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## Useful Formulas for Astronomy and Astrophysics Olympiad

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Spherical astronomy

## Law of sines and cosines (+ cyclic change)

a
sin
c2

b
c
=
sin
sin
= a2 + b2 2ab cos .
=

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Telescopes

## Resolution ability: = 1.22/D.

Magnication of the keplerian telescope: m = f1 /f2 (f1 - focal
length of objective, f2 - focal length of eye-piece).

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## Spherical law of sines and cosines (+ cyclic change)

4
Stefan-Boltzman law: L = 4R 2 Tef
(you dont have to
know Plancks formula I guess).
sin a
sin b
sin c
Wien displacement law: max = b/Tef
=
=
sin
sin
sin
Pogson formula: m1 m2 = 2.5log(I1 /I2 ), m M =
cos c = cos a cos b + sin a sin b cos .
= 5log r 5 (when extinction or bolometric correction given,
Paralaksinis trikampis: spherical triangle, consists of zenith Spectral classication: (W - Wolf-Rayet stars) Oh Be A
Z, celestial pole P + given star S. ZP = 90 ( - latitude), Fine Girl and Kiss Me Like That! (Y - substellar objects)
P S = 90 ( - declination), ZS = z (z - zenith distance), ang- Luminosity classes: 0 - hypergiants, I - supergiants, II le ZP S is hour angle t (measured from south clockwise), angle bright giants, III - normal giants, IV - subgiants, V - main
SZ P is 180 A (A - azimuth, measured from south clockwise); sequence stars, VI - subdwarfs, VII - white dwarfs (Sun is G2V
it provides transformation between azimuthal (A, z) and equ- star).
atorial coordinate system (t, ) resp. (, ) where = t ( Chandrasekhar limit: (between white dwarf and neutron
- sidereal time, measured from vernal equinox point counter- star) 1.4M , TOV limit: (between neutron star and black hos
clockwise) - just use sph. law of sines and cosines.
le) 1.5 3Ms , Schwarzschild radius: R = 2GM/c2
The equation of time = tapp tm (tapp - apparent solar time, Sun: m = 1.99 1030 kg, L = 3.85 1026 W, M =
s
s
s
tm - mean solar time).
= 4.83mag, K = Ls /4AU2 = 1368Wm2 , Ts = 5778K,
Precession: period approx. 26000 y, vernal equinox point R = 6.96 108 m, P = 25 d.
s
rot
moves in the opposite direction than right ascension increases. Hubbles law: v = Hr, for small z: v = cz. H =
Aberration: tg = vc , v is the component of veloci- = (71.0 2.5)kms1 Mpc1 (WMAP, 2010).
ty perpendicular to comming rays. Refraction: near horizon
approx 35.4 , Paralax: (arcsec) = 1/r(pc) (Annual)

## Doppler eect: v/c = z = /. Relativistic: z =

2 Celestial mechanics
= (c + v)/(c v) 1. Gravitational: for weak elds (Sun)
Conservation of: meachnical energy (kinetic + potential), can be derived from conservation of energy for photon (for pot.
= m
= mrv sin (r is energy use m = E/c 2 = hf/c2 )
angular momentum L
r v = const., |L|
Gravitation:
1 2rGM
1 rGM
c
c
z=
1
1.
m1 m2
m1 m2
m1 m2
1 2GM
1 GM

PostedbyShahreerZahanat10:22PM

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