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FourthAmendment

4thAmendment
The4thAmendmentgenerallyprohibitsunreasonablesearchesandseizures.Inordertobringsuitfora4thAmendment
claim,thedefendantmustfirstshowthat:(1)therewasgovernmentaction;(2)involvingasearchorseizure;and(3)thathe
orshehasstanding.
GovernmentAction
The4thAmendmentonlyprotectsagainstgovernmentconductandnotactionsbyprivateindividuals.
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SearchAndSeizure
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Standing
Inordertohavestandingtomakea4thAmendmentclaim,theplaintiffmusthaveareasonableexpectationof
privacyintheplacesearchedandasubstantialownershipinterestinthethingseized.
WarrantRequirement
Inorderforasearchorseizuretobevalidunderthe4thAmendment,thepolicemusthaveavalidwarrantorhaveavalid
exceptiontothewarrantrequirement
ValidWarrant
Avalidwarrantrequiresashowingofprobablecausethatseizableevidencewillbefoundintheplacesearched.
Priortotheissuanceofawarrant,however,officersmustsubmitanaffidavittoadetachedandneutralmagistrate
settingforththecircumstancesenablingthemagistratetomakeanindependent,impartialdeterminationofthe
probablecause.Onceissue,thewarrantitselfmustbepreciseonitsfaceinordertobevalid.Thismeansthatit
mustdescribewithprecisiontobesearchedanditemstobeseized.
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ExceptionsToTheWarrantRequirement
Allwarrantlesssearchesviolatethe4thAmendmentunlessarecognizedexceptionapplies.
SearchIncidentToALawfulArrest
Incidenttoalawfularrest,lawenforcementmaysearchthearresteeandanyareasintowhichhemighthave
control.Anarresteehascontroloverthoseareasintowhichhemightreachtoobtainweaponsrdestroyevidence.
LawfulArrest
Alawfularrestisoneforwhichanofficerhasprobablecause.Evidencediscoveredafterthearrestmay
notberetroactivelyusedtojustifythearrest.
Incident
Inorderforasearchtobeincidenttoalawfularrest,thesearchmustbecontemporaneousintimeand
placewiththearrest
AutomobileException
Undertheautomobileexception,lawenforcementmaysearchanentirevehiclethattheybelievetocontainfruits,
instrumentalitiesorevidenceofacrimetheymayalsosearchanycontainerswiththevehicleforwhichtheyhave
probablecausetosearch.
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StopAndFrisk

Underthestopfriskexception,lawenforcementanystopapersonwithoutprobablecauseforarrestifthereis
reasonablearticulablesuspicionofcriminalactivity.Iftheofficerbelievesthatthepersonisarmedanddangerous,
heorshemayalsoconductaprotectivefriskoftheindividual.
Thefriskislimitedtoapatdownoftheindividualsclothingunlesstheofficerhasreasontobelievethataweapon
ishiddentherein.Ifduringthepatdown,theofficerbelievesbasedonplainfeelthatthereisaweaponor
contrabandinthesuspectsclothing,theofficermayreachinsidetheclothingtoremoveit.
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PlainView
Undertheplainviewexception,lawenforcementmaymakeawarrantlesssearchwhenthey:(1)arelegitimately
onthepremises;(2)discoverevidence,fruitsorinstrumentalitiesofacrime,orcontraband;(3)seesuchevidence
inplainview;and(4)haveprobablecausetobelievethattheitemisevidenceofacrime.
ExigentCircumstances/HotPursuit
Underthehotpursuitexception,lawenforcementmay:(1)inpursuitofafleeingfelonmakeawarrantlesssearch
andseizureorevenfollowthefelonintoaprivatedwelling(2)makeawarrantlessseizureofanyevidencelikely
todisappearbeforeawarrantcanbeobtained;and(3)makeawarrantlesssearchofseizureofcontaminatedfood
ordrugs,childrenintrouble,andburningfires.
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Consent
Awarrantlesssearchisvalidisthepolicehavevoluntaryandintelligentconsent.Thescopeofthesearchislimited
tothescopeconsentedtoandconsentmustbegivenbysomeonewiththeactualorapparentauthoritytoofferit.
ImpliedConsent
Impliedconsentexistswhenthesurroundingcircumstancesleadareasonablepersontobelievethat
consenthasbeengrantedeventhoughwordsofagreementwerenotdirect,expressorexplicitly.
ExclusionaryRule
Undertheexclusionaryrule,anyevidenceobtainedinviolationofadefendants4thAmendmentrightsisinadmissible
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FifthAmendment
5thAmendment
The5thAmendmentprovidesforaprivilegeagainstselfincrimination.However,beforetheprivilegecanbeinvoked,a
defendantmusthavestanding.Adefendanthasstandingwhenheissubjecttocustodialinterrogationbygovernment
agents.
GovernmentConduct
Custody
Apersonisincustodywhenthepersonsfreedomofactionisdeniedinasignificantwaybasedontheobjective
circumstances(whetherareasonablepersonwouldfeelprohibitedfromleaving)
Interrogation
Interrogationincludesanywordsorconductbythepolicethattheyshouldknowwouldlikelyelicitan
incriminatingresponsefromthedefendant.
MirandaWarnings
Oncethedefendantissubjecttocustodialinterrogation,anincriminatingstatementisonlyadmissibleafterthedefendant
hasbeenadvisedofhisMirandarights.TheMirandawarningsinclude:(1)therighttoremainsilent;(2)anythingsaidcan

