Arrays and Chains

1.5.9 Classification Schedules

1.5.10 Species of Classification

1.5.11 Notation

1.6 Summary

1.7 Answers to Self Check Exercises

1.8 References and- Further Reading

1.0 OBJECTIVES

This Unit explains the importance of terminology for a scientific subject like classification. It also familiarises you with the fundamental concepts/terms associated with the discipline of classification. After reading this Unit you will he able to:

understand the importance of technical terminology in a scientific subject; and

grasp the meaning of terms and their use in the theory and practice of library classification.

1.1 INTRODUCTION

A term may be defined as a standardised name for a . given entity or concept which is precise.

Terminology, in its turn, is defined as a system of terms used to denote the classes or ranked

isolates in a scheme for classification. There should always be a one to one correspondence between the concepts and the terms used. It means that each concept will be denoted by one word or phrase, and conversely a word/phrase will denote one concept only.

In a scientific/academic/legal communication, precise terminology is not only important

but most essential. Effective communication cannot take place unless concepts and terns

representing them are precisely defined. Predefined words are also known as technical terminology. Paradoxically the ordinary language that the common man speaks is both

rich and poor. It is full of homonyms, i.e., one and the same term is often used with two

or more meanings. For example, "bridge" and "cricket" have two meanings each. The

word "order" has more than 200 meanings in the Oxford English Dictionary? Further, a word may connote different meanings in different contexts' A line of poetry has different meanings for different people. It (language) is also full of synonyms, i.e., one concept may be denoted by more than one word in the same language, e.g., wages, salary, and pay denote the same concept. Thus ordinary language is not

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Elements of Library Classification

Elements of Library Classification a perfect tool of communication. If this is used without modifications in

a perfect tool of communication. If this is used without modifications in a scientific discipline, it will lead to problems in communication and ultimately hinder the development of the discipline. A Tower of Babel will lead only to chaos and confusion instead of any understanding and progress. The solution is to have a precisely defined terminology. No discipline can progress without its technical terminology.

In other words, there should be an organised attempt to:

i) delimit the vagueness of words and eliminate ambiguity;

ii) establish an agreed standard terminology free from homonyms and synonyms for each subject-field; and

iii) lay down methodology to coin new terms, when new ideas come into being or

an old term has to be replaced. S.R. Ranganathan (1892-1972) was of the view that scientific terminology is of dual importance to librarians. Firstly, librarians and information scientists have to learn the technical terminology of other disciplines to communicate with and serve library users effectively. Secondly, we have to understand the terminology of our own discipline to discuss technical matters with colleagues for research and, development of our discipline and profession.

1.2 CLASSIFICATION TERMINOLOGY :

HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE

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Library classification as an academic discipline is about 125 years old. Its teaching and research has gained momentum comparatively recently. It must be admitted, however, that the terminology is not well settled. One of the principal contributions of Professor S.R. Ranganathan (1892 -1972) to library classification, besides his intuitive and intellectual contributions, is the terminology for expression of ideas. The development of the terminology of library classification in India came along with the development of the theory and practice of classification. It grew at a faster pace between the sixties and eighties. This is due to intensive developmental research in the field. The spread of jargons in classification to an international circle can said to be fostered by the CRG (Classification Research Group) in London. The CRG members have had very close contact with Ranganathan and critically analysed each of his terms. They refashioned some of them and retained many of them as such and provided explanatory notes to the definitions and then spread them to library schools in Britain and other countries. Textbooks began to appear using many of the concepts, which Ranganathan had propounded. The First International Study Conference held at Dorking principally supported by CRG saw to it that a comprehensive glossary of terms was developed for use at the international level. The glossary was compiled by B.C. Vickery for the benefit of the new audience. This movement was very well complimented by the FID (International Federation for Information and Documentation/Federation Internationaled' Information et de Documentation) congress, and FID/CA (Committee on Classification Theory) in which Ranganathan himself was very much involved in the propagation of ideas. The growth of the terms in the second, third and fourth study conferences indicated a steady improvement in classification research. Today, we can find that the contribution of Ranganathan to classification terminology is almost an integral part of any classification research, teaching, learning or writing.

1.2.1 Relation to other Terminologies in Library Science

Classification is a vital discipline in the field of library and information science and pervades all the other sub-fields of library science. Thus, the terminology of library classification is an' interactive terminology. The symbiotic nature of classification and cataloguing has taken a common link in relation to subject indexing terms. Many of the verbal plane rules of classification terminology can also act as rules for cataloguing terminology. In relation to reference service, classification provides the analytic and synthetic framework for; efficient handling of reference work and service. Many of the classification terms can be used! in more or less the same fashion in reference and information work. Thus, a streak of symbiosis' can be seen between the two sub-fields of library science. To a certain extent, management aspects of libraries can be explained using classificatory terminology.

To conclude, classificatory terminology is crucial to the development of the discipline of library science. It can be considered, so to say, that the intellectual framework of library science lies in classificatory terminology.

