Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 13

Assignment on

Communication Skills
Submitted To :

Submitted By:

Prof PreetanjanKaur

R.NO- PG09-40118

To Whom It May Concern:
This is to certify that under mentioned students have
carried out a work on the topic Communication skills.
No part of this project work has already been published
for award of any degree or diploma.


I deeply acknowledge the support of Prof.
Preetanjankaur who initially helped and motivated
us to embark on this strenuous .I would like to give
thanks to providing me an opportunity to make this

Communication Skills
The term 'Communication' has been derived from the Latin word 'communis' that
means 'common'. Thus 'to communicate' means 'to make common' or 'to make
known'. This act of making common and known is carried out through exchange of
thoughts, ideas or the like. The exchange of thoughts and ideas can be had by
gestures, signs, signals, speech or writing. People are said to be in communication
when they discuss some matter, or when they talk on telephone, or when they
exchange information through letters.
Basically, communication is sharing information, whether in writing or orally.
Effective communication is all about conveying your messages to other people
clearly and unambiguously. It's also about receiving information that others are
sending to you, with as little distortion as possible.
In fact, communication is only successful when both the sender and the receiver
understand the same information as a result of the communication.

The Communication Process

Communicationthat is what we try to dospeak to those near us
Thought: First, information exists in the mind of the sender. This can be a
concept, idea, information, or feelings.
Encoding: Next, a message is sent to a receiver in words or other symbols.
Decoding: lastly, the receiver translates the words or symbols into a concept
or information that he or she can understand.

During the transmitting of the message, two elements will be received: content and
Content is the actual words or symbols of the message which is known as
language - the spoken and written words combined into phrases that make
grammatical and semantic sense. We all use and interpret the meanings of words
differently, so even simple messages can be misunderstood. And many words have
different meanings to confuse the issue even more.
Context is the way the message is delivered and is known as paralanguage - it is
the non verbal elements in speech such as the tone of voice, the look in the sender's
eyes, body language, hand gestures, and state of emotions (anger, fear, uncertainty,
confidence, etc.) that can be detected. Although paralanguage or context often
cause messages to be misunderstood as we believe what we see more than what we
hear; they are powerful communicators that help us to understand each other.
Indeed, we often trust the accuracy of nonverbal behaviors more than verbal
Some leaders think they have communicated once they told someone to do
something, "I don't know why it did not get done. I told Jim to do it." More than
likely, Jim misunderstood the message. A message has NOT been communicated
unless it is understood by the receiver (decoded). How do you know it has been
properly received? By two-way communication or feedback. This feedback tells
the sender that the receiver understood the message, its level of importance, and
what must be done with it. Communication is an exchange, not just a give, as all
parties must participate to complete the information exchange.

Types of communication

Verbal Communication


Non Verbal Communication


Verbal Communication
The basis of communication is the interaction between people. Verbal
communication is one way for people to communicate face-to-face. Some
of the key components of verbal communication are sound, words, speaking,
and language.

Types of Verbal Communication

There are basically two types of verbal communication: Oral-which means spoken words
Written-which means in written form
2. Non Verbal Communication
Nonverbal communication can be best defined as the procedure of
communicating with a person or party without using any form of speech to
grab an audience attention or to exploit a message. Non verbal
communication is often used to make an expression of a thought or thoughts
and make your message more appealing and interesting to whom you are

The advantages of non-verbal communication are:

1) You can communicate with someone who is hard of hearing of deaf.
2) You can communicate at place where you are supposed to maintain silence.

3) You can communicate something which you don't want others to hear or listen
4) You can communicate if you are far away from a person. The person can see but
not hear you.
5) Non-verbal communication makes conversation short and brief.
6) You can save on time and use it as a tool to communicate with poeple who don't
understand your language.

The disadvantages of non-verbal communication are:

1) You can not have long conversation.
2) Can not discuss the particulars of your message
3) Difficult to understand and requires a lot of repetitions.
4) Can not be used as a public tool for communication.
6) Less influential and can not be used everywhere.
7) Not everybody prefers to communicate through non-verbal communication.
8) Can not create an impression upon people/listeners.

