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Chapter 9

Fundamentals of Communication
Networks

Cognitive Radio Communications and Networks: Principles and Practice


By A. M. Wyglinski, M. Nekovee, Y. T. Hou (Elsevier, December 2009)

Communication Network
Architecture
Communication devices
Network nodes
Communication links

Cognitive Radio Communications and Networks: Principles and Practice


By A. M. Wyglinski, M. Nekovee, Y. T. Hou (Elsevier, December 2009)

Protocol Architecture
Break communication task down into
subtasks
Divide-and-conquer approach
Hierarchical layers

Protocols
Define subtask operation within a layer
TCP/IP protocols

Cognitive Radio Communications and Networks: Principles and Practice


By A. M. Wyglinski, M. Nekovee, Y. T. Hou (Elsevier, December 2009)

Switching Technologies
Circuit switching
Circuit establishment
Data transfer
Circuit termination

Cognitive Radio Communications and Networks: Principles and Practice


By A. M. Wyglinski, M. Nekovee, Y. T. Hou (Elsevier, December 2009)

Switching Technologies
Packet switching
Store-and-forward
Network resources allocated on-demand

Cognitive Radio Communications and Networks: Principles and Practice


By A. M. Wyglinski, M. Nekovee, Y. T. Hou (Elsevier, December 2009)

Switching Technologies
Virtual circuit switching
Combining features of circuit switching
and packet switching
Virtual circuit pre-established
Link bandwidth shared efficiently

Cognitive Radio Communications and Networks: Principles and Practice


By A. M. Wyglinski, M. Nekovee, Y. T. Hou (Elsevier, December 2009)

Encapsulation and Multiplexing

Cognitive Radio Communications and Networks: Principles and Practice


By A. M. Wyglinski, M. Nekovee, Y. T. Hou (Elsevier, December 2009)

Naming and Addressing


Domain name
Domain Name System (DNS)

Port number
Well-known port numbers
Ephemeral port numbers

Cognitive Radio Communications and Networks: Principles and Practice


By A. M. Wyglinski, M. Nekovee, Y. T. Hou (Elsevier, December 2009)

Naming and Addressing


IP address
Subnetting
Socket: combination of an IP address
and a port number

Medium Access Control (MAC)


address

Cognitive Radio Communications and Networks: Principles and Practice


By A. M. Wyglinski, M. Nekovee, Y. T. Hou (Elsevier, December 2009)

Multiple Access
Media shared in a broadcast network
Rules for hosts to access the media
Media Access Control (MAC)

Cognitive Radio Communications and Networks: Principles and Practice


By A. M. Wyglinski, M. Nekovee, Y. T. Hou (Elsevier, December 2009)

Routing and Forwarding


Network layer function
Maintaining network topology
information
Routing table

Forwarding packets
Packets forwarded hop-by-hop

Cognitive Radio Communications and Networks: Principles and Practice


By A. M. Wyglinski, M. Nekovee, Y. T. Hou (Elsevier, December 2009)

Congestion Control and Flow


Control
Congestion control
Router congestion

Flow control
Fast transmitter and slow receiver

Cognitive Radio Communications and Networks: Principles and Practice


By A. M. Wyglinski, M. Nekovee, Y. T. Hou (Elsevier, December 2009)

Error Control
Checksum in TCP/IP
Cyclic redundancy check (CRC) in
Ethernet
Sequence numbers to detect lost
packets

Cognitive Radio Communications and Networks: Principles and Practice


By A. M. Wyglinski, M. Nekovee, Y. T. Hou (Elsevier, December 2009)

New Challenges in Wireless


Networks
Wireless transmissions
Different concept of communication link
Coupled channels
Capacity limited by SINR

Mobility
Handoff in infrastructure-based wireless
networks
Rerouting in infrastructureless wireless
networks

Energy efficiency
Significant impact in every layer
Cognitive Radio Communications and Networks: Principles and Practice
By A. M. Wyglinski, M. Nekovee, Y. T. Hou (Elsevier, December 2009)

Mobility Modeling
The Random Waypoint Model

Cognitive Radio Communications and Networks: Principles and Practice


By A. M. Wyglinski, M. Nekovee, Y. T. Hou (Elsevier, December 2009)

Mobility Modeling
Speed distribution

Average speed
Location distribution

Cognitive Radio Communications and Networks: Principles and Practice


By A. M. Wyglinski, M. Nekovee, Y. T. Hou (Elsevier, December 2009)

