Time-dependent perturbation theory

© All Rights Reserved

Просмотров: 11

Time-dependent perturbation theory

© All Rights Reserved

- L. C. Andreani, OPTICAL TRANSITIONS, EXCITONS, AND POLARITONS IN BULK AND LOW-DIMENSIONAL SEMICONDUCTOR STRUCTURES, 1993
- IITJEE_2012PaperIISolutions
- Leptonic CP violation
- 0206122
- Physical Review paper
- Has Algorithm
- Nucl.Phys.B v.612
- Learning Polynomials With Neural Networks
- qmtoc
- Einstein 1905
- Workshop O365
- Lectures Extra Material
- Lecture09_2
- Lecture09_1
- Lecture 08
- Lecture07pt3
- Lecture07pt2
- Lecture07pt1.pdf
- Lecture07pt1
- Lecture06pt3

Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 8

We want to start one of the main overarching themes of this course today:

time-dependence. The detailed question we want to ask is how probable it is

for a system to jump from one energy eigenstate to another energy eigenstate

when a perturbation is added to the Hamiltonian.

Additional reading if you wish: Griffiths ch. 9.1, Feynman vol.3

ch. 9-11

Schr

odinger equation: a review

What is the relationship between these two equations? Recall that the general time-dependent equation is

H = i

h

.

t

If the Hamiltonian H is independent of time, one may find particular solutions of this equation by separation of variables i.e. by assuming in the

form

(r, t) = (r)f (t)

Substitute it to the equation to get

H(r)(r)f (t) = (r)i

h

f (t)

t

H(r) = i

h

1 f

.

f t

The left-hand side is only a function of r and the right-hand side only depends

on t. The only way it may happen is that both of them are equal to a constant

called E that we call energy. Therefore we obtain two equations. One of

them will determine f to be a simple phase

i

h

1 f

=E

f t

f (t) = C exp(Et/i

h)

H(r) = E(r).

1

The last equation is telling us that (r) is an eigenstate, and the reasoning

above guarantees that such initial states will not change in time except for

the trivial phase f (t) that does not affect any probabilities. The most general

state may be expressed as a combination of eigenstates. Because we know

their dependence on time and because the Schrodinger equation is linear, we

may write down the most general solution of the time-dependent equation as

(r, t) =

cn n (r)eEt/ih .

the energy to be En remains independent of time, namely |cn |2 . The only

case a transition between different energy eigenstates may occur is when the

Hamiltonian is time-dependent.

Two-level systems

One-dimensional Hilbert spaces are too trivial because the probability that

the system is in state A remains 100 percent. There is no information in

such a Universe. The next simplest models of quantum mechanics have twodimensional Hilbert spaces and Richard Feynman was among those who

loved them which is not the only reason why you should look at his lectures

on physics.

Imagine that a two-level system has states |ai and |bi whose energies are

Ea and Eb . Let us also use the notation

|ai = |a(0)i, |bi = |b(0)i

indicating that the states are what they should be at t = 0. We have seen

on the previous page how the states evolve with time. Two solutions of the

Schrodinger equation are

|a(t)i = |aieEa t/ih ,

which means that the most general solution of the same equation is

|(t)i = ca |aieEa /ih + cb |bieEb /ih .

The probability for |i to be found in the state |ai is

Pa = |ha|(t)i|2 = |ca |2 |eEa t/ih |2 = |ca |2

because the other term in the inner product is proportional to ha|bi = 0

and drops out. The absolute value of the phase equals one. Similarly, the

probability Pb = |cb |2 and we physically normalize the total probability to be

|ca |2 + |cb |2 = 1.

2

The probabilities Pa , Pb are constant but we may also ask what is the probability that the system is in a more general state which is a linear combination

of a, b. In that case, we find oscillations. To be very specific, define the following combinations

1

|+ i = (|ai + |bi),

2

1

| i = (|ai |bi).

2

equation:

1

| (t)i = eEa t/ih |ai eEb t/ih |bi .

2

Let us now substitute the inverse relations between + , and a, b that are

trivially

1

|ai = (|+ i + | i) ,

2

1

|bi = (|+ i | i)

2

| (t)i =

i

1 h Ea t/ih

e

(|+ i + | i) eEb t/ih (|+ i | i) .