1.2.2 Nature of Terms

In an analysis of classification terminology, Prasad (1986) had identified three types of terms - normative, fundamental and associative. Normative terms are operative in nature and prescribe the procedure and help identify the expected quality of the operations that would result from such prescriptions. Example: Canon of Differentiation. Fundamental terms, on the other hand, define the basic concepts which are germane to the very nature of classification process. Examples: Division, Characteristics. In their turn, associative terms are those which extend the, meaning of the fundamental terms into different contextual levels for discussion and operation in classification research. Example: Open-ended array. This table presents a census of terms, which are grouped according to their nature:

Basic Terminology and Historical Perspective

their nature: Basic Terminology and Historical Perspective S.No. Nature of Terms No. of Terms % of

S.No.

Nature of Terms

No. of Terms

% of the Total No. of Terms

1)

Normative terms

112

21.8

2)

Fundamental terms Associative terms

110

21 4

3)

292

56.8

Thus, there are in all 514 technical terms used in the three editions of the Prolegomena. These terns have been distributed in the three planes of work- Idea Plane (298 terms), Verbal Plane (35 terms) and Notational Plane (181 terms). In addition to the terms, many new terms and refinement of old terms have resulted due to the work undertaken at DRTC (Documentation Research and Training Centre) by Ranganathan and his followers.

Further, the interdisciplinary nature of classification called for coordination of epistemological, logical, psychological, mathematical, linguistic and sociological concepts and terms in papers and discussion at the Third International . Study Conference on Classification Research held at Bombay in 1975. The universality of classification concepts, then- capability to interconnect several diversified approaches to classification and ordering of knowledge were discussed at the conference. "International Classification" (now called Knowledge Organisation), a periodical publication from Frankfurt, West Germany began work pertaining to the consolidation of terminology occurring in classification literature. Classification vocabulary started getting refined further and made extensive use of concepts pertaining to Systems Theory, Computer Science, Communication Theory, etc. FID/CR (Committee on Classification Research) brought out several country reports at this juncture and Bliss's Classification Group brought out several depth versions of the scheme.

1.3 CLASSIFICATION TERMINOLOGY :

INDIAN SCHOOL OF THOUGHT

During the last 100 years, a number of schemes of library classification have been designed in the world. At its meeting held in Brussels on 16 September 1955 the General Assembly of FID adopted a resolution to the effect that necessary steps should be taken to prepare a glossary of classification terms. As a first step in this direction, it was recommended and agreed to in 1957 that each school of thought on the theory of classification should prepare the glossaries of terms used by it and finally these glossaries should be collated to arrive at a Universal Comprehensive Glossary of all the classification terms. Further, with increase in Iiteracy and the phenomenal expansion and increase in number of libraries in the country, there was a need to have an authoritative and comprehensive glossary for the guidance of technical staff engaged in libraries. The Documentation Sectional Committee of, he Indian Standards Institution (now known as Bureau of Indian Standards) took up the preparation of a glossary of classification terms. This glossary of classification terms current in the Indian School of Thought has been arrived at through three stages.

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Elements of Library Classification

Elements of Library Classification In the first stage, not only terms of the Indian School but

In the first stage, not only terms of the Indian School but also of all other schools of thought in English speaking countries were taken. The definitions included in the first draft were taken from the ALA Glossary and the works of Henry Evelyn Bliss, Donker Duyvis, S.R.Ranganathan, W.C. Berwick Sayers, B.C. Vickery and Frand S Wanger, Jr. In the second stage, the draft included only those terms that were considered by the Sectional Committee as fit for retention. These included some alternate terms and some alternate definitions. At the third and final stage, suggestions received as a result of wide circulation of the second draft were considered and the final standard was prepared.

This standard IS: 2.550-1963, contains 23 chapters under three broad headings :

classification in general, universe for library classification, and classification of the universe of knowledge.

These core/basic concepts of classification are enumerated under the following headings

Universe and entity

Group and class

Attributes and characteristics

Disciplines and basic subjects

Categories, facets and isolates

Arrays and chains

Schedules for classification

Species of classification for subjects

Notation

In the succeeding sections, an attempt is made to familiarise you with some of the core or basic concepts/terms of classification in general. Other classification terms are explained in the section Key Words of Units of Course BLIS- 03: Library Classification Theory and Course BLIS- 03P: Library Classification Practice.

1.4 SOURCES OF CLASSIFICATION TERMINOLOGY

The following are sources for classification terminology :

a) ALA Glossary of Library Terms; 1956

b) BLISS (H E), Bibliographic Classification; 1-11, 1952

c) RANGANATHAN (S R)

i) Classification and Communication; 1951

ii) The Series on Common Isolates (Review of Documentation, 23-25; 1956-57)

iii) Prolegomena to Library Classification; Ed 2, 1957

iv) Classified Catalogue Code; Ed 5, 1964

v) Library Classification Glossary (Annals of Library Science, 5; 1958; 76-112)

vi) Colon Classification; Ed 6, 1959 and Ed 7, 1987

vii) Elements of Library Classification; Ed 3, 1961

viii) Notational Plane: Interpolation and Extrapolation. (Annals of Library Science. 10; 1963; 1-13)•

d) SAYERS (W C Berwick)

i) Manual of Classification; Ed 3, 1955

ii) Introduction to Library Classification; Ed 9, 1958

e) VICKERY (B Q. Faceted Classification.

f) WANGER (Frank S). Dictionary of Documentation Terms. (American Documentation 11'; 1960; 102-119).

