Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 16

Machine Elements & Mechanisms

An applications course
Uses a wide range of your background courses:
Statics & Dynamics

Fluid Mechanics

Strength of Materials

Technical Drawing

Materials and Processes

Introduction to Design

Manufacturing Processes

Elasticity & Plasticity

Heat Transfer
Traian CICONE

Mechanical Vibrations

ME&M-I- Introduction

1/31

Course Outcomes
Ability to apply knowledge of mathematics, science, and engineering in
the field of mechanical engineering
Ability to design a system, component, or process to meet desired
needs in the field of mechanical engineering
Ability to identify, formulate and solve mechanical engineering problems
Understanding of professional and ethical responsibility in the field of
mechanical engineering
Ability to communicate effectively
Ability to use the techniques, skills, and modern tools necessary for the
practice of mechanical engineering

Traian CICONE

ME&M-I- Introduction

2/31

Course Description
Machine Elements & Mechanisms 5 Credits
3 hours Lecture
1 hour Laboratory
1 hour Tutorial

Machine Design 2 hours Project 2 Credits


Introduction in Mechanical Engineering Design
Threaded Fasteners & Power Screws
Hub-on-shaft Assemblies (Dismountable)
PART 1
Permanent Assemblies/Joints (Welds, Bonds)
Springs
Shafts
Introduction in Tribology (Friction-Wear-Lubrication)
Traian CICONE

ME&M-I- Introduction

3/31

References

Course WEB Page


http://www.omtr.pub.ro/Colectivul_catedrei/PaginiPersonale/t_cicone/me&m/me&m.htm

Traian CICONE

ME&M-I- Introduction

4/31

Engineering Design
Engineering -

Applied science concerned with the understanding of


scientific principles and applying them to achieve an
imposed goal

Design -

All activities preceding the transformation into reality


by execution, with correlated material, and financial
resources of an idea or a given subject.

Mechanical
Engineering Design
(Machine Design) -

A major component of Engineering that deals with the


conception, design, development, refinement and
application of machines and mechanical apparatus of
all kinds.
The process of selecting mechanical components and
putting them together to accomplish a desired function.

Traian CICONE

ME&M-I- Introduction

5/31

Definitions: MACHINE
Machine

An assemblage of parts that transmit forces, motion, or


energy in a predetermined manner.

Working machines - FORCES


Transport machines MATERIALS
Power machines ENERGY
Apparatus/Instruments INFORMATION (Motion)

Traian CICONE

ME&M-I- Introduction

6/31

Working Machines (Technological Machines)


Perform useful work: machine-tools .
Excavator
Corded drill

Wheel loader

Traian CICONE

ME&M-I- Introduction

7/31

Transport Machines
Transfer/Transport of materials: pumps, compressors, fans
Turbo-pump
Centrifugal-pump
(Ariane)

Traian CICONE

ME&M-I- Introduction

8/31

Power Machines (Engines)


Transfer/Transport of energy: turbines, internal combustion engines, etc.
Turbine in Nuclear
Power Plant (EDF

Traian CICONE

ME&M-I- Introduction

9/31

Power Machines (Engines)


Internal Combustion
Engine

Traian CICONE

ME&M-I- Introduction

10/31

Apparatus/Instruments
Transfer/Transport of information: typewriter, pressure indicator, etc.

Pressure indicator
Manometer

Traian CICONE

Micrometer

ME&M-I- Introduction

11/31

Definitions: MECHANISM
Part of a machine that provides the transmission and
transformation of a definite mechanical motion.

Mechanism

System of rigid bodies that provides the transformation


of mechanical motion, and forces of a part into a
definite motion and forces of another part.
Physical arrangement that provides for the definite
motion of the parts of a machine.

Linkages
Cams
Gears
Screws

Traian CICONE

ME&M-I- Introduction

12/31

Linkage Mechanisms
Slider-crank mechanism

Scissors screw jack

Screw mechanism

Traian CICONE

ME&M-I- Introduction

13/31

Linkage Mechanisms

windshield wiper
mechanism
Traian CICONE

ME&M-I- Introduction

14/31

Gear Mechanisms

Traian CICONE

ME&M-I- Introduction

15/31

Cam Mechanisms

Camshaft with Plate Cam


imparting on a Flat
Follower, a Push Rod, a
Rocker arm and the Valve.

Traian CICONE

ME&M-I- Introduction

Pumping mechanism

16/31

Complex Mechanisms
Linkage + Gear + Cam.

Traian CICONE

ME&M-I- Introduction

17/31

The structure of a machine


Internal combustion engine

MACHINE
Slider-crank
mechanism

MECHANISM

Machine Element

Traian CICONE

Piston

Bolt

Crankshaft

ME&M-I- Introduction

Crankcase

Connecting rod

Distribution
mechanism

Etc.

18/31

Machine element/component/part
Part of a machine or mechanism with a definite functionality,
which can be designed independently, and provides the
transmission and transformation of a definite mechanical motion.
Classification
Destination

Complexity

General purpose
Special purpose

Simple (screws, nuts, shafts, wheels, gears, etc.)