2

that it will be | i at a later time? By realizing that h |+ i = 0, you see

from the formula above that the amplitude in front of | i is simply

e(Ea Eb )t/2ih e(Ea Eb )t/2ih

1 Ea t/ih

e

eEb t/ih = e(Ea +Eb )t/2ih

2

2

(Ea +Eb )t/2i

h

= e

(i) sin(Et/2

h)

h |+ (t)i =

where we intelligently factorized the average phase to get the sin and where

we used E = Ea Eb . We are interested in the probability only, so the

phases (i) much like the exponential are irrelevant and we see that

P (+ ) = sin2 (Et/2

h).

The very same calculation with a relative plus sign gives

P (+ + ) = cos2 (Et/2

h)

and these two probabilities sum up to one as required by conservation of

probabilities. At any rate, you see that the probabilities to be in the (+)

state or the () state oscillate with the angular frequency

=

E

2

h

although the probabilities to be in the states (a) or (b) are constant in time.

3

This is a simple enough mathematical system but there are already many

examples of quantum mechanical systems in physics that follow exactly these

rules:

an electron precessing in the magnetic field. Imagine the field B = Bz

in the z-direction. Because E = 2B, the frequency of oscillations

of the spin in the xy-plane is

=

B

|E|

=

2

h

h

0 ). I hope

down-quark and one strange-antiquark (K 0 ) or vice versa (K

you will forgive me if I interchanged the particle and its antiparticle.

At any rate, fast processes in physics usually prepare either a K 0 or

0 , but actually because of the weak interactions, the exact energy

aK

mesons, respectively. A copy of K 0 will oscillate into its antiparticle

roughly in 0.6 nanoseconds of proper time.

another example in particle physics involves neutrinos. The neutrinos

are neutral and light partners of the electron, muon, and tau. The

latter three charged particles are energy eigenstates but their exact

partners are not; the true eigenstates are some linear combinations.

This implies that if we prepare one of the e , , neutrinos, there will

be nonzero probabilities that they will oscillate into each other. In the

case of neutrinos, it is really the energies that influence the oscillation

frequencies, not the rest masses themselves. In fact, we measure these

oscillations and they only determine the differences of (m2 ), not the

masses themselves. The solar neutrino anomaly we observe less e

flowing from the Sun than what we would expect according to our

standard Solar model is explained by one kind of oscillations, while

the atmospheric neutrino anomalies involving neutrinos with energies

around 1 GeV are explained by a different oscillating pair.

Feynman also liked the ammonia molecule. The nitrogen in NH3 can

classically be either be above the plane with the H3 triangle, or below it.

Quantum mechanically, there is a certain amplitude that it may tunnel

from one to the other an off-diagonal element of the Hamiltonian.

This term implies that the energy eigenstates are actually

(|i |i)/ 2

where the arrow indicates in which direction from the hydrogen plane

you find the nitrogen. The up-and-down states oscillate with a frequency around 24 GHz.

4

Time-dependent Hamiltonians

We want to look at the cases where the Hamiltonian depends on time, but to

avoid completely uncharted territories, let us assume that the Hamiltonian

is a small deformation of a time-independent Hamiltonian H0 :

0 + H

0(t).

H(t)

=H

Recall that we have found the general solution of the Schrodinger equation

0;

for the Hamiltonian H

|(t)i = ca (t)|aieEa /ih + cb (t)|bieEb /ih .

The coefficients ca and cb used to be time-independent constants, but now

we allow them to depend on time (slightly) so that this wavefunction has

a chance to solve the time-dependent Schrodinger equation with the timedependent Hamiltonian:

0 + H

0 (t) |(t)i = i

H

h |(t)i

t

What happens if we plug our Ansatz into the equation? The terms involving

0 will cancel against the terms where ca (t) and cb (t) enter without their

H

0

time-derivatives but in which the phase is differentiated because of the H

Schrodinger equation and the remaining new terms give us

ca eEa t/ih H 0 (t)|ai + cb eEb t/ih H 0 (t)|bi = i

h

ca Ea t/ih

cb Eb t/ih

e

|ai + i

h

e

|bi

t

t

Of course, this equation may be multiplied by ha| and hb| to get two independent equations. After dividing by the majority phase and identifying

E = Ea Eb in the remaining phase, the equations read

ca

1

0

0

=

ca Haa

+ cb e+iEt/h Hab

t

i

h

cb

1

0

0

cb Hbb

+ ca eiEt/h Hba

=

t

i

h

0

where Hab

= ha|bi (and similarly for other combinations of a, b) are the

0

0

matrix elements. It often happens that Haa

= Hbb

= 0 and therefore the first

term on the right hand side drops out.