1.5

DEFINITIONS

Most of the terms with definitions were used for the first time in the first edition of Prolegomena to Library Classification (1937). The definitions, in this section 'have been

taken from Ranganathan ' s Prolegotrena to, Library Classification, 3rd ed. Vol

1.5.1 Meaning of “Classification”

" In popular usage, the term " Classification " is used in two or more senses. In other words, the term `Classification ' is a homonym " .

To facilitate correct communication, this homonym should be resolved. Classification in Sense 1

Division

i) "Process of sorting the entities of a universe into sub-aggregates on the basis of a preferred characteristic, or putting like entities into the same sub-aggregate and unlike entities into different sub-aggregates".

ii) "The result of division in the Sense-1 - that is, a set of sub-aggregates" formed by the division of the entities of a universe.

The alternate terms for divisions are classification in Sense I and specification.

1.

1967.

Classification in Sense 2

Basic Terminology and Historical Perspective

in Sense 2 Basic Terminology and Historical Perspective Assortment "The process of the division of a

Assortment

"The process of the division of a universe into groups plus -that of arranging the groups in a definite sequence --- that is, of Ranking that is, assigning a Rank to each resulting group".

The result of the assortment of a universe in the first sense.

The alternate term is classification (Second Sense: Common Use) - classification, in the first sense and arrangement of the resulting groups in a preferred sequence.

Classification in Sense 3

“Classification in Sense 2 plus Representing each entity by an ordinal number taken out of a system of ordinal numbers, designed to mechanise the maintenance of the sequence,

i) Either when an entity has to be replaced after having been taken out of its position;

ii) Or when a new entity has to be interpolated or extrapolated in the correct place in the sequence'".

1.5.2 Universe and Entity

“There are substantial terms in the Theory of Classification" which are assumed terms. While "some of them are given some explanation, some are defined by being linked together in a statement.

Entity

"Any existent, concrete or conceptual -that is, a thing or an idea" is an entity for "example: A boy,-A book, Sweetness, A system of philosophy, A subject of study".

Universe

"An aggregate under consideration in a given context", aggregate, in its turn, "is a collection of entities, without any special arrangement among them".

Universe may be of three types:

Finite Universe

:”A universe with a finite number of entities, e.g., Students in a classroom”.

Infinite Universe

:”A universe with an infinite number of entities, e.g., Universe of integers”.

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Elements of Library Classification

Elements of Library Classification Growing Universe : " A universe wi t h new entities added

Growing Universe : " A universe wi t h new entities added to it or emprging,in it from time to time, e.g., Subjects of study

1.5.3 Group and Class

Group

“Any sub-aggregrate of the entities formed by the division of the entities of a universe” is a group.

Groups, in their turn, are of two types:

Unitary Group

Multiple Group

Group consisting of one and only one entity.

Group consisting of two or more entities.

Class

Class is a ranked group and ranking is "arranging in a definite sequence the groups formed by the division of the entities of a universe, so as to arrive at an- assortment of them".

Classes are of two types

Unitary Class

"Class comprising one and only one entity " .

Multiple Class

"Class comprising two or more entities " .

1.5.4 Attributes and Characteristics

Attribute

Attribute is any property or , quantitative measure or quality possessed by or inherent in an entity. Ranganathan has cited the following examples in the Prolegomena.

Examples

The following are some of the attributes of a book:

Subject-matter

Form of expression, such as catechism, drama, prose, narrative, pictures, etc. Language

Author

Year of publication

Binding

The following are some of the attributes of a system of philosophy:

Number of ultimate principles assumed, such as monism, dualism and pluralism; attitude towards reality, such as idealism and realism; country of origin. ,

Characteristic

On the other hand, a characteristic is "an attribute, or any attribute-complex with reference to which the likeness or unlikeness of entities can be determined and at least two of them are unlike".

Example:

"Height is a characteristic of boys. But, possession of a face is not. Possession of a face is an attribute shared equally by all boys".

Characteristics, in their turn, can be of different types.

Natural Characteristic: “A characteristic possessed in common by all the entities in the universe considered and inherent and inseparable from the entities” For example, height or age or ability of a person,

Artificial Characteristic: “A characteristic possessed in common by the entities in the universe considered but not necessary for -their being included in the universe. Examples Clothe; worn by a person, Mode of dressing hair”.

Division Characteristic: A "characteristic used as the basis for the division of the entities of a universe. For example, the aggregate of boys in a classroom is a

universe. If we sort them on the basis of their height, then the Division Characteristic

is height and the boys of the same height form a sub-aggregate". (Vide. See 1.5.1

Division).

