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CHAPTER 3

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SUBLIMATE) THAT PASSES A POINT PER UNIT TIME

TIME (T)

QUANTITY)

1

CLASSIFICATION OF FLOW

PHENOMENA

STEADY AND UNSTEADY FLOWS

FLOW DIMENSIONALITY

UNIFORM AND NON-UNIFORM FLOWS

ROTATIONAL AND IRROTATIONAL FLOWS

VISCOUS AND INVISCID FLOWS

INCOMPRESSIBLE AND COMPRESSIBLE FLOWS

LAMINAR AND TURBULENT FLOWS

2

a. Internal flow ( flow in pipes)

b. External flow ( flow over bodies, drag, lift)

Examples of internal flow

1. Water flow in pipes

2. Blood flow

3. Oil and Gas industry

4. Cooling system of a car (Radiator)

5. Air Conditioning (Chilled water system)

LAMINAR FLOW

TURBULENT FLOW

5

LAMINAR FLOW

DISRUPTION BETWEEN THE LAYERS

VELOCITY OF FLOW IS GREATEST IN THE AXIAL STREAM (CENTRE OF THE

TUBE). IT BECOMES PROGRESSIVELY SLOWER AS THE LAYERS MOVE TO

THE PERIPHERY

LAMINAR FLOW

7

TURBULENT FLOW

PRESSURE GRADIENT IN HAPHAZARD MANNER

THERE IS INCREASED RESISTANCE TO FLOW AS THE EDDY CURRENTS

INTERFERE WITH EACH OTHER

COMPARED TO WHEN THE FLOW IS LAMINAR

8

9

THESE FLOW?

Yes, use Reynolds number, Re

kinematic viscosity, (m 2 s )

dynamic viscosity, (kg m.s )

density of flowing fluid (kg/m 3 )

Vavg Average pipe velocity

D Internal diameter of pipe

It is a dimensionless number

10

THESE FLOW?(CONT)

For non-circular pipes, hydraulic diameter, Dh is used

for calculating the Reynolds number.

4 Crosssectional Area (internal) 4 Ac

Dh

Internal Perimeter

p

smoothness of pipe, vibrations and fluctuation in the

flow.

11

Q1: Water at 20C flow with average velocity of

2cm/s inside a circular pipe. Determine flow

type if the pipe diameter, a) 2 cm, b) 15 cm,

and c) 30 cm From table (Cengel book, 2010) At 20C

1.00210-3 kg m.s , 998kg/m3

a) Re

Vave D 998(0.02)(0.02)

398

0.001002

b) Re

Vave D 998(0.02)(0.15)

2988

0.001002

c) Re

Vave D 998(0.02)(0.3)

5970

0.001002

12

13

VARIABLES

THAT

AFFECT

FLOW

PRESSURE: FLOW IS DIRECTLY PROPORTIONAL TO THE PRESSURE

DIFFERENCE ACROSS THE TUBE

OF THE RADIUS (OR DIAMETER) OF THE TUBE

Q R4, OR Q D4

TUBE

Q P

Q 1/L

THE FLUID

Q 1/

14

HAGEN-POISEUILLE EQUATION

VARIABLES THAT DETERMINE FLOW

Q = PR4

8L

WHERE /8 IS A CONSTANT DERIVED THEORETICALLY

OR

Q = PD4

128L

WHERE /128 IS A CONSTANT

15

PRESSURE/FLOW RELATIONSHIP

THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PRESSURE AND FLOW

IS LINEAR WITHIN CERTAIN LIMITS

CRITICAL VELOCITY) IS REACHED WHERE FLOW

CHANGES FROM LAMINAR TO TURBULENT

BEYOND THIS POINT, FLOW IS PROPORTIONAL TO

THE SQUARE ROOT OF PRESSURE GRADIENT

16

17

VISCOSITY

ACTING BETWEEN THE LAYERS OF FLUID AS IT

FLOWS ALONG THE TUBE

= FORCE / VELOCITY GRADIENT

AREA

18

ENTRANCE REGION

Between the entrance and fully developed flow

Uniform velocity profile at entrance

because of no slip boundary condition, friction at the

wall reduce the velocity of flow near the wall

to conserve mass, velocity at the center increase

(compensate velocity decreased near the wall)

19

As the fluid move deeper in the pipe, the velocity

near the wall decreased further and velocity at

center increase (developing velocity profile)

Both (up & down @ left & right) velocity profile

increase till it merge with the other side

stop to develop as it flows deeper inside the pipe

20

entry length, Lh is evaluated from pipe entrance to

where wall shear stress achieve 2% of fully

developed value or approximately

Lh ,la min ar 0.05ReD

21

Q4: Determine the hydrodynamic entry region for

Q1 (a & c).