Compound (bearings, disk friction clutches, V-belt transmissions, etc.)
Complex (planetary gear boxes, etc)

Traian CICONE

ME&M-I- Introduction

19/31

Engineering Design
sometimes is the creation of an original product
typically is the refinement or modification of an existing product

Design is the most creative part of the total engineering process.


Engineering Activities
Design 25%
Development 10%
Research 10%
Management 8%
Sales 10%
Technical Service 12%
Construction 10%
Manufacturing 15%
Traian CICONE

ME&M-I- Introduction

20/31

10

Products life-cycle costs


Cost of a new product

100%

7%

Influence on the
final value by
specific decisions
Life-cycle cost
50%

5%

20%

18%
40%
Real cost

70%
25%

0%

10%

5%

Product
Manufacturing Construction
(Manufacturing)
development
Design

Materials

Promotion,
Distribution,
Advertising

over 70% of a products life-cycle costs are committed at


the design time, particularly the conceptual design phase
Traian CICONE

ME&M-I- Introduction

21/31

Mechanical (Machine) Design


The process of selecting mechanical components
and putting them together to accomplish a
desired function.

Integration requires
Imagination
Component familiarity

Traian CICONE

ME&M-I- Introduction

22/31

11

Engineering Design
Background research
Goal statement

Identify a Need

Task specifications

Conceptual Design

Synthesis

Preliminary Design

Design of
Machine Elements

Analysis
Selection

Final Design

Detailed design

Manufacture
Prototyping & testing

Sales & Delivery


Traian CICONE

Documentation
ME&M-I- Introduction

23/31

The Design Process


Starts with recognition of the need for the product.
Both design and redesign require knowledge of the
intended use of the product, plus information on the
Market
Technical data
Materials and production

For any product design you are part of a team!!!


Teamwork is paramount in the modern workplace.
Computer applications for analysis of a design are essential.

Traian CICONE

ME&M-I- Introduction

24/31

12

Design Steps
Determine the need
Starts with recognition of a need
Sketching of the solution (product) is very useful during this step.

Establish Known Information


Includes gathering information on aspects of the products such as possible
materials, market analysis, ability to manufacture, cost to manufacture, etc.

Stimulate Design Concepts


Consider the various aspects in the manufacture of the product such as
material, shape, etc.

Investigate Design Concepts with Analytical Tools


Use modern methods and tools to analyze design alternatives.

Gather all information and review


Gather together all information and design alternatives and review so that
decisions can be made.

Test the design that appears best.


Accept, Modify, or Reject
Optimize the design by iteration
Traian CICONE

ME&M-I- Introduction

25/31

A suggested procedure for the designer


Define the problem

Definition stage

State the givens


Make appropriate assumptions
Preliminary design decisions

Preliminary design stage


Design sketches
Mathematical models

Detailed design stage

Analysis of the design


Evaluation

Documentation stage
Traian CICONE

ME&M-I- Introduction

Document results

26/31

13

Traditional Design Process

Design is ITERATIVE

Traian CICONE

ME&M-I- Introduction

27/31

Design Considerations
The design of a component or system may be influenced by a number of requirements. If a
requirement affects design, it is called a design consideration. For example, if the ability to
carry large loads without failure is important, we say that strength is a design
consideration. Most product development projects involve a number of design
considerations:

- Strength/stress

- Cost

- Thermal properties

- Distortion/stiffness

- Processing requirements

- Surface finish

- Wear

- Weight

- Lubrication

- Corrosion

- Life

- Marketability

- Safety

- Noise

- Maintenance

- Reliability

- Aesthetic considerations

- Volume

- Friction

- Shape

- Recyclability

- Usability/utility

- Environmental protection - Size

Engineering Ethics - Ex. ASME Principles & Canons


Traian CICONE

ME&M-I- Introduction

28/31

14

Standard & Codes


Standards and codes represent a prescriptive approach to design that may
be incorporated into a design process.
Standards
A set of technical definitions and guidelines for designers and manufacturers.
Written by experts, they are considered voluntary.

ASME AGMA AISI - ANSI


ISO - BS, DIN, NF, ISO-SR
ISO or ASME groups develops and maintains standards using committees.

Code
A set of standards that has been adopted by one or more governmental bodies or
incorporated into a contract. Essentially, it has the force of law behind it.

Traian CICONE

ME&M-I- Introduction

29/31

Economics
Strength, safety, reliability, and cost are perhaps the most important design
considerations. In general the design alternative that satisfies other design
considerations at the lowest costs is to be preferred. Issues affecting the
cost of a design include:
Product development costs
Material choice
Manufacturing processes
involved
Economies of scale
Tolerances specified
Use of standard sizes and
components

Traian CICONE

ME&M-I- Introduction

30/31

15

Design Characteristics
Design Results
Design Methods

Team Working

Detail & Assembly Drawings


CAD Computer Aided Design
CAE Computer Aided Engineering

Good communication skills


(both oral and written)
Writing, sketching, using CAD tools, etc.
Giving presentations

Traian CICONE

ME&M-I- Introduction

31/31

16