Assortment Characteristic: A "characteristic preferred as the basis for the assortment

of a universe

1.5.5 Kinds of Library Classification

When entities are books or other items of information, their classification is called Library Classification. Library classification has also been defined as classification of knowledge as contained in the books and other reading material. Library classification is ostensibly utilitarian in the sense that it has an immediate purpose. Library classification has got many meanings. It is Book Classification when it is used to arrange books and other macro documents on the library shelves. When it is used to arrange not the books but records to them, i.e., catalogues, or bibliographies it

is called Bibliographic Classification. The Dewey Decimal. Classification (DDC)

was designed to be a book classification, whereas the Universal Decimal Classification (UDC) was designed to be a bibliographic classification. The term

bibliographic classification is also used for depth or detailed classification., Detailed classification required for micro documents is known as Depth Classification. Library

of Congress Classification is relatively a depth classification. A classification which

is not too detailed and meets the requirement of small libraries is called Broad

Classification. ' Rider's International Classification. (1961) and early editions of the DDC are broad classifications.

Classification for a smaller area of knowledge, say for economics, occupational safety, environmental engineering, or leather technology, is known as Special Classification. Special classification of the entire universe of knowledge is known as General Classification. Some call it Universal Classification:

Library classification, whatever its kinds, may be defined comprehensively as:

A systematic arrangement by subject of books and other learning resources and/or

similar systematic arrangement of catalogue or index entries in the manner; most

useful to those who are seeking . either a definite piece of information or the display

of the most likely sources for the effective investigation of the subject of their choice.

- Rita Marcella and Robert Newton

The purpose is to facilitate the optimum use of library resources. It is a tool for information retrieval both in manual and automated retrieval systems.

Self Check Exercise

1)

Name the different kinds of library classification.

Note : i) Write your answer in the space given below.

Basic Terminology and Historical Perspective

given below. Basic Terminology and Historical Perspective ii) Check your answer with the answers given at

ii) Check your answer with the answers given at the end of this Unit.

1.5.6 Disciplines and Subjects

In

a modern library the arrangement of documents is usually by subject. Thus, subject

is

the characteristic of division for arrangement , of books. A Subject is a

systematised, homogeneous and cohesive group of thought or a chunk of knowledge whose depth and breadth are comfortably within the intellectual competence and; the field of specialisation: of a normal intellectual person. But in library classification we are mostly concerned with what is known as a specific subject. A specific subject is

always in the context of a . document. A specific subject of a document is defined as the subject of the document "whose extension (scope/breadth) and intension (depth/specificity) are equal to the thought content of the document.

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Elements of Library Classification

Elements of Library Classification 12 Knowledge has been divided into major areas called Disciplines. A Discipline

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Knowledge has been divided into major areas called Disciplines.

A Discipline is a major continuous area, of knowledge formed on the basis of either the

similarity of the objects of study (i.e., whether natural objectives, or social issues); or,

obtained by a similar mode of study or method of acquiring knowledge (i.e., whether imaginative, or empirical). Broadly speaking there are three major disciplines of the universe of knowledge:

Sciences (study of natural objects) Social Sciences (problems of society) Humanities (by imagination/perceptions) However, connotations of a discipline vary from time to time. Nowadays all classifications are by disciplines - a breakthrough made by Melvil Dewey (1851-1931). A topic may fall under various disciplines. Disciplines are further divided into basic subjects or main classes. A main class is, conventional but very cohesive area of knowledge. In library classification it is more or lens the first line of division of the universe of knowledge. A traditional subdivision of an old main class is known as a Canonical Class. For example, heat, light, magnetism, electricity are canonical classes of the main class physics. Similarly algebra, geometry, analysis are canonical classes of the main class mathematics. Obviously the canonical classes are only of an ancient or traditional main class. A new main class such as library science, journalism, computer science does not have canonical classes. Main classes expounded from a school of thought; say Marxian economics, or Newtonian physics or Homeopathy medicine, are known as System Main Classes. A main class studied from a specialised viewpoint, say aviation medicine, child medicine, sports medicine, or small scale economy are known as Special Main Class. Similarly a main class expounded from a physical or social milieu or environment is known. as Environmental Main Class. For example, war economy, high altitude engineering, tropical medicine are examples of environmental main classes. Main classes as such, canonical, systems, special and environmental main classes, when taken together, are known as Basic Subjects Ranganathan postulates that there are three kinds - of subjects:

Basic subjects Compound subjects Complex subjects Basic subjects are subjects which:

a) are enumerated in the schedule of-basic subjects;

b) cannot be expressed as the compound subject of any of the existing basic subjects;

c) are evolved through one full cycle of the spiral of scientific method as propounded by Ranganathan.-They also exhibit different modes of formation of subjects; and

d) call for schedules of Special Personality Isolates, Matter Isolates and Energy Isolates.

Library Science, Physics, Algebra; Ayurvedic Medicine, Marxian Economics, Psycho-analysis are some of the basic subjects. The concept of a basic subject is

social. The total number and connotations of a basic subject vary from age to age and also from society to society. For example, the number of basic subjects in the sixth edition (1960) of the CC was about 150 but in .the seventh edition (1987) it has risen

to more than 750.