Types ofNonverbal Communication

What are the types of nonverbal communication? There are 5 types of nonverbal
communication; the 5 types of nonverbal communication are the following:
1. Eye Contact
2. Facial Expressions
3. Gestures

4. Posture & Body Orientation

5. Proximity
6. Vocal
Eye contact: This helps to regulate the flow of communication. It signals
interest in others and increases the speaker's credibility. People who make
eye contact open the flow of communication and convey interest, concern,
warmth, and credibility.
Facial Expressions: Smiling is a powerful cue that transmits happiness,
friendliness, warmth, and liking. So, if you smile frequently you will be
perceived as more likable, friendly, warm and approachable. Smiling is often
contagious and people will react favorably. They will be more comfortable
around you and will want to listen more.
Gestures: If you fail to gesture while speaking you may be perceived as
boring and stiff. A lively speaking style captures the listener's attention,
makes the conversation more interesting, and facilitates understanding.
Posture and body orientation: You communicate numerous messages by
the way you talk and move. Standing erect and leaning forward
communicates to listeners that you are approachable, receptive and friendly.
Interpersonal closeness results when you and the listener face each other.
Speaking with your back turned or looking at the floor or ceiling should be
avoided as it communicates disinterest.
Proximity: Cultural norms dictate a comfortable distance for interaction
with others. You should look for signals of discomfort caused by invading
the other person's space. Some of these are: rocking, leg swinging, tapping,
and gaze aversion.

Vocal: Speaking can signal nonverbal communication when you include

such vocal elements as: tone, pitch, rhythm, timbre, loudness, and inflection.
For maximum teaching effectiveness, learn to vary these six elements of
your voice. One of the major criticisms of many speakers is that they speak
in a monotone voice. Listeners perceive this type of speaker as boring and

Barriers to Communication
Nothing is so simple that it cannot be misunderstood. - Freeman Teague, Jr.
Anything that prevents understanding of the message is a barrier to
communication. Many physical and psychological barriers exist:
Culture, background, and bias - We allow our past experiences to change
the meaning of the message. Our culture, background, and bias can be good
as they allow us to use our past experiences to understand something new, it
is when they change the meaning of the message that they interfere with the
communication process.
Noise - Equipment or environmental noise impedes clear communication.
The sender and the receiver must both be able to concentrate on the
messages being sent to each other.
Ourselves - Focusing on ourselves, rather than the other person can lead to
confusion and conflict. The "Me Generation" is out when it comes to
effective communication. Some of the factors that cause this are
defensiveness (we feel someone is attacking us), superiority (we feel we
know more that the other), and ego (we feel we are the center of the
Perception - If we feel the person is talking too fast, not fluently, does not
articulate clearly, etc., we may dismiss the person. Also our preconceived
attitudes affect our ability to listen. We listen uncritically to persons of high
status and dismiss those of low status.
Message - Distractions happen when we focus on the facts rather than the
idea. Our educational institutions reinforce this with tests and questions.
Semantic distractions occur when a word is used differently than you prefer.
For example, the word chairman instead of chairperson, may cause you to
focus on the word and not the message.
Environmental - Bright lights, an attractive person, unusual sights, or any
other stimulus provides a potential distraction.

Smothering - We take it for granted that the impulse to send useful

information is automatic. Not true! Too often we believe that certain
information has no value to others or they are already aware of the facts.
Stress - People do not see things the same way when under stress. What we
see and believe at a given moment is influenced by our psychological frames
of references - our beliefs, values, knowledge, experiences, and goals.

In today's competitive business environment, social skills and proper etiquette can
mean the difference between finding and winning the job of your career and
standing still in your career. The confidence of knowing you can hold your own in
any social setting, from the white-knuckled nervousness of a first interview to a
casual business lunch, can change the way people perceive and judge you. The key
to proper business etiquette is: "Do unto others as they would want you to do unto
To be successful in the business world, a person must use proper verbal etiquette.
One important aspect of verbal etiquette is a proper introduction. Every day we
encounter people in a variety of business and social situations. The way we meet
and greet them creates lasting impressions and paves the way for a productive
encounter. Introductions project information. Besides the obvious elements of
name, title, and affiliation, an introduction conveys a level of respect and reflects
how the person making the introduction views the other person's status. Mastering
the art of the introduction will help put you and the people you are introducing at
ease. Learning the basics - and they are not very difficult - is the first step.
Basic points to remember when making introductions:
The most important point about introductions is to always make them, even
if you can't remember names. Failing to do so causes embarrassment and
discomfort. If given a choice, most people would prefer you to make the
introduction incorrectly, even if you forgot their name, rather than stand
there unacknowledged and disregarded.
A second important point in any introduction is the order of names. The
name of the person being introduced is mentioned last, and the person to
whom the introduction is made is mentioned first. In a business setting,
introductions are based on power and hierarchy. Simply, persons of lesser

