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TPSE0650 MACHINE

COMPONENT DESIGN
Design of Shafts

5.1.2017

Jorma Matilainen

Loads of the Shaft


Nominal load

bending moment

cp. bending of a beam


statically defined or statically indeterminate structure
type of the support depends on the bearing; in approximate
dimensioning can be assumed as a free support

torque T

P = T or P = 2nT

P is power
Is angular speed
n is rotational speed

shear force
normal force

5.1.2017

Jorma Matilainen

Loads of the Shaft


Cycle load
impact factor

Acceleration load
acceleration torque needed Ta
in uniformly accelerated rotation
Ta = J
J is moment of inertia
is angular acceleration

5.1.2017

Jorma Matilainen

Shaft Materials
common structural steel (S355J2)
tempered steel (25CrMo4, 42CrMo4, 34CrNiMo6,
C45)
case hardening steel (20NiCrMo2-2, 20MnCr5,
18CrNiMo7-6)
spheroidal iron (GJS 700)
cast steel
stainless and acid-proof stainless steel

5.1.2017

Jorma Matilainen

Shaft Materials

Jorma Matilainen

5.1.2017

Shaft Materials

The values are only suggestive


Rm is min ultimate tensile strength
Re is min yield stress
tw is fatigue resistance under pulsation

Jorma Matilainen

5.1.2017

Dimensioning of the Shaft


Dimensioning can be based on
fitted parts (e.g. bearings)
deformations
allowable deflection
allowable of incline
allowable distortion

stresses
static or dynamic (fatigue) load
often first preliminary dimensioning based on allowable stress and
after that fatigue calculation for critical points

5.1.2017

Jorma Matilainen

Dimensioning of the Shaft


Max shear stress in torsion
= T/Wv

round shaft
= 16T/d3
hollow shaft
= 16TD/(D4 d4)

5.1.2017

Jorma Matilainen

T is torque
Wv is section modulus in torsion
d is diameter of the shaft

D is outside diameter of the shaft


d is inside diameter of the shaft

Dimensioning of the Shaft


Max normal stress in bending
= M/W

M is bending moment
W is section modulus

round shaft
= 32M/d3
d is shaft diameter
hollow shaft
= 32MD/(D4 d4) D is outside diameter of the shaft
d is inside diameter of the shaft

5.1.2017

Jorma Matilainen

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Dimensioning of the Shaft


Reference stress of the shaft loaded by bending
moment and torque
ref = 2 + 32
is normal stress in bending
is shear stress in torsion

Jorma Matilainen

5.1.2017

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Fatigue strength
types of fatigue loads
reversed fatigue load
pulsating load
random load

5.1.2017

Jorma Matilainen

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Fatigue strength

Whler diagram

5.1.2017

Jorma Matilainen

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Fatigue strength
Smiths drawing

5.1.2017

Jorma Matilainen

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Dimensioning according to fatigue limit


1. Define the bending moment and torque
2. Calculate the nominal stresses (nom and nom)
3. Calculate the fatigue stress concentration
factors Kf (Kfb for bending and Kft for torsion)
Kf = 1 + q(Kt - 1)

Kt is stress factor of the notch


q is notch sensitivity of the material
(S355 and tempered steels q = 0.9)

5.1.2017

Jorma Matilainen

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Dimensioning according to fatigue limit


stress factors of the notch

5.1.2017

Jorma Matilainen

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Dimensioning according to fatigue limit


stress factors of the notch

5.1.2017

Jorma Matilainen

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Dimensioning according to fatigue limit


approximate fatigue
stress concentration
factors

5.1.2017

Jorma Matilainen

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Dimensioning according to fatigue limit


4. Calculate max stresses
bending: max = Kfbnom
torsion: max = Kftnom

5. Calculate the stress amplitudes


reversed fatigue load: a = max
pulsating load:
a = max/2

6. Calculate the reference stress

a = max
a = max/2

aref = (a2 + 3a2)

5.1.2017

Jorma Matilainen

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Dimensioning according to fatigue limit


7. Define the fatigue strength of the material

fatigue resistance under pulsation (N > 107 108)

5.1.2017

from material tables (e.g. S355: tW = 260 MPa)


or approximately if material tables are not available
tw = k * Rm
Rm is ultimate tensile strength
k = 0,49 for structural steels
k = 0,44 for tempered steels
k = 0,41 for case hardened steels
k = 0,37 for cast irons

Jorma Matilainen

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Dimensioning according to fatigue limit


7. Define the fatigue strength of the material

limited fatigue resistance under pulsation (N < 107)


tN = 0,85 * Rm (N = 1000)
tN = 0,75 * Rm (N = 10000)
tN = 0,60 * Rm (N = 100000)

5.1.2017

Jorma Matilainen

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Dimensioning according to fatigue limit


8. Define the surface factor (in figure symbol k1)
Surface roughness Ra

Ultimate tensile strength

5.1.2017

Jorma Matilainen

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Dimensioning according to fatigue limit


9. Define the scale factor m (in figure symbol k2)
d is diameter of the shaft

5.1.2017

Jorma Matilainen

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Dimensioning according to fatigue limit


10. Calculate the safety factor
both bending and torsion
n = mtw/aref

only bending
n = mtw/Kfbnom

safety factor n should be (1.5)2

5.1.2017

Jorma Matilainen

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Improving the fatigue strength of the shaft


Proper design

in discontinuities max = 23 nom

Making a compressive stress on the surface


case hardening
nitration
cold working (roll forming)

5.1.2017

Jorma Matilainen

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