A Compound Subject is a basic subject when it has at least one focus, or has at least

an aspect, i.e., it has a basic facet and one or more isolate facets. Agriculture is a basic subject, but agriculture of wheat or diseases of wheat plants are compound subjects. Psychology is a basic subject but child psychology, or personality disorder are compound subjects. The number of compound subjects in this universe is infinite.

A Complex Subject, on the other hand, is a two phased subject and is formed by the

combination of two or more basic or compound. subjects, and made to express the

relation between them, but excluding , the case when one of the subjects forms an isolate

of the other, formed by subject device. Examples: psychology for nurses; comparative

study of Indian and British constitutions; or influence of geography on history, or relation

between anatomy and physiology. Such subjects are mostly interdisciplinary. The process

of analysing a complex subject into its constituent phases is known a. Phase Analysis.

(For a full discussion on Phase Relation, see Unit 8 of Block ' 3 of Course BLIS-:03).

Self Check Exercises

2)

Define the terms “Discipline” and “Subject”.

3)

What are the three kinds of subjects according to Ranganathan?

Note: i) Write your answers in the space given below.

Basic Terminology and Historical Perspective

given below. Basic Terminology and Historical Perspective ii) Check your answers with the answers given at

ii) Check your answers with the answers given at the end of this Unit.

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1.5.7 Categories, Facets and Isolates

A solitary, unattached idea, which cannot be further, subdivided, and by itself it

cannot form a subject, is called an isolate. For example, the terms wheat, child, India are isolates as by themselves they are vague. These have meanings only in the

context of a main class. For example, wheat diseases, child psychology or India:

history have meanings. An isolate is the ultimate division of knowledge. Going back a little, Ranganathan defines a compound subject as a basic: subject forms a compound subject having one or more isolates, An isolate is the context of a basic subject forms a compound subject and a Basic Subject is a basic subject without an isolate idea.

Isolates are grouped in what are called facets on the basis of-common characteristics. A

facet is thus a totality of isolates obtained on the basis of a single train of characteristics

of a given entity. As a matter of fact, Ranganathan defined facet as "A generic term

used to denote any component- be it a basic subject or an isolate - of a compound subject, and also its respective ranked forms, terms, and members". We may speak of Basic Facet, Isolate Facet, Geographical Fact,Language Facet, Educational Facet

Property Facet, Organ Facet, Cultivar Facet, etc.

The totality of the facets having a common characteristic form a category. For example,-

in library science all the facets pertaining to the kinds of library, j-.e., academic, public,

special, form a category named personality category , in this 6ase. Yet; another "category

-is the library activities, i.e., acquisition, processing, servibes, preservation, called energy category in this case. A category is a highly, generalized division of knowledge. Ranganathan postulates that a subject is constituted of at the most ' five fundamental categories, namely, Personality, Matter, Energy, Space and Time (see Unit 7, Block 3 of Course BLIS-03). In other words all the concepts of the universe of knowledge belong

to five and only five fundamental categories

1.5.8 Arrays and Chains

Isolates are arranged in what are called arrays and chains. ,An array is a sequence of coordinate (equally ranked) classes arranged in some definite order. Ranganathan defines array as "a set of classes arranged in the proper sequence and derived from a universe , on the basis of a single characteristic at any step in the progress towards a complete assortment of the entities of the universe". For example, all the student of BLIScoutse, when arranged in some order, say by roll number, or alphabetically by name or in order of merit, form an array.' Similarly, the sons and daughters of the same

parents are said to form an array. All th4 continents of the world form an array; and all countries of the world when arranged in some order form an array. The army of classes,

in its turn, can be an open array when admitting of extrapolation and a closed array

when . not admitting of extrapolation. A systematic or utilitarian arrangement of members of an array is called Helpful Sequence. This arrangement is called helpful,as it

is helpful to the majority of the classification users though not to all. Broader groups in

an array are arranged in what is called a Filiatory Sequence. It means placing together closely related .classes. The order of main classes in J.D. Brown's Subject Classification (1906) is in the evolutionary order of matter 7 force - life - mind - record.

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Elements of Library Classification

Elements of Library Classification 14 A chain is the sequence of class6s of a universe consisting

14

A chain is the sequence of class6s of a universe consisting of a class and of its universe of

successive removes, carried backwards to any point desired-that is, all the members are of unequal rank and are arranged in the order of constantly decreasing extension and increasing intension. The order in a chain is from general to specific or in the reverse order

of specific to general. For example, the World, Asia, India, Maharashtra, Mumbai form a

chain of classes in this or reversed order. Similarly social sciences, economics, finance,

money, banks form another chain of classes. Your grandfather, your father, and you form a chain of classes, but all your brothers and sisters form an array of classes. The arrangement of entities in a chain is always hierarchical.

1.5.9 Classification Schedules

Library classification invariably requires written has of damps and their subdivisions arranged in a systematic way along with corresponding symbols denoting classes. This systematic and elaborate list of classes is known as Schedules. Schedules along with an alphabetical index of classes referring to their symbols, and with some auxiliary concepts called common subdivisions, is known as Classification System. There are various systems of classification, e.g., the Dewey Decimal Classification, Ranganathan's " Colon Classification, and the Library of Congress 'Classification. There are about half a dozen living general classification systems. An index is an alphabetical approach to the systematic schedules. Topics which are scattered by discipline in the schedules are collocated in the index.