authority are introduced to persons of greater authority. Gender plays no role

in business etiquette; nor does it affect the order of introductions.
Another important aspect of verbal etiquette is the way in which people address
others in a business setting. Once introduced, improperly addressing superiors,
colleagues, customers and clients, or subordinates at future meetings may create
tension and will create a negative impression. Generally, it is appropriate to
address subordinates and others with whom an informal relationship has been
established by their first name. In formal relationships, or when the relationship
status is unknown, it is necessary to refer to the individual using the appropriate
gender-specific title. When gender-specific titles are necessary, use Mister (Mr.) to
address men, Misses (Mrs.) to address married women, and Miss (Ms.) to address
women who are single or whose marital status is unknown. Following are more
specific rules for addressing others in business settings:
Superiors: Always address superiors with the appropriate gender-specific
title, unless he/she gives express permission to do otherwise.
Colleagues: It is generally accepted procedure to address colleagues by first
name. Exceptions arise when the relationship is formal or unfamiliar.
Subordinates: If the superior has established an informal relationship with
the subordinate, use of first names is appropriate. If the relationship is
formal or unfamiliar, the appropriate gender-specific title is necessary.
Clients and Customers: Most relationships with clients or customers are
formal, dictating appropriate gender-specific titles. Occasionally, though, an
amiable relationship has been established and would allow the use of first
A third aspect of business etiquette is proper telephone procedure. Since much of
todays business is done over the phone, using correct telephone etiquette is more
important than ever. Lasting impressions may be formed during and after telephone
conversations, and business people, in order to be successful, must maintain a
positive impression. This dictates that people use proper telephone etiquette.
There are seven different aspects of telephone etiquette to consider.
1 General Telephone Etiquette

Identify yourself, with your first and last name, when answering the
Return phones calls within 24 hours, and apologize if the call is late.
Identify yourself when you place a call. Say your name, the company,
business or department you represent. Then state the nature of your call. If
you do not identify yourself, expect to be asked and do not take offense.
2. Interoffice Phone Etiquette
Dont hover outside a coworkers office or cubicle waiting for him or her
to finish up a phone call.
Leave, and try again later.
Dont listen in on coworkers phone conversations. If you share office
space with someone, this may be unavoidable, but try to keep busy while the
person is talking and never comment on what youve just overheard!
3.Voice Mail
Outgoing messages should include your name and company name. If
applicable, mention the job you handle to prevent having to route the
message to someone else.
Let the caller know how to reach a live person in an emergency.
Keep your outgoing message current. If youre going to be out of the
office, your message should say so. When you go away, state the date youll
be back and whether or not youll be calling in for messages, or whom to
contact in your absence.
4. Call-Waiting
Unless you are expecting an urgent call and say so, its impolite to
continually put the person to whom youre speaking on hold while you take
another call. Say, "I have another call, can you hold just a second?" Take the
other call, explain youre on another line and will call back shortly. Then
quickly return to your first caller.

5. Speakerphones
Although a speakerphone is a great convenience when several people
need to participate in a conference call, in a two-person conversation, it
often annoys or offends the person whose voice is broadcast. Use it
sparingly, and always tell the person on the other end that a speakerphone is
being used. Try to avoid using it with a client.
6. Cellular phones
Try to remove yourself from a public area to a quiet corner of the room
so as not to bother others.
If you must make or take a call, keep it short and as discrete as possible.
7. Placing someone on hold
Make sure its for a good reason, such as pulling the persons file or
answering another line.
Ask the person if he or she will hold, and wait for a response rather than
assuming the answer is yes.
Never keep a caller on hold for more than a minute. If you have to take
longer than that, return to the person and tell them that you absolute have to
take a few minutes longer, and ask if she wouldnt prefer that you call her
When you return to the caller, thank them for holding.