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Psychological preparedness for emergencies

Publish: 16 2014 | Author: admin

Good day to all Komrad!
Rummaging in his computer, discovered long ago saved the article, read more than once.
I want this article to share with you, so you were not too late
Take at least as truhanulo 20.03.2012 Mexico 7.6 magnitude:
Definitely is causing panic. This can happen anywhere, anytime
To somehow cope with it and do not fall into a deep shock and stress, I suggest you read the
following article.
I hope that someone in it for themselves podcherpnet necessary and useful information on the
background is not very safe environment on the planet as a whole.
Sorry for the second article in a day, but I can not tional share with you.
Thank you for understanding
In all difficult situations, plays a decisive role hardening moral and mental condition of the person.
They determine the willingness to deliberate, confident and prudent action in any critical moments.
Psychological readiness
Natural disasters, major accidents and catastrophes and their tragic consequences cause people great
emotional excitement, require high moral and psychological strength, endurance and determination,
willingness to assist the victims, save perishing wealth.
Heavy picture of destruction and devastation, the immediate threats life negatively affect the
human psyche. In some cases, may disrupt normal thinking process, weaken or eliminate selfcontrol, which leads to unnecessary and unpredictable actions.
From the moral and psychological stability fighters parts departments and non-military formations
GO depends to a large extent, with what quality, at what time will be conducted rescue operations.
Should focus on psychological compatibility when recruiting teams, teams, teams to be sent to area
emergency? Essentially, no. In divisions include professionals who work on the site will be most
needed. This is the main criterion.
That is why the leaders of disaster recovery, and natural disasters in such a situation increasingly
have to resort to the help of volunteers who are willing to take the most dangerous places. So it was
in Chernobyl, Bashkortostan, Arzamas, where people took risks knowingly, confident that they can
control their behavior and be resistant to stress factors.
The experience of accidents says that extreme situations can induce man to such deeds and actions,
which he would not have dared to normal conditions. Thus, during the earthquake in Armenia have
not anything special to allocate employee regional scale during Mouradian showed high self-rescue
and true heroism. And after the death of the entire family, he dropped his hands, not confused, not
distraught, as with others, and gathered around him a group of people with particular tenacity and
started rescue work.

Do psychologically unprepared, not hardened people a sense of fear and a desire to escape from a
dangerous place, other psychological shock, followed by numbness of muscles. At this point
brokennormal process of thinking, weakened or completely lost control over the senses of
consciousness and will. Neural processes (excitation or inhibition) are shown differently. For
example, some pupils dilate say, fear has big eyes disturbed breathing, palpitations begins the
heart is ready to break out of my chest, spasms of peripheral blood vessels whitened like chalk
appears cold sweat, muscles weaken, dropped his hands knees buckled, changing the tone of
voice, and sometimes lost the power of speech. There are even cases of death on a sudden fear of
the severe disruption of the cardiovascular system.
Such a state is quite long from several hours to several days. In the aftermath of earthquakes and
accidents sometimes have to watch people who are in a state of mental depression, may be a long
time wandering aimlessly through the ruins of the village.
Surprise of danger, not knowing the nature and possible consequences of a natural disaster or
accident, rules of conduct in this situation, lack of experience and skills in the struggle against the
elements, a weak moral and psychological training of all the reasons for such behavior.
What to do what to do to avoid such people become depressed?
First, we must remember that a man who had endured severe trauma, faster restores emotional
balance, if it is to involve any physical work and not one, but as a group.
Second, to reduce the negative impact on the human need ongoing training to operate in extreme
conditions, the formation of mental stability, education will. That is why the main content of
psychological training is to develop and consolidate the necessary psychological qualities. The main
issue here is as close as possible to the real conditions of learning that can arise in a particular
region, locality or at the facility. Especially important to educate composure, composure, ability to
think clearly in difficult and dangerous situations. Develop these qualities only by verbal reference
to actions in the area of disaster impossible. Only practice and more practice will help to get
emotional and volitional experience necessary skills and psychological stability. That is why during
the sessions with the public, and especially with the personnel units (units) should be given not only
a verbal description of the desired action is not limited to showing films and videos, and be sure to
practice the techniques and methods of the rescue, which will likely meet in the area. At the heart of
developing any skill is repeated conscious repetition of specific actions, perform the necessary
Third, the particular importance of training workers collectives of enterprises, organizations and
institutions to increase resistance to psychological stress, development of endurance, self-control,
the steady pursuit of the assigned tasks, the development of mutual assistance and cooperation.
Such training should be carried out taking into account the differentiation of formation and purpose
of each of the conditions, which may face a particular team. And this should be done in exercises
and training. The experience of the consequences of the tragic events in which concentrated
enormous spiritual, intellectual and material resources of society should be widely used in the
classroom to prepare the population to act in emergency situations.
We must remember that the level of psychological training people one of the most important
. The slightest manifestation of fear and confusion, especially in the beginning of an accident or
disaster, at the time of development of a natural disaster can lead to severe and sometimes
irreparable consequences. This primarily relates to officials obliged to take immediate action,
mobilizing a team while showing personal discipline and restraint. It was frustrating, in the strength