Iterations

Of course, whenever the latest equations may be solved exactly, they also give

us an exact solution of the original problem. However, this is often impossible

and we need to apply approximative techniques. The simplest method of this

(0)

kind is the iterative method. We start with ca,b being constants i.e. solutions

5

of the unperturbed problem, and we insert these c(0) to the right-hand side

(1)

of the equations above. By doing so, we find the solutions ca,b (t) ca,b (t).

These resulting functions may be again used for the right-hand side of the

(2)

same equations, and the new solutions we obtain are ca,b (t) ca,b (t). In

(n)

principle, when we repeat this step infinitely many times, the functions ca,b (t)

will converge to the exact solutions as n goes to infinity. In practice, we only

repeat our step several times to achieve a desired level of accuracy.

An off-diagonal example

0

0

Consider the perturbation with Haa

= Hbb

= 0 and an arbitrary nonzero

0

0

(t). Imagine that you start with the zeroth order

complex Hab (t) = H

ba

approximation of the solution

(0)

c(0)

a = 1,

cb = 0

c(1)

a (t) = 1

(0)

once again because the right-hand side depended on cb which equals zero.

However, the equation for the evolution of cb (t) is slightly non-trivial

1

cb

0

= eEt/ih Hba

t

i

h

but it can be solved by a simple integration:

(1)

cb (t) =

1 Zt 0 0

dt Hba (t)eEt/ih .

i

h 0

(1)

2

2

Note that our results do not satisfy |c(1)

a | + |cb | = 1 because the iterative

technique does not guarantee all good features to survive in the intermediate

results. Of course, the rule total probability equals one will be satisfied by

(n)

the exact results limn ca,b . We are often satisfied with the first iterative

(1)

solutions ca,b .

Technically, we would prefer to normalize c(1)

a not to be equal to one but

(1) 2 1/2

rather (1 |cb | ) and indeed, such an improvement will be generated as

an expansion once we calculate the second order iterative solution c(2)

a . Note

that this new iteration gives us

(1)

c(2)

a (t) = ca +

1

i

h

(1)

0

dt0 cb eiEt /h Hab

(t),

(2)

(1)

cb (t) = cb (t).

Just like the first iteration did not improve ca (t) at all, the second iteration

does not improve cb (t) because c(1)

a appearing on the right-hand side of the

(2)

equation for cb (t) equals one.

6

straightforward to generalize the technique for multilevel systems. Consider

0 whose energies are Ek . The solutions

a system with n eigenstates |ki of H

of the unperturbed equations are

|(t)i =

X

k

for constant ck (t), but we allow their time-dependence in order to solve the

Schrodinger equation with the full Hamiltonian. By plugging our |(t)i into

this equation and after taking the inner product with hm|, we obtain

1 X

ck

0

=

cm (t)eiEmk t/ih Hmk

(t).

t

i

h m

Its first iterative solution is again

(1)

ck (t)

1 XZ t 0

0

0

dt cn (0)eiEknt /h Hkn

(t).

= ck (0)

i

h n 0

Such a general integral may look obscure. In order to understand the physical

content better, assume that the perturbation may be factorized to

0 (r)f (t).

H 0 (r, t) = h

We will use the matrix elements h0kl = hk|h0 (r)|li, omit the hats, and define

kl Ekl /

h. Let us also shift the time t by an additive constant and assume

that we prepared the system in the initial state |li at t = instead of t = 0.

What is then the probability that we obtain a different state |ki at t = +?

The probability is given by

2

(1)

|ck ()|2

h0 2

kl

h

ikl t

dt e

2

f (t) .

of the squared matrix element of the reduced Hamiltonian h0 (r), but there

is also some dependence on the time-dependent profile f (t). Note that the

integrand includes an oscillating phase and the contributions f (t) will largely

cancel if the pulse in f (t) is spread over time intervals t 1/kl . On

the other hand, if the pulse is concentrated into a very short time interval

t 1/kl , the influence of the perturbation will be very efficient because

almost no cancellations will occur. To see it quantitatively, consider, for

example,

(

1/T, 0 t T

f (t) =

0, otherwise

7

Z

2

it

dt e f (t)

1

= 2

T

2

eit dt

sin2 (T /2)

.

2 T 2 /4

sin x x will convince you. And then it oscillates between zeroes that are

obtained whenever T is a positive integer multiple of 2, and between a

decreasing function 4/( 2T 2 ). Draw the graph of the function here!