beusedagainstthedefendantincourtoflaw;(3)therighttoanattorney;and(4)thatanattorneywillbebeappointedifthe
defendantcannotaffordone.
PublicSafetyException
Ifpoliceinterrogationisreasonablypromptedbyconcernforpublicsafety,responsestotothequestionsmaybe
usedincourt,eventhoughthesuspectwasincustodyandMirandawarningwerenotgiven.
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ExclusionaryRule/FruitsOfThePoisonousTree
Undertheexclusionrule,anyevidenceobtainedinviolationofdefendants4th,5thor6thAmendmentrightisinadmissible
evidence.Inaddition,underthefruitsofthepoisonoustreedoctrine,anyevidenceobtainedfromexploitationofthe
illegallyobtainedevidencedisalsoinadmissible.
InevitableDiscoveryDoctrine
Onemajorexceptiontotheexclusionaryruleistheinevitablediscoverydoctrine.Undertheinevitablediscovery
doctrine,otherwiseinadmissibleevidencebecomeadmissibleifittheprosecutioncanshowthatthepolicewould
havediscovereditwithoutviolatingthedefendantsconstitutionalrights.
14thAmendment
Underthe14thAmendmentDueProcessClause,anincriminatingstatementorconfessionisadmissibleonlyifitwas
voluntary.
Voluntary
Voluntarinessisdeterminedbyanevaluationofthetotalityofthecircumstances.Itgenerallymeansthatthe
statementwasthebyproductofrationalintellectandfreewillandnotofficialcompulsionorcoercion.
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SixthAmendment

ExclusiveRule
EvidenceobtainedinviolationofDefendantsConstitutionalrightsisinadmissibleincourttoproveguilt.
RightToCounsel
TheSixthAmendmentrighttocounselprovidesthatanaccusedshallenjoytherighttocounselincriminalproceedings.
Therightattachesatacriticalstageandwhereformalproceedingshavebegun.
Imprisonment
Therighthasbeenheldtoapplytoallfeloniesandmisdemeanorswhenactualimprisonmentisimposed.Thus,
(defendants)SixthAmendmentrighttocounselattached.
Thus,(defendants)SixthAmendmentrighttocounseldidnotattach.
RightsAtALaterDate
However,therightmayattachatalaterdateshouldDefendantbesentencedtojailbasedonthiscase.
PostChargeLineUp
Thisrighthasbeenheldtoapplytoidentificationmadepostchargelineups
DueProcess
Anyidentificationofadefendant(showuporphotographicarray)mayalsobeattackedforviolatingdefendantsdue
processrightif1)Theidentificationwasunnecessarilysuggestive,and2)Therewasasubstantiallikelihoodof
misidentification.
IneffectiveAssistanceOfCounsel