LLhh,,lalamin

0.05ReD

minar

ar 0.05ReD

a) Re

Vave D 998(0.02)(0.02)

398

0.001002

Lh ,turbulent 10D

V aveD 998(0.02)(0.3)

c) Re ave

5970

0.001002

22

VELOCITY PROFILE (FULLY DEVELOPED)

analysis

Consist of 1 layer

Small velocity gradient

The average velocity in fully

developed laminar pipe flow

is of the maximum velocity

umax 2Vave

on analysis and empirical

Consist of 4 layer

23

WE MAKE FOUR SIMPLIFYING ASSUMPTIONS IN OUR TREATMENT OF FLUID

FLOW TO MAKE THE ANALYSIS EASIER:

1. THE FLUID IS NONVISCOUS

2. THE FLOW IS STEADY

4. THE FLOW IS IRROTATIONAL

24

STREAMLINES

THE PATH A PARTICLE TAKES IN STEADY

FLOW IS

A STREAMLINE

THE VELOCITY OF EACH PARTICLE

IS TANGENT TO A STREAMLINE

A SET OF STREAMLINES

IS CALLED A

TUBE OF FLOW

25

Equation of Continuity

CONSIDER A FLUID MOVING THROUGH A PIPE OF

NONUNIFORM DIAMETER. THE PARTICLES MOVE

ALONG THE STREAMLINES IN STEADY FLOW.

PIPE OF LENGTH X1, CROSSING AREA A1

IN SOME TIME T, MUST BE EXACTLY THE

SAME AS THE MASS M2 IN LENGTH X2,

CROSSING AREA A2 IN THE SAME TIME T.

m2 = mass of fluid

in this volume

OUT OF THE PIPE!

m1 = mass of fluid

in this volume

CONSERVATION OF MASS!

26

CONSERVATION OF MASS:

M1 = M2

(1)

OF DENSITY IN TERMS OF MASS M &

VOLUME V GIVES: M = V.

FOR POINTS1 & 2, USE V = AX (1) GIVES

R1A1V1 = R2A2V2

(2)

CONSTANT

(2) GIVES: A1V1 = A2V2 (3)

(3) IS CALLED THE EQUATION OF

CONTINUITY FOR FLUIDS

THE PRODUCT OF THE AREA AND

THE FLUID SPEED AT ALL POINTS

ALONG A PIPE IS CONSTANT FOR AN

INCOMPRESSIBLE FLUID

Units: mass per time interval

or kg/s

Units: volume per time interval

or m3/s

27

SECOND) IS CONSTANT: 1A1V1 = 2A2V2

EQUATION OF CONTINUITY

FOR AN INCOMPRESSIBLE FLUID (1 = 2 = )

THEN

A1V1 = A2V2

OR:

AV = CONSTANT

A IS SMALL, V IS LARGE.

28

IMPLICATIONS OF EQUATION OF

CONTINUITY

A1V1 = A2V2

THE PIPE IS WIDE (LARGE A)

THE FLUID SPEED V IS HIGH WHERE

THE PIPE IS CONSTRICTED (SMALL

A)

THE PRODUCT, AV, IS CALLED THE

VOLUME FLOW RATE OR FLUX.

AV = CONSTANT SAYS THAT THE

PIPE IN A GIVEN TIME EQUALS THE

VOLUME LEAVING THE OTHER END IN

THE SAME TIME (IF NO LEAKS ARE PRESENT!)

29

SMALL PIPE CROSS SECTION LARGER V

LARGE PIPE CROSS SECTION SMALLER V

30

RCAP = 4 10-4 CM, RAORTA = 1.2 CM

V1 = 40 CM/S, V2 = 5 10-4 CM/S

NUMBER OF CAPILLARIES N = ?

A2 = N(RCAP)2, A1 = (RAORTA)2

A1V1 = A2V2

N = (V1/V2)[(RAORTA)2/(RCAP)2]

N 7 109

31

Floating ball

32

A1

A1

A2

v1

Low speed

Low KE

High pressure

v2

high speed

high KE

low pressure

v1

Low speed

Low KE

High pressure

33

p large

p large

p small

v small

v large

v small

34

VENTURI EFFECT

high

pressure

(patm)

low pressure

velocity increased

pressure decreased

35

force

high speed

low pressure

force

36

What happens when two ships or trucks pass alongside each other?

artery

Flow speeds up at

constriction

Pressure is lower

Internal force acting on

artery wall is reduced

artery to collapse

37

x2

p2

m

v2

A2

X

time 2

p1

x1

y2

A1

y1

v1

time 1

38

Bernoullis Equation

for any point along a flow tube or streamline

p + v2 + g y = constant

Dimensions

p [Pa] = [N.m-2] = [N.m.m-3] = [J.m-3]

v2

gh

v2

gh

moving fluid (similar to energy stored in a spring)

39

x2

p2

m

v2

A2

X

time 2

p1

x1

y2

A1

y1

v1

time 1

40

m = A1 x1 = A2 x2 = V where V = A1 x1 = A2 x2

Equation of continuity A V = constant

A1 v1 = A2 v2

A1 > A2 v1 < v2

Since v1 < v2 the mass element has been accelerated by the net force

F1 F2 = p1 A1 p2 A2

Conservation of energy

A pressurized fluid must contain energy by the virtue that work must

be done to establish the pressure.

A fluid that undergoes a pressure change undergoes an energy

change.

41

U = m g y2 m g y1 = V g y2 = V g y1

Wnet = F1 x1 F2 x2 = p1 A1 x1 p2 A2 x2

Wnet = p1 V p2 V = K + U

p1 V p2 V =

V v22 - V v12 + V g y2 - V g y1

Rearranging

p1 + v12 + g y1 = p2 + v22 + g y2

42

43

44

EXAMPLE

A very large pipe carries

water with a very slow

velocity and empties into a

small pipe with a high

velocity. If P2 is 7000 Pa

lower than P1, what is the

velocity of the water in the

small pipe?

3.74 m/s

Venturi Meter

46

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