- L. C. Andreani, OPTICAL TRANSITIONS, EXCITONS, AND POLARITONS IN BULK AND LOW-DIMENSIONAL SEMICONDUCTOR STRUCTURES, 1993Загружено:vg51
- IITJEE_2012PaperIISolutionsЗагружено:Mahesh Babu
- Leptonic CP violationЗагружено:Thongkool Ctp
- 0206122Загружено:Colmain Nassiri
- Physical Review paperЗагружено:Srikar Varadaraj
- Has AlgorithmЗагружено:140557
- Nucl.Phys.B v.612Загружено:buddy72
- Learning Polynomials With Neural NetworksЗагружено:joscribd
- qmtocЗагружено:Anonymous zdaEfo

- Einstein 1905Загружено:bgiangre8372
- Workshop O365Загружено:bgiangre8372
- Lectures Extra MaterialЗагружено:bgiangre8372
- Lecture09_2Загружено:bgiangre8372
- Lecture09_1Загружено:bgiangre8372
- Lecture 08Загружено:bgiangre8372
- Lecture07pt3Загружено:bgiangre8372
- Lecture07pt2Загружено:bgiangre8372
- Lecture07pt1.pdfЗагружено:bgiangre8372
- Lecture07pt1Загружено:bgiangre8372
- Lecture06pt3Загружено:bgiangre8372
- Lecture06pt2Загружено:bgiangre8372
- Lecture06pt1Загружено:bgiangre8372
- Lecture05pt2Загружено:bgiangre8372
- Lecture05pt1Загружено:bgiangre8372
- Lecture02pt2Загружено:bgiangre8372
- Lecture02pt1Загружено:bgiangre8372
- Lecture 01Загружено:bgiangre8372
- Number of FamiliesЗагружено:bgiangre8372
- Lecture 14Загружено:bgiangre8372
- cm05week06Загружено:bgiangre8372
- cm05week05Загружено:bgiangre8372
- cm05week01.pdfЗагружено:bgiangre8372
- Lectures on Classical MechanicsЗагружено:api-3837435
- Goldstein+Classical+Mechanics+NotesЗагружено:Qiulin Lu
- Goldstein_31_32_7Загружено:Dijana Tolić
- Goldstein_22_15_21_23Загружено:bgiangre8372

- PHENOLS - Gas Chromatography.pdfЗагружено:Anonymous uNOv2dM
- Particulate Palm Oil MillЗагружено:Yunardi Yusuf
- CHE425: Problem setЗагружено:Jack Andreas
- salt testЗагружено:م.ذكى فضل ذكى
- Solar GlassЗагружено:creativforum
- 3Загружено:Charin Kadian
- 01 Chapter 1Загружено:omar
- orgpaper1 fawcettimineЗагружено:ubuntu 13.04
- Reverse osmosisЗагружено:Hyumi Darth
- ICML MLA IIЗагружено:Deepak
- Science Form 1 Chapter 4&5Загружено:yeeting07
- KineticsЗагружено:ManP13
- Redshift InterpretationЗагружено:Maingot
- AP Lab 5 Cellular RespirationЗагружено:Rodrigo Flores Mdz
- HE in 17-4PhЗагружено:Ganesh
- modifikasi membran RO.pdfЗагружено:Galihmery Damaianti
- H.K. Moffatt- Magnetic field generation in electrically conducting fluids: PrefaceЗагружено:Osdfm
- Reverse Osmosis SystemsЗагружено:Mirza Xain
- Bonding, Structure and Periodicity Assessed HwЗагружено:David
- Group 2Загружено:irnihafizan6812
- 00053005.pdfЗагружено:Lakshya
- 02 LithographyЗагружено:Matthew Battle
- PHYS 104 Reviewer for PrelimsЗагружено:Jade Mirel Baloloy
- 1._10301100_Real-Time Monitoring of Hazardous Air Pollutants_Semicon Taiwan 2011Загружено:denghuei
- Chapter 6 Environmental Factors Affecting Cell GrowthЗагружено:Ashraf Adam
- A Specifying Engineer’s Guide to Water Treatment _ IHS Engineering360Загружено:PanosMitsopoulos
- Microstructure & Mechanical Characterization of Modified Aluminium 6061Загружено:Dinesh Dhaipulle
- Harry Meigh-Cast and wrought aluminium bronzes-Maney Materials Science (2008).pdfЗагружено:Putradhana Setihadi
- Force and Motion - Energy, Work and PowerЗагружено:Anonymous ee5dOj
- Clutches and Brakes 0Загружено:Mohamad Sleiman