TheshowthatCounselsassistancewasineffective,aconvicteddefendantmustprove(both).1)Counselsperformance
wassodeficientastodepriveDefendantofcounsel,and2)Counselsdeficientperformancemusthaveprejudicedthe
defensesuchthatdefensesuchthatDefendantwasdeprivedofafairtrial
ProSeRepresentation
Defendanthastherighttorepresentherself,butbeforeallowingitthejudgemustdeterminethat1)Defendantisawareof
herrightcounsel2)defendantiscompetenttowaivethatright3)defendanthasexpresslywaivedthatright
StandByCounsel
Thecourtmayappointstandbycounseltoassistaprosedefendantuponrequestofeitherparty,oruponitsowninitiative,
butthereisnorighttostandbycounsel.
RightToASpeedyTrial
The6thamendmentprovidesthatoncethedefendanthasbeenformallychargedorarrested,hemustbegivenaspeedytrial.
Thedeterminationofwhetherthedefendantsrighthavebeenviolatedismadebyevaluatingthetotalityofthe
circumstances.(lengthandreasonofdelay,prejudice,whetherDassertedhisright)
Remedydismissalwithprejudice
RightToPublicTrial
The6thand14thamendmentsguaranteetherighttoapublictrial,buttherightvarieswiththestageoftheproceeding
involved.
PretrialProceeding
Preliminaryprobablecausehearingsarepresumptivelyopentothepublicandpress,asarepretrialsuppression
hearings.AlthoughthelattermaybeclosedtothepublicifnootherreasonablealternativesexisttoprotectDefendants
righttoafairtrial.
Trial
Thepressandpublichaveafirstamendmentrighttoattendthetrialitself,evenwhenthedefenseandprosecutionagreeto
closeit.Thestatemayconstitutionallypermittelevisingcriminalproceedingsoverthedefendantsobjection.
RightToJuryTrial
The6thamendmentrighttoatrialbyjuryappliedtoseriousoffensesforwhichimprisonmentmayexceedsixmonths.
Thereisalsonorighttoajurytrialinjuveniledelinquencyproceedings.
NumberOfJurors
Noconstitutionalrighttoa12personjury.
FederalStatute
12personjuryisrequiredinallfederalcriminaltrials
UnanimityOfVerdict
Federalguiltyverdictmustbeunanimous
StateRequirementsVia14thAmendment
Atleast6personsonajurytosatisfytherighttoajurytrial
UnanimityOfVerdict
9of12jurorsmayconvictwithoutviolated6thamendment.Capitaloffensesrequireunanimousverdicts
RepresentativeJury
adefendanthasarighttohavethejuryselectedfromarepresentativecrosssectionofthecommunity

