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FORWARDING PACKETS

Dynamic protocols build control plane


IP routers make independent forwarding decision
based on IP packet header, and local CEF(Cisco
Express Forwarding) and FIB(Forwarding
Information Base) table.
MPLS routers make independent forwarding
decisions based on the MPLS label,and the
LFIB(Label forwarding information base).
The applications and solutions we provide
through MPLS +BGP+VPN is the real benefit for
the customers.
TOPOLOGY:
R1(f0/0)-->(f0/0)R2(f0/1)-->(f0/1)R3(f0/0)->(f0/0)R4(f0/1)-->(f0/1)R5(f0/0)-->(f0/0)R6(f0/1)->(f0/1)R7(f0/0(f0/0)R8(s0/0)->(s0/0)R1

R1-R2-R7-R8:customer ospf area 0


R2-R3:customer ospf area 23
R6-R7:customer ospf area 67
R3-R4-R5-R6:Provider ospf area 0
R3:BGP AS36
R6:BGP AS36
R1-R2:10.1.12.0/24
R2-R3:10.1.23.0/24
R3-R4:10.1.34.0/24
R4-R5:10.1.45.0/24
R5-R6:10.1.56.0/24
R6-R7:10.1.67.0/24
R7-R8:10.1.78.0/24
R8-R1:10.1.18.0/24
R1:lo0-1.1.1.0/24, R2:lo0-2.2.2.0/24,R3:lo03.3.3.0/24,R4:lo0-4.4.4.0/24,R5:lo0-5.5.5.0/24,R6:lo06.6.6.0/24,R7:lo0-7.7.7.0/24,R8:lo0-8.8.8.0/24

How

the packets are forwarded depends on the cef table.


Sh ip cef
Sh ip cef 6.6.6.0/24
Sh run | inc ip cef
If we turn off the cef,then we have to do Cache
switching .If we turn off cache switching then we have
to do process switching.

IOS SWITCHING OF IP PACKETS:


Process switching:
Painfully slow,looking up each and every packet
to decide of forwarding.
Cache Based Switching:
Better,painful for first process-switched
packet,info cached for future packets in flow
Topology Based Switching:
CEF uses the FIB and adjacency table ,and all
the decision making is done ,before the first
transit packet ever arrives at the door.

MPLS Basics:
Each router assigns a locally significant label for each
ip route(.(with the exception of BGP routes),and
advertises these labels to neighbors.These labels are
just numbers.
LDP is used to exchange labels.
Uses the ip routing information to determine the
direction and next hop to forward a labeled packet.
Does this before first packet even arrives.
If the router which is connected to the actual prefix
wants to advertise labels for that prefix then it will

consider downstream routers.If R1 wants to ping


6.6.6.6/24 which is advertise by R6,then that traffic is
flowing downstream towards the actual
network.So,Downstream is the network we are trying to
reach.Lets R6 have a local label 40 for the network
6.6.6.0/24 and it advertises to R5.R5 also have a local
label 42 for 6.6.6.0/24.Now,also R5 will advertise its
local label 42 to R4 for reaching 6.6.6.0/24.Now,R4
have the local label of 31 which it advertises it to R3.R3
have a local label of 17 to reach 6.6.6.0/24.
R6:
Sh ip route
Sh mpls ldp bindings 6.6.6.0 24
o Here it will show implicit-null for local
binding.It means that pull off the label
before you forwarded to me.It is a part of
the special label between 0-15.
R5:
Sh ip route
Sh mpls ldp bindings 6.6.6.0 24
o Here 2 remote bindings will show.One is
implicit-null and other will show some
label.
Cef table includes the tag which I learned from our
neighbors.
R3 will push the label and send it to R4.R4 will swap the
label and send it to R5.after that R5 will swap it and put
it implicit-null label and forwarded to R6.

R3:trace 6.6.6.6
R3:Sh ip cef 6.6.6.6 detail
R3:sh mpls forwarding-table 6.6.6.0
Every router is going to built a label information base .It
is also going to learn neighbors information regarding
labels for those same networks.

If there is a label associated with a network then router


will choose the label option above IP.
MPLS part can happen only in provider side.customer
dont run MPLS.customer can run rip,eigrp,bgp,ospf,isis.
MPLS FORWARDING:
MPLS provider edge(PE) routers do a IP route lookup
and if PE LDP neighbor has advertised a label for that IP
network,the PE will push the advertised label at layer
2.5 and forward the packet as an MPLS packet to the
downstream neighbor.
P router will swap the local label ,and put on the label it
learned from its downstream neighbor and forward it
on.
Downstream neighbors will continue to swap the labels
and forward the MPLS packet until packet reaches the
MPLS egress PE.
The egree PE will pop of any remaining labels and
forward the packet as an IP packet.