and possibilities of collective paralyzes the will.

So, during the winter at the station Vostok (Antarctica) PE happened: when the temperature
dropped to 70 degrees below zero, lit diesel power. From wintering required voltage limit physical,
moral and mental strength. Expedition leader confused, and there appeared the leader of the master
of the drilling crew. He shouldered the entire burden of the leader. Before this case was an ordinary
worker does not stand out. Only emergency highlighted him as a man strong-willed, strong
character, for which the team went.
Panic is a feeling of fear that gripped a group of people, which is then transmitted to others and
develops into uncontrollable process. People dramatically increases the emotional perception of
what is happening, reduced responsibility for their actions. A person can not reasonably assess their
behavior and correctly interpret the current situation. In such an atmosphere has only one voice, to
show the desire to escape from the disaster area, as human mass begins to blindly imitate.
Contributes to the emergence of panic lack of timely and reliable information. This disadvantage is
compensated immediately rumors false rumors and stories witnesses.
As the experience of natural disaster and accidents are the result of not only ignorance, but low
training people to act in extreme situations, the lack of psychological conditioning. Among the
people there is always a weak lichnostpaniker. He even minor danger seems exaggerated, huge.
Reality superseded imagination. So often say, fear has big eyes.
The reason for the panic can serve as extreme fatigue people when they are in a long time of
inactivity, the dark, suspenseful. Plays a significant role greatly reduced tone of conscious activity.
It makes the individual incapable of proper behavior in critical situations. Increased same emotional
excitability and activation of imagination stimulate impulsive, irrational actions. Most often this
happens when an unexpected and sudden onset of danger.
By the appearance of fear and panic can cause and lack of organization and order, easing
management, loss control, distrust between people, bad relationships, team disunity.
In any case, the individual is primary fear, it is a prerequisite for soil group fear to panic and
depends on the emotional sensitivity, stability. Collective panic enveloped essentially ceases to be a
team loses its symptoms. What should oppose panic?
One of the best means of combating panic moods is credible, convincing and sufficient information
about the incident population, a reminder of the rules of conduct and occasional stories about the
measures taken.
Heres an example. At a railway crossing near the station Arzamas-1 huge explosion occurred two
vehicles carrying explosives. Above the city hung a huge black mushroom. All it shocked people.
But exactly 17 minutes on the orders of the chief executive committee chairman of the city GO I.
Sklyarov on local radio transmits the first information about the incident. Next message repeated
regularly, people explained the situation to them seeking help. Even a hint of panic never observed.
To prevent panic, it is necessary at the outset of an emergency to tell people the truth about what
happened. Information should be repeated periodically, grow. Necessary not only to talk about
during the rescue and give explanations, and definitely turn to them to, involve them in the common
cause of post-disaster or accident. Everyone should feel involved in these important events.
And if there was panic yet? What to do? What to do? It should immediately stop decisively. And
preferably as early as possible when it is superficial, not covered large masses and responds rapidly
to liquidation.