PeremptoryChallenges
generally,theprosecutionmayexerciseperemptorychallengesforanyreason,buttheequalprotectionclauseforbidsthe
useofperemptorychallengetoexcludepotentialjurorssolelyonraceorgender.Inordertoattackperemptorystrikesbased
onaviolationofequalprotection,1)Dmustshowfactsorcircumstancesthatraiseaninferencethattheexclusionwas
basedonraceorgender2)uponashowingtheprosecutormustprofferarace/genderneutralexplanationforstrike3)judge
determineswhetherexplanationwasgenuineormerelyapretextforpurposefuldiscrimination
RightToAnImpartialJury
JurorOppositionToDeathPenalty
ajurormaybedismissedforcauseifthejurorsviewwouldpreventorsubstantiallyimpairtheperformanceofhisdutiesin
accordwiththecourtsinstructiontoremainfairandimpartial
Exception
solongasthejurorstateshecanperformhisdutiesinaccordwiththecourtsinstructionandremainfairandimpartial,
jurorcannotbeexcused
JurorFavoringDeathPenalty
Ifajurywilldecidewhetheradefendantistobesentencedtodeath,onvoirdire,thedmustbeallowedtoaskpotential
jurorsiftheywouldautomaticallygivethedeathpenaltyuponaguiltyverdict.Ajurorwhoanswersaffirmativelymustbe
excludedforcause
JuryMisconduct
jurymisconductmaybebasistosetasideajuryverdict.Thecourtswillgenerallynotinquireintoanotherjurorsbeliefthat
acojurorisnotattentive,ratherthecourtwillrequireindependentevidence.Alsothejudgeshoulddetermineifthe
offendingjurorsconductwasharmless
PleaBargaining
Guiltyplea
Aguiltypleamustbemadevoluntarily,intelligently,andknowledge,anditwaivesthe6thamendmentrighttoajurytrial.
Judgemustpersonallyadvisesthedefendant1)ofthenatureofthechargetowhichthepleaisoffended2)ofthemaximum
possiblepenaltyandofanymandatoryminimum3)thatdefendanthasarightnottopleadguilty,and4)thatbypleading
guilty,thedefendantwaiveshisrighttotrial.
EffectOfGuiltyPlea
Aguiltypleaconvictionmaybeusedasaconvictioninorderrelevantproceedings.
CollateralAttacksOnGuiltyPleaAfterSentencing
Aguiltypleacanbesetasideforinvoluntariness,lackofjurisdiction,ineffectiveassistanceofcounsel,orfailuretokeep
thepleabargain.
Remedy
Theremedyforafailuretomeetthestandardsfortakingapleaiswithdrawalofthepleaandpleadinganew.
ProsecutorsDutyToDiscloseExculpatory
BradyRule
Dueprocessrequirestheprosecutortodiscloseevidencefavorabletotheaccusedafteraspecificrequestwheresuch
evidenceismaterialtoguiltorpunishment,orwouldcreateareasonabledoubtastoadefendantsguilt
Remedy
Aconvictionarisingfromacasewhereexceulpatoryevidencehasnotbeendisclosedwillbeoverturnedifthereisa
reasonableprobabilitythattheresultoftheproceedingwouldhavebeendifferentiftheevidencehadbeendisclosedtothe
defense.

RightOfConfrontation
The6thamendmentgrantsacriminaldefendanttherighttoconfrontandconductameaningfulcrossexaminationofadverse
witnesses,buttherightisnotabsolute.Facetofaceconfrontationisnotrequiredwhenpreventingsuchconfrontationserves
animportantpublicpurpose.
StatementsOfANonTestifyingCoDefendant
Statementsofnontestifyingcodefendantmustbeexcludedunlessallportionsreferringtotheotherdefendantcanbe
eliminated,theconfessingdefendanttakesthestandandsubjectshimselftocrossexamination;ortheconfessionofthenon
testifyingcodefendantisbeingusedtorebutthedefendantsclaimhisconfessionwasobtainedcoercively.
EightAmendment
The8thAmendmentspecifiesthatexcessivebailshallnotberequired,notexcessivefinesimposed,notcruelandunusual
punishmentsinflicted.
RightAgainstExcessiveBail
Moststateconstitutioncreatearighttobereleasedonbailunlesschargedwithacapitalcrime.Themainpurposeofbailis
nottopunish,buttoensurethatdefendantappearsforhisnextcourtappearance.
Thecourthasdiscretionontheamountbasedon1)natureandseverityofthecrime,2)defendantscriminalrecord
(especiallymissedcourtappearances);3)safetyforvictimorpublic.
SentencingRules
Duringsentencingthedefendantisentitledtocounselbutnottoanadversarialproceedingandcrossexamination.Judges
canrelyonhearsay.
CruelAndUnusualPunishment
Appliesonlytopersonsalreadyconvictedofacrime.Sentencecannotbegrosslydisproportionatetoseriousnessofoffense.
DeathPenalty
8thAmendmentprohibitionagainstcruelandunusualpunishmentrequiresthatanydeathpenaltymust1)allowthejudgeor
juryguidelinesanddiscretiontoimposesuchasentenceand2)allowforhearingfullinformationaboutthedefendant,
includingmitigatingcircumstances.
FelonyMurder
TheSupremeCourthasheldthatthedeathpenaltycanbeimposedonadefendantconvictedoffelonymurderifhewasa
majorcontributortothecrimeandactedwithrecklessindifferencetolivesofothers.