In addition to the schedules which are the core of a classification' system, there are some

auxiliary tables ' of some recurring concepts, say geographical isolates, time isolates; language isolates, form of presentation of the document (e.g., whether a dictionary or a

cotiferenc6 proceeding) or to "physical format, say book, journal, floppy, maps, CD- ROM or 4 videotape. These recurring concepts are i ssued once and for . all along with their given symbol. These auxiliary concepts are known as Standard Subdivisions in the DDC; Common Isolates in the CC and Common Auxiliaries in the UDC. These usually represent the various non-subject aspect of a document or some peripheral but recurring subject aspects.

The schedules may be either in print form or in electronic form, say, on a floppy or CD- ROM. The DDC, 21st edition (1996), is available in a CD-ROM format entitled Dewey for Windows.

A designer of a classification system is known as classificationist. S.R. Ranganathan,

Melvil Dewey, H.E. Bliss, C.A. Cutter are a few outstanding names of classificationists.

A person who operates these systems is known as classifier. Through BLIS-03P Course

you are learning to be a classifier. The majority of the librarians are ; classifiers, too.

1.5.10 Species of Classification

There are broadly speaking two species of classification systems - enumerative and faceted. Enumerative classification is that in which all classes and their corresponding symbols are enumerated, i.e., listed. It "consists essentially of a single schedule enumerating all subjects of the past, the present and the anticipatable future". In 'other words, the symbols or series of symbols for a , class are available readymade and the classifiers do not, have any . need or authority to construct a number. The Library of Congress Classification System, the Rider's International Classification and the early editions of the Dewey Decimal Classification are examples of an enumerative classification system. Enumerative classifications are contemptuously described as mark and park systems. “An Almost Enumerative scheme for classification, consists of a large schedule enumerating most of the subjects of the past, the present, and the anticipatable future, and in addition a few schedules of common isolates”. Subject Classification of , Brown and Dewey Decimal Classification are good examples. On the other hand, the other species of classification is known as Faceted classification which consists of schedules of basic classes, common isolates and special isolates only and includes the Almost-Faceted, Rigidly-Faceted and Freely Faceted classification. By definition, "an Almost-Faceted scheme for classification consists of a large schedule enumerating most of the subjects of the past, the present and the anticipatable future; and

in addition a few schedules of common isolates and also , some schedules of special

isolates". For example; Universal Decimal Classification and Bibliographic Classification

of Bliss. In the next type, the "Rigidly-Faceted scheme for , classification, the facets and

their sequence , are pre-determined for the entire subject

going with a Basic Class". The first three editions of Colon Classification which have given a facet formula for each basic class are good examples of Rigidly-Faceted schemes. But, "in a Freely Faceted Scheme for Classification, there is no rigid, pre- determined Facet Formula for the Compound Subjects going with a Basic Subject". It, essentially is an, Analytico-Sythetic Classification guided by postulates and principles. While, editions 4, 5 and 6 of CC can be described as almost-freely faceted schemes for classification, edition 7 of CC can be considered as a fully freely faceted scheme for classification. ,

Self Check Exercise

4)

Note - i) Write your answer in the space given below. ii) Check your answer wit le answers given at the end ' of this Unit, ………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………….………

Name the different schemes of classification.

1.5.11

Notation

Basic Terminology and Historical Perspective

1.5.11 Notation Basic Terminology and Historical Perspective It is well known that subjects should be arra

It is well known that subjects should be arranged in a helpful filiatory sequence on the basis of a scheme of successive characteristics. Further, there is a need to mechanise the arrangement, To "mechanise" . means to eliminate the need to remember or consider the exact connotation or denotation of the classes in their mutual relation. These two aids make the, following additional concepts necessary: 1) Terminology;, and 2) Notation. The importance of terminology has already been highlighted in Sec-1-1.,

As regards mechanising an arrangement of subjects in a preferred sequence, one possibility is alphabetical arrangement. But, alphabetical arrangement, of subjects by their names, as 4 means of mechanising their arrangement must, be ruled, out:

as the sequence it gives is not helpful

as the names of subjects are not stable

as the names of subjects are not unique

as the alphabetical position of a subject would vary with the language from which the name is taken

as the subjects denoted by a term are not unique.

Hence, there is a need for a notational system for mechanising the arrangement of subjects in the preferred helpful sequence. The core/basic concepts in the context of a notational system are discussed below. For definitions, refer to chapter C J of CC 7th ed.

Notational Plane: Terminology

Number

Cardinal Number

:

The term "number" brings to ones mind the, ten lndo- Arabic numerals only and the use of them as cardinal numbers those numbers used in . counting and in expressing measures ;

Ordinal Number

:

The term "ordinal number'' denotes that the number is used for fixing the position of an entity in a sequence,

Freedom in Ordinal Number

: It is possible to use any digit other than Indo- Arabic numbers as an ordinal number by defining its ordinal , value among other digits. Examples, Roman smalls, Roman capitals,

15

Elements of Library Classification

Elements of Library Classification Use in Colon Classification : : Notational System Notation Notational System of

Use in Colon Classification :

:

Notational System

Notation

Notational System of CC

Digit

Substantive Digit

Number of Substantive Digits

Digits used in CC

Roman Small

Indo-Arabic Numeral

punctuation marks, and some other simple characters, that is, "distinctive marks".