Prevent panic
To do this, one should first draw, at least for a short time, peoples attention from the source of fear
or panic pathogen. Enable people to wake up for a moment of fear and try to control the crowd took
over. Try to divert the attention of people to action leader alarmists per person, sober-minded,
having equanimity. It should find a place of power and loud teams of people with a strong character.
Once this happens, we must all be involved in the fight immediately with danger. Usually, when the
first feeling of fear, most people in this situation, there is increased activity, as the desire to make
amends. This should be used to bring all the rescue works, instructing each specific site.
If panic yet covered a significant number of people, how to be then? In such cases, they must be
divided into smaller groups for each of which will be significantly easier to handle. And another
important factor is constant communication leaders of all ranks of the local administration, deputies
and other well-known and respected people in the population of the area of town where there were a
natural disaster or catastrophe.
Sense of duty and responsibility
It must grow, nurture and cherish. Not all of it is given, not all of them possess. Only true patriots of
the motherland, the people devoted to their people, in fact, not words, are able to perform feats
quiet, no noise, as if every day. And there are a lot of people. Theyre just in everyday life, as it
were invisible, like like it. Their will and character, sense of responsibility manifested in actual
cases, in critical situations, when required, in some cases the country in the interests of the other
city, district, company, when there is a righteous purpose, a common task, which aims to fulfill the
majority of people.
Preparation of the population the state task
Referring to todays realities. Maybe preparing the population to act in emergency situations is not
so necessary, maybe someone this process artificially inflated? No!
Only in the last 20 years in the world due to natural disasters killed nearly 3 million people and at
least 800 million suffered various diseases. Economic losses sometimes simply irreplaceable and
In this regard, for the implementation of protective measures to ensure public safety and reduce
possible damage created by a presidential decree Russian warning system and emergency (RSE). It
is charged with the unified state policy in the field of emergency prevention and response,
protection of life and health of people, material and cultural values, the environment, ensuring
readiness of the forces and means to act in emergency situations.
RF Law On protection of population and territories from emergency situations of natural and manmade is the main starting act of defining and legitimizing the entire warning system, emergency
action and establishes the principle of educating the public on the scale of Russia.
They stipulate that all information in the field of population and territories from emergency
situations, as well as on the activities of government bodies and local self-government is now
transparent and open. They are required to promptly and accurately inform the public through the
media and other channels. They also entrusted the preparation and content of the forces and means
for liquidation of emergency situations, teaching people how to protect themselves and act in times
of crisis.
Now the population itself can not stand aloof from the tasks of prevention and mitigation of natural
disasters, accidents and catastrophes.

This means that the education and moral and psychological training of workers, civil servants,
agricultural workers and the general population should be raised to a new level, to get organized,
massive and carried everywhere.
As organizational sequence in which it should be done?
The Russian Government by its Resolution dated July 24, 1995 738 defined procedure for
preparation of the population and the protection against disaster. It is becoming increasingly
global, national scale and carried out under the relevant age or social groups, ranging from
preschools and ending inoperative community policing. A preparation of all students is conducted in
schools during school hours for special programs.
In order to verify the training of the population, instilling in him the skills for a reasonable and
prudent emergency government requires regular command staff, special tactical, complex exercises
and training in enterprises, organizations and institutions, regardless of their legal form
Of course, the formation of such moral and psychological qualities of combat as an initiative, quick
reflexes, determination, ability to resist fear and panic could withstand extreme physical exertion,
should be an integral part of the entire system of training and education of the Russian population
for action in any emergency. ,>