Perfect Simulation

Cognitive Radio Communications and Networks: Principles and Practice


By A. M. Wyglinski, M. Nekovee, Y. T. Hou (Elsevier, December 2009)

Power Control and Multiuser


Diversity
Uplink of a infrastructure-based wireless
network
Received signal at the base station is

Frequency flat Reyleigh fading


Objective
Cognitive Radio Communications and Networks: Principles and Practice
By A. M. Wyglinski, M. Nekovee, Y. T. Hou (Elsevier, December 2009)

Power Control and Multiuser


Diversity
No power control
Perfect power control
Optimal power control

Cognitive Radio Communications and Networks: Principles and Practice


By A. M. Wyglinski, M. Nekovee, Y. T. Hou (Elsevier, December 2009)

Power Control and Multiuser


Diversity

Cognitive Radio Communications and Networks: Principles and Practice


By A. M. Wyglinski, M. Nekovee, Y. T. Hou (Elsevier, December 2009)

Multiple Access Schemes


Classification of multi-access schemes

Cognitive Radio Communications and Networks: Principles and Practice


By A. M. Wyglinski, M. Nekovee, Y. T. Hou (Elsevier, December 2009)

Polling
Queueing system with one server and m
stations
Finite buffer and infinite buffer

Cognitive Radio Communications and Networks: Principles and Practice


By A. M. Wyglinski, M. Nekovee, Y. T. Hou (Elsevier, December 2009)

Polling
Service policies
Limited service
Exhaustive service
Gated service

Cognitive Radio Communications and Networks: Principles and Practice


By A. M. Wyglinski, M. Nekovee, Y. T. Hou (Elsevier, December 2009)

ALOHA and Slotted ALOHA


ALOHA
A station transmits a packet whenever it
wants to
Maximum throughput 0.184

Slotted ALOHA
Time is divided into slots
Maximum throughput 0.368

Cognitive Radio Communications and Networks: Principles and Practice


By A. M. Wyglinski, M. Nekovee, Y. T. Hou (Elsevier, December 2009)

CSMA
User senses the medium before start
transmission
Hold packets until the medium is free
Strategies
1-persistent CSMA
Non-persistent CSMA

Cognitive Radio Communications and Networks: Principles and Practice


By A. M. Wyglinski, M. Nekovee, Y. T. Hou (Elsevier, December 2009)

CSMA
An example of collision in CSMA

Cognitive Radio Communications and Networks: Principles and Practice


By A. M. Wyglinski, M. Nekovee, Y. T. Hou (Elsevier, December 2009)

CSMA
A typical cycle of CSMA operation

Cognitive Radio Communications and Networks: Principles and Practice


By A. M. Wyglinski, M. Nekovee, Y. T. Hou (Elsevier, December 2009)

CSMA/CA

Cognitive Radio Communications and Networks: Principles and Practice


By A. M. Wyglinski, M. Nekovee, Y. T. Hou (Elsevier, December 2009)

Hidden Terminal and Exposed


Terminal Problems
Hidden terminal problem

Exposed terminal problem

Cognitive Radio Communications and Networks: Principles and Practice


By A. M. Wyglinski, M. Nekovee, Y. T. Hou (Elsevier, December 2009)

Routing, Energy Efficiency and


Network Lifetime

Cognitive Radio Communications and Networks: Principles and Practice


By A. M. Wyglinski, M. Nekovee, Y. T. Hou (Elsevier, December 2009)

Maximizing Network Lifetime

Cognitive Radio Communications and Networks: Principles and Practice


By A. M. Wyglinski, M. Nekovee, Y. T. Hou (Elsevier, December 2009)

Congestion Control in Wireless


Networks
TCP is not suitable for wireless networks
Basic assumption: all loss are due to buffer
overflow
Suffers from frequent route failures and MAC
layer contention

TCP enhancements
Link layer mechanisms
Split TCP
Explicit notification schemes
Cognitive Radio Communications and Networks: Principles and Practice
By A. M. Wyglinski, M. Nekovee, Y. T. Hou (Elsevier, December 2009)

Cross-layer Design and


Optimization

Cognitive Radio Communications and Networks: Principles and Practice


By A. M. Wyglinski, M. Nekovee, Y. T. Hou (Elsevier, December 2009)

Cross-layer Principles
Interactions and the law of unintended
consequences
Dependency graph
Timescale separation and stability
The chaos of unbridled cross-layer
design

Cognitive Radio Communications and Networks: Principles and Practice


By A. M. Wyglinski, M. Nekovee, Y. T. Hou (Elsevier, December 2009)