Ordinal Numbers are used in CC.

: The term "notational system" denotes the system

of numbers used by a scheme for classification.

: The term "notation" denotes any number in the notational system.

The notational system of CC consists of ordinal numbers.

: The term "digit" denotes a single, isolated, primary symbol, that is, character, that is, a "distinctive mark", .used in notational system

of a scheme for classification.

: The "substantive digit" denotes any of the digits - Roman small, Indo-Arabic, Roman capital, Greek letter - enumerated in CC.

The total number of substantive digits used in the notational system of CC is sixty.

: The term "Roman small" denotes each one

of

the digits a b e d e f g h j k m n p q r s t u v

w

x y z

It may be noted that i, 1 and o have

been excluded from this list, as they give difficulty in writing, typing and printing taken

together.

:The term "Indo-Arabic numeral' denotes each one of the digits 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9.

Roman Capital

: The term "Roman capital" denotes each one

of

the digits A B C D E F G H I L M N 0 P Q

R

S T V W Z, excluding "I" and "C' except

when used to represent the Main Subjects "Botany" and "Literature", respectively.

Greek Letter

: The only Greek letter used is `A' (Delta).

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Ordinary Indicator Digit

: The term "ordinary indicator digit" denotes each one of the digits mentioned below:

)

(Arrester Bracket)

(Comma)

&

(Ampersand)

-

(Hyphen)

(Single inverted comma)

(Equal to)

.

(Dot)

--> (Forward arrow) .

:

(Colon)

+ (Plus)

;

(Semi Colon)

(

(Starter Bracket)

: The term " anteriorising digit" denotes each 'of the digit (Backward arrow) and " (Double inverted comma).

: The total number of indicator digits used in the notational system of CC is fourteen.

: The term " species of digits" denotes the digits used in the notational system of CC.

: The total number of species of digits used in the notational system of CC is six.'

Base of the Notational System: The base of the notational system of CC consists of sixty substantive digits.

Anteriorising Digit

Number of Indicator Digits

Species of Digits

Number of Species of Digits

Mixed Base

: The notational system of CC has a mixed base, as it consists of more than one species of digits.,

Capacity of the Base

: The capacity of the base of the notational system of

CC is sixty.

Mixed Notation

Total Number of Digits

Ordinal Value of Digit

: The notational system of CC is a mixed one, as it

has a mixed base and further includes the fourteen

indicator digits,' forming altogether two different

species.

: Thus, the total number of digits used in the notational system of CC is seventy four.

: The ordinal values of the digits used in the notational system are indicated below:

The digits of each of the first three species, mentioned in CC, stand arranged in their respective sections, in the ascending sequence of their ordinal values; these are traditional ordinal values. Arranged in the ascending sequence of their ordinal values, the first three species of digits will stand as follows:

Roman smalls, Indo-Arabic numerals, and Roman capitals. The ordinal value of the digit "A (Delta) lies between those of the digits '"M" and "N". The digits of the species "ordinary indicator digits", stand arranged in that section, in the ascending sequence of their ordinal values. 'Obviously, the ordinal value of the digit ")" (arrester bracket) is the lowest of those of all the digits, and that of the "(" (starter bracket) is the greatest. The ordinal sequence of the ordinary indicator digits should be taken as postulated in order to get helpfulness in the sequence - of the class number (CN) using them. When arranged in the ascending sequence of their ordinal values, all the digits, mentioned above will stand in the following sequence:

) & `

. Digits with Anteriorising Value: The digits * (asterisk), +(plus) " (double inverted comma), - (backward arrow) have anteriorising value. On account of this, their ordinal values need not be prescribed in relation to the digits of other species. The ordinal values of these digits among themselves in ascending sequence of ordinal values is as follows:

:

; ,-=- + a b

y

z 0 1

8

9 A B

M A N

Y

Z (

* + “

Example of double inverted comma:

B"a B Ba, is the correct sequence. Because the digit " (double inverted comma) has anteriorising value, B"a precedes B. In fact, any host number followed by the digit " (double inverted comma) will precede - that is, Will be anterior to the host number. This is the significance of saying that the digit " (double inverted comma) by the term "anteriorising digit Example of backward arrow:

V,2;1`M92

V,2;1`M94 +- M92History of India from 1892 to 1894

V,2;1`M94

Because the digit F- (backward arrow) has anteriorising value, this correct

sequence is secured. Place Value of a Digit: The place value of a digit is as in a decimal fraction, unless it is stated to be part of an integer of two or more digits, in any specific context. A decimal point is taken as understood before all CC Numbers, Advantage I of Decimal Fraction Notation: Interpolation ' Possible In decimal fraction notation, any . number or numbers can be inserted between two consecutive numbers. For example, if 22 and 23 are read as integers, we cannot insert another integer between them. But, if they are read as decimal fraction, 221,

222,

fact, theoretically , an infinity of numbers lie in that interval and they can all be inserted as and when needed.

History of India brought upto 1892

' History of India brought upto 1894, is the correct sequence.

229

lie between them. Again 2211, 2212,

2218 also lie in that interval. In

Basic Terminology and Historical Perspective

229 lie between them. Again 2211, 2212, 2218 also lie in that interval. In Basic Terminology

17

Elements of Library Classification

Elements of Library Classification Advantage 2 of Decimal Fraction Notation : Place Value Constant In a

Advantage 2 of Decimal Fraction Notation: Place Value Constant

In a decimal fraction notation, the addition of a digit on the right does not in any way affect the place value of the digits existing already. On the other hand, if the numbers are used as integers, it would completely change their place values. For example, let us compare the place values of the digits in the integers 2, 25, and 258. In the first number the place value of 2 is only 2. In the second number, 2 has got the place value 20 and 5 has the place value 5. In the third number 2 has got the place value 200, 5 has the place value 50, and 8 has the place value 8. Consider 2, 25, and 258 as decimal fractions. In the third number also the place value of 2 is only 2/10; so also the place value of 5 is only 5/100; and the place value of 8 is 8/1000.

Equivalent to the Terminology in the Idea Plane

Corresponding to the terms such as Basic Subject (BS) and isolate idea in the idea plane, we can have in the notational plane terms such as Basic Class Number (BCN) and Isolate Number (IN). We can also have the terms Compound Class Number (CdCN) and Complex Class Number (CxCN).

Array in the Notational Plane

An array in the notational plane is a set of coordinate single digits or quasi digits arranged in their ordinal sequence.

Self Check Exercises

5)

List the reasons for ruling out the alphabetical arrangement of subjects by their ordinal sequence

6)

Define "Notation" and "Notational System".

Note : i) Write your answers in the space given below,

ii) Check your answers with the answers given at the end of this Unit

1.6 SUMMARY

In this Unit, we have discussed the importance of terminology and traced the 'historical perspective of classification terminology with emphasis on the Indian School of Thought.

The core/basic concepts of classification discussed pertain to,: Universe and Entity; Group and Class; Attributes and Characteristics; Kinds of Library Classification; Disciplines and Basic Subjects; Categories, Facets and Isolates; Arrays and Chain; Schedules for Classification; Species of Classification; and Notation. In addition, some of the classification terms have been explained in the section ` Key Words' of Units of Course BLIS-03 : Library Classification Theory and Units of Course BLIS- 03P : Library Classification Practice.

1.7 ANSWERS TO SELF CHECK EXERCISES

18

1)

The different kinds of library classifications are Book Classification, Bibliographic Classification, Depth Classification, Broad Classification, Special Classification, General Classification/Universal Classification.

2)

A Discipline is a major continuous area of knowledge formed on the basis of either similarity of the objects of study (i.e., whether natural objectives or social issues); or

obtained by a similar mode of study or method' of acquiring knowledge (i.e., whether imaginative or empirical). A subject is a systematised, homogeneous and cohesive group of thoughts or a chunk of knowledge whose depth and breadth are comfortably within the intellectual competence and the field of specialisation of a normal intellectual person.

Basic Terminology and Historical Perspective

person. Basic Terminology and Historical Perspective 3) According to Ranganathan, there are three kinds of

3)

According to Ranganathan, there are three kinds of subjects, namely, Basic Subjects, Compound Subjects, and Complex Subjects.

4)

The different schemes of classification are:

a)

Enumerative Classification

b)

Almost-Enumerative Scheme of Classification

c)

Faceted Classification

d)

Almost-Faceted Scheme of Classification

e)

Rigidly Faceted Scheme of Classification

f)

Freely Faceted Scheme of Classification.

5)

a)

Scatter of related subjects

b)

Change in subject names through the passage of time

c)

Subjects have more than one name (synonyms)

d)

Names having more than one meaning (homonyms)

e)

Multiplicity of languages

6)

Notation denotes any number in a notational system. Notational system, in its turn, denotes the system of numbers used by a scheme for classification.

1.8 REFERENCES AND FURTHER READING

Foskett, A.C. (1977). Subject Approach to information. 3rd ed. London: Clive Bingley. Mills, J. (1960). A Modern Outline of Library Classification. Bombay: Asia Publishing House.

Prasad, K.N. (1986). Development of Classification Terminology: Contributions of Prof. S.R. Ranganathan. In : Ranganathan, T.S. (ed.). Ranganathan Philosophy:

Assessment, Impact and Relevance. New Delhi: Vikas Publishing House. pp. 246-

256.

Ranganathan, S.R. (1987). Colon Classification. 7th ed. Edited by M.A. Gopinath. Bangalore: Sarada Ranganathan Endowment for Library Science.

Ranganathan, S.R. (1967). Prolegomena to Library Classification. 3rd ed. Bangalore:

Sarada Ranganathan Endowment for Library Science.

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